ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0378.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General Mathematics Keywords: Mathematics; Factors; Success; Failure; Students; Teachers;
Online: 26 September 2022 (05:35:23 CEST)
Background: Bangladeshi students from science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) often struggle with solving many mathematical problems in different pedagogic contexts. They mostly lack the considerable prior learning or strong basics required to cope with the teaching and learning materials used at the undergraduate levels, which leads many students to take readmissions every year. Objective: This research aims at investigating the factors affecting the success and deficit of university undergraduate mathematics students in Bangladesh. The mixed-method research incorporates quantitative and qualitative data analysis on the students' and teachers’ perspectives regarding the issues. The authors focus more on categorizing the reasons influencing effective mathematics pedagogies than on identifying new or unknown causes. Methodology: This study is outlined in three phases. The phases include i. Exploratory qualitative survey ii. Quantitative triangulation survey, iii. Explanatory semi-structured interviews. Findings: First, the qualitative survey exposes the important factors that highlight the student’s success and failure in mathematics. Next, the quantitative data confirm that there are some similarities and dissimilarities between students’ and teachers’ perceptions. Also, the coefficient correlation analysis shows male students lack consistency and passion for study resulting in poor performances. Conversely, female students emphasize the inability to connect mathematical theories to real-life usages, curriculum loads, and unavailable resources as the reasons for underperformance. Finally, the interview data demonstrate the students attribute their failure to inadequate practices, memorizing habits, poor teaching, low motivation, and external distractions. Also, students acknowledge the necessity of steady practice, clear understanding, regular study, and working strategies for successful mathematics education. Teachers emphasize students’ clear concepts, aptitude, motivation, and curiosity for successful learning. Conclusion: This conclusion proposes a fresh start with the local mathematics pedagogic practices by analyzing teacher-student feedback on the success and failure factors impacted by varied individual and contextual elements. The study offers inclusive feedback on the part of both stakeholders. However, an open discussion or interaction between students and teachers might be needed to enhance mutual trust and understanding between them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0439.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: refugees; career adaptability; resettlement success; labor market integration
Online: 27 December 2021 (15:56:38 CET)
Today's unstable labor market increasingly requires flexibility and adaptability to cope with the threat of unemployment. It can cause distress in people and have a more significant negative impact on fragile workers, such as migrants. This study aimed to test whether a Career Counseling intervention designed for Migrants (CCfM) can develop Career Adaptability and, therefore, both Work Self-efficacy (WSe) and Job Search Self-efficacy (JSSe) perceptions. It was conducted in Italy and involved a sample of 233 migrants, who were asked to respond to a questionnaire available in three languages (Italian, French, and English). Data analysis showed that an improvement was demonstrated in all the variables considered, namely career adaptability (including concern, control, confidence, and curiosity), WSe, and JSSe, even though the CCfM was not directly designed to increase the last one. In addition, the development of career adaptability explained the increase in migrants' WSe and JSSe, and the initial level of career adaptability was found to explain the increase in WSe due to the initial positive level of curiosity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0373.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: professional competence; academic success; emotional intelligence; students; nursing
Online: 19 January 2021 (11:00:04 CET)
This study was conducted to investigate the correlations between social-emotional competence (SEC) and academic achievement (AA) among nursing students and to compare students’ level of each core skill of SEC (critical thinking disposition, self-directed learning, creativity, emotional intelligence, problem-solving, and collaboration) and academic achievement (clinical performance and subjective academic achievement). A cross-sectional design was adapted. Data were collected from 195 nursing students in the junior and senior years who had participated in clinical practicum from four universities in South Korea. General characteristics, levels of critical thinking disposition, self-directed learning, creativity, emotional intelligence, problem-solving, collaboration, and academic achievement were collected via self-reported questionnaire. Canonical correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between SEC and AA. The canonical correlation coefficient between SEC and AA was .762. Critical thinking disposition (Rs = .89), problem-solving (Rs = .86), cooperation (Rs = .80) made the most important contributions to SEC. Clinical performance (Rs=.95) and subjective AA (Rs=.57) were correlated with AA. SEC should be addressed to improve the AA of nursing students. All core skills of SEC should be regularly promoted. It is particularly urgent for nursing students to improve their creativity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0111.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: critical success factors; organisational performance; shipping industry; digitalisation; digitisation
