REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0103.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: fructose; obesity; liver; aerobic exercise; strength exercise; combined exercise
Online: 28 February 2017 (12:02:06 CET)
Fructose consumption has been growing exponentially and, concomitant with this, the increase in the incidence of obesity and associated complications has followed the same behavior. Studies indicate that fructose may be a carbohydrate with greater obesogenic potential than other sugars. In this context, the liver seems to be a key organ for understanding the deleterious health effects promoted by fructose consumption. Fructose promotes complications in glucose metabolism, accumulation of triacylglycerol in the hepatocytes and alterations in the lipid profile, which, associated with an inflammatory response and alterations in the redox state, will imply a systemic picture of insulin resistance. However, physical exercise has been indicated for the treatment of several chronic diseases. In this review, we show how each exercise protocol (aerobic, strength or a combination of both) promote improvements in the obesogenic state created by fructose consumption as an improvement in the serum and liver lipid profile (HDL increase and decrease TG and LDL levels) and a reduction of markers of inflammation caused by an excess of fructose. Therefore, it is concluded that the practice of aerobic physical exercise, strength or a combination of both is essential for attenuating the complications developed by the consumption of fructose.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0336.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: aerobic capacity, dietary nitrates from amaranth, young persons
Online: 27 November 2019 (08:48:45 CET)
Over the past five years, the popularity of dietary nitrates as an ergogenic device among athletes has increased significantly. Hypoxic and acidic conditions that occur during exercise facilitate the conversion of nitrite to nitric oxide (NO) and increase the physiological efficiency of exogenously produced nitrite. After a few years of our team predicted experiments, as a nitric oxide precursor, amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) was identified as a source of dietary nitrates (concentrations 9-11%). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of single-dose and long- term doses of dietary nitrates from amaranth concentrate on the aerobic capacity of physically active young persons. Thirteen healthy and physically active young participants were randomized to experimental and placebo groups using a increasing cycling exercise (ICE) and placebo- controlled design. Pulmonary gas exchange recording (oxygen uptake (VO 2 ), pulmonary ventilation (VE), respiratory exchange ratio (RER)) and analysis of blood lactate samples were obtained. Our findings indicate that the single dose of dietary amaranth (400 mg) significantly improved only the power of the test performance. Long-term (6 days) intake significantly increased the power of the test performance, the maximum oxygen consumption and the power of the test for the first ventilation threshold value (from 37.7±2.7 mL/kg/min during the first test to 41.2±5.4 mL/kg/min during the third test, p <0.05).
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0469.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: aerobic capacity, graded‑exercise test, total work-load
Online: 27 August 2018 (16:31:45 CEST)
The aim of this study was to clarify effects of 3-week work-matched high-intensity intermittent cycling training (HIICT) with different cadences on VO2max in university athletes. Eighteen university athletes performed HIICT with either 60 rpm (n = 9) or 120 rpm (n = 9). HIICT consisted of eight sets of 20-s exercise with a 10-s passive rest between each sets. The initial training intensity was set at 135% of VO2 max and was decreased by 5% every two sets. Athletes in both groups performed 9 sessions of HIICT during 3-week. The total work-load and achievement rate of the work load calculated before experiments in each group were used for analysis. VO2max was measured pre and post-training. After 3-week of training, no significant differences in the total work-load and achievement rate of the work load were found between the two groups. VO2max similarly increased in both groups from pre to post training (p = 0.016), with no significant differences between the groups (p = 0.680). These results suggest that cadence during HIICT is not training variable affecting effect of VO2max.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0157.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: GEDAE-LaB; energy cost; aerobic and anaerobic contribution
Online: 10 September 2018 (09:12:34 CEST)
Intense physical efforts performed at maximal or near-maximal speeds and the ability to recover among sprint are important characteristics of soccer player. Considering that women's soccer is a markedly growing sport, the aim of the study was to analyse the performance (total time –TT-; fatigue index percentage -IF%) and physiological (aerobic and anaerobic) responses to Repeated Sprint Ability Test (RSA, 7×30 m sprints with 25 s of active recovery among sprints) in an elite female player (age: 30 yrs; BMI: 20.3 kg/m2). A repeated measure MANOVA over the 7 sprints time series was applied (p < 0.05). Results showed that TT was 58.71 s (Ideal Time: 56.98 s) with IF% of 3.0%. Energy contributions were given for 80.3% by aerobic, 19.2% by anaerobic lactid, and 0.5% by anaerobic alactid sources. Considering that 1) we have different kinetics in heart rate (HR) and maximum oxygen uptake with oxygen uptake that reach the peak when HR is still rising, and 2) the energy consumption during intermittent exercises requires different metabolism as a result of physiological stimuli proposed, the present findings substantiate the need to choose specific and adequate training methods for female soccer players that aim at increasing their RSA performances.
