ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0545.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: perceptions of organizational justice; organizational citizenship behavior; job burnout; mediating effects
Online: 31 August 2022 (10:39:58 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between teachers' perception of organizational justice and organizational citizenship behavior and to reveal the mediating role of teacher job burnout between teachers' perception of organizational justice and organizational citizenship behavior. This study used a questionnaire to collect data from 857 teachers in 21 secondary schools in Chongqing, China. Through a series of hierarchical regression analyses, mediating effects tests, structural equation modeling tests, and dominance analyses, the findings consistently indicated that procedural justice was a positive predictor of organizational citizenship behavior, while teacher’s job burnout was a negative predictor of organizational citizenship behavior. In addition, the study results also indicated that job burnout had a significant mediating effect on the relationship between teachers' perceptions of organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviors, particularly with the passion burnout and burnout of professional self-effectiveness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0776.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Ecotourism; Participations; Perceptions; Impact; Protected area
Online: 23 April 2023 (05:07:16 CEST)
This study aims to examine households' perceptions of the socio-cultural, economic, and environmental impacts of ecotourism in the protected area, focusing on Simien Mountain National Park, North west Ethiopia. Using a mixed research approach with a sequential explanatory design, we collected data through a single-round cross-sectional survey, interviews, focus groups, discussions, and secondary sources of information. Three districts were selected using a multi-stage sampling method, and 397 respondents were surveyed. We analyzed the quantitative data using percentages, averages, t-tests, ANOVA, and regression models, and examined the qualitative data using thematic analysis. Our findings suggest that households living in the park generally perceived the social, economic, and environmental impacts of ecotourism as favorable. However, the study also revealed that the benefits of tourism are not being fully utilized, indicating the potential for further development. We found significant differences in how people perceived ecotourism based on their gender, education, and residence location. Specifically, men and respondents with higher levels of education were more likely to perceive ecotourism positively. The logistic regression model revealed a statistically significant direct cause-and-effect relationship between three demographic factors of household respondents' participation in ecotourism (dependent variable) and gender (B = 1.85, p = 0.023), educational attainment (B = 0.23, p = 0.003), and location (B = 0.42, p = 0.041). In light of these findings, the authors recommend that the local government and the Ethiopian Wildlife Conservation Agency should develop sustainable plans for tourism that will benefit nearby communities and improve living conditions in the park.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0287.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: perceptions; COVID-19; control; Wouri Division
Online: 16 April 2020 (16:30:09 CEST)
COVID-19 virus has become a global threat to the human population and society. The virus which originated from China in December, 2019 has swept across continents in the world. Cameroon has been one of the countries with a high infectious rate in the recent period having a majority of the infectious cases in the Littoral region. Lack of awareness play a major role in the rise of COVID-19 cases. This paper examined the perceptions of the existence and spread of the COVID-19 virus in Wouri Division, Littoral Region of Cameroon. The study involved a qualitative survey designed by online questionnaires which were forwarded to the inhabitants of Wouri Division through e-mails and ‘WhatsApp’. The survey included the perception of the origin and existence of the COVID-19 virus, its mode of disease transmission, preventive and control measures. A total of 573 respondents were obtained (317 females and 256 males). From the results, although a greater proportion of the respondents showed knowledge towards the COVID- 19 virus existence, transmission and prevention that could lead to a reduction in the spread of the disease, our findings suggested that there’s more need for public sensitisation of the virus especially its method of transmission, control and prevention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0104.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: attitudes; clinicians; hospital; in-patient; obesity; perceptions
Online: 4 September 2020 (12:27:25 CEST)