Online: 4 August 2022 (16:15:36 CEST)
The global shipping industry faces many uncertainties which impact on how organisations within this sector will perform in the future. Research in the critical success factors which impact global shipping industry in the digital era is lacking. This study plugs the gap in the literature by identifying four key critical success factors which are innovation capability, risk governance capability, leadership and strategic capability and technological capability. In addition, this study also found three organisational performance measures that are useful for senior management teams within the industry, namely, financial performance, operational performance and marketing performance. The findings establish a set of critical success factors and the corresponding relationships between the identified critical success factors and the identified organisational performance measures. The paper also provides managerial insights for industry practitioners for defining, prioritising and allocating resources in order to improve organisational performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0208.v1
Subject: Keywords: Adaptation; Failure; Feedback; Innovation; Learning; Sanitation; Scale-up; Success
Online: 14 October 2021 (08:21:38 CEST)
Background This paper draws learnings and successes based on field implementation experience spanning four years (2016–2019) of implementing CLTS by Prince of Peace Orphans and Widows Vision, a community-based organization located in Kaberamaido district in eastern Uganda. Methods The study aimed to document, disseminate and inform from an evidence-based point of view how adaptation and collaborative engagements triggers learning from mistakes to inform iterative changes from improvements and success.This is a descriptive paper that used project documents review based on field implementation experience. Existing project reports were synthesised, collated and curated for evidence. Data were drawn from project reports and records to inform narratives in writing. Implementation of the project was executed in homogenous rural communities occupied by people of the same dialect, cultural and social settings. Results We note that success in CLTS implementation can hardly be achieved by merely following prescriptions in handbooks and guidelines but rather by devising innovative community engagement and other participatory and community-driven techniques that foster adaptive management, promote ownership, and buy-in.Having learned from our failures, we used data to inform decisions and transformatively deviated from traditional CLTS implementation and introduced high impact and innovative approaches such as the use of CLTS helpdesks and Situation room, the Pamoja approach, learning labs and iterative feedback loops, innovatively tackling slippage and carefully introducing the follow-up mandona approach. These enhanced experiential learning and ultimately resulted in sustained sanitation behaviour. Conclusions The CLTS approach as outlined in the handbook needs to be flexibly adapted to address contextual needs. Reflective and learning sessions reinforced with routine feedback loops from implementers and beneficiaries yields tremendous results, propagates experiential learning, and ultimately results in a transformative deviation from undesirable to desired sanitation behaviours. These innovative approaches once carefully blended have proved to be sustainable, are adaptable and can work in an even larger scale and in a variety of contexts.
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: healthy city, sustainable development, environmental sustainability, key success factor
Online: 31 May 2019 (13:07:49 CEST)
The coexistence of human beings and environmental sustainability becomes individually and even globally concerned issue. In addition to environment issues, people also encounter negative issues of infectious diseases, gap between rich and poor, violence in society, uneven resource distribution, people’s health decline, and population structure aging, which would affect the sustainable development of cities. When taking sustainable development from the world to cities, it appears sustainable cities. The goal of a healthy city is to pursue the sustainability of a city. Aiming at residents in Shanghai, total 360 copies of questionnaire are distributed, and 277 valid copies are retrieved, with the retrieval rate 77％. The research results conclude that 1.“safety” is the most emphasized dimension, followed by “convenience & prosperity”, “sustainable ecology”, “vitality & health”, and “culture friendly” and 2.security, Internet city, pollution control, space use, and inheritance education are top five indicators, among 15 evaluation indicators. According to the results, suggestions are proposed to provide the government with correct, objective, and simply understandable healthy city indicators and sustainable development indicators for the appropriate planning and review of the administration objectives to enhance the public awareness of healthy city and the participation. It would stop the worsening of environment and promote residents’ health and the sustainable development of cities to have the city and the public moving towards healthy development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0145.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: residential high-rise building; critical success to sustainability; KMITL PROCESS
