ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1185.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Obstructive sleep apnea; irisin; retinol-binding protein-4; adiponectin; apnea hypopnea index
Online: 16 August 2023 (08:25:16 CEST)
Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common sleep disorder that is caused by the reduction or cessation of airflow in the upper airway. Irisin, retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP-4), and adiponectin are the three significant factors in the metabolic process of the human body. The objective of this study was to investigate whether plasma irisin, RBP-4, and adiponectin levels are associated with the severity of OSAS. Methods: According to inclusion and exclusion criteria, 125 patients with OSAS and 46 healthy, gender matched controls were included to the study. The patients were classified according to the apnea hypopnea index (AHI) as 14 mild cases (5<AHI<15), 23 moderate OSAS cases (15<AHI<30) and 88 severe OSAS cases (AHI>30). The plasma irisin, RBP-4 and adiponectin levels were measured and compared between groups. Results: RBP-4 levels were higher in severe OSAS compared to moderate (p<0.05) and mild (p<0.001) OSAS groups, irisin levels were significantly lower compared to moderate (p<0.05) and mild (p<0.001) OSAS groups. There was a negative correlation between irisin and RBP-4 (r=-0.379; p<0.001) and AHI (r=-0.834; p<0.001) and a positive correlation with minimum oxygen saturation (MOS) (r=0.341; p<0.001) in the patient group. In the patient group, there was a negative correlation between adiponectin and BMI (r=-0.682; p<0.001), RBP-4 (r=-0.292; p<0.01) and AHI (r=-0.179; p<0.05) and a positive correlation with MOS (r=0.397; p<0.001). In the patient group, there was a positive correlation between RBP-4 and BMI (r=0.406; p<0.001) and AHI (r=0.473; p<0.001) and a negative correlation with MOS (r=-0.805; p<0.001). As a predictor of OSAS, adiponectin showed the highest specificity (84.8%) and RBP-4 the highest sensitivity (92.0%). Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrated that the severity of OSAS causes more metabolic problems, including decreased plasma irisin and adiponectin levels and an increased plasma RBP-4 level. As a result, patients with an AHI score greater than thirty should be closely monitored for metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0327.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Obstructive sleep apnea; Metabolomics; Triglycerides; Phosphocholines; Ceramides; Apnea Hypopnea Index; Polysomnography; Lipid metabolism; Multilevel Sleep Surgery
Online: 15 July 2020 (09:19:05 CEST)
Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is caused by partial or complete obstruction of the upper airways. Corrective surgeries aim at removing obstructions in the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and hypopharynx. OSA is associated with increased risk of various metabolic diseases. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of surgery on the plasma metabolome. Methods: This study included 39 OSA patients who underwent Multilevel Sleep Surgery (MLS). Clinical and anthropometric measures were taken at baseline and 5 months after surgery. Results: The mean Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI) significantly dropped from 22.0 ± 18.5 events/hour to 8.97 ± 9.57 events/hour (p-Value <0.001). The Epworth’s sleepiness Score (ESS) dropped from 12.8 ± 6.23 to 2.95 ± 2.40 (p-Value <0.001) indicating success of the surgery in treating OSA. Plasma levels of metabolites, phosphocholines (PC) PC.41.5, PC.42.3, ceremide (Cer) Cer.44.0, and triglyceride (TG) TG.53.6, TG.55.6 and TG.56.8 were decreased (p-Value<0.05) whereas lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC) 20.0 and PC.39.3 were increased (p-Value<0.05) after surgery. Conclusion: This study highlights the success of MLS in treating OSA. Treatment of OSA resulted in improvement in metabolic status that was characterized by decreased TG, PCs and Cer metabolites post-surgery indicating that the success of the surgery positively impacted the metabolic status of these patients.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0469.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: pharyngoplasty; barbed sutures; surgery; obstructive sleep apnea
Online: 8 May 2023 (08:32:28 CEST)
Background: The use of barbed sutures for pharyngoplasty techniques is a new trend in sleep apnea surgery, but little is known about its short-term results depending on the different techniques. The objective of this study was to compare the surgical results in two different centers using barbed sutures in which the main difference was the loops performed in the soft palate. Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) operated in two centers. A statistical analysis comparing the ENT department of the Ospedale Morgagni-Pierantoni from Forlí with the ENT department of Dr. Peset University Hospital was performed. Results: The final sample size was 138 patients (70 from Forlí and 68 from Valencia). In both series, a significant improvement was observed in OSA patients with significant reductions in respiratory events not related to weight reduction. The mean delta Apnea-Hypopnea index was 13.36 (SD 21.3) in Forlí and 22.8 (SD 22.05) in Valencia (p<0.05). Forlí’s series had a higher proportion of multilevel surgeries than Valencia's and a lower proportion of tonsillar hypertrophy. Conclusion: The number of loops performed in the soft palate may improve the surgical results, nevertheless, this must be confirmed in prospective studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0136.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Sleep apnea; hypoxemia; cognitive; brain health; MRI
Online: 3 March 2021 (14:14:41 CET)
