REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0770.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: AMP; Acinetobacter baumannii; resistance; action mechanism
Online: 12 July 2023 (09:32:08 CEST)
The rise of antibiotic-resistant strains of clinically important pathogens is a major threat to global health security. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recognized the urgent need to develop alternative treatments to address the growing list of priority pathogens. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) rank among the various suggested options with proven activity and a high potential to be developed into effective agents. Many AMPs are naturally produced by living organisms and protect the host against pathogens as a part of their innate immunity. Various mechanisms associated with their antimicrobial actions include cell membrane disruption, cell wall weakening, protein synthesis inhibition, and interference in nucleic acid dynamics that can induce apoptosis and necrosis. Acinetobacter baumannii is considered a critical pathogen, and severe clinical problems have appeared with isolates resistant to current antibiotic treatments and conventional control procedures such as UV light, disinfectants, and drying. Here, we review the natural AMPs representing the primary candidates for new anti-A. baumannii drugs in a post-antibiotic era and present the use of computational tools to develop the next generation of AMPs with greater microbicidal activity and reduced toxicity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1592.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: Acinetobacter; pneumonia; community-acquired; tropical; infection; bacteramic
Online: 24 July 2023 (11:02:23 CEST)
Background: Community acquired Acinetobacter pneumonia (CAAP) typically presents with rapid progression to fulminant disease, and is complicated by high mortality. Australian epidemiological studies are few. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study on bacteraemic cases of CAAP over twenty years, (2000-2019) in North Queensland. Cases were selected on microbiologic, clinical, and radiographic parameters. Data on patient demographics were obtained, along with microbial, antibiotic, mortality, and climatic data. Results: 28 cases of CAAP were included. Nineteen (67.9%) were male, twenty-three (82.1%) were Indigenous Australians, and mean age was 45.9 years. Most presentations were of moderate to severe pneumonia, 25/28 (89.3%). 90% of cases had two or more risk factors. The strongest risk factors for CAAP were alcohol excess and tobacco use. No statistically significant difference in presenting severity, ICU admission or mortality was seen between dry and wet season disease. Dry season disease accounted for 35.7% of cases. Overall mortality was 28.6%. Early use of meropenem or gentamicin reduced mortality irrespective of presenting severity (mortality 17.6%) Non-targeted antibiotic therapy was associated with a non-significant difference in mortality of 44.4%. Conclusions: Early administration of targeted antibiotics can mitigate a high mortality rate. Choice of antibiotic therapy for community acquired pneumonia should be based upon severity, risk factors and clinical suspicion of CAAP rather than seasonality.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0037.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii; Phage therapy
Online: 2 September 2022 (09:51:24 CEST)
Acinetobacter baumannii is a multidrug-resistant and invasive pathogen associated with the etiopathology of both an increasing number of nosocomial infections and of relevance to poultry production systems. Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii has been reported in connection to severe challenges to clinical treatment, mostly due to an increase rate of resistance to carbapenems. Amid the possible strategies aiming to reduce the insurgence of antimicrobial resistance, phage therapy has gained particular importance for the treatment of bacterial infections. This review summarises the different phage-therapy approaches currently in use for multiple-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, including single phage therapy, phage cocktails, phage -antibiotic combination therapy, phage coding Acinetobacter baumannii and the novel phage enzyme treatment. Although phage therapy represents a potential treatment solution for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, further research is needed to unravel some unanswered questions especially in regard to its in vivo applications, before possible routine clinical use.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0036.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii, H-NS, natural transformation, naturally competent, DNA acquisition
Online: 2 August 2021 (12:58:22 CEST)
Most Acinetobacter baumannii strains are naturally competent. Although some information is available about factors that enhance or reduce the frequency of transformation of this bacterium, the regulatory elements and mechanisms are barely understood. In this article, we describe studies on the role of H-NS in the regulation of expression of genes related to natural competency and the ability to uptake foreign DNA. The expression levels of the natural transformation-related genes pilA, pilT, pilQ, comEA, comEC, comF, and drpA were significantly increased in a Δhns derivative of Acinetobacter baumannii A118. Complementation of the mutant with a recombinant plasmid harboring hns restored expression levels of six of these genes (pilT remained expressed at high levels) to those of the wild-type strain. The transformation frequency of the A. baumannii A118 Δhns strain was significantly higher than that of the wild-type. Similar, albeit not identical, effects occurred when hns was deleted from the hypervirulent A. baumannii AB5075 strain. Reduction of gene expression in a few cases was not as pronounced as to reach wild-type levels, and expression of comEA was enhanced further. In conclusion, the expression of all seven transformation-related genes was enhanced after deleting hns in A. baumannii A118 and AB5075, and these modifications are accompanied by an increase in the cells’ transformability. The results demonstrate a role of H-NS in A. baumannii’s natural competence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0826.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii; extended spectrum β-lactamase; AmpC β-lactamase; Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase; multidrug resistance
Online: 12 June 2023 (14:26:40 CEST)