Online: 5 August 2021 (11:49:51 CEST)
Sustainability is very important in business. The residential high-rise building all firms wanted to successful and sustainability in business. There is need the construction to completed low time, low cost and high quality in construction work. Therefore, real estate developers must find various strategies to use in construction projects to achieve goals and success of the firm. The purpose of this study was to indicate the very importance of knowledge management can lead to sustainability in business. Analyze 14 critical success to sustainability in residential high-rise building projects, collected questions from literature review, and survey in deep interview senior managers of 15 projects real estate development firms listed on the stock market of Thailand. Budget building more than 1000 million baht per project. From conceptual frame work five foundations integrated to knowledge management of critical success (KMITL PROCESS) used made tool survey in deep interview the critical success to sustainability in residential high-rise building project from project managers. Used IBM SPSS evaluated the critical success to sustainability. Found was one very important of critical success to sustainability, which was quality of products x̄ = 4.83. All 14 critical success to sustainability was found can applied made the knowledge management of critical success to sustainability in residential high-rise building project in firm. Especially in the field of construction managements project can used improve of all construction projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0747.v1
Online: 28 April 2021 (10:45:13 CEST)
This research aims to identify the role of the Dyson model for strategic development in achieving strategic success, and the starting point of the research was the following main question: What is the role of the Dyson model in achieving success?The research was applied in the field in the departments of the Baghdad Municipality, where the examination list was relied upon, which included a set of questions that the senior and middle leaders in the Baghdad Municipality answered, and it was the main means by which the information related to the field of research was collected, and the checklist included two variables and three dimensions From each variable, as each dimension included four questions that express indicators that revolve around one of the research hypotheses, and the case study methodology was used, which defined its path and steps, collected and analyzed field data, and linked it to its theoretical framework, in order to reach To achieve the goal of completing this research, and through analyzing, interpreting and discussing the results, the most important results were drawn up: It was found that the principle of motivation within the departments of Baghdad Municipality does not exist and this affects the employees who do not receive it from the higher leaders in their departments, and this shows that the leaderships in The Municipality of Baghdad do not have the skills and experience. Baghdad Municipality seeks to work alone and not to involve employees who have experiences and skills and strive to achieve development in their departments, and this is what the community members expressed. Among them and poor business completion in their departments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0443.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: genetic factors; dental implants; bone quality; bone regeneration; success rate
Online: 24 July 2018 (06:01:10 CEST)
Dental implants provide a predictable treatment option for partial and complete edentulism via the placement of fixed permanent artificial root to support prosthetic dental crowns. Despite the high survival rates, long-term implant failures are still reported leading to implant removal and additional financial and health burdens. While extrinsic factors that improve survival rate of implants have been well explored, the impact of genetic factors on this matter is poorly understood. A systematic review and meta-analysis study was conducted to determine whether genetic factors contribute to increase the risk of dental implant failure. A comprehensive search for peer-reviewed articles on dental implants and genetics was performed using various literature database libraries. The study design was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines, and the obtained records were registered in PROSPERO database. According to the exclusion/inclusion criteria, 11 studies were eligible for this study out of 808 articles. The meta-analysis of the combined association studies of DNA variations and dental implants did not indicate an increase risk for implant failure due to DNA variations in IL-1B, IL-10 and TNF-α. This study emphasizes the need for larger randomized controlled clinical trails to inform clinicians and patients about the role of genetic factors on dental implant survival and success rate in healthy and compromised patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0003.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: project management; sustainable development; projects; competences; sustained success; sustainability; research university; sustainable university
