Online: 5 January 2020 (15:16:56 CET)
Photodynamic therapy has been applied endoscopically to treat early esophageal cancer. However, the long-term survival outcome of this treatment option is unknown in literature. Patients and Method: The patients of early esophageal cancer (clinical stage I) treated with photophrin based photodynamic therapy were analyzed for their long-term survival outcome and compared to those patients undergoing esophagectomy by a single surgeon for stage I disease. Results: There were 15 and 16 patients undergoing PDT and esophagectomy enrolled in the current study respectively. Complete response was achieved in 10 (66.7%) patients after PDT. After adjuvant chemoradiation (CCRT) complete response was achieved in 13 patients (86%). There is no mortality after PDT. Severe complication was detected in 3 patients including trachea-esophageal fistulae, esophageal stenosis and skin photosensitivity respectively. With a median follow-up duration of 110.2 months (+9.6 months) for the patients after PDT, there were 4 and 3 recurrence in the primary tumor site and regional lymph node respectively with 73.3% of successful local control rate of the primary tumor. There were 7 (46.7%) patients died during clinical follow-up of this cohort with 5 (33.3%) from disease progression of esophageal cancer and two from other diseases respectively. The five-year survival rate after PDT is 64.3%, whereas 70.9% of the patients after esophagectomy without significant difference of these two group of patients (P=0.72). Conclusion: Our preliminary results suggested that PDT might provide an equivalent long-term oncological outcome as compared to that done by esophagectomy for early esophageal cancer. A prospective randomized clinical trial comparing the results with esophagectomy and other endoscopic abrasive therapies is warrant in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0116.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: C1q; Biomarker; Esophageal cancer; Diagnosis; Tumor
Online: 7 September 2021 (10:03:44 CEST)
Background: Esophageal cancer was hardly diagnosed in early stage, and more potential biomarkers should be found. Methods: 252 patients and normal controls which recruited in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, were divided into esophageal carcinoma group (105 cases), disease control group (75 cases) and the control group of healthy people (72 cases). Moreover, TISIDB and GEPIA databases were used to investigate the different expression of EC and normal tissues, and explore the roles of C1q in tumor-immune system interactions in EC. Results: The concentration of serum C1q in EC group is 196.8(180~219.4) mg/L, which is higher than the level of DC [178.10(153.70~200.85) mg/L]and HC [183.00(167.75~201.00) mg/L] (P<0.05). A higher expression level of C1q was observed in Ⅲ and Ⅳ grades [214(192~237.3) mg/ml] than grades Ⅰ and Ⅱ [180.95(172.03~193.85) mg/L] (P<0.05). C1q was positively correlated with eosinophils, active CD8 T cells, myeloid derived suppressor cells, natural killer cells, monocytes and macrophages (r = 0.373; r = 0.659; r = 0.846; r = 0.760; r = 0.499; r = 0.757; P<0.05). Conclusion: The concentrations of C1q increased in EC and related to the severity of EC, which had potential value of diagnosis of EC. There were correlations in C1q and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0079.v1
Online: 5 May 2020 (12:14:41 CEST)
Herein, we reported a case of complete excision of the jejunum for the treatment of esophageal cancer. A 62-year-old male was admitted with complaints of “difficulty in eating for one month and chest pain for 10 days". For complete gastrectomy and colonic polyposis, we chose the jejunum. We completely excised the jejunum and its vessels, anastomosed to the esophageal tumor resection, with no significant complications. This case showed that complete excision of the jejunum with bowel and vessels is an alternative surgical method for the treatment of esophageal cancer with free bowel shortage and no torsion of blood vessels.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0208.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: lifestyle; esophageal cancer; cancer prevention; esophageal adenocarcinoma
Online: 9 August 2021 (18:05:44 CEST)
One of the most notable changes in the Esophageal Cancer (EC) epidemiology is the rising incidence and prevalence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) in developed countries, likely due to lifestyle and/or environmental factors that may play an important role in EAC onset. The aim of this systematic review was to collect and summarize all the available evidence regarding lifestyle, diet and EAC risk. We searched the PubMed and Scopus databases in January 2021 for studies providing information about lifestyle, diet, WCRF/AICR recommendations and EAC risk. A total of 106 publications met the inclusion criteria. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are associated with increased EAC risk. Physical activity does not appear to have a significant direct role in EAC risk. A diet rich in fruit, vegetables, and whole grains appeared to be more protective than a diet rich in animal fat, red meat, and processed meat. Alcohol does not seem to be related to EAC whereas smokers, particularly heavy smokers, have an increased risk of EAC. Primary prevention remains the best option to avert EAC. BMI and WC, along with low consumption of red and processed meat, high consumption of plant food, and the avoidance of smoking are pivotal for EAC prevention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0128.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: steroidal dimer; steroidal N-heterocycles; antiproliferative activity; esophageal cancer cells
Online: 30 June 2017 (07:43:06 CEST)