We aim to determine the sleep correlates of age-related brain loss in a sample of middle-aged to older males with obstructive sleep apnea. We evaluated consecutive treatment naïve male patients with OSA (AHI≥15 events/hr) without dementia, stroke or heart disease, from January to November of 2019. We collected demographic variables, vascular risk factors, and sleep questionnaires. We also obtained computerized neurocognitive testing with the Go-No-Go Response Inhibition Test, Stroop Interference Test, Catch Game Test, Staged Information Processing Speed Test, Verbal Memory Test and Non-Verbal Memory Test. We derived age and education adjusted domain-specific Z-scores for global cognition, memory, attention, processing speed and executive function. We used brain MRI T1-weighted images to derive total hippocampal and gray matter volumes. Partial correlations evaluated associations between the ISI, AHI, and oxygen level during sleep, with cognitive domains and brain volumes. Sixteen participants, age 40-76 years, 73% Hispanic/Latino, with mean AHI=48.9±25.5 and mean oxygen saturation of 91.4±6.9% during sleep. Hypertension was seen in 66% and diabetes in 27%. We observed that ISI and oxygen level during sleep had strong correlations with brain volumes and cognition. These preliminary findings may aid in developing future strategies to improve age-related brain loss in OSA.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1733.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: RSV; respiratory virus; tracheobronchitis; bronchiolitis; pneumonia; apnea; infants
Online: 26 July 2023 (08:43:20 CEST)
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common respiratory virus that can cause mild to severe illness in people of all ages. The most common symptoms of an RSV infection are cough, runny nose, and fever. However, RSV can also cause more serious complications, such as tracheobronchitis, bronchiolitis, pneumonia, and apnea. RSV is especially dangerous for infants, young children, and older adults. RSV is a seasonal virus, with peak incidence in the winter months. The virus spreads through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes. The virus can also be spread through contact with contaminated surfaces. Treatment is aimed at relieving symptoms and preventing complications. This review will provide an overview of the medical significance, virology, pathogenesis, immunity, epidemiology, symptoms, risk factors, and complications associated with RSV, and the diagnosis and management of RSV infections.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2172.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: cyclic alternating pattern; sleep texture; sleep apnea; polysomnography
Online: 31 May 2023 (05:32:49 CEST)
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is multi-faceted world-wide distributed disorder exerting deep effects on the sleeping brain. In the latest years strong efforts have been dedicated to find novel measures assessing the real impact and severity of the pathology, traditionally trivialized by the simplistic apnea/hypopnea index. Due to the unavoidable connection between OSA and sleep we reviewed the key aspects linking the breathing disorder with sleep pathophysiology, focuings on the role of cyclic alternating pattern (CAP). Sleep structure, reflecting the degree of apnea-induced sleep instability, may provide topical informations to stratify OSA severity and foresee some of its dangerous consequences such as excessive daytime sleepiness and cognitive deterioration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0425.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: sleep apnea; hypoxia; gout; hyperuricemia; urate; metabolic comorbidities
Online: 24 February 2023 (09:31:14 CET)
Gout is not only associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but the intermittent episodes of hypoxia that occur with OSA may also have a role in causing gout. Epidemiological studies have documented a higher incidence and prevalence of gout in individuals diagnosed with OSA than in individuals never diagnosed with OSA. The pathophysiology of OSA’s chronic episodes of hypoxia leading to hyperuricemia and gout involves boththe overproduction and underexcretion of uric acid. Treating OSA may be an additional way to control gout and its life-threatening comorbidities. Clinicians are urged to evaluate their patients with hyperuricemia/gout for OSA as it may lead to alternative ways to control gout with superior outcomes that simply pharmacologic treatment alone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0383.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Obstructive Sleep Apnea; COVID-19; Hospitalization; Infection; Epidemiology
Online: 26 September 2022 (08:02:12 CEST)
Background: Medical comorbidities increase the risk of severe COVID-19 infection. In some studies, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been identified as a comorbid condition that is associated with an increased prevalence of COVID-19 infection and hospitalization, but few have investigated this association in a general population. Research Question: In a general population, is OSA associated with increased odds of COVID-19 infection and hospitalization and are these altered with COVID-19 vaccination? Study Design: Cross-sectional survey of a diverse sample of 15,057 U.S. adults Results: COVID-19 infection and hospitalization rates were 38.9% and 2.9% respectively. OSA or OSA symptoms were reported in 19.4%. In logistic regression models adjusted for demographic, socio-economic and comorbid medical conditions, OSA was positively associated with COVID-19 infection (aOR: 1.58, 95%CI: 1.39-1.79) and COVID-19 hospitalization (aOR: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.17-2.05). In fully adjusted models, boosted vaccination status was protective against both infection and hospitalization. Boosted vaccination status attenuated the association between OSA and COVID-19 related hospitalization, but not infection. Participants with untreated or symptomatic OSA were at greater risk for COVID-19 infection; those with untreated, but not symptomatic OSA were more likely to be hospitalized. Interpretation: In a general population sample, OSA is associated with a greater likelihood of having had a COVID-19 infection and a COVID-19 hospitalization with the greatest impact observed among persons experiencing OSA symptoms or who were untreated for their OSA. Boosted vaccination status attenuated the association between OSA and COVID-19 related hospitalization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0454.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: orthodontics; airway; clear aligners; 3D diagnostics; sleep apnea; CBCT
Online: 29 July 2022 (09:37:56 CEST)