Online: 1 April 2018 (12:45:02 CEST)
The paradigm that assumes the autonomous management of universities involves them in the redefinition of their policies and processes and the training of their staff, designing new formulas that allow them to adapt to a changing environment. In this context, research and sustainable universities can link with society to solve its problems and influence a responsible and sustainable development. Through a Delphi panel, importance to acquire and improve project management (PM) competences by teaching and research staff (TRS) into innovating education and research projects is measured, from the standard of individual competences (ICB4) of the International Project Management Association (IPMA). Also, internal data sources from the flexible structures of two Spanish universities (the University of Cadiz (UCA) and the Technical University of Madrid (UPM)), are investigated, in order to analyze how they are organized. Thanks to the study of cases, an increasing tendency to work by projects is observed, empowering teams, managing properly stakeholders and facilitating their functions towards society. Likewise, after two rounds of experts’ consultation, consensus is reached with an acceptable and stable level of responses, resulting in confirmation that there is alignment between IPMA competences and TRS’ needs for sustained success in education and research, contributing to universities’ development, improvement and sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0419.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: analytic hierarchy process; call setup success rate; mobile network; quality of service; six sigma
Online: 24 September 2021 (08:29:36 CEST)
Call set up success rate (CSSR) in a mobile network is an important quality parameter, which directly influences overall key performance indicators (KPIs) of the network service providers. Network KPIs especially the CSSR is the fraction of the attempts to make a call that result in a successful connection to the dialled number. Nevertheless, all call attempts do not end with a connection to the dialled number. In this research, six sigma methodology is applied to improve the call quality of a legacy mobile network and subsequently to boost comprehensive CSSR of a telecom service provider. This research elucidates an empirical study of improving overall CSSR by employing DMAIC methodology consisting of five stages, e.g. Define, Measure, Analysis, Improve and Control. In addition, analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique is used for determining the vital causes out of all the identified network parameters affecting overall CSSR. Furthermore, the identified vital parameters are being upgraded in order to improve the overall CSSR and finally the system achieved a higher CSSR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0703.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: tympanic membrane; chronic perforation; fat myringoplasty; success rate; middle ear packing; fibrin glue packing
Online: 30 July 2021 (13:25:54 CEST)
Background: To date, FM using middle ear packing has rarely reported. In this study, we hypothesized that middle ear packing with dexamethasone soaked gelfoam and fibrin glue over the fat graft could promote the success rate of TMP closure regardless of perforation size. Methods: Between January 2005 and July 2020, a total of 209 patients who underwent fat myringoplasty due to chronic TMP at tertiary referral center were encountered and analyzed. The success rate and audiologic outcome was analyzed. Results: The mean successful TM closure rate was 88.0 %. The success rate by different age generation was not significant difference. The size of the perforation grade showed no significant difference. The perforation site by anterior or posterior was not significant. The preoperative mean threshold of AC, BC and ABG were 55.71, 12.98 and 42.73 dB respectively. The postoperative mean threshold of AC, BC and ABG were 23.67, 12.98 and 10.69 dB. The change of preoperative and postoperative hearing showed statistically significant. Conclusion: From our results, the simple trimming of the perforation edge and middle ear packing with external ear canal packing using fibrin glue induced the stable adhesion between the remnant TM and the fat graft.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0051.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: socio-demographic positions; socio-demographic success; socio-demographic evolution; socio-demographic hierarchy; analytical measures
Online: 16 December 2020 (12:11:53 CET)
Socio-demography of statuses reflects the demographic and social roles and achievements of an individual(s) in a population. In the theoretical frameworks, little was known about the theory, analytical measures, and evolutionary mechanism of the socio-demographics of statuses of an individual(s). In this paper, three (3) methodological issues regarding the concept of socio-demographics were proposed, these are: (a) identified the basic features that clarify our understanding about the conception of the socio-demographic statuses of an individual(s) as common, universal, and desirable positions, achievements, and advantages every individual strives and competes to attain, achieve, maintain, update, and upgrade which are determined by biological and social environments, driven and regulated by a continuum of competitions and natural selections; (b) presented a new paradigm of analytical measures of an individual’s socio-demographic statuses and the established hierarchical transitions; (c) proposed theoretical assumptions for the evolution of a socio-demographically unique population. Seven (7) factors (the driving forces) and eight (8) conditions responsible for the evolution of socio-demographically unique populations were identified and explained. The evolutionary transitions were organized into six (6) socio-demographic ranks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0418.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: geological risk; pre-Neogene basement; radioactive waste; waste disposal; Northern Croatia; Probability of Success (PoS)