While obesity is recognized as a key global public health issue, there has been no research to date on the perceptions of care for people with this condition held by individuals in positions of organizational power. The aim of this study was therefore to describe the perceptions and experiences of clinical leaders and managers of providing care to inpatients with obesity at a metropolitan public health service. This study applied an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) approach to qualitative research, conducting interviews with 17 participants. Their perceptions of care for inpatients with obesity encompassed both their personal understanding as an individual, and their observations about the organizational, patient and carer perspectives. Three overall themes were identified: 1) The problem of inpatients with obesity, 2) Inpatients with obesity as sources of risk and 3) Personal and professional perceptions of inpatients with obesity. While clinical leaders and managers were aware of potential impact of stigma and weight bias on the care given to this cohort, elements of implicit bias, stereotyping, ‘othering’ and ambivalence were frequently present in the data. Ongoing efforts to improve care for patients with obesity must therefore include efforts to address perceptions and attitudes at all organisational levels of the workforce.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0442.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: COVID-19; knowledge; awareness; perceptions; Indian dentists; coronavirus
Online: 27 May 2020 (07:56:19 CEST)
Introduction: COVID-19 is an unprecedented global public health emergency currently impacting India in an unprecedented manner. Aim of this study was to assess knowledge, awareness, perceptions and related factors of Indian dentists on COVID-19. Methodology: A cross-sectional, on-line questionnaire-based study was conducted over one week between 3rd May, 2020 to 10th May, 2020. The sample comprised 403 Indian dentists in solo, group practices and in the academic arena. The self-administered questionnaire assessed 1) knowledge/awareness on factors related to COVID-19 patient identification and symptomatology, 2) knowledge/awareness of COVID-19 transmission and 3) perceptions of COVID-19 history taking procedure. Statistical analyses were conducted using Statistical Package for Social Sciences for Windows, version 21.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY., USA). Frequency distributions and logistic regression analyses were used. Results: Indian dentists demonstrated an overall modest level of knowledge on identification of patients with COVID-19. Moreover, they had a high level of awareness of the COVID-19 transmission means, and the generally accepted procedural perceptions on patient history taking. However, there were some gaps in specific aspects of knowledge and perceptions. Those who were aged ≥ 30-years had a significantly higher level of knowledge of patient identification means than those who were < 30-years (OR=1.78:1.12-2.83); p=0.01. Moreover, specialized dentists were significantly knowledgeable of COVID-19 transmission means than the general dentists (OR=1.89:1.22-2.93; p=0.004). Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate identifiable gaps in knowledge/awareness and perceptions of COVID-19 in Indian dental professionals. These gaps should be fulfilled, at the earliest, due to the rising burden of COVID-19 in India, to ensure safe dental care delivery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0226.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: communities; disease; multi-functional; perceptions; soil erosion; uprooting
Online: 19 November 2019 (10:00:52 CET)
Changes in land-use have been observed in banana-based systems in the African Great Lakes region affected by Xanthomonas wilt disease (XW) of banana. Through participatory focus group discussions (FGDs) and the 4-cell method, changes in land-use were retrospectively assessed in 13 XW-affected landscapes/villages along a 230 km transect from Masisi (XW arrived in 2001) to Bukavu (XW arrived around 2014) in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo during 2015. The four-cell chart ranked land-use by mapping the area under production and the number of households involved in production. Farmers’ perceptions on the sustainability of new land-uses were also documented. Soil nutrient content and erosion levels were measured for five major land-use options/ trajectories on 147 fields across 55 farms in three landscapes along the transect. From being ranked the most important crop (92% of landscapes i.e. produced on large areas of land and by many households) before XW outbreaks, its importance had declined with most households in 36% of the landscapes growing it on smaller farms while in 64% of cases by few households on smaller pots. Farmers uprooted entire banana mats or fields, expanding land under other crops, mainly beans, taro, sweet potato, cassava, maize, coffee and eucalyptus. Species richness did not change at landscape level, though 21 crops were introduced at farm level. Land-use for banana is however still perceived to be more sustainable due to its multi-functional roles. Soils under banana plots were found in general to be better in their chemical attributes while high erosion levels (Mg ha-1 year-1) were observed under cassava (1.7-148.9) compared with banana (0.3-10.7) and trees (0.3-5.9). The current shift away from banana could thus have profound effects on supply of key services and sustainability of the production systems. This study offers a good basis/entry point for interventions in the XW-affected landscapes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0007.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: IPA; Covid-19; Health Perceptions; Korean & Japanese Adolescents
Online: 4 May 2022 (12:26:53 CEST)
