ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0060.v1
Online: 3 August 2020 (00:53:37 CEST)
Africa is gradually becoming an epicentre for the COVID-19 pandemic. From the current trends of the disease, Africa might be the last hardest hit continent. While scientific investigations are ongoing to develop effective management through medications and vaccines, existing knowledge, perceptions and attitudes could be harnessed to develop an effective strategy to curb community transmission of the COVID-19. The present study assessed the awareness level, perceptions and attitudes of people living in rural, peri-urban and urban communities in Northern Ghana and their preparedness for the prevention and containment of COVID-19. We conducted a face-to-face interview and administered 553 semi-structured questionnaires in eighteen (18) rural and peri-urban/urban communities under Tolon District, Kumbungu Districts, Sagnarigu Municipality, Savelugu Municipality and Tamale Metropolis from 23rd of April to 8th of June 2020. The percentage of male to female among the respondents was 56.8% and 43.2%, respectively. Nearly half (41%) of the respondents had no formal education and 91.3% of them were Muslims. Most of the respondents (85%) held the view that COVID-19 is a punishment from God. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) between the time rural and peri-urban/urban communities first heard of COVID-19. Majority (63%) of the rural respondents depended on radio, while the peri-urban/urban respondents (51%) relied on television for information on COVID-19. All respondents were aware of COVID-19 and 91.7% could mention at least two symptoms of the disease but 18% believed there was no COVID-19 in Ghana. Most of the respondents (69.6%) believed they will not contract the virus. Our findings may provide useful data to government and other stakeholders in the COVID-19 fight.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0429.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: cultivated land; rainfall regime; soil conservation measure; reduction efficiency; northern China
Online: 21 January 2021 (15:04:34 CET)
Cultivated land plays an important role in water and soil loss in the earth-rocky mountainous region, northern China, however, its responses to soil control measures and rainfall characteristics are still not fully understood. In this study, 85 erosive rainfall events in 2011-2019 were grouped into three types, and the responses of runoff and soil loss on five cultivated plots with different slopes in the upstream catchment of the Miyun Reservoir to soil conservation measures and rainfall regimes were evaluated. Results found that event-averaged runoff depths and soil loss rates on the five plots ranged from 7.05 mm to 0.03 mm and from 300.51 t km-2 to 0.37 t km-2 respectively, depending on rainfall regimes, soil conservation measures, and slope gradients. The high occurring frequency (i.e., 72.94%) rainfall regime A with short rainfall duration (RD), low rainfall amount (P), and high mean rainfall intensity (Im) yielded lower runoff depth and higher soil loss rate. Rainfall regime B with longer RD, and higher P and Im, however, produced higher rainfall depth and lower soil loss rate. Terraced plot had the highest runoff and soil loss reduction efficiencies of over 96.03%. Contour tillage had comparable sediment reduction efficiency to that of the terraced plot on gentle slopes (gradient less than 11.0%), while its runoff reduction efficiency was less than 13.11%. This study implies that in the Miyun Reservoir catchment and similar regions in the world, contour tillage should be promoted on gentle slopes, and terrace construction should be given enough attention since it can greatly reduce water quantity and cause water shortage in downstream catchments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0081.v1
Online: 14 April 2017 (05:55:31 CEST)
Papua is one of part in Indonesia which is the geology research of that place isn’t developed and limited. It causes the seismotectonic of Papua hasn’t been known. WinITDB was used to determine the dip angle plate which was on the north part of Papua. The determination of angle was done through seismicity’s cross section analysis in the area. To show that seismicity, earthquake history data that ever occurred in the area is needed. The result on the seismicity’s cross section of plane A–A’, was confluence by two plates with angle 150° against horizontal on the depth up to ±68 km. On the seismicity’s cross section of plane B–B’ had angle 135° against horizontal on the ±82 km depth. On the plane C–C’ seismicity’s cross section, was confluence of two plate which located between -1,77°S until -4,97°S subducted until 171 km depth on 1,38°N - 4,97°S. It proved that subduction characteristic in the northern Papua which was Australia continent plate subducted to north, followed by collision and the Pacific plate subduction on New Guinea. It is also confirmed by focus mechanism analysis which showed the earthquake activities are controlled by the not really deep active fault.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0029.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Theory Of Art Keywords: functions; contexts; traditional pottery; northern; Ghana
