ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0274.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Bell inequality; locality; nonlocality; realism; counterfactual definiteness
Online: 17 August 2022 (11:43:24 CEST)
We present a pragmatic analysis of the different meanings assigned to the term "local realism'' in the context of the empirical violations of Bell-type inequalities since its inception in the late 1970s. We point out that most of them are inconsistent and arise from a deeply ingrained prejudice that originated in the celebrated 1935 paper by Einstein-Podolski-Rosen. We highlight the correct connotation that arises once we discard unnecessary metaphysics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0015.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Bell inequality; locality; nonlocality; local causality
Online: 11 July 2022 (08:49:57 CEST)
The alleged nonlocal character of quantum mechanics is inextricably related to the formulation of the Bell theorem. However, as we shall see, that relation is commonly incorrectly assessed. The departure from the clear line of reasoning that John Bell tried to convey has led to a polarization of part of the scientific community into radical irreconcilable positions. We show how the correct appreciation of Bell's work calls for reinterpreting the usual significance given to the Bell theorem yielding a more rational perspective of the problem. Given the relevance of the Bell-type inequalities in quantum information technology and quantum foundations, further clarification of their relation to the nonlocality conundrum deserves due attention. The exposition is also of didactic value. It shows the problems arising from incorrect inferences and superfluous metaphysical ideas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0049.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Bell’s theorem; EPR paradox; quantum entanglement; non-locality.
Online: 3 February 2022 (10:44:05 CET)
Quantum theory predicts a whole class of non-local phenomena, observable via coincident detection of EPR-type systems. An important feature of these observations is their non-signaling character. Technically, non-local phenomena should only be observable for post-selected sub-ensembles, rather than for complete projections. Otherwise, superluminal telegraphy becomes possible. Yet, a couple of recent Bell experiments reported the observation of quantum non-locality for 100% of the detected events. Does it follow that signaling non-locality is possible? If so, was quantum theory falsified? This puzzle is solved by revisiting the interpretation of the spin projection operator, with special focus on its dual nature (combining spectral decomposition with spectral transformation). “Component switching” is not a loophole, but rather a requirement of quantum mechanics in this context, because sharp spin projections are partial (as well as partially overlapping). Surprisingly, it is possible to pre-select incompatible statistical sub-ensembles with heralded detection and to reveal the same behavior as in post-selected observations. Therefore, Bell experiments confirm the predictions of quantum theory without violating the non-signaling principle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0516.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: proper time; non-locality; simultaneity; wavefunction; measurement; ontology
Online: 22 July 2021 (12:09:46 CEST)
All the arguments of a wavefunction are defined at the same instant implying a notion of simultaneity. In a somewhat related matter, certain phenomena in quantum mechanics seem to have non-local causal relations. Both concepts are in contradiction with special relativity. We propose to define the wavefunction with respect to the invariant proper time of special relativity instead of standard time. Moreover, we shall adopt the original idea of Schrodinger suggesting that the wavefunction represents an ontological cloud-like object that we shall call ‘individual fabric’ that has a finite density amplitude vanishing at infinity. Consequently, measurement can be assimilated to a confining potential that triggers an inherent non-local mechanism within the individual fabric. It is formalised by multiplying the wavefunction with a localising gaussian as in the GRW theory but in a deterministic manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0234.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Bell’s theorem; EPR paradox; quantum entanglement; non-locality
Online: 20 November 2019 (03:43:24 CET)
The EPR paradox is known as an interpretive problem, as well as a technical discovery in quantum mechanics. It defined the basic features of two-quantum entanglement, as needed to study the relationships between two non-commuting variables. In contrast, four variables are observed in a typical Bell experiment. This is no longer the same problem. The full complexity of this process can only be captured by the analysis of four-quantum entanglement. Indeed, a new paradox emerges in this context, with straightforward consequences. Either quantum behavior is capable of signaling non-locality, or it is local. Both alternatives appear to contradict existing knowledge. Still, one of them has to be true, and the final answer can be obtained conclusively with a four-quantum Bell experiment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0114.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle & Field Physics Keywords: Quantum Non-Locality; Cosmic Microwave Background; Ether Drift Experiments
Online: 7 July 2022 (07:44:37 CEST)
“Non-Locality is most naturally incorporated into a theory in which there is a special frame of reference. One possible candidate for this special frame of reference is the one in which the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is isotropic. However, other than the fact that a realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics requires a preferred frame and the CMB provides us with one, there is no readily apparent reason why the two should be linked” (L. Hardy). Starting from this remark we first argue that, given the present view of the vacuum, the basic tenets of Quantum Field Theory cannot guarantee that Einstein Special Relativity, with no preferred frame, is the physically realized version of relativity. Then, to try to understand the nature of the hypothetical preferred Σ−frame, we consider the so called ether-drift experiments, those precise optical measurements that try to detect in laboratory a small angular dependence of the two-way velocity of light and then to correlate this angular dependence with the direct CMB observations with satellites in space. By considering all experiments performed so far, from Michelson-Morley to the present experiments with optical resonators, and analyzing the small observed residuals in a modern theoretical framework, the long sought Σ− frame tight to the CMB naturally emerges. Finally, if quantum non-locality reflects some effect propagating at vastly superluminal speed vQI→∞, its ultimate origin could be hidden somewhere in the infinite speed cs→∞ of vacuum density fluctuations.