Subject: Keywords: Aerobic exercise; Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion; autophagy; SIRT3; SOD2; NF-κB; Biochemical indicators
Online: 1 April 2021 (13:28:32 CEST)
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic exercise on myocardial injury induced by I/ R in rats by regulating SIRT3/SOD2/NF-κB signaling pathway, and to provide theoretical guidance for clinical treatment of myocardial I/R injury.Methods:SPF Male Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: Sham operation group(n=10), I/R group(n=10), Aerobic exercise group(n=10)and Aerobic exercise+κ-receptor antagonist group(Pro DTC group，n=10). The left anterior descending coronary artery(LAD) of rats was ligated and re-canalized to establish I/R rat model. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was performed to examine histological morphology in myocardial tissues of each group. The biological analysis was performed to measure cTnI、CK-MB、BNP levels in blood samples of each group. The expression levels of SOD2, TLR4, and p65 in myocardial tissues were measured by immunohistochemical assay. The influence of aerobic exercise on Beclin-1 、LC3II/I、SIRT3, TLR4, and phosphorylated p65 was measured by Western blotting.Results: The result of histological morphology examination revealed that Aerobic exercise group exhibited integrated cardiac myofilament, less inflammatory cell infiltration, as much as significantly decreased cellular edema. Measurement of cTnI、CK-MB、BNP revealed that oxycodone post-treatment reduces the injury of myocardial tissues(P<0.05). Immunohistochemical staining results revealed that aerobic exercise clearly decreased the expression of TLR4 and p65, and increased the expression of SOD2(P<0.05). Besides, Western blotting revealed that aerobic exercise down-regulated the expression of Beclin-1 、LC3II/I、TLR4 and phosphorylated p65, up-regulated the expression of SIRT3(P<0.05).Conclusions: Aerobic exercise significantly improved myocardial I/R injury. The mechanisms may be associated with activating κ-receptor to regulate SIRT3/SOD2/NF-κB pathway.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: aging; aerobic exercise; vascular occlusion; electromyography
Online: 19 March 2021 (11:11:26 CET)
Background and Objectives: Blood flow restriction (BFR) has been investigated as an alternative method combined with resistance training or AT to promote different health benefits for older people. Nevertheless, no study analyzed chronic effects of BFR on muscle activation in this population, and in some investigations, the application of BFR has been employed arbitrary pressures, which can be a serious methodological error, both from the results and of the risk to the health of the older. Thus, this study analyzed the effect of 24 weeks of walking with BFR on activation and muscle strength in elderly women with osteoporosis. Materials and Methods: Thirty older women (66.0±4.6 years) performed randomly to one of three training groups: WALK (moderate-intensity walking), WALK+BFR (low-intensity walking with BFR), or BFR (BFR alone). Muscle activation (sEMG) and strength of knee flexors and extensors were measured pre-intervention and after 12 and 24 weeks. Results: Only a trivial effect size (ES) for the WALK+BFR (ES= 0.16) was observed in sEMG of the knee flexors compared to WALK. A moderate effect was observed in sEMG of the knee extensors (ES= 0.65) for the WALK+BFR compared to the WALK. However, adverse effects were found in the strength of the knee flexors for the BFR (ES= −0.86) and WALK+BFR (ES= −0.69) compared to WALK. Adverse and null effects, respectively for the BFR (ES= −0.16) and WALK+BFR (ES= 0.06) groups, were also observed on the strength gain of the knee extensors. Conclusions: Low-intensity walk combined with BFR does not provide relevant chronic effects on strength gain or even limit muscle strength gain, however, due to greater activation of knee extensors over 24 weeks, it is possible to benefit from the use of similar strategies to obtain neuromuscular gains in the long‐term for elderly women with osteopenia and osteoporosis.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: aerobic dance; electromyostimulation; percent fat; cytokine
Online: 16 February 2020 (14:06:49 CET)