Background and objective: Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is an important nosocomial pathogen that possesses not only intrinsic resistance to many classes of antibiotics, but also is capable to rapidly develop antimicrobial resistance during treatment. The aim of our study was to determine the production of different types of β-lactamases (AmpC, ESBL, KPC) in A. baumannii strains, to evaluate its association with antimicrobial resistance, and to identify the changes in these characteristics after 5 years. Materials and methods: A total of 233 A. baumannii strains were isolated from different clinical specimens of patients treated at the Hospital of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences in 2016–2017 and 2021–2022. All clinical cultures positive for A. baumannii were analyzed. The type of β-lactamase was detected by phenotypic methods using ESBL plus AmpC screen disk tests and the combination meropenem disk test. Results: In 2016–2017 and 2021–2022, all A. baumannii strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin; more than 80% were resistant to carbapenems, piperacillin/tazobactam, gentamicin, and tobramycin. Comparison of two different period showed that the production of two different types of β-lactamases increased more than 5-fold (from 17.7% to 94.2%, p < 0.001), and the production of all three types of β-lactamases, more than 4-fold (from 1.3% to 5.8%, p < 0.001). A. baumannii strains producing two or three types of β-lactamases were more often resistant to tigecycline, tetracycline, and doxycycline than strains producing one type of β-lactamases (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The frequency of isolation of A. baumannii strains producing two or three β-lactamases types and the resistance rates to ampicillin/sulbactam, tigecycline, tetracycline, and doxycycline increased in 2020–2021 as compared with 2016–2017. The production of two or three types of β-lactamases by A. baumannii strains was associated with higher resistance rates to tetracyclines.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0174.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii; colistin; tigecycline; resistance; in vivo
Online: 14 June 2020 (14:16:40 CEST)
The potential of A. baumannii for acquired resistance to last resort antibiotics (colistin and tigecycline) during treatment has important clinical implications, especially when dealing with patients failing to improve despite treatment with an active antimicrobial. However, the relevant literature remains scattered. Therefore, a systematic search was conducted in PubMed and Scopus. Several studies reported emergence of resistance to colistin or tigecycline during treatment, in most cases (86%) resulting in persistent or recurrent infections, especially in cases of emergent resistance without fitness cost. Lipopolysaccharide modification in the case of colistin and overexpression of efflux pumps in the case of tigecycline were the main mechanisms of resistance. Emergent colistin resistance is often associated with fitness cost resulting in re-emergence of the fitter and more virulent colistin susceptible strain after cessation of antibiotic pressure. Prospective studies are needed to determine the frequency of emergent resistance during treatment and its impact on patient outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0950.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii; cefiderocol; human pleural fluid; NDM-1; carbapenem-resistance
Online: 13 June 2023 (15:31:43 CEST)
Objectives: Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) isolates are one of the most difficult pathogens to treat. Cefiderocol, a chlorocatechol-substituted siderophore antibiotic, was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2019 indicated for the treatment of infections due to CRAB infections. Despite the initial positive treatment outcomes with this antimicrobial, recent studies reported higher than all-cause mortality rate in patients treated with cefiderocol. The cause(s) behind these outcomes remains unconfirmed. A plausible hypothesis is heteroresistance, a phenotype characterized by the survival of a small proportion of cells in a population seemingly isogenic. Recent results have shown that the addition of human fluids to CRAB cultures leads to cefiderocol heteroresistance. Here we describe molecular and phenotypic analyses of CRAB heteroresistant bacterial subpopulations to better understand the nature of the less-than-expected successful outcomes after cefiderocol treatment. Methods: Isolation of heteroresistant variants of the CRAB strain AMA40 was carried out in cultures supplemented with cefiderocol and human pleural fluid (HPF). Two AMA40 variants, AMA40 IHC1 and IHC2, were subjected to whole genome sequencing and transcriptional analysis to identify mutations and expression changes associated with cefiderocol heteroresistance. The impact of these mutations on the pharmacodynamic activity of cefiderocol was assessed via susceptibility testing, EDTA and boronic acid inhibition analysis, biofilm formation, and static time-kill assays. Results: Heteroresistant variants AMA40 IHC1 and AMA40 IHC2 have 53 chromosomal mutations, of which 40 are common to both strains. None of the mutations occurred in genes associated with high affinity iron-uptake systems or β-lactam resistance. However, transcriptional analyses showed significant modifications in levels of expression of genes associated with these functions. The blaNDM-1 and blaADC-2, as well as various iron-uptake system genes, were expressed at higher levels than the parental strain. On the other hand, the carO and ompA genes’ expression was reduced. One of the mutations common to both heteroresistant strains mapped within pipA, a gene associated with iron homeostasis in other species. Static time-kill assays showed that supplementing cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth with human serum albumin, the main protein component of HPF, considerably reduced cefiderocol killing activity for all three strains tested. Notably, collateral resistance to amikacin was observed in both variants. Conclusions: We conclude that exposing CRAB to fluids containing high HSA facilitates the rise of heteroresistance associated with point mutations and upregulation of genes coding for β-lactamases and biofilm formation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1641.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii; biofilm; extensively drug resistance; biofilm associated genes
Online: 23 May 2023 (10:33:26 CEST)
Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) is a bacterium that causes infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Treatment is challenging due to biofilm formation by AB strains, which hinders antibiotic effec-tiveness and promotes drug resistance. The aim of our study was to analyze the biofilm-producing capacity of AB isolates from various forms of infections in relation to biofilm-related genes and their drug resistance. We tested one hundred isolates for biofilm formation using the crystal violet microplate method. Drug re-sistance analyses were performed based on EUCAST and CLSI guidelines, and biofilm genes were detected using PCR. All tested strains were found to form biofilms, with 50% being ICU strains and 72% classified as strong biofilm-producers. Among these, 87% were extensively drug-resistant (XDR) and 2% were extra extensively drug-resistant (E-XDR). The most common gene set was bap, bfmS, csuE, and ompA, found in 57% of all isolates. Our research has shown that, regardless of the form of infection, biofilm-forming strains can be expected among AB isolates. The emergence of E-XDR and XDR strains among non-ICU infections highlights the necessity for the rational use of antibiotics to stop or limit the further acquisition of drug re-sistance by A. baumannii.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0200.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: QSPR model; antibacterials; Acinetobacter baumannii; natural products; virtual screening
