ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1527.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Marmaray; railway; challenges
Online: 21 June 2023 (10:28:40 CEST)
The railway infrastructure has played a crucial role in urban development since its inception in the 19th century. This article aims to show how the transformations resulting from the implementa-tion of this transport system have had a particular impact on the city of Istanbul, considering a technical, an engineering and the heritage perspective. To achieve this, an exhaustive review of collected drawings, articles and reports has been carried out since 2012, while starting to work on the architectural coordination of the project. These documents reflect how the Marmaray project covers different aspects, such as materials, signage, civil protection and landscaping. The results obtained demonstrate how a railway infrastructure project not only improves the technical and operational efficiency of traffic in the city, but also protects the natural and historical heritage. As a main conclusion of this investigation, it highlights the necessity for proper coordination between technical interventions in the infrastructure and a comprehensive and integrated strategy that encompasses both the heritage and the urban landscape of Istanbul.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1391.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: data extraction; data mining; railway infrastructure costs; infrastructure costs data analysis; cost analysis
Online: 18 August 2023 (16:03:08 CEST)
The capability of extracting information and analyze it into a common format is essential for performing predictions, comparing projects through cost benchmarking, and for having a deeper understanding of the project costs. However, the lack of standardization and the manual inclusion of the data makes this process very time-consuming, unreliable, and inefficient. To tackle this problem, a novel approach with a big impact is presented combining the benefits of data mining, statistics, and machine learning to extract and analyze the information related to railway costs infrastructure data. To validate the suggested approach, data from 23 real historical projects from the client network rail was extracted, allowing their costs to be comparable. Finally, some machine learning and data analytics methods were implemented to identify the most relevant factors allowing for costs benchmarking. The presented method proves the benefits of data extraction being able to gather, analyze and benchmark each project in an efficient manner, and deeply understand the relationships and the relevant factors that matter in infrastructure costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1160.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: Geographic information system; drainage Basins; morphometric analysis; hazard Degree; north railway; Wadi Malham; ALOS PALSAR
Online: 18 July 2023 (13:30:22 CEST)
The North Railway in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) extends over vast areas, crossing various terrains, including valleys, sand veins, plateaus, and hills. Therefore, the Railway was designed and implemented to suit this environmental diversity under the highest safety standards. However, the Railway may be subject to hazards for various reasons. In general, the possibility of direct surface runoff disasters increases if there are residential areas and facilities within the boundaries of drainage basins. Therefore, these areas should be studied, and the degree of hazard in drainage basins should be accurately determined. Hence, this study analyzed the degree of risk of 14 drainage basins affecting the North Train railway within the Wadi Malham drainage basin, using the risk degree model with eight parameters that have hydrological indications to give an idea of the behavior of direct surface runoff and interfere with increasing the risk of direct surface runoff. Researchers found 28.57% of the total basins in the study area have high-risk basin overall score values, which are basins 6, 7, 13, and 14. It is recommended to estimate the rainfall depth during different return periods, analyze soil permeability and land use classification in the study area, and apply hydrological modeling of drainage basins, which contributes to estimating the volume and peak of direct surface runoff in such arid and semi-arid environments that do not contain hydrometric stations to monitor the runoff. .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1157.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: industrialization; intermediate cities; urbanization; railway station; railway corridor; regional integration
Online: 21 September 2023 (14:10:55 CEST)
This article examines evolution of trans-regional Ethio-Djibouti railway corridor and its impact on urbanization. Exploratory and descriptive research methods were employed to examine the impact of this railway corridor. Case study also applied to examine eight selected intermediate cities. The article points out that, the Ethio-Djibouti railway corridor conceived different kinds of linear urban centers ranging from small towns to intermediate cities around stations. Those urban centers have been attracting industries along their fringes that leads to rural urban continuum ribbon urbanization. As the old railway line deteriorated, these linear urban centers on the railway corridor had also been declining from time to time. In 2011 new project was started to construct the Ethi-Djibouti standard gauge railway parallel to the old railway line. This new standard gauge railway infrastructure adopts ‘peripheral station’ development approach, which provides a room for width expansion for station based urban centers. It also attracts industries in a form of special economic zones, which causes for labour migration from rural and nearby small urban centers that caused rural-urban continuum of ribbon settlement; strengthen trade gate way for the landlocked Ethiopia that caused trans-regional integration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0498.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Railway; Track bed; Track bed failure; Railway track; Track bed failure remedy
Online: 29 September 2021 (14:23:30 CEST)
The polymer cures as it enters the ballast, forming a three-dimensional geo-composite reinforcing cage. Although there will be some adherence to the ballast in dry conditions, the polymer's primary job is to construct this reinforcing cage. Polymer penetration is controlled by altering the rheology of the polymer. The method is also said to include a built-in safety system, with the track reverting to a ballast state in the event of a polymer or geo-composite failure. Many of the sites were considered unmaintainable before the polymer was put. The design method was utilized to forecast track behaviour before and after treatment, allowing the most appropriate polymer rheology, polymer distribution, and loading levels to be designed in order to achieve optimum performance and confirm that the procedure worked. This method can be utilized to tackle these types of long-standing problems by displaying actual polymer application profiles at a typical important location.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0237.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: GPR; NDT; railway; ballast fouling; ballast fragmentation; railway maintenance; transport infrastructure monitoring