Electromyostimulation (EMS) has been shown to improve body composition, but what biomarkers it affects has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare the EMS-effect of aerobic dance on fatness and biomarkers’ levels in obese elderly women. Methods: Twenty-five women with obesity were randomly classified into a control group (CON; n = 12) and EMS group (EMSG; n = 13). EMS suits used in this study enabled the simultaneous activation of eight muscles with selectable intensities. Program sessions of EMS were combined with aerobic dance three times a week for 8 weeks. Although both groups received the same program, CON did not receive electrical stimuli. Results: Compared with CON, a significant effect of the EMS intervention concerning decreased fatness, as well as an increased skeletal muscle mass and basal metabolic rate, were evident. Compared with CON, aerobic dancing with an EMS suit also improved biomarkers in EMSG. Cytokines, including interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor, C-reactive protein, resistin, and carcinoembryonic antigen were significantly changed in EMSG, whereas those of CON did not change from the baseline to the end of the experiment. These results showed significant differences between groups. Similarly, the changes caused by EMS were represented in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Conclusions: The results indicate that a significant effect due to the EMS intervention was found concerning body composition and biomarkers in obese elderly women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0280.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: aerobic glycolysis; caveolin1; hypoxia; monocrotaline; oxidative phosphorylation; RhoA
Online: 21 December 2019 (10:48:00 CET)
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a serious disorder with high morbidity and mortality rate. We analyzed the right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), lung histology and transcriptomes of six weeks old male rats with PH induced by: 1) hypoxia (HO), 2) administration of monocrotaline (CM) or 3) administration of monocrotaline and exposure to hypoxia (HM). The results in PH rats were compared to those in control rats (CO). After four weeks exposure, increased RVSP and RVH, pulmonary arterial wall thickening, and alteration of the lung transcriptome were observed in all PH groups. The HM group exhibited the largest alterations and also neointimal lesions and obliteration of lumen in small arteries. We found that the PH increased the expression of caveolin1, matrix metallopeptidase 2 and numerous inflammatory and cell proliferation genes. The cell-cycle, vascular smooth muscle contraction and the oxidative phosphorylation pathways, as well as their interplay were largely perturbed. Our results also suggest that the up-regulated Rhoa (ras homolog family member A) mediates its action through expression coordination with several ATPases. The upregulation of antioxidant genes and the extensive mitochondrial damage observed especially in HM group, indicate metabolic shift towards aerobic glycolysis.
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: aerobic dance; electromyostimulation; interleukin-6; C-reactive protein
Online: 29 November 2019 (02:55:59 CET)
Background and Objective: Although whole body-electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) has been shown to favorably improve body composition in several research studies, it has not been confirmed how it affects adipose tissue-derived biomarkers and circumferences of the abdomen and thighs. Materials and Methods: Twenty participants of obese elderly women were randomly classified into an EMS group (EMSG; n = 10) or a non-EMS group (CON; n = 10). The WB-EMS suits used in this study enabled the simultaneous activation of 8 muscle groups with selectable intensities for each phase. Stimulation frequency was selected at 85 Hz, impulse-width at 350 μ seconds, and impulse-rise as a rectangular application. Impulse duration was 6 seconds with a 4-second break between impulses. The EMS sessions were combined with aerobic dancing 3 times a week for 12 weeks. Both groups received the same program; however, the CON did not receive electrical stimuli. Biomarkers and body composition including circumferences of the abdomen and thighs were measured on Week 0 and Week 12. Results: Compared with the CON, 1) a significant effect of the EMS-intervention concerning decreased body weight (p = 0.032) and increased basal metabolic rate (p = 0.029) were evident. The thigh subcutaneous fat and total fat of EMSG were not significantly changed, but those of CON were significantly increased after 12 weeks. 2) The biomarkers of CON either increased or showed no change, although the interleukin (IL)-6 was significantly (p = 0.028) decreased in EMSG. Specifically, C-reactive protein (CRP; p = 0.005) and alpha-fetoprotein (p = 0.050) of CON were significantly increased after 12 weeks. In addition, the IL-6 (p = 0.034), CRP (p = 0.001), carcinoembryonic antigen (p = 0.017), and low density lipoprotein (p = 0.005) of EMSG were lower than those of CON in the end of experiment. 3) Conclusions: The results indicate that EMS intervention improved body composition and reduced negative biomarkers, thus highlighting its effectiveness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0471.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: aerobic threshold; anaerobic threshold; exercise prescription; threshold detection; threshold-based training