This study aims to comparatively analyse the importance and performance of the health of Korean and Japanese adolescents during the prolonged coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Data were collected from 1,341 sampled Korean and Japanese adolescents in September 2021 through online and offline surveys. The collected data were analysed with frequency analysis, reliability testing, t-test, and importance-performance analysis (IPA). The following results were obtained. First, adolescents in the two countries perceive various factors about health as important during the COVID-19 pandemic, but their performance is weak compared to their perceived importance. Second, Korean adolescents had greater perceived importance for all factors of health perception compared to their Japanese counterparts. Third, the difference in performance between Korean and Japanese adolescents was especially evident for ‘hygiene management’, and there were significant differences in performance in ‘disease management’ and ‘physical activity’. Fourth, in quadrant 4 of the IPA matrix, there were similarities and differences in a particular factor of health perception between Korean and Japanese adolescents. Based on these results, we proposed measures to emphasise the importance of health and enhance performance among Korean and Japanese adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0225.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Polio; polio immunization; knowledge and perceptions; Pakistan
Online: 12 April 2023 (02:25:39 CEST)
Pakistan is one of the few countries where poliovirus transmission still persists, despite intensive efforts to eradicate the disease. Adequate vaccination coverage is essential to achieve polio eradication, but misconceptions about polio vaccines have hindered vaccination efforts. To address this issue, we conducted a mixed-methods study to explore knowledge and perceptions regarding polio disease and immunization in high-risk areas of Pakistan. We collected quantitative data from 3780, 1258, and 2100 households in Karachi, Bajaur, and Pishin, respectively, and supplemented this with qualitative data from focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. Our findings reveal a high level of awareness about polio and its immunization; however, misperceptions about the polio vaccine persist, leading to vaccine refusal for both polio and routine immunization. Our study provides up-to-date data on knowledge and perceptions of polio and its immunization and identifies critical gaps. These findings can inform the development of future strategies and innovative approaches to improve the success of the polio program in Pakistan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: iodine; pregnancy; qualitative research; awareness; perceptions; nutrition
Online: 2 February 2018 (07:29:44 CET)
Iodine is essential for thyroid hormones synthesis and normal neurodevelopment; however, 60% of pregnant women do not meet the WHO recommended intake. Using a qualitative design, we explored perceptions, awareness and experiences of pregnancy nutrition, focusing on iodine. Women in the perinatal period (n=48) were interviewed and filled in a food frequency questionnaire for iodine. Almost all participants achieved the recommended 150 μg/day intake for non-pregnant adults (99%), but only 81% met the increased demands of pregnancy (250 μg/day). Most were unaware of the importance, sources and recommendations of iodine intake. Attitudes to dairy products consumption were positive (e.g. helps with heartburn; easy to increase). Increased fish consumption was considered less achievable, with barriers around taste, smell, heartburn and morning sickness. Community midwives were the main recognised provider of dietary advice. The dietary advice received focused most often on multivitamin supplements rather than food sources. Analysis highlighted a clear theme of commitment to change behaviour, motivated by pregnancy, with desired focus on user-friendly documentation and continued involvement of the health services. The study highlights the importance of redirecting advice on dietary requirements in pregnancy and offers practical suggestions from women in the perinatal period as the main stakeholder group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0384.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: supervisor identification; employability perceptions; unethical pro-supervisor behavior (UPSB)
Online: 19 October 2020 (14:07:15 CEST)
Under some employment circumstances, individuals in some organizations are willing to engage in unethical behaviors that benefit one’s own supervisors who have a great power to decide the levels of evaluation and compensation for each individual. In this study two hypotheses were examined. First, based on social identification theory, we hypothesized that individuals’ feeling a sense of oneness with one’s own supervisors promote unethical pro-supervisor behaviors (UPSB). Second, based on a person-situation interactionist model, we hypothesized that this positive relationship is strengthen if the individual perceives lower levels of one’s own employability. Data were collected from 185 individuals of various types of organizations in South Korea. A time-lagged field study supported our hypotheses. In particular, supervisor identification was positively related to UPSB. Further, for individuals with a weaker employability perception, supervisor identification was positively related to UPSB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0516.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Perceptions, public university students, online classes, COVID-19, Bangladesh