Online: 14 October 2019 (09:48:16 CEST)
Effective maintenance of railways requires a comprehensive assessment of the actual condition of the construction materials involved. In this regard, Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) stands as a viable alternative to the invasive and time-consuming traditional techniques for the inspection of these infrastructures. This work reports the experimental activities carried out on a test-site area within a railway depot in Rome, Italy. Specifically, a 30 m-long railway section was divided into 10 sub-sections reproducing different various physical and structural conditions of the track-bed. In more detail, combinations of varying scenarios of fragmentation and fouling of the ballast were reproduced. The set-up was then investigated using different multi-frequency GPR horn antenna systems. The effects of the different physical conditions of ballast on the electromagnetic response of the material were analysed for each scenario using time- and frequency-domain signal processing techniques. Parallel to this, modelling was provided to estimate fouling content. Interpretation of results has proven the viability of the GPR method in detecting signs of decay at the network level, thereby proving this technique to be worthy for implementation in asset management systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0193.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: railway; freight wagon; derailment; safety; assessment
Online: 4 October 2023 (11:18:30 CEST)
The assessment of safety against freight wagons derailment is a mandatory element of the documents provided to the EU notifying authorities for the entry into service of new freight wagons. The assessment methodology is presented in EN 14363:2016. It is mainly aimed at experimental measurement of certain parameters and the data are used to calculate the safety criterion. The practical implementation of the tests is accompanied by many difficulties: finding a track with a proper radius, ensuring free access to the railway infrastructure for a long period of time, waiting for suitable metrological conditions, preparation of the curve and the test wagon etc. These difficulties are well known to the European legislators, and as a solution they propose a large set of reference wagons that have undergone real tests. It is sufficient to demonstrate that the parameters of the new wagon relate to some of reference wagon parameters to avoid such a requirement. Proving the "convergence" of the parameters of the new and the reference wagons is a lengthy, complex and, in many cases, subjective process. To introduce an objective assessment, the authors set themselves the task of developing a theoretical method for assessment of safety against derailment.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0241.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Bacillus subtilis; bioemulsifier; enrichment; railway soil
Online: 14 September 2021 (12:58:40 CEST)
A novel enrichment combined with a rapid screening method was employed to isolate bioemulsifying strains of Bacillus subtilis. Among a total of twenty isolates from railway soil at six geographically distant sites, ten produced bioemulsifiers for soybean oil and crude oil. Qualitative drop-collapse assays indicated the bioemulsifiers were surfactants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0332.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: railway; fatigue; ultrasonic; nonlinear; wave mixing
Online: 29 July 2019 (06:10:25 CEST)
Nonlinear ultrasonic testing has been accepted as a promising manner for evaluating material integrity in an early stage. Stress fatigue is the main threats to train safety, railways examinations for stress fatigue are more significant and necessary. A series of ultrasonic nonlinear wave experiments are conducted for rail specimens extracted from railhead with different degree of fatigue produced by three-point bent loading condition. The nonlinear parameter is the indicator of nonlinear waves for expressing the degree the fatigue. The experimental results show that the sensitivity of a third harmonic longitudinal wave is higher than second harmonic longitudinal wave testing. As the same time, collinear wave mixing shows strong relative with fatigue damages than a second longitudinal wave NDT method and provides more reliable results than third harmonic longitudinal waves nonlinear testing method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0227.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: railway noise; railway vibration; squeal noise vibration; screeching noise vibration; impact noise vibration; abatement; mitigation; life cycle analysis
Online: 29 August 2016 (12:39:40 CEST)
The railway industry focus in the past years was to research, find and develop methods to mitigate noise and vibration resulted from wheel/rail contact along track infrastructure. This resulted in a wide range of abatement measures that are available for the professionals of the industry today. However, although there are many options in the market, their practical implementations depend upon general constraints that affect most technological application in the engineering world. The progression of these technologies have facilitated the selection of more adequate methods for each best case scenario, but further studies are ought to be made to proper assess if each one is fit for their purpose. Every method implementation must be analyzed through budget and timeframe limitations, which includes building, maintenance and inspection costs and time allocation, while also aiming to meet different benefits, such as environmental impact control and wear of the whole infrastructure. There are several situations and facilities in a railway project design that need noise and vibration mitigation methods and each design allocates different priorities for each one of them. Traditionally the disturbance caused by railways to the community are generated by wheel/rail contact sound radiation that expresses in different ways, depending on the movement of the rolling stock and track alignment, such as rolling noise, impact noise and curve noise. More specifically, in special trackworks such as turnouts, the main area of this study, there are two noises types that must be evaluated: impact noise and screeching noise. With respect to the second, it is similar to curve squeals and, being such, its mitigation methods are to be assigned as if it was to abate curve squeal in turnouts and crossings. The impact noise on the other hand, emerges from the sound made by the rolling stock moving through joints and discontinuities (i.e. gaps) that composes these special components of a railway track. A life cycle analysis is therefore substantial for this reality and in this case will be applied to Squeal and Impact Noise on Special Trackwork. The evaluation is based on a valid literature review and the total costs were assumed by industry reports to maintain coherency. The period for a life cycle analysis is usually of 50 years, hence it was the value assumed. As for the general parameters, an area with high density of people was considered to estimate the values for a community with very strict limits for noise and vibration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0966.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: transition zones; railway bridges; monitoring and in-situ expertise; railway track stiffness; geometric position of the track; height deformation