Online: 25 November 2021 (12:01:01 CET)
The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which the Tyme Wear smart shirt is as reliable and valid in detecting personalized ventilatory thresholds when compared to the Parvo Medics TrueOne 2400. In this validation study, 19 subjects were recruited to conduct two graded exercise test (GXT) trials. Each GXT trial was separated by seven to ten days of rest. During the GXT, gas exchange and heart rate data were collected by the TrueOne 2400 (TRUE) in addition to the ventilation data collected by the Tyme Wear smart shirt (S-PRED). Gas exchange data from TRUE was used to detect VT1 and VT2. TRUE and S-PRED VT1 and VT2 were compared to determine the reliability and validity of the smart shirt. Of the 19 subjects, data from 15 subjects were used during analysis. S-PRED exhibited excellent (ICC > 0.90) reliability for detection of VT1 and VT2 utilizing time point and workload and moderate (0.90 > ICC > 0.75 ) reliability utilizing heart rate. TRUE exhibited excellent reliability for detection of VT1 and VT2 utilizing time point, workload, and heart rate. When compared to TRUE, S-PRED appears to underestimate the VT1 workload (p > 0.05) across both trials and heart rate (p < 0.05) for trial 1. However, S-PRED appears to underestimate VT2 workload (p < 0.05) and heart rate (p < 0.05) across both trials. The result from this study suggests that the Tyme Wear smart shirt is less valid but is comparable in reliability when compared to the gold standard. Moreover, despite the underestimation of S-PRED VT1 and VT2, the S-PRED detected personalized ventilatory thresholds will provide an adequate training workload for most individuals. In conclusion, the Tyme Wear smart shirt provides easily accessible testing to establish threshold-guided training zones but does not devalue the long-standing laboratory equivalent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0341.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: flavonoid; polyphenols; orange extract; performance; endurance; aerobic; anaerobic; nutrigenomic; sport nutrition
Online: 16 September 2020 (03:10:12 CEST)
2S-hesperidin is a flavanone (flavonoid) found in high concentrations in citrus fruits. It has an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect, improving performance in animals. This study investigated the effects of chronic intake of an orange extract (2S-hesperidin) or placebo on aerobic-anaerobic and metabolic performance markers in amateur cyclists. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was carried out between late September and December 2018. Forty amateur cyclists were randomized into two groups: one taking 500mg/day 2S-hesperidin and other taking 500 mg/day placebo (microcellulose) for 8 weeks. All participants completed the study. Performance and metabolic aerobic-anaerobic markers were measured using incremental and rectangular tests by indirect calorimetry. The anaerobic power was determined using Wingate tests. After 8 weeks supplementation, there was a significant increase in the incremental test in estimated functional threshold power (FTP) (3.23%; p≤0.05) and maximum power (2.68%; p≤0.05) with 2S-Hesperdin compared to placebo. In the rectangular test, there was a significant decrease in VO2 (-8.26%; p≤0.01) and VO2R (-8.88%; p≤0.01) at VT2 in placebo; however, there were no significant differences between groups. In the Wingate test, there was a significant increase (p≤0.05) in peak and relative power in both groups, but without significant differences between groups. Supplementation with an orange extract (2S-hesperdin) 500mg/day improves estimated FTP and maximum power performance in amateur cyclists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0165.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: aerobic rice; high temperature; water limitation; yield component; seed quality; amylose content
Online: 12 October 2022 (07:28:25 CEST)
Drought and high temperature often occur simultaneously will eventually affect rice (Oryza sativa L.) yield and seed quality. The objective of the study was to compare the effects of high temperature (HT) and water limitation (WL) during seed development and maturation on yield component, seed quality, and amylose content in aerobic rice cv. MRIA. Two experiments were conducted concurrently in greenhouse with ⁓35/26℃ subjected to elevated HT and/or WL; 5 days 38/28°C at 10, 15, 29 DAA and/or HT; 7 days at 40/28℃ at 8 and 21 DAA with 12h photoperiod in control environment growth chamber. Both experiments were respectively harvested at physiological maturity of 31 and 35 DAA. Grain yielded from the irrigated plant declined from over 27% to below 18% between 15 and 29 DAA. Combination stresses resulted in greater reduction of grain