Online: 21 May 2021 (09:52:48 CEST)
The severe disease outbreak COVID-19 pandemic impacted public health and safety and the educational systems worldwide. For fear of the further spread of diseases, most educational institutions, including Bangladesh, have postponed their face-to-face teaching. Therefore, this study explores public university student's perceptions towards online classes during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. Data were collected among students of Islamic University, Kushtia, Bangladesh, through an online survey. The study followed both a qualitative and quantitative approach, where the survey technique was used as an instrument of data collection. Results showed that most students were facing difficulty participating in virtual classes and could not communicate with their friends correctly during online classes. They faced challenges in online schooling, and the majority of the students preferred conventional types of learning to virtual classes and did not understand the content of virtual classes easily. The study also explored that most students did not feel comfortable in online classes. Still, considering the present pandemic situation, they decided to participate in online classes to continue schooling. Besides, the study discovered that female students showed better real perceptions than male students regarding online classes, and urban students have more optimistic appreciation than rural students. Moreover, laptop or personal computer users showed more positive perceptions towards online education than mobile users. Furthermore, Broadband/ Wi-Fi users have more positive perceptions than mobile network users. These findings would be an essential guideline for governments, policymakers, technology developers, and university authorities for making better policy choices in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0367.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: vulnerability; culture; religion; agency; adaptation; perceptions; climate change; dependency
Online: 25 May 2018 (12:06:03 CEST)
Semi-arid Namibia is marginal for agricultural production. Low soil fertility combined with low and variable rainfall restrict the livelihoods of smallholder farmers who often struggle to produce enough food. Although historically communities have adopted a number of coping mechanisms, climate change threatens to further reduce agricultural production. There are many additional options available to smallholder farmers to adapt to climate change, but they are not necessarily adopting these measures despite having noticed increasing temperatures and declining rainfall. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in three villages in Onesi constituency to examine what agricultural practices smallholder crop farmers use, perception of changes in their yields, their perspective on future yields and whether they are planning on changing their agricultural practices. The results suggest that to sustain the livelihoods of rural communities in north-central Namibia support is needed from local and regional authorities, as well as traditional and religious leaders to assist with enhancing access to information, enabling information sharing on adaptation options, and increasing awareness on climate change, it’s impacts and what can be done about it. In addition to this the implementation of adaptation action also requires demonstration sites and building capacity to enable the development of self-help groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0045.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: children with leukemia; parents; health locus of control; depression; life perceptions
Online: 4 March 2020 (04:32:14 CET)
Health locus of control is the set of beliefs a person has about his or her personal influence on health. The current study aimed at identifying types of locus of control in parents of leukemia children and possible association with depressive symptomatology and current life perception. 104 parents were recruited at the Haematology-Oncologic Clinic of Padua post 1 month from the leukemia diagnosis. Participants were Caucasian with a mean age of 37.28 years (SD=5.89), mostly mothers (87.5%) and with a mean of 12.16 years of education (SD=3.82). After signing the informed consent, they filled in the Ladder of Life questionnaire, the BSI-18 and the Parents Health Locus Of Control (PHLOC). Paired-samples t-test (t= -14.42; df=103; p=0.0001) showed that parents of leukemia children were more inclined to have an external locus of control than an internal one. Hierarchical regression analysis model (R2=0.34; F=4.32; p=0.0001) identified health professional influence (ß= -0.28; p=0.004), current life perception (ß= -0.3; p=0.013) and future life perception (ß= -0.26; p=0.012) as significantly predictors on Parental depression. Improving trust in the medical staff care and parental life perceptions could be a preventive program to cope with parental depression symptomatology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0025.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: incentives measures; farmer’s perceptions; green manure; subsidy; rotation fallow; probit; China
Online: 2 April 2019 (05:44:55 CEST)