Online: 14 July 2023 (05:46:21 CEST)
The subject of the research is the investigation of the behavior of railway tracks in locations with a significant change in the stiffness of the track. These locations can be designed from various structural elements and their materials, and this mainly results in a height change of the track level during its operation. These transition zones are monitored and expertly examined in order to detect undesirable deformations of the geometrical position of the track caused by the trains running. The transition zones are at the points where the fixed track transitions to the classic track bed, in our case it is their combination with bridge structures, especially at their supports. In Slovakia, under the conditions of the Railways of the Slovak Republic, the issue is topical within the framework of the modernization of trans-European railway corridors. The results of experimental measurements and their analysis will provide relevant data for subsequent research solutions for their new numerical modeling, which will ensure a smooth passage through these points of change without height fluctuations, vibrations, and shocks from the wheels of train sets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0171.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: coal tailing; cement; pozzolan; sleepers; slab track; railway
Online: 27 November 2017 (07:31:37 CET)
One source of kaolinite-rich wastes is from mine tailings and the generation of enormous volumes of mine tailings waste is standard practice in this industry. These volumes of waste are, at present, dumped, provoking significant environmental impact and transforming the environment. The impact of storing coal waste requires the study of eco-innovative solutions for the assessment of waste types. The present investigation has the objective of expanding the knowledge on the behavior of new siliceous-aluminum minerals with pozzolanic activity, of added value in the manufacture of similar cements. Four samples were characterized to determine their chemical, morphological and mineralogical composition. The samples were subjected to different thermal activation conditions for the transformation of an inert waste into a material with cementitious properties. XRD analysis have confirmed the total transformation of kaolinite into metakaolinite. The results have shown that after the activation process, the coal refuse presented good pozzolanic activity, meaning that it may be used as a pozzolanic addition in industrial cements, thereby removing high levels of contaminated waste from the environment. In subsequent investigations, research work will continue with the replication of cements with this pozzolanic addition for use in the manufacture of sleepers and slab track railway system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0334.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: railway; track; sustainability; materials; maintenance; monitoring; circular economy; LCA
Online: 7 November 2023 (02:49:46 CET)
Rail, as the cleanest and greenest high-volume transport, has a central role in the decarbonizing, and it is expected to become the backbone of future mobility in the world. It is worthy to highlight that rail generates the lowest CO2 emissions and energy consumption in operation with respect to the other transportation modes but during construction and maintenance phases CO2 emission, energy consumption and other environmental impacts are significant and need to be carefully assessed and properly mitigated. This paper, based on an extensive literature review, provides a comprehensive framework of trends and challenge in railway sustainability. Attention is focused on track and related materials, maintenance strategies, and methods of assessment of the sustainability. Results show that improvement of materials and practices used in construction and appropriate strategies in maintenance, supported by effective monitoring of the state of the track, can reduce the negative effects on the environment and society and contributes to make this transportation mode greener. Proper methods for the assessment of the sustainability, (LCA, Circularity Index) help to quantify the potential of environmental enhancement of different solutions and constitute effective and indispensable tools in the decision-making process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0483.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: locomotive; railway track; wheelset; dynamic characteristics; dynamic coefficient; analysis.
Online: 7 September 2023 (04:24:46 CEST)
In the interaction of the rolling stock and the upper structure of the railway track, intense dynamic loads occur. They have a destructive effect both on the parts of the rolling stock and on the elements of the superstructure of the track. In order to develop a durable, rational and reliably functioning design of cars and locomotives with good dynamic properties and good indicators of the impact of rolling stock on the railway track, along with theoretical computational studies, experimental studies are also required, which are usually the final stage in the design and implementation of rolling stock or modernization of existing ones. Locomotives and wagons in order to improve their strength and dynamic performance. The article presents the results of field tests to determine the dynamic performance of the type CKD6e diesel locomotive. The description of the preparation of the CKD6e shunting locomotive for testing is given. An analysis of the dynamic performance of a diesel locomotive during the passage of turnouts, on a straight section of the track and in a curve with a radius of 400 m, was carried out. The studies performed showed that the minimum value of the stability factor against wheel derailment on a straight section of the track is significantly higher than the standard value. The experimentally obtained ratio of frame forces to the static load from the wheelset on the rails, the coefficients of vertical dynamics of the first and second stages of suspension and the coefficient of stability against derailment of the wheel from the rail, registered on the track section in a curve with a radius of 400 m) meet the current requirements. A calculation scheme and equations of vertical oscillations are proposed, an analysis is carried out according to the graphs of movements of bogies and a locomotive body when moving along irregularities of different lengths at different speeds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0912.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Deep Learning; MobileNetV3; Morphological algorithm; Railway extraction; Aerial Imagery