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: quantum entanglement; Bell’s theorem; quantum non-locality; quantum realism.
Online: 2 July 2021 (08:24:20 CEST)
Quantum mechanics is often described as irreducibly non-local. A tacit element of this picture is the assumption that one and the same sub-ensemble of quanta is post-selected in every measurement combination of a Bell test. Yet, this expectation was recently shown to be formally inconsistent with quantum theory (Cetto et al., 2020) and even to be experimentally falsifiable (Mardari 2021). The need to make sense of this development motivated a rigorous conceptual analysis of quantum non-locality, especially as it relates to the basic principles of quantum mechanics. The simple conclusion is that quantum theory and quantum non-locality are fundamentally incompatible. This is not a loophole around the predictions of quantum mechanics, but rather an insight into the essential conditions that make them accurate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0003.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: special relativity; quantum mechanics; non-locality; Planck’s constant; EPR
Online: 1 May 2018 (08:40:03 CEST)
The nonlocality of entangled quantum mechanical systems is incompatible with the standard interpretation of special relativity as a single 4D Minkowskian metric spacetime. The difficulty is that the definition of a spacetime interval between any pair of events precludes any form of nonlocal interaction, even the relatively benign non-signaling correlations. By an application of the relativity principle, and the use of the space ←→ time symmetry of the Lorentz boost I propose here a reinterpretation of special relativistic spacetime. This new ontology consists of a set of coexisting 3+1D spaces (‘framespaces’), each containing unique content in the form of a complex density. These spaces are related by the Lorentz boost, and coupled pairwise in a manner dictated by the Lorentz transformation. The inter-space coupling acting on the spacetime content gives rise to a nonlocal wave phenomenon, which is identified as quantum wave mechanics. The interspace coupling strength is then inversely proportional to Planck’s constant. The coexistence of multiple spaces is interpreted as momentum superposition, implying that momentum is the fundamental physical basis of quantum superposition. This new spacetime interpretation of quantum mechanics has many consequences, including explanations of quantum non-locality, the spacetime role of Planck’s constant, quantum measurement as a symmetry-breaking process and the redundancy of description of gauge theory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0221.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: non locality; collapse; measurement problem; consciousness; Everett’s interpretation; convivial solipsism
Online: 18 December 2018 (11:55:02 CET)
A large number of physicists now admit that quantum mechanics is a non-local theory. EPR argument and the many experiences (including recent “loop-hole free” tests) showing the violation of Bell’s inequalities seem to have confirmed convincingly that quantum mechanics cannot be local. Nevertheless, this conclusion can only be drawn inside a standard realist framework assuming an ontic interpretation of the wave function and viewing the collapse of the wave function as a real change of the physical state of the system. We show that this standpoint is not mandatory and that if the collapse is no more considered as an actual physical change, it is possible to recover locality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0044.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: strings; light; observer; measurement; perception; interactions; relativity; non-locality; holographic principle; loop quantum gravity
Online: 19 May 2022 (09:46:44 CEST)
Physics and neuroscience share overlapping objectives, the major of which is probably the attempt to reduce the observed universe to a set of rules. The approaches are complementary, attempting to find a reduced description of the universe or of the observer, respectively. We propose here that combining the two approaches within an observer-inclusive physical scheme, bears significant advantages. In such a scheme, the same set of rules applies to the universe and its observers, and the two descriptions are entangled. We show here that analyzing special relativity in an observer-inclusive framework can resolve its contradiction with the observed non-locality of physical interactions. The contradiction is resolved by reducing the universe (including the observer) to a dynamic distribution of closed strings (“ceons”) whose vibration waves travel at c. This ceons model is consistent with general relativity, non-locality, the holographic principle and loop quantum gravity; it also eliminates Zeno’s motion paradoxes. Yet, the model entails several new empirical predictions. Finally, the ceons model suggests a fundamental physical implementation of active biological perception. Paraphrasing Torricelli, this paper suggests that we live submerged in a c of light.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0101.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Sparse Representation; locality information; Dictionary Learning; Video Semantic Analysis; Discriminative Function
Online: 11 January 2018 (09:46:43 CET)
Dictionary Learning (DL) and Sparse Representation (SR) based Classifier have impacted greatly on the classification performance and has had good recognition rate on image data. In Video Semantic Analysis (VSA), the local structure of video data contains more vital discriminative information needed for classification. However, this has not been fully exploited by the current DL based approaches. Besides, similar coding findings are not being realized from video features with the same video category. Based on the issues stated afore, a novel learning algorithm, called Sparsity based Locality-Sensitive Discriminative Dictionary Learning(SLSDDL) for VSA is proposed in this paper. In the proposed algorithm, a discriminant loss function for the category based on sparse coding of the sparse coefficients is introduced into structure of Locality-Sensitive Dictionary Learning (LSDL) algorithm. Finally, the sparse coefficients for the testing video feature sample are solved by the optimized method of SLSDDL and the classification result for video semantic is obtained by minimizing the error between the original and reconstructed samples. The experiment results show that, the proposed SLSDDL significantly improves the performance of video semantic detection compared with the comparative state-of-the-art approaches. Moreover, the robustness to various diverse environments in video is also demonstrated, which proves the universality of the novel approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0493.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: measurement problem; convivial solipsism; realism; entanglement; non-locality; past events; delayed choice