Online: 5 March 2018 (04:00:32 CET)
The aim of this paper is to identify and document some functions and contextsof traditional pottery within northern Ghana. The descriptive approach of the qualitative research methodology was employed. Interview and observation methods were employed as the data collection methods. They were used to ascertain reasons why some potteryare engaged in certain contexts andfor certainfunctions. The data was tabulated to include the traditional name of the pot, the function and the context. The data were then analyzed and the indications were that, the potters make interesting forms of traditional pottery for different purposes; and the local name given to each pot perfectly defines their functions and contexts within northern Ghana. On the flipside of the coin, the function and context of every pot can also be dictated by its end user. Base on this, the researchers were able to discover some functions and contexts of the indigenous pottery which were put into some groups. On the first hand, the researchers classified the functions into five groups of purpose. These included: domestic purposes, religious purposes, agricultural purposes, rites of passage purposes and traditional herbal medicinal purposes. On other hand, seven groups of contexts were also discovered at the time of the study. These included: courtyards, bedrooms, bathrooms, graveyards, kitchens, shrines, and hencoops as places where these pots can be found among the people of the Northern Ghana.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0578.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Midlands and Northern Mountains, tourism linkage, Vietnam.
Online: 30 July 2018 (10:10:04 CEST)
This study was conducted to investigate the status of regional linkage in tourism development in in the Midlands and Northern Mountains of Vietnam. The data was collected from a survey of 755 people, including officials from State management bodies in charge of tourism, officials and staffs at tourism resorts, tourism firms, tourism scientists and tourists. In addition, we conducted 10 group discussions, interviewed 30 State tourism agency officials and tourism firms in the Midland and Mountainous provinces of Vietnam. The results show that tourism development in Vietnam in general and the Northwest region in particular is extremely fragmented, not yet forming a regional linkage; Regional and national tourism development programs are just formalistic. The main cause of the situation is the limited regional integration policy in Vietnam, the lack of appropriate regional governance mechanisms and inactive participation of the private sector in regional integration. Based on the findings, we propose a tourism sector linkage model; besides, policy implications are given for fulfilling the linkage policy in the Midlands and Northern Mountains area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0662.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Exercise; Health; Obesity; Northern Latitudes; Cross-country skiing
Online: 25 December 2020 (13:15:58 CET)
Background: Physical activity is recommended to mitigate the incidence of obesity, but delivery of community wide initiatives is cumbersome. The challenges met by such programs are magnified when implementation transpires in the remote villages of Alaska. To overcome the difficulty of this challenge in the Arctic, the Skiku/AK Nordic cross-country skiing program was developed. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether access to Skiku/AK Nordic program would promote physical activity levels that met the daily recommendations for physical activity in Alaska Native children. Methods: Eight children (4 females and 4 males; 10±2 years/age) were recruited from Kaktovik, Alaska for participation in this study. Expert coaches and staff provided one week of cross-country ski instruction and access to ski equipment. Physical activity was monitored using ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers. Data collected from the devices was then downloaded and analyzed using ActiLife software. Results: The participants expended ~586 calories/day devoted to physical activity. Light and moderate physical activity was 68±38 minutes/day and 447±248 minutes/day, respectively. Conclusions: Delivery of the Skiku/AK Nordic program promoted favorable levels of physical activity in Alaska Native children. Further research is needed to assess the longitudinal and seasonal effectiveness of the Skiku/AK Nordic program.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0347.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Diablo winds; downslope windstorms; Northern California; wildfire meteorology
Online: 24 May 2018 (10:16:13 CEST)