Following our previous success in identifying new steroid-based anticancer agents, we herein disclosed the structural requirements for retaining high potency against cancer cells and associated modes of action. The structurally novel steroidal dimer by001 inhibited growth of different esophageal cancer cells and colony formation at low micromolar levels, elevated cellular ROS levels and caused mitochondrial dysfunction. Mechanistic studies showed that by001 induced cell death through the mitochondria and death receptor-mediated apoptotic pathways and autophagy induction, as well as inhibited migration.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0334.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: coffee; temperature; esophageal cancer; thermosensing; sensory thresholds; methodological study
Online: 26 April 2018 (08:05:50 CEST)
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluates “very hot (>65 °C) beverages” as probably carcinogenic to humans. However, there is a lack of research regarding what temperatures consumers actually perceive as “very hot” or as “too hot”. A methodology for organoleptical assessment of such threshold temperatures was developed. The participants were asked to mix a very hot coffee step by step into a cooler coffee. Because of that, the coffee to be tasted was incrementally getting hotter during the test. The participants took a sip at every addition, until they perceive the beverage as too hot for consumption. The protocol was evaluated using 87 participants. Interestingly, the average pain threshold of the test group (67 °C) and the preferred drinking temperature (63 °C) iterated around the IARC threshold for carcinogenicity. The developed methodology was found as fit for the purpose and may be applied in larger studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0381.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: cancer; mortality; electromagnetic fields; breast neoplasms; lung neoplasms; esophageal neoplasms; uterine cervical neoplasms
Online: 15 December 2020 (12:47:54 CET)
Background. This study aims to estimate the rate of death by cancer, according to Radio Base Stations (RBS) radiofrequency exposure, especially for the types of breast, cervix, lung and esophagus cancer. Methods. We collected information about the number of deaths by cancer, gender, age group, Gross Domestic Product per capita, death year and the amount of exposure over the lifetime. We investigated all cancer types and some specific types (breast, cervix, lung and esophagus cancers). Results. In capitals where RBS radiofrequency exposure was higher than 2,000/antennas-year, the average mortality rate was 112/100,000 for all cancers. The adjusted analysis showed that the higher the exposure to RBS radiofrequency, the higher cancer mortality. The highest adjusted risk was observed for cervix cancer (Rate Ratio = 2.18). The spatial analysis showed that the highest RBS radiofrequency exposure was observed in a city in southern Brazil, which also showed the highest mortality rate for all types of cancer and specifically for lung and breast cancer. Conclusion. The balance of our results indicates that the exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from RBS increases the rate of death by all types of cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: CD44; monoclonal antibody; esophageal cancer
Online: 1 March 2022 (10:32:33 CET)
CD44 is a cell surface glycoprotein, which is widely expressed on normal and cancer cells. CD44 is involved in cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, survival, stemness, and chemo-resistance. Therefore, CD44 is thought to be a promising target for cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this study, we established anti-CD44 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) by immunizing mice with CD44v3-10 ectodomain and screening using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We then characterized them using flow cytometry, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. One of the established clones (C44Mab-46; IgG1, kappa) reacted with CD44s-overexpressed Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells (CHO/CD44s) or esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell lines (KYSE70 and KYSE770). The KD of C44Mab-46 for CHO/CD44s, KYSE70, and KYSE770 was 1.1×10-8 M, 4.9×10-8 M, and 4.1×10-8 M, respectively. C44Mab-46 detected CD44s of CHO/CD44s and KYSE70, and CD44v of KYSE770 in western blot analysis. Furthermore, C44Mab-46 strongly stained esophageal squamous carcinoma cells in immunohistochemistry using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded ESCC tissues. Taken together, C44Mab-46 is very useful for detecting CD44 in various applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0343.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Corrosive burn; esophageal stricture; TGF-β1
Online: 19 November 2021 (09:39:39 CET)
Corrosive burns lead to progressive esophageal stricture and dysphagia. There are many trials to prevent Esophageal stricture formation after corrosive burn. This study aimed to access the effects of EW-7197 on prevention for esophageal stricture formation after corrosive esophageal burn. animal study were classified divided into three groups: a healthy group, a control group (corrosive burn without EW-7197), and a treatment group (corrosive burn with EW-7197). Corrosive esophageal burns were produced using 30% NaOH on the lower esophagus. For 3 weeks, the control group received vehicle and the treatment group received 20 mg/kg/day EW-7197. Treatment efficacy was assessed by measuring the stenosis ratio by esophagogram with contrast media on day 21. histologic staining was performed to evaluate the fibrosis area ratio, and western blotting was performed to evaluate fibrotic markers. Among 20 rats that underwent surgery, 14 survived. Three in the treatment group died because of esophageal perforation, and three in the control group died due to their debilitating status. The esophageal stenosis ratio was significantly lower in the treatment group than in the control group (12.1 ± 9.5% and 42.2 ± 8.3%, respectively; p = 0.001). The histologic fibrosis area ratio was also significantly lower in the treatment group (12.5 ± 3.0% and 21.6 ± 2.1%, respectively; p = 0.001). The treatment group showed lower expressions of profibrogenic proteins such as TGF-β1, pSmad3, and α-SMA. EW-7197 may be a good alternative for the prevention esophageal stricture formation after corrosive burn.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0352.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: coffee; espresso; hot beverages; temperature; esophageal cancer; sensory trial