Online: 13 July 2023 (11:00:14 CEST)
Extracting railway tracks is crucial for creating electronic railway maps. Traditional methods require significant manual labor and resources, while existing neural networks have limitations in efficiency and precision. To address these challenges, a railway track extraction method using an improved DeepLabV3+ model is proposed, which incorporates several key enhancements. Firstly, the encoder part of the method utilizes the lightweight network MobileNetV3 as the backbone extraction network for DeepLabV3+. Secondly, the decoder part adopts the lightweight universal upsampling operator CARAFE for upsampling. Lastly, to address any potential extraction errors, morphological algorithms are applied to optimize the extraction results. Additionally, a dedicated railway track segmentation dataset is created to train and evaluate the proposed method. The experimental results demonstrate that the model achieves impressive performance on the railway track segmentation dataset and DeepGlobe dataset. The MIoU scores are 88.93% and 84.72%, with Recall values of 89.02% and 86.96%. Moreover, the overall accuracy stands at 97.69% and 94.84%. The algorithm's operation time is about 5% lower in comparison to the original network. Furthermore, the morphological algorithm effectively eliminates errors like holes and spots. These findings indicate the model's accuracy, efficiency, and the enhancement brought by the morphological algorithm in error elimination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci1020052
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: bainite; submerged arc welding; hardfacing; reprofiling; railway wheel; wear
Online: 4 September 2019 (00:00:00 CEST)
When a railway vehicle moves on a curved rail, sliding contact occurs between the rail head side and wheel flange, which wears the wheel flange down. The thinned flange needs to be restored above the required minimum thickness for structural safety. In this study, a new process and welding wire for restoring worn-out railway wheels by submerged arc welding was developed. To characterize the properties of the restored wheel, dilatometric analysis of phase transformation, SEM/EDX analyses, hardness measurement, and residual stress measurement using the X-ray diffraction method were performed. Finally, wear tests with full-size wheel/rail specimens were carried out. It was confirmed that the weld metal was composed of bainitic microstructures as intended, and welding defects were not observed. The wear amount of the restored wheel was greater than that of the base material, but it was less than half of the wear depth of the weld-repaired wheel with ferritic–pearlitic microstructures. The developed process seems applicable to industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0008.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: railway; derailment; safety; assessment; long rails transportation; FEM; beam element
Online: 1 December 2023 (05:17:05 CET)
The study proposes a theoretical method for evaluating the 'safety against derailment' indicator of a specialized train composition for the transportation of very long rails. A composition of nine wagons, suitable for the transportation of rails with a length of 120 m, is considered. For the remaining recommended rail lengths, the number of wagons is reduced or increased, the method being modified depending on the required configuration. In accordance with the requirements of EN 14363:2019, the composition is in a curve with a radius of R=150 m. The rails bend, some of them contact the vertical stanchions of the wagon and cause additional transverse forces, which are balanced in the rail track. This is a prerequisite for derailment of the vehicle. The goal of the study is to determine the additional transverse forces that arise because of the bent rails. The task is statically indeterminate, and considering the dimensions of the rails, its solution becomes seriously difficult. For the purposes of the study, the finite element method was used. Based on the displacements of the support points of the rails (caused by the geometry of the curve) the bending line of the elastic load is determined and the forces in the supports are calculated. A group of five rails is considered, with results multiplied proportionally for cases other than five. The resulting forces are considered when determining the derailment safety criterion defined by EN 14363:2019.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1512.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: environmental noise measurement; spectral analysis; sound measurement devices; railway transport
Online: 22 September 2023 (11:16:32 CEST)
Environmental pollution by noise is one of the most serious health threats nowadays. The impact of noise on the human body depends not only on the sound level but also on its spectral distribution. Reliable measurements of the environmental noise spectrum are often hampered by the very high price of top quality measuring devices. This paper explores the possibility of using much cheaper audio recorders for frequency analysis. Comparative research were performed in laboratory and field conditions, which showed that, with some limitations, these devices can be useful for the needs of environmental noise frequency analysis. This fact gives an opportunity for reduce the cost of noise analysis experimental work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1397.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Relation extraction; Subject feature; Attention mechanism; Railway traffic in Tibet
Online: 21 September 2023 (03:30:34 CEST)
To address the deficiency of existing relation extraction models in effectively extracting relational triplets pertaining to railway traffic knowledge in Tibet, this paper constructs a Tibet Railway Traffic text dataset and provides an enhanced relation extraction model. The proposed model incorporates subject feature enhancement and relational attention mechanisms. It leverages a pre-trained model as the embedding layer to obtain vector representations of text. Subsequently, the subject is extracted and its semantic information is augmented using an LSTM neural network. Furthermore, during object extraction, the multi-head attention mechanism enables the model to prioritize relations associated with the aforementioned features. Finally, objects are extracted based on the subjects and relations. The proposed method has been comprehensively evaluated on multiple datasets, including the Tibet Railway Traffic text dataset and two public datasets. The results on the Tibet dataset achieves an F1-score of 93.3\%, surpassing the baseline model CasRel by 0.8\%, indicating a superior applicability of the proposed model. On the other hand, the model achieves F1-scores of 91.1\% and 92.6\% on two public datasets, NYT and WebNLG, respectively, outperforming the baseline CasRel by 1.5\% and 0.8\%, which highlights the good generalization ability of the proposed model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0060.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Railway crossing; obstacle detection; renewable energy; hybrid system; sustainable development.