Online: 11 January 2023 (11:51:38 CET)
As the rate of discovery of new antibacterial compounds towards multidrug resistant bacteria is declining, there is an urge for the search of molecules that could revert this tendency. Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a highly virulent Gram-negative bacterium that has acquired multiple mechanisms against antibiotics and is considered of critical priority. In this work we developed a quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) model with 592 compounds for the identification of structural parameters related to their property as antibacterial agents against A. baumannii. QSPR mathematical validation (R2 = 70.27, RN = -0.008, aR2 = 0.014 and δK = 0.021) and its prediction ability (Q2LMO= 67.89, Q2EXT = 67.75, a(Q2)= -0.068, δQ = 0.0, rm2 = 0.229, and ∆rm2 = 0.522) were obtained with different statistical parameters; additional validation jobs were done using three sets of external molecules (R2 = 72.89, 71.64 and 71.56). We used the QSPR model to perform a virtual screening on the BIOFACQUIM natural product database. From this screening our model showed that molecules 32 to 35 and 54 to 68, isolated from different extracts of plants of the Ipomoea sp., are potential antibacterial against A. baumannii. Furthermore, biological assays showed that molecules 56 and 60 to 64 have a wide antibacterial activity against clinical isolated strains of A. baumannii, as well as other multidrug resistant bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Finally, we propose 60 as a potential lead compound due to its broad-spectrum activity and its structural simplicity. Therefore, our QSPR model can be used as a tool for the investigation and search of new antibacterial compounds against A. baumannii.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0191.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii; Etlingera elatior; antibiofilm activity; essential oil
Online: 14 September 2022 (04:37:05 CEST)
The current study investigates the antibiofilm properties of essential oil extracted from the Flower of a Zingiber plant used in traditional medicines. EO from Etlingera elatior (Jack) R. M Smith tested against one of the critical nosocomial pathogens, Acinetobacter baumannii. The antibiofilm studies of Flower essential oil (FEO) by crystal violet staining method exhibited maximum inhibition of 80% at a concentration of 0.7% oil. The biochemical assays and microscopic analysis showed that the FEO significantly reduced extracellular polymeric substance production. Furthermore, FEO reduced the survival rate of A. baumannii in human blood. The chemical composition of extracted FEO was analyzed by Gas chromatography- Mass spectrometry. Dodecanal, 1-dodecanol, and alpha-pinene were identified as the major compounds. Concerning previous research, our study is the first investigation of the antibiofilm property of E. elatior flower oil. More detailed studies are required to identify the compound responsible for biofilm inhibition and its mode of action against A. baumannii biofilms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0552.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Huma Serum Albumin; Acinetobacter baumannii; quorum sensing; iron; human fluids.
Online: 22 March 2021 (15:49:16 CET)
Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen capable of causing serious infections associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Due to its antimicrobial drug resistance profile, A. baumannii is categorized as an urgent priority pathogen by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States and priority group 1 critical microorganism by the World Health Organization. Understanding how A. baumannii adapts to different host environments may provide critical insights into strategically targeting this pathogen with novel antimicrobial and biological therapeutics. Exposure to human fluids was previously shown to alter the gene expression profile of a highly drug susceptible A. baumannii strain A118 leading to persistence and survival of this pathogen. Herein, we explore the impact of human pleural fluid (HPF) and human serum albumin (HSA) on the gene expression profile of a highly multi-drug resistant strain of A. baumannii AB5075. Differential expression was observed for ~30 genes, whose products are involved in quorum sensing, quorum quenching, iron acquisition, fatty acid metabolism, biofilm formation, secretion systems and type IV pilus formation. Phenotypic and further transcriptomic analysis using quantitative RT-PCR confirmed RNA-seq data and pointed out a distinctive role of HSA as the molecule involved in A. baumannii response.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1869.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii; healthcare-associated infections; genomic epidemiology; whole genome sequencing; cgMLST; international clones of high risk; antibiotic resistance
Online: 29 November 2023 (10:59:38 CET)
The infections caused by various bacterial pathogens both in clinical and community settings represent a significant threat to public healthcare worldwide. The growing resistance to antimicrobial drugs acquired by bacterial species causing healthcare-associated infections has already become a life-threatening danger noticed by the World Health Organization. Several groups or lineages of bacterial isolates usually called ‘the clones of high risk’ often drive the spread of resistance within particular species. Thus, it is vitally important to reveal and track the spread of such clones and the mechanisms by which they acquire antibiotic resistance and enhance their survival skills. Currently, the analysis of whole genome sequences for bacterial isolates of interest is increasingly used for these purposes, including epidemiological surveillance and developing of spread prevention measures. However, the availability and uniformity of the data derived from the genomic sequences often represents a bottleneck for such investigations. In this dataset, we present the results of a comprehensive genomic epidemiology analysis of 17,546 genomes of a dangerous bacterial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii. Important typing information including multilocus sequence typing (MLST)-based sequence types (STs), intrinsic blaOXA-51-like gene variants, capsular (KL) and oligosaccharide (OCL) types, CRISPR-Cas systems, and cgMLST profiles are presented, as well as the assignment of particular isolates to nine known international clones of high risk. The presence of antimicrobial resistance genes within the genomes is also reported. These data will be useful for researchers in the field of A. baumannii genomic epidemiology, resistance analysis and prevention measure development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0141.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii; XDR; IMP-1; VIM-2; NDM-1; VAP; ICU; Hospital-acquired infections