This retrospective study evaluated changes in the pharyngeal portion of the upper airway in pa-tients with constricted and normal airway treated with clear aligners (Invisalign, Align). Additionally, the paper has assessed the change of tongue position in the oral cavity from lateral view. Evaluation was performed with specialized software (Invivo 6.0, Anatomage) on pre-treatment and posttreatment pairs of cone beam computed tomography imaging (CBCT) data. The level of airway constriction, volume, cross-section minimal area, and tongue profile were evaluated. Patients with malocclusion, with pair or initial and finishing CBCT and without sig-nificant weight change between the scans, treated with Invisalign clear aligners were distributed in two groups. Group A consisted of fifty-five patients with orthodontic malocclusion and con-stricted upper airway. Control group B consisted of thirty-one patients with orthodontic malocclusions without any airway constriction. In the group with airway constriction, there was a statistically significant increase in volume during therapy (p<0.001). The surface of the most con-stricted cross-section of airway did not change significantly after treatment in any of the groups. The airway constriction was most frequently localized at the level of 2nd cervical vertebra. The final tongue position was different from initial in 62.2% of all clear aligner treatments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0162.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: ankylosing spondylitis; obstructive sleep apnea; population-based cohort study
Online: 17 January 2019 (04:52:29 CET)
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) among ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients in a nationwide population. Methods: We conducted a nationwide cohort study between 2003 and 2013 using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The AS cohort included 2210 patients who were newly diagnosed between 2003 and 2013. Randomly selected non-AS controls were matched at a 1:4 ratio based on age, sex and index date. The endpoint of OSA was occurrence or the end of 2013. Cumulative incidences, hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated after adjusting for age, gender, comorbidities and co-medications. Multivariate analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards model. Due to violation of the proportionality assumption, landmark analysis was conducted to explore the risk of OSA during specific follow-up periods. Results: The adjusted HR (aHR) of OSA for the AS group was 2.826 (95% C.I. = 1.727–4.625) compared to the control group. On landmark analysis, aHR was 7.919 (95% C.I. = 3.169–19.792) for AS group 0–24 months from index date, and decreased to 1.816 (95% C.I. = 0.944–3.494) at ≥ 24 months from index date. On subgroup analyses increased risks of OSA in AS group compared to the control group were found for both males and females (aHRs were 4.533 (95% C.I. = 1.441–14.262) and 2.672 (95% C.I. = 1.522–4.692) for females and males, respectively). On age stratified analysis, there was significant risk only for the 40–59 age group with aHR of 3.913 (95% C.I. = 1.890–8.102). Conclusions: A higher risk of developing OSA was found among newly diagnosed AS cohort during the 12-year follow-up period, especially within 2 years after AS index date and in the 40–59 age group.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1755.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: obesity; cancer, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance. psychosocial impact; sleep apnea
Online: 26 September 2023 (08:51:21 CEST)
Obesity, characterized by the excessive accumulation of body fat, contributes to a multitude of physiological dysfunctions. This paper explores the complex relationship between obesity and various risk factors and complications, shedding light on critical health implications. Obesity triggers alterations in insulin, leptin, adiponectin, cytokines, and insulin-like growth factors, fostering conditions conducive to cancer initiation. Aberrations in nutrient-dependent intracellular signaling pathways, driven by the excess nutrition characteristic of obesity, contribute to the neoplastic transformation of cells. The Body Mass Index (BMI) correlates directly with adiposity, underlining its significance in cancer risk. Furthermore, insulin and insulin-like growth factors, notably IGF-2, play pivotal roles in this relationship. The expression of IR-A receptors is elevated in cancer. Obesity and cardiovascular diseases share a strong association. Obesity elevates the risk of fatal events like myocardial infarction. High cholesterol levels contribute to atherosclerosis in the aorta and coronary arteries. The severity of coronary artery disease is influenced by plaque formation characterized by calcium deposits. Obesity is also linked to hypertension and increased ventricular mass, exacerbating cardiovascular risks. Hypercholesterolemia and hypertension correlate with a high Body Mass Index (BMI). Obesity is intricately connected to insulin resistance, particularly evident in childhood obesity. It entails a gradual decline in insulin sensitivity, leading to elevated insulin levels in the bloodstream. Insulin resistance is a central factor in the development of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Obesity also results in elevated triglyceride levels and reduced high-density lipoproteins, contributing to atherogenic dyslipidemia and a heightened risk of atherosclerosis. Additionally, obesity is associated with various other disorders, including epilepsy, depression, and neuropsychological problems. Beyond its physiological impact, obesity is associated with significant psychosocial challenges. Studies indicate that individuals with obesity face a higher risk of depressive symptoms, often related to overeating and unhealthy dietary patterns. The social withdrawal tendencies of obese individuals exacerbate these symptoms, with higher rates of depression observed in this group. OSA, a sleep disorder characterized by intermittent breathing cessation during sleep, is strongly correlated with obesity. Approximately 58% of obese individuals experience OSA, with higher Body Mass Index (BMI) associated with an increased risk. Weight reduction has been found to mitigate the severity of OSA and related arrhythmias. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy demonstrates effectiveness in reducing visceral fat accumulation and leptin levels. This comprehensive review underscores the intricate web of health implications associated with obesity, emphasizing the critical need for preventive measures and intervention strategies to address the multifaceted challenges posed by this global health concern.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0141.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: bruxism; electromyography; sleep apnea; polysomnography; sleep bruxism; sleep wake disorders