Online: 30 October 2019 (09:12:32 CET)
Very hot (> 65 °C) beverages such as espresso were evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as probably carcinogenic to humans. For this reason, research into lowering beverage temperature without compromising its quality or taste is important. For espresso, one obvious possibility consists in lowering the brewing temperature. In two sensory trials using ISO 4120:2004 triangle test methodology, brewing temperatures of 80°C vs. 128°C and 80° vs. 93°C were compared. From the tested levels, espresso brewed at the lowest temperature had the highest acceptance. However, most tasters were unable to distinguish between 80°C and 93°C. The results of these pilot experiments proof the possibility to decrease the health hazard of very hot beverages by lower brewing temperatures.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0126.v2
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: hot foods; temperature; esophageal cancer; thermosensing; sensory thresholds; methodological study
Online: 9 August 2018 (12:50:40 CEST)
Epidemiological studies indicate an increased risk of cancer from the consumption of very hot foods and beverages. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has already recommended threshold values for the maximum drinking temperature of very hot beverages. The contact time and the contact temperature are decisive for the risk of injury when hot media come into contact with human skin. However, measuring the contact temperature is not easily possible in practice. In the present study, a numerical simulation based on the solution of the heat conduction equation was initially used to investigate whether and for what period of time a constant contact temperature is to be expected under oral conditions. For small circular 3-cm food samples (e.g., cooked potatoes) with 2.5 mm thickness in contact with the tongue, the simulation results in a constant contact temperature of 10 s before cooling. With a thickness of 0.5 mm, the contact temperature is only maintained 1 s. Hot beverages, which spread as a thin film and thereby increase their surface area, can therefore be consumed at higher temperatures than solid foods. Furthermore, a simple test technique with a "measuring spoon" was developed. A hot sample is placed on the tongue. Orientating measurements were used to determine which contact temperature was considered to be just comfortable for any period > 10 s and for which period of less than 10 s it was still just bearable. The contact temperature, which was still perceived as tolerable for periods > 10 s, was 46.5 °C. The time spans for the higher contact temperature 48 °C were between 2 and 4 s and for 49 °C between 1 and 2 s. The course of the contact temperatures determined in the experiment over time allows to calculate the corresponding threshold values of consumption temperatures for various foods. Consumption temperatures of about 56 °C for potatoes and 60 °C for cheese are still perceived as tolerable. In view of the fact that the contact temperature is obviously the determining factor for the risk of injury from burns in the oral cavity in addition to the contact time, it makes sense to reference threshold values to the contact temperature rather than to the surface or consumption temperature of a food product, which is current customary practice. If this contact temperature is defined as a threshold value, the surface or consumption temperature for any other food can be calculated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0624.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; Metformin; Long noncoding RNAs; CCAT1; SPRY4-IT1; c-Myc
Online: 25 June 2021 (12:41:51 CEST)
Evidence indicates that the long noncoding RNAs are involved in the metformin-mediated anti-cancer processes. However, the potential effects of the long noncoding RNAs in metformin-mediated anti-tumor processes in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC) are still elusive. This study uncovered that metformin decreases the level of long noncoding RNAs CCAT1 and SPRY4-IT1 thereby contributing to the down-regulation of c-Myc and vimentin. Also, the RNA level test of human ESCC tissue confirmed the positive correlation between CCAT1 and c-Myc. These findings demonstrated that metformin facilitated anti-cancer effects by targeting the 2 long noncoding RNAs (CCAT1 and SPRY4-IT1) and their consequential targets c-Myc and vimentin. Therefore, the CCAT1 and SPRY4-IT1 might act as novel molecular targets that mediate the anti-tumor effects in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. This helps in predicting the treatment response of metformin in patients diagnosed with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0244.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Barrett's esophagus; deep learning; volumetric laser endomicroscopy; optical coherence tomography; classification; esophageal adenocarcinoma; glands; machine learning
Online: 20 May 2019 (11:50:09 CEST)
Barrett's esopaghagus (BE) is a known precursor of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Patients with BE undergo regular surveillance to early detect stages of EAC. Volumetric laser endomicroscopy (VLE) is a novel technology capable of imaging the inner tissue layers of the esophagus over a 6-cm length scan. However, interpretation of full VLE scans is still a challenge for human observers. In this work, we train an ensemble of deep convolutional neural networks to detect neoplasia in BE patients, using a dataset of images acquired with VLE in a multicenter study. We achieve values of AUC=$0.96$ on the unseen test dataset and we compare our results with previous work done with VLE analysis. Our method for detecting neoplasia in BE patients facilitates future advances on patient treatment and provides clinicians with new assisting solutions to process and better understand VLE data.