The influence of instrumental variables on farmers ‘perceptions using rotation fallow as sustainable agriculture practices had been the aim of our research. By using simultaneous equations models, this study tried to understand the relationship between green manure farmer’s perceptions on using rotation-fallow and planting green manure in Guangxi Province, south of China. The results showed that subsidizing green manure farmers based on standard subsidy by the unit of green manure sown area; the training on the green manure planting technology or the demonstration preaching; the green manure farmers preference for the kinds of subsidy (funds, seeds, and mechanical services) were the mostly great drivers of the program of restoring planting green manure in the study area. These incentives measures must be enhanced as priority to restore definitely green manure planting. However, the findings of the study showed that the total income of the 2017 year, the area of an agricultural field of household and the household members (16–65 years old), providing labor in the agricultural field, have some influences on planting green manure and on farmer’s perceptions on using rotation-fallow as sustainable agriculture practices. Brief, the unobserved factors which influenced the endogenous factors play an important role to enhance widely the impact of farmers’ perceptions on planting green manure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0295.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: vaccine literacy; vaccination beliefs; Covid-19 perceptions; online survey
Online: 14 July 2020 (06:02:40 CEST)
The Covid-19 infodemic can be countered by scientific evidences, clear and consistent communication and improved health literacy of both individuals in need of information and those providing it. A rapid online survey was carried out to evaluate vaccine literacy (VL) skills in the general population and perceptions about candidate Covid-19 vaccines, as well as behavior and beliefs about current vaccinations. Observed VL levels were sufficiently high and consistent with previous observations - where comparable self-reported tools were administered face-to-face and paper-and-pencil - the mean functional score being =2.92, while the interactive-critical one was =3.27, on a maximum of 4. Perceptions regarding future Covid-19 vaccines, along with beliefs about vaccination, were mostly positive and significantly associated with functional and interactive-critical VL scales. Despite obvious limitations, the study confirms that rapid surveys via web are a suitable method to evaluate and trail attitudes during infectious disease outbreaks, and to assess health literacy skills about vaccination, which can be useful to adapt medical communication strategies, for a better understanding of the value of immunization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0198.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: local perceptions; chimpanzees; conservation; natural resources; human-chimpanzees conflict; traditional beliefs
Online: 29 December 2017 (08:00:35 CET)
The objective is to study the local perceptions on the conservation of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in the Réserve Naturelle Communautaire de Dindéfélo (RNCD), southeast of Senegal, to design specific actions to improve conservation management. We conducted 338 semi-structured interviews in three main villages of RNCD. Three-fourths of the population were farmers. Of those interviewed, 29% received elementary education. Two of the three villages participated in a project to plant trees as fences. On average, 66% of the respondents were animists. Of the respondents who were afraid to see a chimpanzee, 68% answered because they attack. Seventy-seven percent washed their clothes in the forest river because there was more water than in the village wells. Of the interviewees who threw the old clothes into the forest, 50% did it due to tradition. Ninety-six percent of respondents stated that chimpanzees do not feed from their crops. The main problems of the locals with the Reserve were lack of water and basic resources and not been allow to cut trees in protected areas. There were significant relationships between education (1 relationship), environmental project (4 relationships) and animism (11 relationships) with local perceptions. The 93% of the respondents who had the traditional belief that “if the old clothes were burnt, children would become sick” feel fear of chimpanzees, while those who did not have this animistic belief the 6% are afraid (χ2 = 1.57, P < 0.02). These local perceptions allow us to design specific course of action to improve chimpanzee conservation and sustainable coexistence in this complex period of the Anthropocene.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0192.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Everglades National Park; stakeholders’ perceptions; social and environmental changes; sustainable management
Online: 11 July 2018 (06:23:56 CEST)