Online: 9 June 2022 (10:58:13 CEST)
A 2-year prospective study carried out on ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) patients in the intensive care unit at King Khalid hospital, Hail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), revealed a high prevalence of extremely drug-resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii. About a 9% increase in the incidence rate of A. baumannii has occurred in the VAP patients between 2019 and 2020 (21.4% to 30.7%). In 2019 the isolates were positive for IMP-1 and VIM-2 (31.1% and 25.7%, respectively) as detected by PCR. In comparison, a higher proportion of isolates produced NDM-1 in 2020. Here, we observed a high resistant proportion of ICU isolates towards the most common antibiotics in use. Colistin sensitivity dropped to 91.4% in the year 2020 as compared to 2019 (100%). Thus, the finding of this study has a highly significant clinical implementation in the clinical management strategies for VAP patients. Furthermore, strict implementation of antibiotic stewardship policies, regular surveillance programs for antimicrobial resistance monitoring, and screening for genes encoding drug resistance phenotypes have become imperative.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0173.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: pandrug-resistant; treatment; carbapanemase; Acinetobacter; Klebsiella; Pseudomonas
Online: 14 June 2020 (13:19:32 CEST)
The management of carbapenem-resistant infections is often based on colistin, tigecycline, aminoglycosides and their combinations. However, in a recent systematic review we found that Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) co-resistant to carbapanems, aminoglycosides, colistin and tigecycline (CACT-resistant) are increasingly being reported worldwide. Clinical data to guide the treatment of CACT-resistant GNB are scarce and based exclusively on few case reports and small case series but seem to indicate that appropriate (in vitro active) antimicrobial regimens, including newer antibiotics and synergistic combinations, may be associated with lower mortality. In this review we consolidate the available literature to inform clinicians dealing with CACT-resistant GNB about treatment options by considering the mechanisms of resistance to carbapenems. In combination with rapid diagnostic methods that allow fast detection of carbapenemase production, the approach proposed in this review may guide a timely and targeted treatment of patients with infections by CACT-resistant GNB. Specifically, we focus on the three most problematic species, namely Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. Several treatment options are currently available for CACT-resistant K. pneumonia. Newer β-lactam-β-lactamase combinations, including the combination of ceftazidime/avibactam with aztreonam against metallo-β-lactamase-producing isolates, appear to be more effective compared to combinations of older agents. Options for P. aeruginosa (especially metallo-β-lactamase-producing strains) and A. baumannii remain limited. Synergistic combination of older agents (e.g. colistin- or fosfomycin-based synergistic combinations) may represent a last resort option but their use against CACT-resistant GNB requires further study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0025.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii; multiresistant; mutant lytic phage; phage therapy; antibiotic-phage synergy.
Online: 2 October 2019 (08:42:31 CEST)
The global health emergency caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria has led to the search for and development of new antimicrobial agents. Phage therapy is an abandoned antimicrobial therapy that has been resumed in recent years. In this study, we mutated a lysogenic phage from Acinetobacter baumannii into a lytic phage (Ab105-2phiΔCI) showing antimicrobial activity against A.baumannii clinical strains (such as Ab177_GEIH-2000 which showed MICs to meropenem and imipenem of 32 µg/ml and 16 µg/ml, respectively as well as belonging to GEIH-REIPI Spanish Multicenter A. baumannii Study II 2000/2010, Umbrella Genbank Bioproject PRJNA422585). We then enhanced the time kill curves (in vitro) and in Galleria mellonella survival assays (in vivo) antimicrobial activity of the new lytic phage by combining it with carbapenem antibiotics (meropenem and imipenem). We observed in vitro, an antimicrobial synergistic effect (from 4 log to 7 log CFU/ml) with meropenem plus lytic phage in all combinations analysed (0.1, 1 and 10 MOI of Ab105-2phiΔCI mutant as well as 1/4 and 1/8 MIC of meropenem). Moreover, we had a decrease in bacterial growth of 8 log CFU/ml for the combination of imipenem at 1/4 MIC plus lytic phage (Ab105-2phiΔCI mutant) and of 4 log CFU/ml for the combination of imipenem at 1/8 MIC plus lytic phage (Ab105-2phiΔCI mutant) in both MOI 1 and 10. These results were confirmed in in vivo (G. mellonella) obtaining a higher effectiveness in the combination of imipenem and Ab105-2phiΔCI mutant (P<0.05 by Log Rank-Matel Cox test). This approach could help to reduce the emergence of phage resistant bacteria and restore sensitivity to the antibiotics when used to combat multiresistant strains of Acinetobacter baumannii.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0017.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: green synthesis; silver nanoparticles; trimethylchitosan nitrate; catalytic activity; antibacterial activity; multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii
Online: 2 March 2017 (08:49:35 CET)
We report a facile route for the green synthesis of trimethylchitosan nitrate-capped silver nanoparticles (TMCN-AgNPs) with positive surface charge. In this synthesis, silver nitrate, glucose, and trimethyl chitosan nitrate (TMCN) were used as silver precursor, reducing agent, and stabilizer, respectively. The reaction was carried out in a stirred basic aqueous medium at room temperature without the use of energy-consuming or expensive equipment. We investigated the effects of the concentrations of NaOH, glucose, and TMCN on the particle size, zeta potential, and formation yield. The AgNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, photon correlation spectroscopy, laser Doppler anemometry, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The catalytic activity of the TMCN-AgNPs was studied by the reduction of 4-nitrophenol using NaBH4 as a reducing agent. We evaluated the antibacterial effects of the TMCN-AgNPs on Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus using the broth microdilution method. The results showed that both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were killed by the TMCN-AgNPs at very low concentration (< 6.13 μg/mL). Moreover, the TMCN-AgNPs also showed high antibacterial activity against clinically isolated multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was ≤ 12.25 μg/mL.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0108.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii; antimicrobial resistance; circular dichroism spectroscopy; efflux protein; efflux pump; foodborne pathogen; hospital-acquired infection; polyamine