yield than single stress. Late seed development (29 DAA) had no effect either on yield component or seed quality as well as produce a high concentration in amylase content (16.7%) with greater germination capacity (91%). The non-stress plant harvested at 21 DAA resulted the highest percentage of germinated seeds (97%) whereas the vigour index (VI) was reduced to 70.3% and 58.9% at 8 and 21 DAA respectively. Extended plant stress to 7 consecutive days incurred the highest VI with low concentration of amylose content. There was a linear relationship incurred between seed amylase content with germination capacity and VI, however, there was an inverse relationship (R2 = 0.19) between amylase content with VI from plant treated with (HT and/or WL) for 7 days. The present results confirmed that the avoidance HT and WL during early (10 DAA) and mid (15 DAA) seed development with short duration of stress (5 days) obtained better in yield component, enhanced the seed quality and amylose concentration. The combined HT and WL damaged seeds’ quality were more than each stress alone. Therefore, avoiding HT and WL can be practically applied by farmers by irrigating throughout the rice plant during histodifferentiation to save water usage during seed maturation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0236.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: apple vinegar; sodium diacetate; high moisture maize grain; aerobic stability; infrared thermography
Online: 17 January 2022 (15:21:36 CET)
This study was carried out to determine the effects of apple vinegar and sodium diacetate addition on the aerobic stability of fermented high moisture maize grain (HMM) silage after opening. In the study, the effect of three different levels (0, 0.5, 1.0%) of apple vinegar (AV) and sodium diacetate (SDA) supplementation to fermented HMM at two different storage conditions (27-29°C, 48% Humidity; 35-37°C, 26% Humidity) were investigated. The material of the study was fermented rolled maize grain with 62% moisture content stored for about 120 days. Silage samples were subjected to aerobic stability test with 3 replicates for each treatment group. Wendee and microbiological analyses were made at 0, 2, 4, 7, and 12 days. Meanwhile, samples were displayed in the T200 IR brand thermal camera. According to the thermogram results, 1% SDA addition positively affected HMM silages at the second and fourth days of aerobic stability at both storage conditions (p<0.05). Aerobic stability and infrared thermography analysis indicated that 1% AV, 0.5%, and 1% SDA additions to HMM silages had promising effects. Due to our results, we concluded that thermal camera images might be used as an alternative quality indicator for silages in laboratory conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0604.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: aerobic mesophilic; black sigatoka; cropping systems; libanga likale; Yangambi 5Km; Litete; gros michel
Online: 27 August 2020 (08:55:23 CEST)
The microorganisms play crucial roles in the cycle of matter and damage the organic substances, sources of electrons, source of carbon, source of energy for their biosynthesis. While dying, the microorganisms contribute on their turn to enrich soil in different composed of the carbon. In this work, we studied the impact of the aerobic mesophiles microorganisms on the black sigatoka of banana in the old secondary forest. The objective was to count and to identify the microbial diversity of the forest ecosystems, as well as to study their impact on the development of the black sigatoka of banana around the forest reserve of Masako. The assessment of the microbial populations has been done in an experimental field according to a device in blocks of Fischer by the method of successive dilutions of coloration of Gram and by the discharge of ascospores. The results showed that the rain season was lower in total microbial biomass (700, 7 colonies) than the subdry season (840,3 colonies). The Bacillus genera have been more represented more than the Coccus genera. The impact of black sigatoka of banana was raised at the cultivar Libanga Likale (40%) and low at Yangambi 5 Km (14%). The distribution of microorganisms in depth in the sub-dry season to the level of surface with vegetation was considerable either 3819, 3. 103 UFC( UNIT FORMAT COLONY) by gram of soil between 0 and 5 cm against 2754,5.103 UFC by gram of soil between 15 and 20 cm. This suggests that the raised number of microorganisms could have positive impact on soil fertility by decreasing the illnesses in this ecosystem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0257.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Aerobic granular sludge; Biopolymers; Circular Economy; Extracellular Polymeric Substances; Polyhydroxyalkanoates; Sewage Sludge; Wastewater Treatment.