Diablo winds are dry and gusty north-northeasterly downslope windstorms that affect the Northern California. On the evening of October 8, 2017, Diablo winds contributed to the ignitions and rapid spread of the “Northern California Firestorm”, including the Tubbs Fire, which burned 2,800 homes in Santa Rosa, resulted in 22 fatalities and $1.2B USD in damages. We analyzed 18 years of data from a network of surface meteorological stations and show that Diablo winds tend to occur overnight through early morning in Fall, Winter and Spring. Conditions similar to Diablo winds occur commonly in the Sierra Nevada Mountains in addition to the area North of the San Francisco Bay Area including the Northern Coastal Ranges. Diablo winds are characterized by high wind speeds and low relative humidity, but they tend to neither be warmer than climatology nor do they have a higher gust factor, or ratio of wind gusts to mean wind speeds, than climatology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0612.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Migration; Northern Triangle of Central America; climate change; drought
Online: 25 June 2021 (09:23:22 CEST)
The worldwide number of migrants has had a rapid increase during the last fifteen years. Despite the extensive research studies that elucidate the increase in migrants' recipient countries, we know little about the relationship between the climate factors and human mobility in the countries of origin. Hence, this study focuses on the effects of weather and the propensity of individuals to leave a territory by measuring the importance of rain precipitation or the lack of it in one of the critical food corridors of Central America, formed by El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala. To study the mobility process, we develop a stochastic frontier model; the main result shows a greater propensity to migrate when there is a significant drought event in the place of origin. Some other factors that motivate people to leave their homeland are the effect of other climate events measured through the control system (ENSO), homicide levels, economic performance, and exchange rate. The findings allow differentiating between drought and excess precipitation on a population and mobility to other territories. In addition, these results permit us to derive observable implications of the different effects of flooding and drought and create public policies of prevention, mitigation, and resilience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0015.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Bovine tuberculosis; molecular epidemiology; spatial; badgers; MLVA; Northern Ireland
Online: 3 June 2020 (09:38:28 CEST)
Bovine tuberculosis surveillance in Northern Ireland includes Multiple-Locus Variable number tandem repeat Analysis (MLVA) to determine the Mycobacterium bovis genetic type present in both cattle, and the predominant wildlife host, the European badger (Meles meles). These data are informative for investigating clusters of infection and understanding the scale at which interspecific transmission may occur. We utilised a comprehensive dataset of routinely sampled isolates from infected cattle and from badgers killed in road-traffic accidents to investigate the spatial co-location of MLVA types in, and between, the badger and cattle populations. Furthermore, we investigate the hypothesis that the farming enterprise type might explain some variation in this relationship. MLVA types were spatially co-localised in cattle and RTA badger hosts, indicative of a shared epidemic. Dairy herds were more likely to have at least one MLVA type in common with nearby RTA badgers, compared to non-dairy herd types. Marginally more MLVA spatial clustering was observed in non-dairy herds, which may be a consequence relatively more between-herd movements. For the cattle population, local transmission mechanisms such as infection from contiguous herds, infectious wildlife and short-range between-herd cattle movements appear primarily to drive the epidemic: there appears to be a more limited role for long-range movements. Animal management practices are likely the driving force behind this observation, as beef rearing is associated with elevated numbers of animal movements compared to dairy herds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0149.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Farm fragmentation; Land fragmentation; cattle farming; agricultural productivity; Northern Ireland
Online: 9 October 2021 (13:47:08 CEST)
Farm fragmentation is the occurrence of numerous and often discontinuous land parcels associated with a single farm. Farm fragmentation is considered to be a defining feature of Northern Ireland’s (NI) agricultural landscape, influencing agricultural efficiency, productivity, and the spread of livestock diseases. Despite this, the full extent of farm fragmentation in cattle farms is not well understood, and little is known of how farm fragmentation either influences, or is influenced by, different animal production types. This study describes and quantifies farm fragmentation metrics for cattle enterprises in NI, presented separately for dairy and non-dairy production types. We find that 35% of farms consist of five or more fragments, with larger farms associated with greater levels of farm fragmentation, fragment dispersal and contact with contiguous farms. Moreover, this was particularly evident in dairy farms, which were over twice the size of farms associated with non-dairy production types, with twice as many individual