Online: 13 September 2023 (10:20:40 CEST)
Background: The gold standard for the diagnosis of sleep bruxism (SB) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is Polysmnography (PSG). At the end of the apnea episodes there is frequently a final hy-permotor muscle activity that could act as a confusion factor in the diagnosis of SB with the elec-tromyography portable devices. The aim of this study was to compare the concordance on the number of episodes of SB in a population with OSA, between the diagnosis obtained by PSG, an-alyzed manually by a neurophysiologist and that obtained manually and automatically by a portable electromyography (EMG) and electrocardiography (EKG) device. Methods: Twenty-three subjects underwent one night of polysomnographic study with simulta-neous recording with the EMG-EKG device. The variables referring to the number of episodes and the SB index measured with both tools and analyzed in the manual and automatic modes were compared. Masticatory muscle activity was scored according to published criteria. The sample was segmented by severity of OSA according to AASM criteria. ANOVA, correlations, and the Bland–Altman plot were used to quantify the agreement between both methods. The concordance was calculated through the ICC. Results: The total events of SB per night in the PSG study were on average (8.17), lower than the one obtained with EMG-EKG manual analysis (14.13) and automatic (29.26). Both the SB PSG and Manual EMG-EKG episodes decrease from non-OSA (PSG = 16 ± 13,55, EMG-EKG = 16,83 ±11,58) to severe OSA (PSG = 3,14 ± 4,26, EMG-EKG = 9,86 ± 8,09). However, in the case of automatic EMG-EKG mode: the number of SB episodes in severe OSA doubled (41,23 ± 12,50) with respect to non OSA (24,50 ± 12,19). On average: the EMG-EKG device Automatic analysis measures 21.08 units more than PSG. The results with the manual EMG-EKG analysis improved. Conclusion: There is no concordance between the results obtained in the PSG neurophysiologic analysis and those obtained by means of the EMG-EKG device automatic and manual analysis for the diagnosis of SB in a population mostly with OSA. The OSA could act as a confusion factor in the diagnosis of SB with the electromyography portable devices, but further study is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0506.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: central corneal thickness; obstructive sleep apnea; continuous positive airway pressure
Online: 13 July 2023 (05:23:09 CEST)
Background: To examine the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy on central corneal thickness (CCT) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) followed for 12 months. Methods: Participants were patients with OSA and an indication for CPAP who were enrolled after diagnosis and graded according to the apnea hypopnea index (AHI) determined in an overnight polysomnography. Each subject underwent a full ophthalmologic examination including ultrasound pachymetry (USP) with an SP3000 USP (Tomey Inc) at the time points just before CPAP onset, and after 3 and 12 months of CPAP treatment. Results: The study sample comprised 40 eyes of 20 patients. Adherence to CPAP was adequate (5.23 ± 1.77 h/night). After receiving 12 months of CPAP, positive correlation was observed between hours of CPAP use and CCT (r = 0.382, p = 0.015). Intermittent hypoxemia pre-CPAP or hypoxia severity pre-CPAP were also positively correlated with the CCT recorded after 12 months of CPAP (r = 0.394, p = 0.012; r = 0.324, p = 0.041). Significant correlations were, however, not observed after only 3 months of CPAP treatment. In addition, compared to measurements at 3 months, intraocular pressure was higher after 12 months of treatment. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that 12 months of correct adherence to CPAP are needed to detect significant CCT thickening, and that the greater the pre-CPAP hypoxemia, the greater the capacity for an increase in CCT to be produced in response to 12 months of this therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1899.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: newborn; heart rate variability; caffeine; apnoea; apnea; autonomic nervous system
Online: 26 May 2023 (09:36:15 CEST)
Neonatal apnoea has been treated with caffeine, affecting the central nervous and the cardiovascular system. Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects the activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and might be used as a measure of ANS maturation in newborns. We aimed to establish the effect of caffeine on HRV in newborns and sought for a potential correlation between HRV and the postmenstrual age. In 25 newborns hospitalized due to apnoea and treated with caffeine (2.5 mg/kg), we assessed breathing frequency, arterial oxygen saturation, body temperature, and the heart rate, while they were sleeping. We assessed HRV by spectral analysis using fast Fourier transformation. The same protocol was reapplied 100 hours after caffeine withdrawal to assess control parameters. Caffeine increased breathing frequency (p=0.023) but did not affect any other parameter assessed including HRV. We established a positive correlation between postmenstrual age and HRV during treatment with caffeine as well as after caffeine had been withdrawn (total power: p=0.044; low-frequency band: p=0.039). Apparently, the maintenance dose of caffeine is too low to affect the heart rate and the HRV. A positive correlation between postmenstrual age and HRV might reflect maturation of ANS, irrespective of caffeine treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0127.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: hypertension; obesity; body composition; intra-abdominal fat; sleep apnea; obstructive
Online: 10 May 2022 (04:45:21 CEST)