Online: 3 February 2022 (15:36:46 CET)
Bangladesh's railway system mostly uses typical manual railway crossing technique or boom gates through its 2,955.53 km rail route all over the country. The accidents are frequently happening in the railway crossings due to not having obstacle detectable and quickly operating gate systems, and also for fewer safety measures in the railway crossing. Currently, there are very few automatic railway crossing systems (without obstacle detectors) available, however, all of them are dependent on the national power grid without a backup plan for any emergency cases. Bangladesh is still running a bit behind in the power generation of its consumption, hence it is not possible to have a continuous power supply at all times all over the countryside. We aim to design and develop a smart railway crossing system with an obstacle detector to prevent common types of accidents in the railway crossing points. We design to use two infrared (IR) sensors to operate the railway crossing systems which will be controlled by the Arduino Uno. This newly designed level crossing system will be run with the help of sustainable renewable energy which is cost-effective, eco-friendly, and apply under the national green energy policy towards achieving sustainable development in Bangladesh as a part of the global sustainable goal to face climate change challenges. We have summarized the simulated results of several renewable energy sources including a hybrid system and optimized the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE), and the payback periods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0165.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: railway transportation; time-space network; dynamic bottleneck; car flow organization
Online: 15 April 2019 (11:44:10 CEST)
In this paper, the physical station of space network was extended in time dimension by combining the train diagram information and station technical operation standard time. At the same time, the topology of railway space-time network which considered the secondary operation process of train was constructed and an improved A* algorithm based on car flow routing was proposed to generate feasible path sets. On this basis, a dynamic car flow organization optimization model was built to simulate the railway car flow organization process under abnormal conditions, and the results of solving the model could be used to obtain the real-time quantity of cars at each station.This paper can identify the dynamic bottleneck by comparing the real-time quantity of cars with the maximum quantity of cars at the station. Finally, the feasibility of this method was analyzed and verified by a case.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0161.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: railway; trains; rolling stocks; recycling; reuse; life cycle; environmental benefit
Online: 23 December 2016 (10:45:48 CET)
This review paper highlights feasible and practicable approaches for managing end-of-life rolling stocks. It aims to promote and enable sustainable procurement policy for rolling stocks. Firstly, it demonstrates that modern rolling stocks can potentially gain the environmental benefits since almost all of their materials used in the rolling stock manufacturing can be recycled and reused. In this study, brief definition and concept of various train types are introduced and discussed, accompanied by some demonstrative illustrations. Then, component analyses, recovery rates and percent proportion of each material in various rolling stock assemblies have been evaluated. The estimation of material quantities that can potentially be recycled has been carried out using industry data sources. The suitable management procedures for end-of-life rail vehicles are then discussed, together with the life cycle of the key materials in which the recyclability criteria take into account the environmental risks and the best and safest approaches to deal with them. The aim of this study is to increase the awareness of the public, train manufacturers and rail industries on the benefits to the environments from rolling stock recycling, which could result in sustainable society and urban livings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1952.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Crack Detection; Crack Quantification; Deep Learning; Dense U-net; Railway Sleeper
Online: 30 November 2023 (10:08:49 CET)
Crack inspection in railway sleepers is crucial for ensuring rail safety and avoiding deadly accidents. Traditional methods for detecting cracks on railway sleepers are very time-consuming and lack efficiency. Therefore nowadays, researchers are paying attention to the vision-based algorithm, especially Deep Learning algorithms. In this work, we adopted the U-net for the first time for detecting cracks on a railway sleeper and proposed a modified U-net architecture named Dense U-net for segmenting the cracks. In the Dense U-net structure, we established several short connections between the encoder and decoder blocks, which enabled the architecture to obtain better pixel information flow. Thus, the model extracted the necessary information in more detail to predict the cracks. We collected images from railway sleepers, processed them in a dataset, and finally trained the model with the images. The model achieved an overall F1-score, precision, Recall, and IoU of 86.5% 88.53%, 84.63%, and 76.31% respectively. We compared our suggested model with the original U-net, and the results demonstrate that our model outperformed the U-net in both quantitative and qualitative results. Moreover, we considered the necessity of crack severity analysis and measured a few parameters of the cracks (e.g., length, maximum width, area, density). The engineers must know the severity of the cracks to have an idea about the most severe locations and take the necessary steps to repair the badly affected sleepers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0168.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: urban railway track; DC power system; stray current mitigation; corrosion; stray current
Online: 2 August 2023 (07:50:15 CEST)
Stray currents can cause very rapid degradation and material loss at the points where the current leaves the metal and enters the electrolyte. Nowadays, many resources are invested in the protection of jeopardized structures, such as buried pipelines, from stray current corrosion. This paper describes the measures that need to be considered in the design and construction of track structures to ensure high rail-to-ground resistance and consequently reduce stray currents. The main conclusions from existing guidelines and standards for reducing and controlling stray currents that are applied by various track operators are presented in the paper. Rail-to-ground resistance in different types of tracks structures and rail fastening systems is analysed and optimal type of the track and type of the fastening system is defined. The grounding schemes used on the tracks and their influence on stray current values are described, as well as the influence of traction power substation and rail cross bonding on stray current. Since it is not necessary to apply all the measures described to the same track structure, the paper gives recommendations on which measures to apply when building tracks with continuously fastened rails and which to apply when building tracks with discretely supported and fastened rails.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1666.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Railway bridge dynamics; track-bridge interaction; vehicle-bridge interaction; coupling beam modeling
Online: 23 June 2023 (11:33:15 CEST)
In the computational prediction of bridge vibrations due to high-speed train traffic, the most accurate results can be obtained by considering the interaction dynamics between the train, the superstructure, and the supporting structure. To achieve this, a detailed understanding of the coupling properties of all elements is crucial as they significantly influence the calculated vibrations. The studies in this article investigate the influence of different levels of modeling complexity on the computational acceleration results of single-span girder bridges with a ballasted superstructure. A numerical study on an extensive parameter field of single-span girder bridges is conducted to investigate the influence of modeling the bridge structures as coupling beams, i.e., by considering them as two vertically coupled beams representing the track (rails and sleepers) and the supporting structure. The connection between both beams reflects the stiffness and damping properties of the ballasted superstructure and can reproduce its load-distribution capacity. The excitation is applied as either a moving load or a multi-body model of the train, an Austrian Railjet, to evaluate interdependencies of interaction effects between the vehicle and track, and between track and bridge structure. The reference model is a simply-supported Bernoulli-Euler beam excited by moving axle loads. The comparison of acceleration results allows for identifying critical combinations of structural and train parameters for which the implementation of interaction dynamics has a particularly significant impact on the calculated vibrations and quantifying that impact. These findings provide the possibility of formulating structure-dependent recommendations concerning the targeted application of more complex modeling of the structure (coupling beam model) on the one hand and train (multi-body model) on the other.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0345.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Electrified railway; Fourier transform; Harmonic resonance; Overvoltage; Power Quality; Traction power supply