land parcels and twice as many fragments. We hypothesise that the difference in farm fragmentation and farm size between dairy and non-dairy production types is associated with the recent expansion of dairy farms after the abolition of the milk quota system in 2015, which may have driven the expansion of dairy farms via the acquisition of land. The high levels of land fragmentation, fragment dispersal and contiguous contact observed in NI cattle farms may also have important implications for agricultural productivity and epidemiology alike. Whilst highly connected pastures could facilitate the dissemination of disease, highly fragmented and parcellised land could also hamper productivity via diseconomies of scale, such as preventing the increase of herd sizes or additionally, adding to farm costs by increasing the complexity of herd management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0614.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: ordinary Kriging; variogram; jack-knifing; upper miocene; northern Croatia; porosity
Online: 29 November 2018 (03:53:34 CET)
Presented is semivariogram and the Ordinary Kriging analyses of porosity data from the Sava Depression (Northern Croatia), as part of the Croatian part of the Pannonian Basin System. Data are taken from hydrocarbon reservoirs of the Lower Pontian (Upper Miocene) age, which belongs to the Kloštar-Ivanić Formation. Original datasets had been jack-knifed with purpose to “artificially” increased data and calculate the more reliable semivariograms. The results showed that such improvements can assist in the interpolation of more reliable maps. The both sets, made by original and jack-knifed data, need to be compared using geological recognition of non-allowed shapes (“bull-eyes”, “butterfly effects”) as well as cross-validation results. That comparison made possible to select the most appropriate porosity interpolation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0112.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: woody biomass; Northern Great Plains; farmers and ranchers; focus groups
Online: 6 October 2018 (08:56:18 CEST)
Bioenergy produced from perennial feedstocks such as woody biomass could serve as an opportunity to strengthen local and regional economies and also jointly produce various environmental services. In order to assess the potential for biomass- based bioenergy, it’s essential to characterize the interest that potential biomass suppliers have in such an endeavor. In the U.S. Great Plains region, this largely means assessing relevant perceptions of farmers and ranchers. We conducted a series of farmer and rancher oriented focus groups in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and Kansas to qualitatively explore opinions about the role that trees can play in agriculture and interest in woody biomass systems within existing Northern Great Plains (NGP) farms and ranches. Our findings suggest that farmer and ranchers generally value the role that trees, or tree-based practices like windbreaks can play in agriculture particularly on marginal farmland in terms of conservation or crop protection. Yet relative to the potential of trees as a biomass crop there is a distinct lack of knowledge and skepticism. Farmers and ranchers also noted variable degrees of risk concern and uncertainty regarding investing in tree-based systems, as well as a number of perceived external market related constraints to integrating trees within their managed systems. Most of the participants recognized that if biomass production or an increase in tree planting and management in general were to expand in the NGP region, government programs would likely be required to provide much needed technical guidance and financial incentives. As the NGP regional bioeconomy continues to emerge and expand, private and public investment relative to niche bioenergy feedstocks such as woody biomass should address the type of information needs that farmers and ranchers have relative to integrating biomass production into existing farm and ranch systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0188.v2
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Co-composted Biochar; Nitrogen Uptake; Nitrogen Use Efficiency; Eutric Gleysol; Northern Ghana
Online: 26 April 2022 (10:02:22 CEST)
Inherent low soil fertility status limits productivity of rice in the lowland ecologies in Northern Ghana. Combining organic and inorganic N fertilizers could help to maintain the fertility of lowland soils for rice production. A screen house pot experiment was carried out to investigate the combined effect of biochar-compost and inorganic N fertilizer on the nitrogen uptake and agronomic performance of rice plants grown on Eutric Gleysol lowland soil. Inorganic N fertilizer alone and its combinations with different types of biochar-compost (based on the proportions of biochar and compost) were used as treatment. A control (unamended soil) was also included. The incorporation of biochar-compost and inorganic N fertilizer improved the growth parameters and yield components of rice plants. The combination of biochar-compost and inorganic nitrogen fertilizer was also found to improve nitrogen uptake and nutrient use efficiency (NUE) in rice plants. This practice could be the most likely viable option for alleviating lowlands soil fertility issues and increasing rice productivity in Northern Ghana.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0129.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Modified Shepard’s Method (MSM); Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW); sandstone; neogene; Northern Croatia