Online: 21 September 2020 (04:26:41 CEST)
In a recent paper , I argued against backward in time effects used by several authors to explain delayed choice experiments. I gave an explanation showing that there is no physical influence propagating from the present to the past and modifying the state of the system at a time previous to the measurement. However, though the solution is straightforward in the case of delayed choice experiments involving only one particle, it is subtler in the case of experiments involving two entangled particles because they give rise to EPR-like situations. Considering that a measurement is not an actual change of the physical state of a system and is relative to the observer allows to understand that there is neither backward in time effects nor instantaneous collapse of the second system when the first one is measured, as is often postulated. This allows also to get rid of any non-locality . In this paper, I want to go further into the consequences of this way of considering the measurement, that I have called Convivial Solipsism, and show that even if, in the usual sense, there is no physical effect of the present or of the future on the past, we must nevertheless consider that the observer’s past is sometimes not entirely determined and that it becomes determined only when certain measurements are done latter. This apparent contradiction disappears if one understand that each observer builds, through her own measurements, her own world (that I call the phenomenal world in Convivial Solipsism) which is different from what we are used to consider as the common world shared by everybody.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0221.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: Entanglement; EPR Paradox; ER = EPR conjecture; GR = QM; Locality; Theory of Everything; Quantum Communications
Online: 12 September 2018 (13:38:14 CEST)
During the last century, entanglement was the bone of contention between the two main pillars of Physics: General Relativity (GR) and Quantum Mechanics (QM). This began in 1935 with the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox (EPR paradox) which concluded that although Quantum Mechanics is not wrong, it is an incomplete theory to represent physical reality. In this paper it is demonstrated that some byproducts resulting from entanglement and which we will call avatars act as a hinge that link both theories making the completeness of QM clear. Moreover, a thorough analysis of the non-locality of this effect will be carried out. Besides, it is demonstrated that entanglement is an instantaneous phenomenon and that it does not require the use of a superluminal signaling for this purpose. Finally, the avatars will also appear in each wormhole resulting from an entanglement process (WREP) demonstrating that they are traversable with an equivalent path of null length which can be crossed in a null time with all that this implies in Quantum Communications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0178.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: consciousness; meta-causation; pre-reflective self-consciousness; physicalism; causal productivity; dynamism; laws of nature; laws of physics; temporal non-locality
Online: 27 August 2020 (08:27:28 CEST)
How, if at all, consciousness can be part of the physical universe remains a baffling problem. This article outlines a new, developing philosophical theory of how it could do so, and offers a preliminary mathematical formulation of a physical grounding for key aspects of the theory. Because the philosophical side has radical elements, so does the physical-theory side. The philosophical side is radical, first, in proposing that the productivity or dynamism in the universe that many believe to be responsible for its systematic regularities is actually itself a physical constituent of the universe, along with more familiar entities. Indeed, it proposes that instances of dynamism can themselves take part in physical interactions with other entities, this interaction then being “meta-dynamism” (a type of meta-causation). Secondly, the theory is radical, and unique, in arguing that consciousness is necessarily partly constituted of meta-dynamic auto-sensitivity, in other words it must react via meta-dynamism to its own dynamism, and also in conjecturing that some specific form of this sensitivity is sufficient for and indeed constitutive of consciousness. The article proposes a way for physical laws to be modified to accommodate meta-dynamism, via the radical step of including elements that explicitly refer to dynamism itself. Additionally, laws become, explicitly, temporally non-local in referring directly to quantity values holding at times prior to a given instant of application of the law. The approach therefore implicitly brings in considerations about what information determines states. Because of the temporal non-locality, and also because of the deep connections between dynamism and time-flow, the approach also implicitly connects to the topic of entropy insofar as this is related to time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0482.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: Quantum Entanglement, Separability, Positive Partial Transpose Criterion, Permutation, Quantum Information, Quantum Computing, Quantum Communication, Quantum Non-locality, Quantum Correlations, SWAP Operator
Online: 25 July 2018 (12:20:21 CEST)
In this paper, the connections between quantum non-locality and permutation symmetries are explored. This includes two types of symmetries: permutation across a superposition and permutation of qubits in a quantum system. An algorithm is proposed for nding the separability class of a quantum state using a method based on factorizing an arbitrary multipartite state into possible partitions, cyclically permuting qubits of the vectors in a superposition to check which separability class it falls into and thereafter using a reduced density-matrix analysis of the system is proposed. For the case of mixed quantum states, conditions for separability are found in terms of the partial transposition of the density matrices of the quantum system. One of these conditions turns out to be the Partial Positive Transpose (PPT) condition. A graphical method for analyzing separability is also proposed. The concept of permutation of qubits is shown to be useful in dening a new entanglement measure in the `engle'.