Online: 15 July 2021 (09:35:34 CEST)
Harmonic resonances are part of the Power Quality (PQ) problems of electrified railways and have serious consequences for the continuity of service and integrity of components in terms of overvoltage stress. The interaction between Traction Power Stations (TPSs) and trains that causes line resonances is briefly reviewed showing the dependence on infrastructure conditions. The objective is real-time monitoring of resonance conditions seen first of all from the onboard panto-graph interface, but it is equally applicable at TPS terminals. Voltage and current spectra, and de-rived impedance and power spectra, are analyzed proposing compact and efficient methods based on Short-Time Fourier Transform, suitable for real-time implementation with the hardware avail-able for energy metering and harmonic interference monitoring. The methods are tested by sweeping long recordings taken at some European railways, covering cases of longer and shorter supply sections, with a range of resonance frequencies of about one decade. They give insight into the spectral behavior of resonances, their dependency on position and change over time, and criteria to recognize genuine infrastructure resonances from rolling stock emissions.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0047.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Concrete sleeper; crosstie; design standard; holes; web opening; railway infrastructure; static performance
Online: 5 August 2016 (08:06:33 CEST)
Prestressed concrete sleepers (or railroad ties) are principally designed in order to carry wheel loads from the rails to the ground of railway tracks. Their design takes into account static and dynamic loading conditions. In spite of the most common use of the prestressed concrete crossties in railway tracks, there have always been many demands from rail engineers to improve serviceability and functionality of concrete crossties. For example, signaling, fiber optic, equipment cables are often damaged either by ballast corners or by tamping machine. There has been a need to re-design concrete crosstie to cater cables internally so that they would not experience detrimental or harsh environments. Also, many concrete crossties need a retrofit for automatic train control device and similar signaling equipment. In contrast, the effects of holes and web openings on structural capacity of concrete crossties have not been thoroughly investigated. This paper accordingly highlights the effect of holes and web openings on the toughness and ductility of concrete crossties. The outcome of this research enables better decision making process for retrofiting prestressed concrete crossties with holes and web opening in practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0088.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: classification; railway; power line; mobile laser scanning data; conditional random field; layout compatibility
Online: 26 September 2016 (09:33:05 CEST)
Railway has been used as one of the most crucial means of transportation in public mobility and economic development. For efficiently operating railways, the electrification system in railway infrastructure, which supplies electric power to trains, is essential facilities for stable train operation. Due to its important role, the electrification system needs to be rigorously and regularly inspected and managed. This paper presents a supervised learning method to classify Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS) data into ten target classes representing overhead wires, movable brackets and poles, which are recognized key objects in the electrification system. In general, the layout of railway electrification system shows a strong regularity of spatial relations among object classes. The proposed classifier is developed based on Conditional Random Field (CRF), which characterizes not only labeling homogeneity at short range, but also the layout compatibility between different object classes at long range in the probabilistic graphical model. This multi-range CRF model consists of a unary term and three pairwise contextual terms. In order to gain computational efficiency, MLS point clouds is converted into a set of line segments where the labeling process is applied. Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used as a local classifier considering only node features for producing the unary potentials of CRF model. As the short-range pairwise contextual term, Potts model is applied to enforce a local smoothness in short-range graph. While, long-range pairwise potentials are designed to enhance spatial regularities of both horizontal and vertical layouts among railway objects. We formulate two long-range pairwise potentials as the log posterior probability obtained by Naïve Bayes classifier. The directional layout compatibilities are characterized in probability look-up tables which represent co-occurrence rate of spatial relations in horizontal and vertical directions. The likelihood function is formulated by multivariate Gaussian distributions. In the proposed multi-range CRF model, the weight parameters to balance four sub-terms are estimated by applying the Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD). The results show that the proposed multi-range CRF can effectively classify detailed railway elements, representing the average recall of 97.66% and the average precision of 97.07% for all classes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0750.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: integral transforms; contour integration; ballasted railway track; critical velocity; instability of moving inertial objects
Online: 13 September 2023 (02:25:59 CEST)
Ballasted railway tracks can be modelled using reduced/simplified models composed of several layers of discrete components. This paper deals with the two-layer model, which is very popular due to its computational efficiency. In order to provide some recommendations for track design, it is necessary to identify which set of parameters leads to some irregular/unexpected behavior. Such irregularity is investigated at three levels, such as: (i) critical velocity of moving constant force; (ii) instability of a single moving mass; (iii) instability of two moving masses. All results are presented in dimensionless form to cover a wide range of real parameters. Irregular cases are identified by sets of parameters leading to them and then general conclusions are drawn. Regarding the method, all results are obtained analytically or semianalytically, where “semi” refers to solving the roots of a given polynomial by predefined numerical procedures in symbolic software. No numerical integration is involved in all results presented. This means that the results are highly accurate and refer to exact values, so any kind of parametric or sensitivity analyses is readily possible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1092.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: high-speed railway; quality of urbanization; dynamic network; improved social network analysis; spatial econometric model
Online: 18 September 2023 (02:54:48 CEST)
Applying the improved social network analysis method and the idea of rolling window regression, this paper explores the impact of HSR network on the quality of urbanization and its dynamics. Based on a sample of 273 cities in China over 2009–2019, we find that the high-speed railway network has an increasing positive effect on the quality of urbanization, which proves the existence of network effect. The empirical results further show that this effect is closely related to the cov-erage rate of high-speed rail network. In addition, heterogeneity analysis reveals that urban ag-glomeration cities are the main beneficiaries. Academically, our study provides a plausible expla-nation and evidence from network size differences for the two conflicting views of the HSR effect. Practically, we also propose some important policy implications for countries in different high-speed rail network construction stages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1742.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Machine learning; ground vibration; on-site experiment; random forest; Bayesian optimization; elevated high-speed railway