Background: Elevated fasting plasma glucose and visceral fat area (VFA) is highly prevalent in obese adults. This study investigated the associations between systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) and laboratory, anthropometric, heart rate variability (HRV), and obstructive sleep apnea markers. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 95 obese patients treated at Obesity Treatment and Surgery Center, located in Salvador, BA, Brazil. SAH data were obtained from electronic medical records of patients. To evaluate the association of SAH with the predictor variables, the sample was stratified in Normotense Group (NG) and Hypertensive Group (HG), and laboratory markers, body composition, polysomnography data, and HRV were measured. Results: The average age of the NG was 36.3 ± 10.1 and HG 40.4 ± 10.6 years, 73.7% were women in the NG and 57.9% in HG; 82.4% in HG had insulin resistance. In the multivarious logistics regression model with adjustments age, sex, height, and oxyhemoglobin saturation, SAH was inversely associated with fasting plasma glucose mg/dL (odds ratio [OR] = 0.96; 95% interval confidence [CI] = 0.92 - 0.99) and VFA cm2 (OR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.97 - 0.99). The area under curve the VFA was 0.728; CI 95% (0.620 - 0.836) and fasting plasma glucose 0.693; CI 95% (0.582 - 0.804). Conclusions: Lower VFA and fasting plasma glucose concentrations were inversely associated with SAH. These results indicate opportunities to improve the outcome in obese patients through counseling and clinical interventions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2136.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: autism spectrum disorder; children; sleep apnea; sleep-disordered breathing; sleep quality
Online: 31 August 2023 (10:19:12 CEST)
Sleep-disordered breathing is a significant problem affecting the pediatric population. These conditions can affect sleep quality and significantly affect children's overall health and well-being. Difficulties in social interaction, communication, and repetitive behavioral patterns characterize autism spectrum disorder. Sleep disturbances are common in children with ASD. This literature review aims to gather and analyze available studies on the relationship between SDB and children with autism spectrum disorder. We comprehensively searched the literature using major search engines (PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science). After removing duplicates, we extracted a total of 96 records. We selected 19 studies for inclusion after a thorough title and abstract screening process. A total of 7 articles were ultimately included. This review has analyzed the relationship between autism spectrum disorder and sleep-disordered breathing, particularly Obstructive Sleep Apnea, highlighting an intriguing web of complex associations. Some studies involving children have demonstrated a significant association between autism spectrum disorder and the presence of Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Furthermore, a heightened risk of developing sleep disturbances, including sleep-disordered breathing, has emerged in children with autism. The risk and prevalence of obesity are increasing in pediatric subjects with autism spectrum disorder. Obesity has been identified as a predictive factor for Sleep-disordered breathing, and Body Mass Index can directly correlate with Obstructive Sleep Apnea in these children. Adenotonsillectomy has proven to be pivotal in improving behavioral issues in autism spectrum disorder children with obstructive Sleep Apnea. In conclusion, this review underscores the complexity of the interplay between autism spectrum disorder and sleep-disordered breathing, emphasizing the importance of further research to understand underlying mechanisms and develop optimal therapeutic and preventative approaches to enhance sleep quality and overall health in children with autism spectrum disorder.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0649.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: dietary intervention; obstructive sleep apnea; treatment adherence; sleepiness; obesity; Mediterranean diet
Online: 11 July 2023 (09:45:26 CEST)
The study's objective was to assess the impact of Mediterranean diet/lifestyle interventions for weight loss on Positive airway pressure (PAP) adherence, Body mass index (ΒΜΙ), sleepiness, and blood pressure measurements (BP) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We designed a randomized, controlled trial, including overweight and obese patients with moderate-to-severe OSA, randomized to standard care (SCG, n=37) and Mediterranean diet group (MDG, n=37). SCG received healthy lifestyle advice, while MDG underwent a 6-month behavioral intervention aiming to enhance weight loss and adherence to Mediterranean diet. PAP adherence, BMI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and BP measurements were evaluated pre- and post-intervention. Post-intervention PAP use was higher in MDG compared to SCG (6.1 vs 5.4, p=0.02). Diet/lifestyle intervention was one of the most significant predictive factors for PAP adherence (OR = 5.458, 95% CI = 1.144-26.036, p=0.03). The SCG demonstrated a rise in BMI, while the MDG displayed a decline (0.41 vs -0.75, p=0.02). The MDG also demonstrated a substantial reduction in adjusted SBP (-5.5 vs 2.8, p=0.014) and DBP (-4.0 vs 2.5, p=0.01). Ultimately, incorporating a dietary/lifestyle intervention with standard care yields superior PAP adherence, BMI, and BP measurements in contrast to standard care alone, underscoring the potential benefits of allocating increased time and support within the MDG group. Trial registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT05881824; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0675.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Central sleep apnea; adaptive servo ventilation; oxygen therapy; sleep positional therapy
Online: 10 May 2023 (03:28:11 CEST)
Abstract: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is well known to often improve with non-supine positioning as opposed to su¬pine positioning. Emerging research supports a role for sleep position management in patients with central sleep apnea (CSA) as well. We report a case of de novo Complex Sleep apnea Syndrome (CompSAS) in a 78-year-old female, who presented after a car accident due to unclear syncope. Diagnostic polysomnography (PSG) showed a moderate OSA. A CompSAS developed under Automatic positive airway pressure (APAP), while download data of 4 years showed a good adherence. No significant benefit was reported under Adaptive Servo Ventilation (ASV) and BiPAP-ST, while a reduction of CSA in non-supine position was noticed. Oxygen and sleep positional therapy (SPT) were considered resulting in a significant improvement of CSA and sleep quality. Further research on the prevalence of positional CSA is needed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0100.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Hospitalized patients, sleep wake dysfunction, sleep disorders, circadian rhythm, sleep apnea
Online: 5 September 2018 (14:49:34 CEST)