Online: 10 December 2019 (07:27:31 CET)
Interpolation is procedure that depends on spatial and/or statistical properties of analysed variable(s). It is special challenging task for data that included low number of samples, like dataset with less than 20 data. This problem is especially emphasized in the subsurface geological mapping, i.e. in the cases where data are taken solely from wells. Successful solutions of such mapping problems ask for knowledge about interpolation methods designed primarily for small datasets and dataset itself. Here are compared two methods, namely Inverse Distance Weighting and Modified Shepard’s Method, applied for three variables (porosity, permeability, thickness) measured in the Neogene sandstone hydrocarbon reservoirs (Northern Croatia). The results showed that pure cross-validation is not enough condition for appropriate map selection, but also geometrical features need to be considered, for datasets with less than 20 points.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0096.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: auxotrophy; subgroups of F. langsethiae; temperature sensitivity; biotin; thiamine; media; northern Europe
Online: 27 February 2017 (09:05:19 CET)
Analysis of 49 strains of F. langsethiae originating from northern Europe (Russia, Finland, Sweden, UK, Norway, and Latvia) revealed the presence of spontaneous auxotrophic mutants that reflect natural intraspecific diversity. Our investigations detected that 49.0% of F. langsethiae strains were auxotrophic mutants for biotin, and 8.2% of the strains required thiamine as a growth factor. They failed to grow on vitamin-free media. For both prototrophic and auxotrophic strains, no growth defect was observed in rich organic media. Without essential vitamins, a significant reduction in the growth of the auxotrophic strains results in a decrease of the formation of T-2 toxin and diacetoxyscirpenol. In addition, all analysed F. langsethiae strains were distinguished into two subgroups based on PCR product sizes. According to our results, 26 and 23 strains of F. langsethiae belong to subgroups I and II respectively. We determined that the deletion in the IGS region of the rDNA of F. langsethiae belonging to subgroup II is linked with temperature sensitivity and causes a decrease in strain growth at 30 °C. Four thiamine auxotrophic strains were found in subgroup I, while 21 biotin auxotrophic strains were detected in subgroups II. To the best of our knowledge, the spontaneous mutations in F. langsethiae observed in the present work have not been previously reported.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0551.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry & Petrology Keywords: : silicocarbonatite; melteigite; calcite; nepheline; zeolite group minerals; garnet; crystal fractionation; Breivikbotn; Northern Norway
Online: 27 September 2018 (17:37:30 CEST)
The present work reports new mineralogical and whole rock geochemical data from the Breivikbotn silicocarbonatite (Seiland igneous province, North Norway), allowing conclusions to be drawn concerning its origin and the role of late fluid alteration. The rock shows a rare mineral association: calcite + pyroxene + amphibole + zeolite group minerals + garnet + titanite, with apatite, allanite, magnetite and zircon as minor and accessory minerals, and it is classified as silicocarbonatite. Calcite, titanite and pyroxene (Di36-46 Acm22-37 Hd14-21) are primarily magmatic minerals. Amphibole of hastingsitic composition has formed after pyroxene at a late-magmatic stage. Zeolite group minerals (natrolite, gonnardite, Sr-rich thomsonite-(Ca)) were formed during hydrothermal alteration of primary nepheline by fluids/solutions with high Si-Al-Ca activities. Poikilitic garnet (Ti-bearing andradite) has inclusions of all primary minerals, amphibole and zeolites, and presumably crystallized metasomatically during a late metamorphic event (Caledonian orogeny). Whole rock chemical compositions of the silicocarbonatite differs from the global average of calciocarbonatites by elevated silica, aluminium, sodium and iron, but show comparable contents of trace elements (REE, Sr, Ba). Trace element distributions indicate within-plate tectonic setting of the carbonatite. The spatial proximity of carbonatite and alkaline ultramafic rock (melteigite), the presence of “primary nepheline” in carbonatite together with the trace element distributions indicate that the carbonatite was derived from crystal fractionation of a parental carbonated foidite magma. The main prerequisites for the extensive formation of zeolite group minerals in silicocarbonatite are revealed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0325.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Farm fragmentation; bTB; bovine tuberculosis; Northern Ireland; local spread; neighbourhood; matched case-control; conacre