Online: 26 June 2023 (05:11:33 CEST)
Aiming at the prediction of environmental vibrations induced by elevated high-speed railway, a machine-learning method is developed by combining random forest algorithm and Bayesian optimization, which using the dataset from on-site experiments . When it comes to achieving a rapid and effective prediction of environmental vibration, there is few research on com-parisons and verifications of different algorithms, and neither on parameter tuning and optimi-zation of machine learning algorithms. In this paper, a field experiment is firstly carried out to measure the ground vibrations caused by high-speed trains running on bridge, and then the en-vironmental vibration characteristics are analyzed in view of ground accelerations and weighted vibration levels. Subsequently, three machine-learning algorithms of linear regression, support vector machine and random forest are developed by using experimental database, and their prediction performance are discussed. Finally, two optimization models for the hyperparameter set of random forest algorithm are further compared. It turns out that the integrated random forest algorithm has higher accuracy in predicting environmental vibration than linear regression and support vector machine; the Bayesian optimization has excellent performance and high efficiency in achieving efficient and in-depth optimization of parameters, and can be combined with the RF machine learning algorithm to effectively predict the environmental vibrations induced by the high-speed railway.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0165.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: free surface; steady state; unsteady state; railway ballast; fouling ratio; specific yield; finite element method
Online: 9 March 2023 (03:31:03 CET)
In this study, a numerical simulation of fluid flow through railway ballast in the time domain is presented, providing a model for unsteady-state flow. It is demonstrated that the position of the free surface with respect to time can also be used to solve the steady flow case. The effect of ballast fouling is included in the model to capture the realistic behavior of railway ballast, which is critical to understanding the impact of flooding. A thorough comparison with a range of previous studies, including theoretical and experimental approaches, is made and very close agreement is obtained. The significant impact of ballast fouling on fluid flow and its potential consequences for railway infrastructure are highlighted by the simulation. Valuable insights into the behavior of water flow through porous media and its relevance to railway ballast management are offered by this study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0454.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: High-speed railway tunnel in cold regions; lining void; stagnant water; excretion coefficient; frost heaving force
Online: 7 December 2023 (09:30:23 CET)
In order to reveal the frost heaving mechanism of void water behind the lining of high-speed railway tunnels in cold regions，the voids were first classified according to the positional relationship between voids and waterproof panels，and then the water supply and discharge conditions of different types of voids were investigated，then the influence of the excretion conditions on the frost heave force was experimentally studied. Based on these conditions，circular wedge-shaped and flying saucer-shaped void freezing models were established to analyze the evolution process of accumulated water frost heave. Then，according to the relative position of the excretion channel and the void，the excretion coefficient was introduced，and the calculation method of the frost heaving force of the voided water was proposed，and the influencing factors and laws of the frost-heave force were revealed. The results are shown as follows: 1) The blockage of the excretion channel will lead to the generation of frost heaving force; 2) The freezing and thawing process of the water within the cavity develops from the thinnest part of the void edge to the thicker part，and the process of frost heave-thaw，water replenishment-re-freeze heave of the water within the cavity leads to greater and greater frost heave force; 3) The frost-heaving force of the water within cavity is controlled by the void height and the position of the excretion channel. The larger the cavity height is or the closer the excretion channel is to the bottom surface of the void，the greater the frost-heave force is.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0019.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Building Information Modeling (BIM); Benefit-Cost Analysis (BCA); Railway construction; Liquidated damage; Infrastructure; Planning and design
Online: 1 October 2018 (16:54:20 CEST)
Recent technological improvements have made abundant changes in construction industry. In specific, some technical applications, such as Building Information Modeling (BIM) opens up many possibilities. Some studies have articulated the use of BIM and its advantages in construction, but most of them are theoretical, not practical. This study is to provide an insight to such obstacles in BIM research. By investigating a real project that could utilize BIM in planning and construction phases, the authors try to investigate a possible outline of advantages in BIM implementation. The study area was set to a railway construction site in South Korea. The site covers a multiple railway tracks, stations, telecommunication facilities, infrastructure facilities, railway structures, and so numerous. In the site, the authors have identified 12 errors in 7 projects that could be prevented if BIM was utilized before the construction. The total upfront costs required to provide a BIM for 7 projects were $116,348. On the other hand, the total costs required to fix the errors in 7 projects were $166,486. This can be regarded as the benefits of using BIM because if BIM was implemented then the associated errors are easily replaced. Therefore, the benefit-cost ratio can be estimated as 1.32 for one-month delay and 1.36 for a three-month delay.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0045.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: railway infrastructure; high-speed rail; tracks; risk; management and monitoring; climate change; global warming; adaptation; operational readiness
Online: 5 August 2016 (05:11:02 CEST)
Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and many of the observed changes are unprecedented over five decades to millennia. Globally the atmosphere and ocean is increasingly getting warmer, the amount of ice on the earth is decreasing over the oceans, and the sea level has risen. According to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the total increasing temperature globally averaged combined land and surface between the average of the 1850-1900 period and the 2003 to 2012 period is 0.78 °C (0.72 to 0.85). But should we prepare for such the relatively small change? The importance is not the mean of the warming but the considerable likelihood of climate change that could trigger extreme natural hazards. The impact and the risk of climate change associated with railway infrastructure have not been fully addressed in the literature due to the difference in local environmental parameters. On the other hand, the current railway network in Malaysia, over the last decade, has been significantly affected by severe weather conditions such as rainfall, lightning, wind and very high temperatures. Our research findings point out the extremes that can lead to asset system failure, degraded operation and ultimately, delays to train services. During the period of flood, the embankment of the track can be swept away and bridge can be demolished, while during drought, the embankment of the track can suffer from soil desiccation and embankment deterioration, high temperature increases the risk of track buckling and high winds can result in vegetation or foreign object incursion on to the infrastructure as well as additional quasi-static burden exerted. This review is of significant importance for planning and design of the newly proposed high speed rail link between Malaysia and Singapore.