Over the last few decades, urban expansion and population shifts have modified the existing landscape throughout the U.S. Protected areas and development are compatible lenses, yet stakeholders’ involvement in decision-making is often missing from environmental governance. We examine how stakeholders living and working in proximity to Everglades National Park (EVER) perceive environmental and social changes to the park and community park relations. EVER was selected as a study site for several reasons: proximity to urban areas, rich biological diversity, largest subtropical wilderness in the U.S., International Biosphere Reserve, World Heritage Site, and prominence as a tourist destination for the region. Forty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with neighborhood groups, representatives from gateway communities, and conservation organizations. An analysis of the interview data generated six research themes: loss of native species, urban development, a shortage and contamination of water, hurricanes, climate change, and increased recreation use. The results of this study add to the literature by providing a better understanding of the relationships stakeholders have with national parks. The results will provide useable knowledge that may help stakeholders and public land managers design strategies related for sustainable plans for the park and its surrounding communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0060.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: School coexistence; cyberbullying; education; family; victims; prevention; management; training; perceptions
Online: 2 November 2018 (13:12:16 CET)
The present work analyzes university students' perceptions on cyberbullying. More specifically, the main objective was to understand the level of concern displayed by young students in teacher training programs regarding cyberbullying; our analysis includes their degree of self-confidence and their commitment when faced with this problem, their self-reported training on the subject, and the measures they consider adequate to approach it in the educational context. Using a survey research design, 408 students from Early Childhood Education, Primary Education Degrees, and the Master’s Degree in Secondary Education, and Vocational Training from national public universities participated. The results shed light upon the coexistence of three differentiated profiles of teachers in training when faced with cyberbullying. However, although there is clear evidence of the high level of concern regarding this problem in every case, they placed more importance on raising awareness of the issue with families, prevention, management and training as basic pillars for re-directing the worrisome reality experienced in educational centers. The need to include these contents in the initial training of future education professionals, for overcoming cyberbullying, and the importance of collaborative work between parents and educators are the conclusions of this research study that are in agreement with other studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1892.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: Urban Ecosystem Services; perceptions; Socio-ecological analysis; urban adaptation planning; sustainable cities; Cotonou.
Online: 26 May 2023 (08:30:31 CEST)
Anarchic urbanization and land artificialization expose urban ecosystems and Ecosystem Services (ES) to the threat. Urban ecosystems and trees play a crucial role in improving urban environments, and their management depends on the perceptions and preferences of urban residents. An assessment of the socio-ecological factors determining the perception of the actors allows for the proper design and planning of ecological urban policies and urban adaptation to climate change. In this study, we assessed the perception and discriminating variables of the different stakeholders of urban ES provided in the city of Cotonou. Thus, 381 city dwellers were individually interviewed after statistical sampling. Focus group discussions with the stakeholders also made it possible to highlight the ES provided in the different Land Use Units (LU). The results show that 73.23% of the city dwellers agreed that they were aware of ecosystem services. The hierarchical classification shows two homogeneous groups of perceivers with ethnicity, age and education as statistically discriminating sociological variables (pv˂0.001). Urban dwellers in the city of Cotonou perceived more SEs in the cultural and regulatory services category significantly (pv<0.001; v-test>3). The principal component analysis (PCA) reveals the varying availability of ES according to the different LU in the city. This study adds scientific value in the application of urban ecology to decision-making in climate and environment policy planning for sustainable cities in Africa and all over the world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0506.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: street view image; subjective and objective perceptions; housing prices; machine learning; computer vision
Online: 22 March 2021 (10:16:03 CET)