Online: 10 January 2022 (12:19:07 CET)
The aim of this work was to test polyamines as potential natural substrates of the Acinetobacter baumannii chlorhexidine efflux protein AceI using near-UV synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) spectroscopy. The Gram-negative bacterium A. Baumannii is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections and an important foodborne pathogen. A. Baumannii strains are becoming increasingly resistant to antimicrobial agents, including the synthetic antiseptic chlorhexidine. AceI was the founding member of the recently recognised PACE family of bacterial multidrug efflux proteins. Using the plasmid construct pTTQ18-aceI(His6) containing the A. Baumannii aceI gene directly upstream from a His6-tag coding sequence, expression of AceI(His6) was amplified in E. coli BL21(DE3) cells. Near-UV (250-340 nm) SRCD measurements were performed on detergent-solubilised and purified AceI(His6) at 20 °C. Sample and SRCD experimental conditions were identified that detected binding of the triamine spermidine to AceI(His6). In a titration with spermidine (0-10 mM) this binding was saturable and fitting of the curve for the change in signal intensity produced an apparent binding affinity (KD) of 3.97 +/- 0.45 mM. These SRCD results were the first experimental evidence obtained for polyamines as natural substrates of PACE proteins.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: site-specific recombination; carbapenemase; ESKAPE; Acinetobacter; plasmid; Xer; dif; pdif; Re27; gene transfer; gene dissemination; horizontal transfer; horizontal dissemination
Online: 10 July 2020 (02:10:07 CEST)
Modules composed of a resistance gene flanked by Xer site-specific recombination sites, the vast majority of which were found in Acinetobacter baumannii, are thought to behave as elements that facilitate horizontal dissemination. The A. baumannii xerC and xerD genes were cloned, and the recombinant clones used to complement the cognate Escherichia coli mutants. The complemented strains supported resolution of plasmid dimers, and, as is the case with E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae plasmids, the activity was enhanced when cells were growing in low osmolarity growth medium. Binding experiments showed that partially purified A. baumannii XerC and XerD proteins (XerCAb and XerDAb) bound synthetic Xer site-specific recombination sites, some of them with a nucleotide sequence deduced from existing A. baumannii plasmids. Incubation with suicide substrates resulted in covalent attachment of DNA to a recombinase, probably XerCAb, indicating that the first step in the recombination reaction took place. The results described show that XerCAb and XerDAb are functional proteins and support the hypothesis that they participate in horizontal dissemination of resistant genes among bacteria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0944.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: Pseudomonas; Acinetobacter; antibiotic
Online: 15 November 2023 (01:57:40 CET)
The Emergency Department (ED) represents an important setting for addressing inappropriate antimicrobial prescribing practices, due to the time constraints and duration of microbiolo-gical diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the etiology and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) pattern of the community-acquired pathogens, as well as the epidemiological characteristics of patients admitted through ED, in order to guide appropriate antibiotic therapy. (2) Methods: A retrospective observational study was performed on 657 patients, from whom clinical samples for microbiological diagnosis were collected, in the first 3 days after presentation in the ED. The identification of pathogens and the antibiogram with minimum inhibitory concentration determination were carried out according to the laboratory protocols. (3) Results: From the 767 biological samples analyzed, 903 microbial isolates were identified. E. coli was isolated most frequently (24.25%), followed by Klebsiella spp, S. aureus (SA) and non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli. E. coli strains maintained their natural susceptibility to most antibiotics tested. In the case of Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp., increased rates of AMR were identified. Also, 32.3% of SA strains were community-acquired MRSA. (4) Conclusions: The introduction of rapid microbiological diagnostic methods in emergency medicine is imperative in order to timely identify AMR strains and improve therapeutic protocols.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1271.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Acinetobacter thutiue; Acinetobacter kontum; oil-contaminated soil; novel species; Morazellaceae
Online: 19 July 2023 (09:11:19 CEST)
Two isolates of Acinetobacter were isolated from the soil samples of motorbike repairing workshop floors in Vietnam, where motorcycle/scooter repairs generate various types of hazardous waste, including mainly used waste oil and fluids. Two isolates were Gram-stain-negative, coccobacilli-shaped, aerobic, non-motile, non-hemolytic, oxidase-negative, and catalase-positive, designated strains VNH17T and VNK23T. Growth of strains was inhibited by NaCl concentrations above 3% and grew at an optimal temperature of 20-35°C. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that two isolated strains formed a lineage within the family Moraxellaceae and clustered as members of the genus Acinetobacter. The predominant respiratory quinones of VNH17T and VNK23T are ubiquinone 9 and ubiquinone 8, and the polar lipids are mainly composed of diphosphatidyl glycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylethanolamine. The major cellular fatty acids are C18:1ω9c, C16:0 and summed feature 3 (C16:1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c). The DNA G+C content of VNH17T and VNK23T was 42.07% and 41.75%, respectively. In addition, the average nucleotide identity and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization relatedness values between VNH17T and VNK23T as well as between they and phylogenetically related type strains were below the threshold values used for species delineation. Based on genomic, chemotaxonomic, phenotypic and phylogenomic analyses, the isolated strains represent novel species in the genus Acinetobacter, for which the names Acinetobacter thutiue sp. nov. (type strain VNH17T = KACC 23003 = CCTCC AB 2023063), Acinetobacter kontum sp. nov. (type strain VNK23T = KACC 23002 = CCTCC AB 2023064) are proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0454.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Head lice, haplogroup E, PHUM540560 gene, Acinetobacter haemolyticus, Acinetobacter spp., Guinea.