Online: 26 May 2020 (04:11:18 CEST)
The basic principles of geological risk calculation through Probability of Success (PoS) are mostly applied for numerical estimation of additional hydrocarbon existence in proven reservoirs or potential hydrocarbon discoveries in selected geological regional subsurface volume. It can be tailored and validated for a comprehensive input dataset collected in the selected petroleum province, adapted by dividing up geological events into several probability categories and classes. The most applied categories are (existence of) reservoir rocks, traps and isolators, source rocks, migration pathways and preservation conditions for hydrocarbons The methodology results in unique probability values as multiplication of independent statistical events, which can also be applied in the assessment of a potential hydrocarbon discovery of desired minimal volume and its value in any virtual currency like risk-neutral dollars. Such methodology has been extensively developed in the last decades in the Croatian subsurface, mostly in the Croatian part of the Pannonian Basin System (CPBS). Through the adaptation of geological categories, it was also applied in hybrid, i.e., stochastical, models developed in the CPBS (Drava Depression). Stochastically estimation of porosity was already applied. As the robustness of this methodology is very high, it was also modified to estimate the influence of water-flooding in increasing oil recovery in some proven Neogene sandstone reservoirs in the CPBS (Sava Depression). This new modification is being presented to be applied to geological risk calculation, intending to assess the safety of geological environment in deep wells, where depleted radioactive fuel would be disposed, a subject of great importance. The case study encompassed the magmatic and metamorphic rocks in the pre-Neogene basement of the CPBS. For disposal purpose, these are regionally lithologies considered as to be the safest ones considering petrophysical values, water saturation, recent weathering and tectonic activity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0068.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Analytical Hierarchy process; AHP; fuzzy; project management; risk prioritization; critical success factors; ETL; MCDM; TOPSIS
Online: 5 December 2019 (11:30:08 CET)
Today project management in every field of life is prerequisite for the success of project by increasing quality reduces cost and schedule. But selecting tools and techniques to achieve our objectives and implement our plan fully is very difficult task because choice creates complexity. So, we discuss AHP to make decision simple. Ranking critical success factor, cloud computing services, risk prioritization, selection of right ETL software and many other systems AHP plays its important role. For the improvement of today’s complex systems it is very important to prioritize and select projects to remove the root cause of the problem. To attain the right selection of construction equipment for carrying out schedule tasks with high efficiency, production and financial capability is the main purpose of procurement of construction equipment process. Certain conflicts can occur due to the construction of UML models in a collaborative way. AHP is used to remove these conflicts and for establishing and evaluating modelers judgments. Nowadays it is very important and critical decision to choose the best option from multiple alternatives for a successful career after passing 12th standard and also it affects our future. “AHP and TOPSIS” methods are used for this purpose. In this paper, an “AHP and Fuzzy AHP” based hierarchical trust model has been used to rate the service providers and their various plans for infrastructure as a service.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0096.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: primary open-angle glaucoma; minimally invasive glaucoma surgery; ab interno trabeculectomy; intraocular pressure; success rate
Online: 11 January 2018 (04:01:57 CET)
To evaluate the 2-year efficacy and safety of ab interno trabeculectomy with the Trabectome in Chinese primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients. This was a multicenter, retrospective study and included POAG patients with or without visually-significant cataracts. The primary outcome was intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction. Secondary outcomes included reduction of glaucoma medications, surgical complications, and success at 2-years. Success was defined as: 1) IOP < 21 mmHg and at least 20% IOP reduction from baseline after 3 months at any two consecutive visits, and 2) no additional glaucoma surgery required. A total of 42 patients were enrolled; thirteen had a history of failed glaucoma surgery. Twelve patients underwent Trabectome surgery combined with phacoemulsification while the remainder underwent Trabectome surgery alone. Overall, the mean preoperative IOP was 21.4±1.23 mmHg. The Trabectome lowered IOP to 18.5± 0.94 mmHg at 2 years (P<0.05). The number of glaucoma medications also decreased from a baseline of 2.0±0.9 to 1.2± 0.21 at 2 years (P=0.04). The overall success was 78%, with patients undergoing combined surgery having a higher success than those with Trabectome surgery alone (100% vs. 76%). No major complications were seen. The Trabectome appears to be an efficient and safe procedure in Chinese POAG patients in the long-term.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0753.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: student relationship management; critical success factors; knowledge management; employees’ involvement; student orientation; SRM technology; confirmatory factor analysis