Hospitalized patients frequently have disordered and poor-quality sleep due to a variety of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. These include frequent nighttime intrusions, insomnia related to pain and unfamiliar environments, dark conditions during the day with loss of natural light, and disruption of natural sleep cycle due to illness. Sleep wake disturbances can result in deleterious consequence on physical, emotional and cognitive status, which may impact patient satisfaction, clinical recovery, and hospital length of stay. Despite this, clinicians frequently fail to document sleep disturbances and are generally unaware of best practices to improve sleep quality in the hospital. The purpose of this review is to discuss sleep disturbances in hospitalized patients with a focus on causes of sleep disturbance, effect of poor quality sleep, high risk populations, considerations for surveillance and prevention, as well as pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic options for treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1320.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: bladder; breast cancer; hot flashes; hyperhidrosis; obstructive sleep apnea; oxybutynin; prostate cancer
Online: 20 September 2023 (09:49:35 CEST)
Since decades, oxybutynin hydrochloride is prescribed to improve bladder control in cases of incontinence and excessive urination frequency. This review summarizes synthetic methods enabling preparation of the racemic drug and, in a detailed manner, preparation of (S)-2-cyclohexyl-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetic acid, a key intermediate in the synthesis of (S)-oxybutynin. Mode of action and metabolism are briefly commented in order to explain the main adverse effects associated with its use and to justify the evolution observed in the diverse commercial formulations. Repositioning opportunities are discussed in terms of clinical trials for the management of hyperhidrosis, hot flashes, and obstructive sleep apnea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0552.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: periodontitis; obstructive sleep apnea; oral microbiota; pathogenic microbiota; chronic diseases; MALDI-TOF
Online: 29 November 2022 (13:09:35 CET)
Commonly the periodontitis has been linked to periodontopathogens categorized in Socransky's microbial complexes, however, there is a lack of knowledge regarding “other microorganisms” or "cryptic microorganisms", which are rarely thought of as significant oral pathogens and are neither previously categorized nor connected to illnesses in the oral cavity. This study hypothesized that these cryptic microorganisms could contribute to the modulation of oral microbiota present in health or disease (periodontitis and/or OSA patients). For this purpose, the presence and the correlation among these cultivable cryptic oral microorganisms were identified and their possible role in both conditions was determined. Data from oral samples of individuals with or without periodontitis and with or without OSA were obtained from a previous study. Demographic data, clinical oral characteristics, and genera and species of cultivable cryptic oral microorganisms identified by MALDI-TOF were recorded. The data of 75 participants were analyzed to determine the relative frequencies of cultivable cryptic microorganisms’ genus and species, microbial clusters and correlations tests were performed. According to periodontal condition, Gingivitis - dental biofilm-induced in reduced periodontium and stage III periodontitis were found to have the highest diversity of cryptic microorganism species. Based on the experimental condition these findings showed that there are genera related to disease conditions and others related to healthy conditions, with species that could be related to different chronic diseases being highlighted as comorbidities periodontitis and OSA. The cryptic microorganisms within the oral microbiota of patients with periodontitis and OSA are present as potential pathogens, promoting the development of dysbiotic microbiota, and the occurrence of chronic diseases, which have been previously proposed to be common risk factors for periodontitis and OSA. Understanding the function of possible pathogens in the oral microbiota will take more research.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0285.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Clear Aligners; Maxillomandibular advancement; sleep apnea; intermaxillary advancement; sleep surgery; sleep medicine
Online: 11 February 2021 (13:20:43 CET)
Maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) is a surgical intervention that reduces the symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea via anterior repositioning of the upper and lower jaws. Pre-operative orthodontic alignment is often a critical component in aiding MMA. Orthodontia are important in intraoperative anchorage for intermaxillary fixation, healthy post-operative occlusion, and post-operative skeletal stability. Sequential clear aligners (SCA) refer to removable orthodontic appliances that are replaced at regular intervals to stimulate dental migration without the use of bonded hardware. These aligners have demonstrated efficacy in aiding orthognathic surgery for dentofacial deformities, which share some technical similarities with MMA for OSA. Here, we explore the treatment protocol for MMA followed by post-operative SCA treatment. Our experiences show that post-operative orthodontic treatment with SCAs results in similarly successful post-operative surgical outcomes given that the patient’s pre-operative occlusion is stable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0511.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: sleep fragmentation; obstructive sleep apnea; explicit memory; inflammation; blood brain barrier; cognition; microglia
Online: 18 April 2023 (10:18:23 CEST)