Online: 21 January 2022 (13:08:45 CET)
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains a challenging endemic pathogen of cattle in many parts of the globe. Spatial clustering of Mycoacterium bovis molecular types in cattle suggests that local factors are the primary drivers of spread. Northern Ireland’s agricultural landscape is comprised of highly fragmented farms, distributed across spatially discontinuous land parcels, and these highly fragmented farming structures are thought to facilitate localised spread. We conducted a matched case control study to quantify the risks of bTB breakdown with farm area, farm fragmentation, fragment dispersal, and contact with neighbouring herds. Whilst our results show small but significant increases in breakdown risk associated with each of farm fragmentation, farm area, fragment dispersal, and contact with neighbouring herds, these relationships were strongly confounded with the number of contiguous neighbours with bTB. Our key finding was that every infected neighbour led to an increase in the odds of breakdown by 40% to 50%, and that highly fragmented farms were almost twice as likely to have a bTB positive neighbour compared to non-fragmented farms. Our results suggest that after controlling for herd size, herd type, spatial and temporal factors, farm fragmentation increasingly exposes herds to infection originating from first order spatial neighbours. Given NI’s particularly fragmented landscape, and reliance on short-term leases, our data supports the hypothesis that between-herd contiguous spread is a particularly important component of NI’s bTB disease system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2040074
Subject: Keywords: trend analysis; Mann–Kendall test; Sen’s slope estimator; linear regression; cereal yield; northern Togo
Online: 24 September 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
This study investigates the trend in monthly and annual rainfall, minimum and maximum temperature (Tmin and Tmax) using the Mann–Kendall (MK) test and Sen’s slope (SS) method and evaluates the significance of their variability for maize, sorghum and millet yields in northern Togo employing multiple regression analysis. The historical data of Kara, Niamtougou, Mango and Dapaong weather stations from 1977 to 2012 were used. Four non-parametric methods—Alexandersson’s Standard Normal Homogeneity Test (SNHT), Buishand’s Range Test (BRT), Pettitt’s Test (PT) and Von Neumann’s Ratio Test (VNRT)—were applied to detect homogeneity in the data. For the data which were serially correlated, a modified version of the MK test (pre-whitening) was utilised. Results showed an increasing trend in the annual rainfall in all four locations. However, this trend was only significant at Dapaong (p < 0.1). There was an increasing trend in Tmax at Kara, Mango and Niamtougou, unlike Dapaong where Tmax revealed a significant decreasing trend (p < 0.01). Similarly, there was an increasing trend in Tmin at Kara, Mango and Dapaong, unlike Niamtougou where Tmin showed a non-significant decreasing trend (p > 0.05). Rainfall in Dapaong was found to have increased (7.79 mm/year) more than the other locations such as Kara (2.20 mm/year), Niamtougou (4.57 mm/year) and Mango (0.67 mm). Tmax increased by 0.13, 0.13 and 0.32 °C per decade at Kara, Niamtougou and Mango, respectively, and decreased by 0.20 per decade in Dapaong. Likewise, Tmin increased by 0.07, 0.20 and 0.02 °C per decade at Kara, Mango and Dapaong, respectively, and decreased by 0.01 °C per decade at Niamtougou. Results of multiple regression analysis revealed nonlinear yield responses to changes in rainfall and temperature. Rainfall and temperature variability affects rainfed cereal crops production, but the effects vary across crops. The temperature has a positive effect on maize yield in Kara, Niamtougou and Mango but a negative effect on sorghum in Niamtougou and millet in Dapaong, while rainfall has a negative effect on maize yield in Niamtougou and Dapaong and millet yield in Mango. In all locations, rainfall and temperature variability has a significant effect on the cereal crop yields. There is, therefore, a need to adopt some adaptation strategies for sustainable agricultural production in northern Togo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0074.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry & Petrology Keywords: K–Ar dating; illite crystallinity; Northern Chichibu Belt; Mikabu Greenstones; Sanbagawa (Sambagawa) metamorphism; accretionary complex
Online: 6 September 2022 (02:50:39 CEST)