Online: 18 December 2020 (11:22:55 CET)
Pediculus humanus capitis, the head louse, is an obligate blood-sucking ectoparasite that occurs in six divergent mitochondrial haplogroups (A, D, B, F, C and E), each exhibiting a particular geographic distribution. A few years ago, several studies reported the presence of different pathogenic agents in head lice specimens from different clades collected worldwide. These findings suggest that head louse could be a vector for dangerous diseases and therefore a serious public health problem. Herein, we aimed to study the mitochondrial genetic diversity, the PHUM540560 gene polymorphisms profile of head lice collected in Guinea, as well as to screen for the pathogens present in these lice. In 2018, a total of 155 head lice were collected from 49 individuals at the Medicals Centers of rural (Maférinyah village) and urban (Kindia city) areas, in Guinea. All head lice were subjected to genetic analysis and screened for the presence of several pathogens using molecular tools. The results showed that all head lice belonged to the haplogroups C/E using the duplex qPCR which detects both clades. Standard PCR and sequencing revealed that all specimens belonged to the haplogroup E, including 8 haplotypes, whither 6 new identified for the first time in this study. The study of the PHUM540560 gene polymorphisms in our Guinean head lice revealed that 7/40 (17.5%) of our tested samples exhibit three different polymorphism profiles compared to the clade A-head lice PHUM540560 gene profile, while the remaining specimens 33/40 (82,5%) showed the same PHUM540560 gene polymorphism profile as the previously reported clade A-body lice. Molecular investigations of the targeted pathogens revealed only the presence of Acinetobacter species in 9% of our samples using real time PCR. Sequencing results identified highlighted the presence of several Acinetobacter species, including Acinetobacter baumannii (14.3%), Acinetobacter nosocomialis (14.3%), Acinetobacter variabilis (14.3%), Acinetobacter haemolyticus (7.2%), Acinetobacter towneri (7.2%). Furthermore, a candidate new species of Acinetobacter sp. (7.2%) was detected. Positive specimens were collected from 24,5% individuals in Maférinyah. We also investigated in our study the carbapenem’s-resistant profile of A. baumannii, none of our specimens were positive for the following resistance genes blaOXA-21, blaOXA-24 and blaOXA-58. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first to report the existence of the Guinean haplogroup E, the PHUM540560 gene polymorphism profile as well as the presence of Acinetobacter species in head lice collected from Guinea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0426.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii; Resistance; carbapenemases; Health Facilities
Online: 24 March 2023 (06:49:01 CET)
Carbapenems have long been considered as treatment of choice for Gram-Negative Bacteria (GNB) infections, and today the clinical utility of this class is threatened by the emergence and spread of resistance favored by its increasing use. According to the WHO, Acinetobacter baumannii, nosocomial infection agent, tops the list of priority antibiotic-resistant pathogens, considered to be the most risky for humans. This study sought to determine the prevalence of Acinetobacter baumannii strains producing carbapenemases in four health facilities in the Center and Littoral regions of Cameroon and the associated risk factors. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted over a six-month period from January to June 2022. All Acinetobacter baumanii or suspected strains isolated from pathological samples at the bacteriology laboratory of different health facilities were systematically collected and underwent a re-identification. After successfully subculturing and growing on nutrient agar, re-identification and antimicrobial susceptibility Testing (AST) were performed using the VITEK 2 System and the Kirby-Bauer method according to the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Detection and phenotypic characterization of carbapenemases was performed according to adequate standard procedures. A total of 168/226 clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii were confirmed after re-identification of which 52.69% came from male patients, and 55.09% from participants aged between 10-39 years old and 46.71% from pus samples. A very high resistance rates to all families of antibiotics was noted except to colistin (10.2%). About 40.12% of these strains produced carbapenemases with 62.69% of class B and 37.31% of class A. In addition, frequent hospitalisation was significantly associated to the production of carbapenemase among Acinetobacter baumanii (Ajusted-OR=16.53, P-value<0.0001). This study highlighted the emergence of carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter baumannii which is increasingly growing. Continuous drug-resistant monitoring and preventive measures could help to prevent and curb the dissemination of A.baumanii resistance genes, especially in hospital settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0072.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: antibiotic resistance; Acinetobacter baumannii; severe pneumonia
Online: 4 March 2022 (03:15:35 CET)
Background: Patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU) have a higher susceptibility to infections. Respiratory infections are the most common nosocomial infections. Rising antibiotic resistance due to indiscriminate use of antibiotics and poor adherence to standard precaution in healthcare facilities compounds the problem. The main aim of this study is to assess microbial patterns and antibiotic resistance from bronchoalveolar lavage specimens in severe pneumonia patients. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in an Indonesian tertiary care hospital from January 2016-December 2020. Written and verbal informed consent was obtained prior to bronchoscopy procedures. Patients were enrolled if they had severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) according to American Thoracic Society (ATS)/Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) criteria, had high-risk hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), late-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), or pneumonia caused by Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Respiratory specimens via bronchoscopy were inoculated on general semi-sloid thioglycolate media. Testing for antibiotic susceptibility was done using the disk diffusion method. Results: Two hundred and one patients’ data were analyzed. The majority of patients were males (65,17%) and above 60 years of age. The most common type of pneumonia was CAP (39,3%). Neurologic/cerebrovascular disease was the most common comorbidity (35,32%). Acinetobacter baumannii was the most frequently isolated microorganism. Ampicillin/sulbactam and amikacin were found to yield lower microbial resistance. Conclusion: Combination of ampicillin/sulbactam and amikacin appeared effective as initial empirical therapy in severe pneumonia patients. Further studies are needed to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of this combined therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0459.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: ICU; VAP; ESBL; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Acinetobacter baumannii