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a chronic condition characterized by intermittent hypoxia (IH) and sleep fragmentation (SF). In murine models, chronic SF can impair endothelial function and induce cognitive declines. These deficits are likely mediated, at least in part, by alterations in Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) integrity. Male C57Bl/6J mice were randomly assigned to SF or sleep control (SC) conditions for 4 or 9 weeks, and in a subset 2 or 6 weeks of normal sleep recovery. Presence of inflammation and microglia activation were evaluated. Explicit memory function was assessed with the novel object recognition (NOR) test, while BBB permeability was determined by systemic dextran-4kDA-FITC injection and Claudin 5 expression. SF exposures resulted in decreased NOR performance and in increased inflammatory markers and microglial activation as well as enhanced BBB permeability. Explicit memory and BBB permeability were significantly associated. BBB permeability remained elevated after 2 weeks of sleep recovery (p<0.01) and returned to baseline values only after 6 weeks. Chronic SF exposures mimicking the fragmentation of sleep that characterizes patient with OSA elicits evidence of inflammation in brain regions and explicit memory impairments in mice. Similarly, SF is also associated with increased BBB permeability, the magnitude of which is closely associated with cognitive functional losses. Despite normalization of sleep patterns, BBB functional recovery is a protracted process that merits further investigation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1807.v1
Subject: Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: children; choroid; cornea; Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome; ocular health; ophtalmology; retina; sleep-disordered breathing
Online: 27 September 2023 (02:25:08 CEST)
Introduction: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a respiratory condition identified by the partial or complete obstruction of the upper air passages during sleep. These episodes can lead to complications in neurobehavioral and cognitive domains and cardiovascular issues, especially in children. The involvement of OSA in ocular health during adulthood has been reported, but it remains a topic of debate in pediatric cases. Objective: This review aims to analyze the correlation between OSAS and ocular health in children. Specifically, it investigates the effects of OSA on ocular structures and conditions and explores potential improvements through treatment. Subjects and Methods: The research employed three search engines: PUBMED/MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and WebOfScience. After initial identification, 120 irrelevant articles were excluded. Of these, 10 pertained to the adult population, and 110 focused on the pediatric population. Following a careful selection process and the application of enrollment criteria, six relevant articles were included, all in English, focusing on the effects of OSA on children's eyes. Among these, three studies explored correlations with choroidal alterations, while three investigated retinal and optic nerve changes. Two studies analyzed post-otorhinolaryngological intervention ocular changes. Results: OSA leads to increased intraocular pressure and reduced optic nerve thickness in adults, but treatment alleviates this condition. An immediate correlation between OSA and optic nerve thickness in children does not readily emerge, although age appears to play a role. Pediatric patients with OSA exhibit corneal anomalies and an increase in optic nerve thickness, possibly due to intermittent hypoxia. Studies indicate that OSA can influence retinal vascular density in children, with an increase observed after treatment and reduced choroidal thickness in cases of adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Conclusion: This literature review has highlighted how OSA in children can significantly impact ocular health, with observed alterations in the optic nerve, choroid, retina, and cornea. While the direct correlation with the optic nerve may not always be evident, OSA can elevate intraocular pressure and lead to structural changes. However, treatment appears to bring about improvements. The necessity for regular monitoring to detect potential adverse effects underscores the importance of promptly addressing childhood OSA.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0602.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: epigenetic mechanisms of disease; fetal programming; obstructive sleep apnea; DNA methylation; histone modifications; chronic disease
Online: 27 July 2021 (11:45:08 CEST)
Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has significant negative effects on health and behavior in childhood including depression, failure to thrive, neurocognitive impairment, and behavioral issues. It is strongly associated with an increased risk for chronic adult disease such as obesity and diabetes, accelerated atherosclerosis, and endothelial dysfunction. Accumulating evidence suggests that adult-onset non-communicable diseases may originate from early life through a process by which an insult applied at a critical developmental window causes long-term effects on the structure or function of an organism. Recently, much attention has been paid to the role of epigenetic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of adult disease susceptibility. Epigenetic mechanisms that influence adaptive variability include histone modifications, non-coding RNAs, and DNA methylation. This review will highlight what is currently known about the phenotypic associations of epigenetic modifications in pediatric OSA and will emphasize the importance of epigenetic changes as both modulators of chronic disease and potential therapeutic targets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0041.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Obstructive sleep apnea; Continuous positive airways pressure therapy; Near-infrared spectroscopy; Oxygen desaturation; Arm; Pulse oximeter
Online: 2 November 2021 (10:52:45 CET)
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder, and continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) is the most effective treatment. Poor adherence is one of the major challenges in CPAP therapy. The recent boom of wearable optical sensors measuring oxygen saturation makes the at-home multiple-night CPAP titrations possible, which may essentially improve the adherence of CPAP therapy by optimizing its pressure in a real-life setting economically. We tested whether the oxygen desaturations (OD) measured in the arm muscle (arm_OD) by gold-standard frequency-domain multi-distance near-infrared spectroscopy (FDMD-NIRS) changes with titrated CPAP pressures in OSA patients together with polysomnography. We found that the arm_OD (2.08 ± 1.23%, mean ± standard deviation) was significantly smaller (P-value <0.0001) than the fingertip OD (finger_OD) (4.46 ± 2.37%) measured by polysomnography pulse oximeter. Linear mixed-effects models suggested that CPAP pressure was a significant predictor for finger_OD but not for arm_OD. Since FDMD-NIRS measures a mixture of arterial and venous OD, whereas fingertip pulse oximeter measures arterial OD, our results of no association between arm_OD and finger_OD indicate that the arm_OD mainly represented venous desaturation. Arm_OD measured by near-infrared optical sensors may be not a suitable indicator of the effectiveness of CPAP titration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1889.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Obstructive sleep apnea, Coronary artery disease, QT dispersion, T peak to T end, multivessel coronary disease, cardiomyopathy