To determine the metamorphic ages of the accretionary complexes in the Northern Chichibu Belt in SW Japan, K–Ar dating was conducted using weakly metamorphosed sedimentary rocks collected from the Kanto Mountains, Central Japan. Whole-rock ages were obtained for chert and red shale samples, and the mineral ages of fine-grained illite with the grain size less than 4 μm were obtained for chert, red shale, mudstone, acidic tuff, and basic tuff. The K–Ar ages of chert and red shale presented large variations, with systematically older ages compared to those of mudstone and tuff in the same strata. The influence of submarine hydrothermal activities on chert and red shale before subduction is a possible cause of this deviation. The illite samples, which were fractionated into four grain-size classes using a suspension method, yielded older ages and higher illite crystallinity (i.e., smaller values of Kübler’s crystallinity index) for larger grain-size classes. The peak metamorphic ages were determined from the K–Ar ages of the 3–4 μm class illite in mudstone and tuff. The Late Jurassic to the Earliest Cretaceous accretionary complex of the lowest structural unit (Kashiwagi Unit) was dated within a small range between 117–110 Ma, which is distinctly older than the K–Ar ages of white mica reported from the Sanbagawa Belt. The peak metamorphic age of acidic tuff (113 Ma) at the type locality of the Mikabu Greenstones indicates that the subducted Mikabu seamount is a constituent of the Kashiwagi Unit. The peak metamorphic ages of the Manba and Kamiyoshida Units were obtained as 132–107 Ma and 163–144 Ma, respectively. Major structural discontinuity is suggested within the Middle Jurassic accretionary complexes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0418.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: geological risk; pre-Neogene basement; radioactive waste; waste disposal; Northern Croatia; Probability of Success (PoS)
Online: 26 May 2020 (04:11:18 CEST)
The basic principles of geological risk calculation through Probability of Success (PoS) are mostly applied for numerical estimation of additional hydrocarbon existence in proven reservoirs or potential hydrocarbon discoveries in selected geological regional subsurface volume. It can be tailored and validated for a comprehensive input dataset collected in the selected petroleum province, adapted by dividing up geological events into several probability categories and classes. The most applied categories are (existence of) reservoir rocks, traps and isolators, source rocks, migration pathways and preservation conditions for hydrocarbons The methodology results in unique probability values as multiplication of independent statistical events, which can also be applied in the assessment of a potential hydrocarbon discovery of desired minimal volume and its value in any virtual currency like risk-neutral dollars. Such methodology has been extensively developed in the last decades in the Croatian subsurface, mostly in the Croatian part of the Pannonian Basin System (CPBS). Through the adaptation of geological categories, it was also applied in hybrid, i.e., stochastical, models developed in the CPBS (Drava Depression). Stochastically estimation of porosity was already applied. As the robustness of this methodology is very high, it was also modified to estimate the influence of water-flooding in increasing oil recovery in some proven Neogene sandstone reservoirs in the CPBS (Sava Depression). This new modification is being presented to be applied to geological risk calculation, intending to assess the safety of geological environment in deep wells, where depleted radioactive fuel would be disposed, a subject of great importance. The case study encompassed the magmatic and metamorphic rocks in the pre-Neogene basement of the CPBS. For disposal purpose, these are regionally lithologies considered as to be the safest ones considering petrophysical values, water saturation, recent weathering and tectonic activity.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Yezidi/ Yazidi; ISIS / IS; Northern Iraq offensive; Iraq / Syrian civil war; women's mental health; PTSD
Online: 24 June 2019 (09:11:36 CEST)
The Yezidis who represent a religious minority living in Northern Iraq were particularly affected of the persecution by ISIS that gained power after 2013. This paper gives an overview of the events and the mental health consequences as well as associated influences on affected female Yezidis. Based on systematic literature search the aspects “Persecution by ISIS and actual situation of the Yezidi community”, “Gender-specific aspects of the persecution and its consequences”, “Mental health of the affected women” and “Cultural-historical and religious context” are worked out. Research indicates a high burden of health strain and mental health problems in the surviving Yezidi women, especially PTSD and depression. Concerning transgenerational trauma, the recent genocide revive past experiences in the history of the community. Like the narrow cultural and religious rules of the community, this can be both a resource and a burden. The actual extent of the attacks is neither predictable for the affected individuals nor for the community, consequences could also be passed on descendants. Long-term care and support of the affected persons, their descendants and the Yezidi community seems indispensable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0126.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: anemia; iron deficiency; pregnancy; serum ferritin; mean corpuscular volume (mcv); mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH); Northern Pakistan