The relationship between the street environment and the health, education, mobility, and criminal behaviors of its citizens has long been investigated by economists, sociologists and urban planners. Home buyers were found to pay a premium for better street appearance. Prior studies considering streetscapes mainly focus on objective measures such as the number of nearby trees, the tree canopy area, or the view index of physical features such as greenery, sky or building. However, subjective perceptions may have complex or subtle relationships to physical features, individual physical features or simply summing them up do not capture people’s comprehensive perception. In contrast, this study proposed a new approach for the urban-scale application to quantify both subjectively and objectively measured streetscape scores for six important perception qualities, namely Greenness, Walkability, Safety, Imageability, Enclosure, and Complexity. Built on prior quantitative studies in urban design quality and emerging applications in deep learning and open source street view imagery for urban perceptions, we integrated existing frameworks to (1) effectively collect and evaluate both subjectively and objectively- measured perceptions; (2) investigate the coherence and divergence in ML-predicted subjective scores and formula-derived objective scores; and (3) compare their effects in affecting house prices taking Shanghai as a case study using a large-scale dataset on home transactions. The results implied: first, the percentage increase in sales price attributable to street scores is significant for both subjective and objective measurements. In general subjective scores explained more variance over structural attributes and objective scores in hedonic price model. Particularly, objective Greenness, subjective Safety and Imageability scores positively affected house prices. Second, for Greenness and Imageability scores, the subjective and objective measures exhibited opposite signs in affecting house prices, which implied that there might be mechanisms related to the psychological, social-demographical characteristics of street users that have not been fully incorporated by objective measures that taking view indices or recombination of them. In addition, certain objective measure might outperform subjective counterpart when the connotation of the perception is self-evident and not complicated, for example the Greenness. For those concepts were not familiar to the average person, subjective framework exhibits better performance. This is the first study comprehensively expanding hedonic price method with both subjectively and objectively measured streetscape qualities. It suggested that city authorities could levy a street environment tax to compensate the public budget invested in street environment where developers secured benefits from a price premium. This study enriches our understanding of the economic values of the subjective and objective measures street qualities. It sheds light on promising future study areas where the coherence and divergence of the two measurements should be further stressed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0285.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: basic life support education; student’s perceptions; education quality; skills to intervene.
Online: 15 March 2023 (12:52:23 CET)
An out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is one of the leading causes of death in the world. The survival rate can be influenced by the Chain of Survival. The school is the institution that has the opportunity to promote the education of citizens in Basic Life Support (BLS), increasing the number of trained bystanders. This study aimed to identify the theoretical and practical knowledge and self-reported skills in BLS, in order to characterise the motivation to intervene in an emergency situation. A quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional, and analytical study of the survey type was developed with a sample of 1215 students enrolled in 10th grade of secondary education in 2019-2020 in Portugal. The results point to a fragile appropriation of theoretical and practical knowledge in the field of BLS. Self-declared competences tend to rank below the theoretical knowledge manifested. Motivation to intervene is high: students are sensitive to the topic, willing to learn and highlight the importance and social relevance of the topic. We conclude that students do not feel nor are able to intervene in an OHCA episode. It seems necessary to develop didactic proposals that align the teaching of BLS with the Essential Learning at the end of compulsory education in Portugal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0026.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: children; adolescents; leukemia; in treatment; healthy peers; life perceptions; psychological wellbeing; reported problems
Online: 4 February 2019 (13:52:19 CET)
There is still little research on psychological wellbeing and reported problems in preadolescents and adolescents under therapy for leukemia, also comparing them with their healthy peers. The present study aims to analyze the life perceptions, psychological well-being and problems’ intensity in these patients during the first year of therapy and to compare these reports with those of matched healthy peers adopting a battery of self-report questionnaires. Mann-Whitney tests identified the younger patients more at risk than older ones in their problems’ intensity and psychological symptoms. Older patients resulted instead more vulnerable regarding past life perceptions. Wilcoxon test with 2 dependent samples analyses showed that: healthy peers have a better perception of current life and lower percentage of somatization symptoms than patients after 6-months post-diagnosis. On the other hand, healthy peers reported more problems dealing with impulsivity, mood, disorganization, concentration and memory than patients both at 6-months and 1-year from diagnosis. Healthy peers reported also more anxiety and depression symptoms than patients and worse past and future life perceptions than patients at 1-year from diagnosis. The clinical aim is to perform a psychological screening of preadolescents and adolescents in order to prepare ad hoc psychological interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0298.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COVID-19; online learning; pandemic; online education; Bangladesh; students' perceptions; higher education; distance learning; online classes