Online: 29 July 2022 (10:15:38 CEST)
A 1-year prospective study was carried out on patients in the ICU unit at a tertiary care hospital, Hail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 163 bacterial isolates were obtained from different clinical specimens with a high proportion of bacteria found associated with ventilator-associated pneumoniae (70, 43%), followed by catheter-associated urinary tract infection (39, 24%), central line-associated bloodstream infection (25, 15%), and surgical site infection (14, 8.6%). Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most common isolate (39, 24%), followed by Acinetobacter baumannii (35, 21.47%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (25, 15%), and Proteus spp (23, 14%). Among the highly prevalent bacterial isolates, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase was predominant (42, 42.4%). Proper use of antibiotics, continuous monitoring of drug sensitivity patterns, and taking all precautionary measures to prevent beta-lactamases-producing organisms in the clinical settings are crucial and significant factors to fend off life-threatening infections and for a better outcome.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ESKAPE; Acinetobacter; aminoglycosides; amikacin; acetyltransferase; silver; adjuvant
Online: 9 December 2020 (11:05:29 CET)
Clinical resistance to amikacin and other aminoglycosides is usually due to enzymatic acetylation of the antimicrobial molecule. A ubiquitous resistance enzyme among Gram-negatives is the aminoglycoside 6'-N-acetyltransferase type Ib [AAC(6')-Ib], which catalyzes acetylation using acetyl-CoA as donor substrate. Therapies that combine the antibiotic and an inhibitor of the inactivation reaction could be an alternative to treat infections caused by resistant bacteria. We had previously observed that metal ions such as Zn2+ or Cu2+ in complex with ionophores interfere with the AAC(6')-Ib-mediated inactivation of aminoglycosides and reduced resistance to susceptibility levels. Ag1+ recently attracted attention as a potentiator of aminoglycosides' action by mechanisms still in discussion. We found that silver acetate is also a robust inhibitor of the enzymatic acetylation mediated by AAC(6')-Ib in vitro. This action seems to be independent of other mechanisms, like increased production of reactive oxygen species and enhanced membrane permeability, proposed to explain the potentiation of the antibiotic effect by silver ions. The addition of this compound to aac(6')-Ib harboring Acinetobacter baumannii and Escherichia coli cultures resulted in a dramatic reduction of the resistance levels. Time-kill assays showed that the combination of silver acetate and amikacin was bactericidal and exhibited low cytotoxicity to HEK293 cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0138.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Acinetobacter; ANI; Bangladesh; next-generation sequencing; ATCC
Online: 21 November 2018 (07:07:54 CET)
In this study we announce the draft genome sequence of a newly identified Acinetobacter species cross-reacting with E. coli serotype 0157:H7. The advent of Next-Generation technology has paved to way to discover new species which could otherwise be misidentified using conventional cultural and serotyping methods. The whole genome sequence of this isolate will help to identify potential marker/s of intervention and further genomic analysis might also shed light onto the virulence properties of this newly identified Acinetobacter species which has been provided the new name of Acinetobacter maqsudiensis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0306.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: aminoglycoside resistance; structure-activity relationship; aminoglycoside modifying enzymes, acetyltransferase, Acinetobacter
Online: 14 August 2021 (14:12:06 CEST)
The aminoglycoside 6′-N-acetyltransferase type Ib [AAC(6′)-Ib] is a common cause of resistance to amikacin and other aminoglycosides in Gram-negatives. Utilization of mixture-based combinatorial libraries and application of the positional scanning strategy identified an inhibitor of AAC(6′)-Ib. This inhibitor’s chemical structure consists of a pyrrolidine pentamine scaffold substituted at four locations (R1, R3, R4, and R5). The substituents are two S-phenyl (R1 and R4), an S-hydroxymethyl (R3), and a 3-phenylbutyl (R5) groups. Another location, R2, does not have a substitution, but it is named because its stereochemistry was modified in some compounds utilized in this study. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis using derivatives with different functionalities, modified stereochemistry, and truncations were carried out by assessing the effect of the addition of each compound at 8 µM to 16 µg/ml amikacin-containing media and performing checkerboard assays varying the concentrations of the inhibitor analogs and the antibiotic. The results showed that: 1) the aromatic functionalities at R1 and R4 are essential, but the stereochemistry is essential only at R4, 2) the stereochemical conformation at R2 is critical, 3) the hydroxyl moiety at R3 as well as stereoconformation are required for full inhibitory activity, 4) the phenyl functionality at R5 is not essential and can be replaced by aliphatic groups, 5) the location of the phenyl group on the butyl carbon chain at R5 is not essential, 6) the length of the aliphatic chain at R5 is not critical, 7) all truncations of the scaffold resulted in inactive compounds. Molecular docking revealed that all compounds preferentially bind to the kanamycin C binding cavity, and binding affinity correlates with the experimental data for most of the compounds evaluated. The SAR results in this study will serve as the basis for the design of new analogs in an effort to improve their ability to induce phenotypic conversion to susceptibility in amikacin-resistant pathogens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0058.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: ozone; detrimental effect; pathogenic bacteria; antimicrobial resistance; ROS; Acinetobacter baumannii; Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Online: 3 November 2021 (07:55:57 CET)