Online: 27 January 2017 (03:46:07 CET)
Abstract: The aim of this study was to find out the incidence of anemia in pregnant women of Swat District; to analyze the iron variations and its dietary effects.Data were collected during the periods of January – September 2016. The study of samples comprised of 250 pregnant women in the different trimester. Blood sample from each woman was collected and full blood count (FBC) was conducted through Mindray BC-3000 plus hem analyzer for all pregnant individuals. Confirmed anemic cases were then examined for IDA with serum ferritin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) through Randox kit and serum transferrin saturation was estimated by formula (serum ferritin saturation =serum iron ×100/TIBC). The total number of participants in the first trimester were 50, among them 26 women were suffer from iron deficiency anemia (IDA) with 52% weightage of prevalence rate, (mean Hb concentration 9.602 ± 0.87 g/dl). The rates of IDA were 63.3%; ( mean Hb concentration 8.48 ± 1.24 g/dl) and 54%; ( mean Hb concentration 9.18 ± 1.28 g/dl), among 150 and 50 participants in the second and third trimester, respectively. A significant correlation was found between serum ferritin and Hb, serum ferritin against MCV and serum ferritin against MCH. The high prevalence of anemia was found 78.2% in the age group from 26-30 followed by 78.2% in the age group 36-40 years compared to those of other age groups in the second trimester. In this study the prevalence of IDA in third trimester is lower compared to first and second trimester.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0203.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Northern Corn Leaf Blight (Exserohilum); Gray Leaf Spot (Cerospora); Common Rust (Puccinia sorghi); Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN); Neuroph Studio
Online: 21 February 2019 (13:04:05 CET)
Plant leaf diseases can affect the plants’ leaves to an extent that the plants can collapse and die completely. These diseases may drastically drop the supply of vegetables and fruits to the market, and result in a low agricultural economy. In the literature, different laboratory methods of plant leaf disease detection have been used. These methods were time consuming and could not cover large areas for the detection of leaf diseases. This study infiltrates through the facilitated principles of the Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) in order to model a network for image recognition and classification of these diseases. Neuroph was used to perform the training of a CNN network that recognized and classified images of the maize leaf diseases that were collected by use of a smart phone camera. A novel way of training and the methodology used, expedite a quick and easy implementation of the system in practice. The developed model was able to recognize 3 different types of maize leaf diseases out of healthy leaves. The Northern Corn Leaf Blight (Exserohilum), Common Rust (Puccinia sorghi) and Gray Leaf Spot (Cerospora) diseases were chosen for this study as they affect most parts of Southern Africa’s maize fields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0025.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: Ordos Basin; red sandstone; detrital zircon U-Pb dating; tectonothermal events; origin analysis; Danxia landform area in northern Shaanxi, China
Online: 1 November 2022 (09:16:04 CET)
The Danxia landform area of Jingbian Wave Valley is located in the central part of Ordos Basin. The near-red Danxia landform consisting of sandstone in this area is a new discovery in geological circles at home and abroad, and its depositional age and genesis remain a hot topic of discussion at present. As the material basis for its development, red sandstone is of great importance to the in-depth study on its formation date and origin. The paper explores the origin, tectonic significance and paleogeographic pattern of the red sandstone through field geological investigation and zircon U-Pb dating analysis of the red sandstone of the Luohe Formation. The results show that the original materials of the red sandstone was formed in three main age intervals, 252~456 Ma, 1657~2084 Ma, and 2129~2538 Ma, and regional tectonothermal events in the origin area during the three periods were recorded, among which the events in Mesoproterozoic and Paleoproterozoic periods were the most active. The comparative analysis of zircon U-Pb age spectra shows that for the sediment of red sandstone, the early origin is near-origin and late origin is distant-origin. The main origin areas in the study area are the Xingmeng orogenic belt, the North China massif and the Alashan massif; the vertical section reflects that the origin area has the strongest erosion and transport in the upper deposition period, the smallest erosion and transport in the middle deposition period, and the moderate erosion and transport in the lower deposition period. With origins system dominated by the northern origins and the paleogeographic pattern of multi-period and cyclonic, the area mainly experienced four tectonic movement cycles, such as Wutai, Lvliang, Caledon and Haixi.