Online: 2 November 2018 (04:04:24 CET)
Due to the upward trend in the globalization of sustainability issues and the intense competitive environment, it is evident that higher education institutions need new strategic approaches to succeed. To this end, the inquiry for this paper has been made into the debate about student relationship management. Going through the literature indicates that institutions have mainly perceived the concept as a technological initiative for solving the problems in individual domains, accompanied by uncoordinated efforts. Thus, the aims of this study are to theoretically present critical success factors of this strategic approach and to empirically examine the recognized factors. To do so, confirmatory factor analysis that is a quantitative analytic method was performed. The results and analyses revealed that there has been a significant correlation between the four critical success factors including knowledge management, student relationship management technology, student orientation, and employees’ involvement. It was also found that these factors are significantly correlated with the construct of student relationship management success. The findings have consequently highlighted that in addition to the technological tool, the role of knowledge management, employees’ involvement, and student orientation appeared to be particularly important for the implementation of the application.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0033.v2
Subject: Keywords: system archetypes; the COVID-19; the impacts of the COVID-19; the limits to growth; the success to successful
Online: 8 August 2020 (04:42:04 CEST)
The world has been highly impacted by the COVID-19 as the virus has spread to all continents – about 200 countries in total. The latest update claims about 4,000,000 confirmed cases and about 300,000 confirmed deaths owing to the COVID-19 pandemic. This probably makes the COVID-19 as the most dangerous contagious disease in the era 2000s. Apart from massive publications on this topic, there is no available qualitative analysis that describes the dynamic spreads of the COVID-19 and its impacts on healthcare and the economy. Through the system archetypes analysis, this paper explains that the dynamic spread of the COVID-19 consists of the limits to growth and the success to successful structures. The limits to growth elucidates that more symptomatic and asymptomatic patients owing to infected droplets may be bounded by self-healing and isolated treatments. The success to successful structure explains that once the COVID-19 affects the economy through the lockdown, there will be a limited fund to support the government aids and the aggregate demand. In overall, this paper gives readers simplified holistic insights into understanding the dynamic spread of the COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0157.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: thermal-noise; attack; sampling rate; success rate; simulation; kirchoff—law- johnson-noise KLJN key distribution system; unconditional security; Measurement; evaluation; correct guessing probability
Online: 11 June 2018 (11:55:47 CEST)
A new attack against the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) key distribution system is introduced. The attack is based on 1) Utilizing the dc-voltage-source - which we put at Alice’s end in our mathematical modeling of the attack-that could exist due to errors, imbalances, Electromagnetic interference and etc.2) On studying the number of samples per bit in the security key that the measured Alice/Bob voltages exceeds or falls below a threshold voltage, respectively. The threshold voltage is the average between dc voltages across low and high resistors- generated by a dc-voltage source. We count the number of samples the voltage at Bob’s end (containing both the noise and dc components) exceeds the threshold voltage and how many times it falls below the threshold to judge whether the resistor can be guessed as low or high for every cycle. Also for a pre-specified key-length we count the number of high resistance estimations per bit –at Bob’s end-according to the previous criterion and the non-successful estimations per bit to judge the final guessed resistor value at Alice’s end and Bob’s end, where if we have more bits with most of its measured samples are above the threshold voltage then we will predict Bob’s resistance as high resistance, otherwise we predict Bob’s resistance to be low resistance. The Simulation was conducted and the attack proved that it is successful unless the temperature increased dramatically to ranges more than a threshold temperature ~ Kelvin that increases when the number of samples per bit increases.