Online: 14 December 2022 (13:59:00 CET)
Valorization of excess sludge through the recovery of high-value products, such as biopolymers, could be a crucial step to implement circular economy principles in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). In this frame, the present study was aimed at evaluating the simultaneous production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), obtainable from the treatment of an agro-industrial wastewater. Two biological systems, one implementing aerobic granular sludge (AGS) and the other a conventional activated sludge operating as a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) were operated for 204 and 186 days, respectively. Both the systems involved a three-stage process for mixed microbial culture enrichment and biopolymers accumulation. The maximum biopolymers accumulation capacity was close to 0.60 mg gVSS-1 in the AGS when the enrichment reactor was operated at 3 kgCODm-3d-1, whereas in the SBR it was slightly more than half (0.35 mg gVSS-1). Biopolymers extracted from the AGS were mainly constituted by EPS (>70%), which percentage increased with the organic loading rate applied in the enrichment reactor up to 95%. In contrast, SBR enabled to obtain a higher PHA production (50% of the biopolymers). Results suggested that organic carbon was mainly channeled toward metabolic pathways for extracellular storing in AGS, likely as a consequence of metabolic stressors (e.g., hydraulic selection pressure, shear forces) applied for promoting aerobic granulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0017.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: High-intensity interval training; Continuous aerobic training; Systolic blood pressure; Diastolic blood pressure; Pre-hypertension
Online: 13 July 2022 (09:21:03 CEST)
The likelihood of pre-hypertensive young adults developing hypertension has been steadily increasing over the past few years. Despite the fact that aerobic exercise training (AET) has demonstrated positive results in lowering high blood pressure, the efficacy of different types of AET among pre-hypertensive young adults has not been well-established. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and continuous moderate-intensity training (CMT) on blood pressure (BP) of physically inactive pre-hypertensive young adults. 32 adults (age 20.0±1.1 years and BMI 21.5±1.8) were randomly assigned into 3 groups: HIIT, CMT and control (CON). HIIT and CMT groups participated in 5 weeks of AET; while the CON group followed a DASH diet plan only. The HIIT protocol consisted of 1:4 minute work to rest ratio of participants 80%-85% heart rate reserve (HR-reserve) and 40%-60% HR-reserve respectively for 20-minutes, CMT group exercised at 40%-60% of HR-reserve continuously for 20-minutes. In both HIIT and CMT groups, systolic blood pressure (SBP) (3.8±2.8 mmHg, P=0.002 VS 1.6±1.5 mmHg, P=0.011) was significantly reduced. While, significant reductions in the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (2.9±2.2 mmHg, P=0.002) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) (3.1±1.6mmHg, P<0.0005) were noted only in the HIIT group. No significant differences in SBP (-0.4±3.7 mmHg, P=0.718), DBP (0.4±3.4 mmHg, P=0.714), or MAP (0.1±2.5mmHg, P= 0.892) were observed in the CON group. Both HIIT and CMT decreased the BP in physically inactive pre-hypertensive young adults; however, HIIT yielded more beneficial results in terms of reducing the SPB, DBP and MAP.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0257.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Schizophrenia, cognitive dysfunction, neural plasticity, inflammation, cognitive biomarker, pharmacological treatment, cognitive remediation, aerobic exercise, brain stimulation
Online: 12 May 2021 (07:26:36 CEST)
Pervasive and wide-ranging cognitive deficits are a core feature of schizophrenia and an important determinant of long-term functional outcome. The lack of sufficiently effective treatments for cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS) represents a major unmet need and a central roadblock towards recovery. This is partly due to the current therapeutic focus on clinical symptoms, and the relative neglect of cognitive impairments despite their functionally disabling effects. Furthermore, effective treatment is impeded by our limited knowledge of the complex pathophysiology, which gives rise to perturbed information processing. Here, we review mechanisms and effectiveness of available pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for CIAS. Current evidence indicates, that while techniques which broadly enhance neural plasticity show the greatest therapeutic potential, effect sizes are at best moderate. Among other reasons, this is due to a considerable heterogeneity of responses to individual interventions. Furthermore, we discuss how recent conceptual advances in operationalizing cognitive impairments based on cognitive neuroscience have the potential to address these issues and facilitate the development of novel treatment strategies for CIAS. This includes more clearly elucidating pathophysiological mechanisms in both humans and animal models, identifying new treatment targets as well as establishing biomarkers for a better prediction of treatment responses.