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: IRWs (Independently Rotating Wheels); Railway; HILs (Hardware In the Loops Simulation); ITC (Individual Torque Control); TRAM; Motor Control
Online: 11 May 2020 (10:17:52 CEST)
In order to realize the tram's low-floor structure, most of the trams that have been recently introduced adopt an independently rotating wheelset. In the case of trains driving in two regions with different gauges, an independently rotating wheelset may be applied to utilize the variable track technology. Since the independent rotation type wheelset has no rotational restraint of the left and right wheels, the difference in rotational speed between the outer and inner wheels occurs naturally during curved driving, and it is applied to railroad vehicles traveling in steep curve sections because it smoothly drives curved driving. However, the longitudinal creep force and the lateral restoring force are weakened as the left and right rotational constraints disappear. Lack of transverse direction restoring force weakens stability while causing continuous flange contact driving or zigzag phenomenon against disturbance. Under the conditions of driving in a steep curve, these railway vehicles generate excessive wear, noise, and lateral pressure, as well as deterioration of ride comfort and derailment. In order to overcome these drawbacks, a method has been proposed in which the torque of a motor mounted on each wheel is individually controlled to generate lateral restoring force or to improve driving performance through lateral displacement control using a yaw moment. In this paper, development using HILs was performed to check the performance and stability of the individual motor torque control technology before verifying by applying the individual motor torque control to the actual vehicle. HILs were constructed by combining a real-time dynamic analysis model of a railway vehicle with a drive motor to which real individual motor control was applied. Under the conditions of driving the test track where the actual test vehicle was tested, the analysis of the driving characteristics and the control characteristics of the disturbance was performed to confirm the proposed individual motor torque control performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0270.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: three-phase unbalance rate (TPUR); negative phase sequence unbalance rate (NPSUR); special transformer wiring (STW); Railway System Transport Cable (RSTC); Traction Supply Substation (TSS)
Online: 14 December 2021 (15:26:32 CET)
Because imbalanced power will cause the loss of the propulsion motor of the railway vehicle, and the increase in temperature will shorten the service life of the electric vehicle. Not only this, but also increase the cost of electricity and maintenance. In the past, the industry only focused on methods to improve power quality such as load capacity, relay setting, and harmonic resolution. Now, the consider of three-phase unbalance rate (TPUR) must be applied. I propose special transformers wiring (STW) to improve the three unbalance rates and provide different transformer wiring methods. According to the IEEE Committee, in the future, power companies will need to install balanced relay stations to improve three-phase unbalance rate. the internal regulations of Taipower must be less than 4.5% (voltage unbalance rate (NPSUR)of 2.5% and motor temperature rise of 12.5%). the derivation of the transformer "three-phase unbalance rate" model is the focus of the railway system. This research is based on the model derivation of different wiring methods to improve the hot problem caused by the three-phase imbalance and improve the service life of the train. And pointed out that Scott, Le-Blanc, Modified-Woodbridge three wiring methods can be applied to future railway system routes to improve the three-phase unbalance rate, in line with the IEEE standard of less than 2%.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: geographic information fusion; data quality; data consistency checking; historic GIS; railway network; patrimonial data; crowdsourcing open data; volunteer geographic information VGI; wikipedia geo-spatial information extraction.
Online: 17 August 2020 (14:51:04 CEST)
Transportation of goods is as old as human civilizations : past networks and their evolution shed light on long term trends. Transportation impact on climate change is measured as major, as well as the impact on spreading a pandemic. These two reasons motivate the importance of providing relevant and reliable historical geographic datasets of these networks. This paper focuses on reconstructing the railway network in France at its maximal extent, a century ago. The active stations and lines are well documented by the French SNCF, in open public data. However, that information ignores past stations (ante 1980), which represent probably more than what is recorded in public data. Additional open data, individual or collaborative (eg. Wikipedia) are particularly valuable, but they are not always geo-coded, and two more sources are necessary to completing that geo-coding: ancient maps and aerial photography. Therefore, remote sensing and volunteer geographic information are the two pillars of past railway reconstruction. The methods developed are adapted to the extraction of information from these sources: automated parsing of Wikipedia Infoboxes, data extraction from simple tables, even from simple text. That series of sparse procedures can be merged into a comprehensive computer-assisted process. Beyond this, a huge effort in quality control is necessary when merging these data: automated wherever possible, or finally visually controlled by observation of remote sensing information. The main output is a reliable dataset, under ODbl, of more than 9100 stations, which can be combined with the information about the 35000 communes of France, for a large variety of studies. This work demonstrates two thesis: (a) it is possible to reconstruct transport network data from the past, and generic computer assisted methods can be developed; (b) the value of remote sensing and volunteered geo info is considerable (what archeologists already know).