Online: 27 July 2023 (08:38:28 CEST)
Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common sleep-breathing disorder. OSA is associated with cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease (CAD) and arrhythmias with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. Some changes in ECG markers are seen as an indicator of arrhythmogenicity, especially ventricular arrhythmias. The goal of this study was to investigate if OSA patients with CAD have QT dispersion and T peak to T end (TpTe) changes as a surrogate of arrhythmogenicity. Methods: We studied 75 patients with CAD who underwent polysomnographic studies. Patients were categorized into mild, moderate, and severe OSA according to the Apnea hypopnea index (AHI). Baseline ECG and echocardiography for assessing LV function and valvular heart disease were done for all of them. Results: Results showed that in patients with moderate and severe sleep apnea QT dispersion was higher in a group with more involvement of coronary artery disease, reduced ejection fraction, and a history of old MI. However, we didn’t find any significant statistical relationship between OSA and TpTe marker. Conclusion: Our results showed a positive relation between ECG arrhythmic indices such as QT dispersion and OSA severity in patients with CAD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0284.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Retina; Retinal nerve fiber layer; Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome; Optical coherence tomography; OCT; CPAP; Upper airway surgery.
Online: 17 December 2021 (08:47:15 CET)
Retinal findings may change in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The present study aims to evaluate several retinal findings such as macula layer thickness, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer, and the optic nerve head in patients with OSAS using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and monitor the result of several types of treatment of OSAS with OCT. A prospective comparative study was designed. Patients were recruited at a Sleep Unit of a University Hospital and underwent comprehensive ophthalmological examinations. Following exclusion criteria, fifty-two patients with OSAS were finally included. Patients were examined by OCT twice: first, before treatment; secondly, after six months of treatment. In mild-moderate patients, where retinal swelling has been demonstrated, retinal thicknesses decreased [fovea (p=0.026), as well as inner ring macula (p=0.007), outer ring macula (p=0.015), and macular volume (p=0.015)]. In severe patients, where retinal atrophy had been observed, retinal thickness increased [fovea (p<0.001)]. No statistically significant differences in efficacy between treatments were demonstrated. In conclusion, OCT can evaluate the retina in patients with OSAS and help monitor results after treatment. In severe OSAS, retinal thickness increased six months after treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0470.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: design; clinical decision support systems; intelligent systems; expert systems; Machine Learning; decision-making; medical algorithm; design science research.; obstructive sleep apnea
Online: 28 March 2023 (03:18:38 CEST)
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is nowadays one of the respiratory pathologies with a higher in-cidence globally in developed countries. This situation led to an increase in the demand for medical appointments and diagnostic studies related to that condition, especially those based on poly-somnographies and cardiorespiratory polygraphies. These studies are limited in resources, causing long waiting lists with the subsequent impact on the patients’ health. Furthermore, it is necessary to mention that OSA’s symptomatology is not very specific, and it is typically present in the general population (excessive sleepiness, snore, etc.). In this regard, this paper proposes a novel intelligent clinical decision support system for the diagnosis of OSA which could be used to help medical teams, both in primary care settings and in units specialized in respiratory pathologies. The aim of the proposed system is to help discriminate the patients suspected of suffering from the pathology from those who are not. To this end, two types of information sets of heterogeneous nature are consid-ered. The first one encompasses objective data, related to the patient's health profile with infor-mation usually available in electronic health records. The second type comprises subjective data, referred to the symptomatology reported by the patient in a previous interview. To process the first group of information, a Machine Learning classification algorithm is used, Bagged Trees in this case. For processing the second information set, related with the symptomatology of the patient, a col-lection of expert systems based on fuzzy inferential systems arranged in cascade are employed. As a result, the system is able to determine two risk indicators related to the patient's risk of suffering from OSA: the Statistical Risk and the Symbolic Risk respectively. Subsequently, by interpreting both risk indicators mentioned it will be possible to determine the severity of the patients’ health, proposing a preliminary evaluation on their condition. For the initial tests of the system, a software artifact has been built using a dataset with 4,978 selected patients, suspected of suffering from OSA, from the Álvaro Cunqueiro Hospital in Vigo. The results obtained are promising, demonstrating the potential usefulness of this type of tools in medical diagnosis. Once the system has been validated with new data from clinical environments, it is considered as possible to obtain a relevant improvement in the quality of the healthcare services, and a reduction in the associated costs.