Online: 10 June 2021 (14:36:09 CEST)
Though there have been works highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of online learning, no study focused on university-level economics students. None of the studies explored students' opinions about improving the quality and effectiveness of online classes. Many used questionable samples, closed-ended questions, and all those researches were carried out at the beginning of online classes. In this paper, we overcome these limitations of earlier studies. Using a convenience sampling technique and open-ended questions, we collect data from 154 university-level economics students after being exposed to the online class for a year. Some advantages of online classes are: students can do classes from home without being exposed to health risks, easily accessible, flexible class schedule, students remained connected with the study, it saves costs, reduce the likelihood of semester loss, easy to understand, less stressful, and learning new technologies. Major problems from students' perspectives include network problems, difficulties in understanding the topic, unsuitable for mathematical courses, concentration problem, class not interactive, financial constraint, adverse health impacts, device issues, power outages, unfamiliarity with digital technology, internet problem, and unfixed class-schedule. Disadvantages outnumbered advantages. Students made several suggestions to improve the quality and effectiveness of online classes. Some of the vital suggestions are: using state-of-the-art digital tools, recording and uploading lectures, resolving internet issues, holding classes regularly, higher efforts to make the topics easier, resolving network issues, lowering class duration, institutional support, implementing a fixed class schedule, and introducing online evaluation system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0331.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: children; adolescents; leukaemia; in treatment; healthy peers; life perceptions; hope; psychological wellbeing; cognitive problems
Online: 25 December 2019 (03:21:27 CET)
There is still little research on psychological wellbeing, life satisfaction and reported problems in preadolescents and adolescents under therapy for leukaemia, and also little research comparing them with their healthy peers. The present study aims to analyse the life satisfaction, hope, psychological wellbeing and reported problems’ intensity in patients aged 8-18 during the first year of therapy, to identify those more at risk and to compare their reports with matched healthy peers. After the parental written consent signature, a battery of self-reported questionnaires was administered during hospitalisation or day hospital admissions post 6 months and post 12 months from the diagnosis. Younger patients (aged 8–13 years) were more at risk than older ones in their problems’ intensity and psychological symptoms; females and Acute Myeloid Leukaemia patients reported lower current life satisfaction perceptions; hope was associated with lower depression symptoms and mood problems. Healthy peers have a better perception of current life, but reported a lower hope score, more anxiety symptoms and more cognitive problems than patients. The first 6 months were more critical for patients’ psychological health. The clinical aim was to identify the patients more at risk in order to prepare ad hoc psychological interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0367.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Sustainable gender equality; self-efficacy; gender mainstreaming; STEM higher education; STEM student teachers’ perceptions; scale validation, Spain, Creece
Online: 21 November 2022 (03:38:01 CET)
In the context of the Education-2030 Framework for Action, an important goal for initial STEM teacher education is to provide professional development on equality and gender awareness. This study explored whether STEM prospective secondary teachers are prepared to implement a sustainable gender-sensitive practice upon graduation. To this end, we cross-culturally validated the TEGEP (Teacher Self-Efficacy for Gender Equality practice) scale and compared STEM student teachers’ perceptions of self-efficacy by country and sex. Participants were 205 STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) secondary school student teachers (136 Greek and 69 Spanish) drawn from seven public universities (six Greek, one Spanish). Statistical analysis confirmed the structure and factor invariance of the TEGEP across country and between sexes showing evidence that gender equality self-efficacy level is only moderate and that perceived competence in gender knowledge was significantly higher in Greek than in Spanish STEM student teachers, while the latter felt more competent than the Greek in developing values and attitudes in regards to gender. The study provides a cross-validated instrument to measure gender equality self-efficacy in STEM teacher education and evaluate sustainable changes after planned interventions.