(1) Background: Disinfection of medical devices designed for clinical use associated or not with the growing area of tissue engineering is an urgent need. However, traditional disinfection methods are not always suitable for some biomaterials, especially those sensitive to chemical, thermal, or radiation. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the minimal concentration of ozone gas (O3) necessary to control and kill a set of sensitive or multi-resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The cell viability, membrane permeability, and the levels of reactive intracellular oxygen (ROS) species were also investigated; (2) Material and Methods: Four standard strains and a clinical MDR strain were exposed to low doses of ozone at different concentrations and times. Bacterial inactivation (cultivability, membrane damage) was investigated using colony counts, resazurin as a metabolic indicator, and propidium iodide (PI). A fluorescent probe (H2DCFDA) was used for the ROS analyses; (3) Results: No reduction in the count colony was detected after O3 exposure, compared to the control group. However, the cell viability of E. coli (30%), P. aeruginosa (25%), and A. baumannii (15%) was reduced considerably. The bacterial membrane of all strains was not affected by O3 but presented a significant increase of ROS in E. coli (90 ± 14%), P. aeruginosa (62.5 ± 19%), and A. baumanni (52.6 ± 5%); (4) Conclusion: Low doses of ozone were able to interfere in the cell viability of most strains studied, and although it does not cause damage to the bacterial membrane, increased levels of reactive ROS are responsible for causing a detrimental effect in the lipids, proteins, and DNA metabolism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0197.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: One-health; food-animals; E. coli; K. pneumoniae; Acinetobacter; P. aeruginosa; fluoroquinolones; antimicrobial resistance; antibiotic consumption
Online: 13 September 2021 (09:55:56 CEST)
BackgroundIt is unclear what underpins the large global variations in the prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance in gram-negative bacteria. We tested the hypothesis that different intensities in the use of quinolones for food-animals plays a role. MethodsWe used Spearman’s correlation to assess if the country-level prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance in human infections with Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was correlated with the use of quinolones for food producing animals. Linear regression was used to assess the relative contributions of country-level quinolone consumption for food-animals and humans on fluoroquinolone resistance in these 4 species. ResultsThe prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance in each species was positively associated with quinolone use for food-producing animals (E. coli [ρ=0.55; P<0.001], K. pneumoniae [ρ=0.58; P<0.001]; A. baumanii [ρ=0.54; P=0.004]; P. aeruginosa [ρ=0.48; P=0.008]). Linear regression revealed that both quinolone consumption in humans and food animals were independently associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in E. coli and A. baumanii. ConclusionsReducing quinolone use in food-producing animals may help retard the spread of fluoroquinolone resistance in various gram negative bacterial species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0361.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Neisseria gonorrhoeae; E. coli; K. pneumoniae; Acinetobacter; P. aeruginosa; fluoroquinolones; antimicrobial resistance; stewardship; antibiotic consumption; bystander selection
Online: 17 August 2021 (10:32:27 CEST)
It is unclear how important it is to reduce fluoroquinolone consumption in the general population to prevent the spread of fluoroquinolone resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae (bystander selection). Methods We assessed bystander selection by using Spearman’s correlation to assess if the country-level prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance in N. gonorrhoeae was correlated with the prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance in four other gram-negative species - Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results Fluoroquinolone resistance in N. gonorrhoeae was positively associated with homologous resistance in all 4 species - A. baumanii. (ρ=0.61, P=0.0003, E. coli (ρ=0.67, P<0.0001), K. pneumoniae (ρ=0.52, P=0.0004) and P. aeruginosa (ρ=0.40, P=0.0206). Positive associations were also found between the national prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance and fluoroquinolone consumption in the general population in the preceding year for 4 of the 5 species. Conclusions Gonococcal fluoroquinolone resistance can be productively viewed as being part of a syndemic of fluoroquinolone resistance. Strengthening antimicrobial stewardship programs may help retard the spread of fluoroquinolone resistance in N. gonorrhoeae.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0081.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: heteroaromatic stilbene derivatives; antimicrobial activity; Staphylococcus aureus; Enterococcus faecalis; Escherichia coli; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Acinetobacter baumannii; Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Online: 3 August 2021 (13:32:14 CEST)
The widespread use of antibiotics has led to a gradual increase in drug-resistant bacterial infections, which severely weakens the clinical efficacy of antibacterial therapies. In recent decades, stilbenes aroused great interest because of their high bioavailability, as well as for their manifold biological activity. Our research efforts are focused on synthetic heteroaromatic stilbene deriva-tives as they represent a potentially new type of antibiotic with a wide antibacterial spectrum. Herein, a preliminary molecular modeling study and a versatile synthetic scheme allowed us to define eight heteroaromatic stilbene derivatives with potential antimicrobial activity. In order to evaluate our compound’s activity spectrum and antibacterial ability, Minimum Inhibitory Con-centration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) tests have been performed on Gram-positive and Gram-negative ATCC strains. Compounds PB4, PB5, PB7 and PB8 showed the best values in terms of MIC and were also evaluated for MBC, which however was found to be greater than MIC, confirming a bacteriostatic activity. For all compounds, we evaluated toxici-ty on colon-rectal adenocarcinoma cells tumor cells (CaCo2), once established that the whole se-lected set was more active than 5-Fluorouracil in reducing CaCo-2 cells viability. To the best of our knowledge, the biological assays have shown for these derivatives an excellent bacteriostatic activity, compared to similar molecular structures previously reported, thus paving the way for a new class of antibiotic compounds.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0197.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB); Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE); Extended-spectrum Beta Lactamase producing Enterobacterales (ESBL); Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Online: 4 October 2023 (07:23:22 CEST)
Post-COVID-19 bacterial infections are a significant threat to global health, mainly due to the overuse and misuse of antibiotics. The review highlights the importance of using antibiotics judiciously and following appropriate guidelines and recommendations. The article also examines the potential indirect contribution of steroids to antibiotic resistance through immune suppression in severe cases of COVID-19. Anti-microbial resistance (AMR) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide that continues as a silent pandemic caused by the major AMR superbug includes Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB), Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE), Extended-spectrum Beta Lactamase producing Enterobacterales (ESBL) which is resistant to cephalosporin and Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ongoing surveillance and monitoring of antibiotic use and resistance helped to minimize the risk of antibiotic resistance and shrink it from pandemic to endemic.