REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0336.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: gelatin; photosensitive materials; silver halide photographic emulsion; dichromated gelatin; selective tanning; short-wave UV radiation; photodestruction; diffraction efficiency; dyed gelatin; holographic structures; Weigert effect
Online: 21 June 2018 (08:13:26 CEST)
Because this issue journal is dedicated to Gelatin here we present a few applications of gelatin in the field of optics. It is understood that optics is the science that studies the production, propagation, interaction and detection of light. Regarding the detection there are some materials sensitive to light (photosensitive) that are used like photomultipliers, CCD’s, crystals, two dimension (2D) materials and more. Among the 2D materials the most popular through several centuries has been gelatin based photographic emulsion that records spatial distributions of light. More recently (1970) films made of Gelatin with Dichromate (DCG) and dyes have been used. We describe some characteristics and applications of these two photosensitive materials. Also we describe examples where gelatin is used as Relative Humidity (RH) sensor and in the fabrication of optical elements based on gelatin. This article is intended to researchers outside the optics community.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0062.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: octacalcium phosphate; bone matrix gelatin; osteogenesis
Online: 9 January 2018 (03:14:28 CET)
Objective: Regeneration of bone defects remains a challenge for maxillofacial and reparative surgeons. The purpose of this histological study was to assess the osteogenic potential of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and bone matrix gelatin (BMG) alone and in combination in artificially created mandibular bone defects in rats. The quality of the newly formed bone was also evaluated. Methods: Thirty-six male Sprague Dawley rats (6-8 weeks old with 120-150 g weight) were randomly divided into four groups. Defects (3 mm in diameter and 2 mm in depth) were created in the mandible of rats and filled with 6 mg of OCP, BMG or a combination of both (1/4 ratio), respectively. Defects were left unfilled in the control group. To assess osteoinduction and bone regeneration and determine the quality of the newly formed bone, tissue specimens were harvested at seven, 14, and 21 days post-implantation. The specimens were processed, stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and histologically analyzed under light microscopy. Results: In the experimental groups, new bone formation was initiated at the margins of defects from seventh day after implantation. At the end of the study period, the amount of the newly formed bone increased and the bone was relatively mature. Osteoinduction and new bone formation were greater in OCP/BMG group. In the control group, slight amount of new bone had been formed at the defect margins (next to host bone) on day 21. Conclusion: Combination of OCP/BMG may serve as an optimal biomaterial for treatment of mandibular bone defects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0115.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: bioactive glass; gelatin; tissue engineering; bone; composite
Online: 7 December 2022 (04:30:39 CET)
Nano/micron-sized bioactive glass (BG) particles are attractive candidates for both soft and hard tissue engineering. They can chemically bond to the host tissues, enhance new tissue formation, activate cell proliferation, stimulate the genetic expression of proteins, and trigger unique an-ti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer functionalities. Recently, composites based on bi-opolymers and BG particles have been developed with various state-of-the-art techniques for tis-sue engineering. Gelatin, a semi-synthetic biopolymer, has attracted the attention of researchers because it is derived from the most abundant protein in the body, viz., collagen. It is a polymer that can be dissolved in water and processed to acquire different configurations, such as hydro-gels, fibers, films, scaffolds, etc. Searching "bioactive glass gelatin" in the tile on Scopus renders 80 highly relevant articles published in the last ~10 years, which signifies the importance of such composites. First, this review addresses the basic concepts of soft and hard tissue engineering, in-cluding the healing mechanisms and limitations ahead. Then, current knowledge on gelatin/BG composites including composition, processing and properties is summarized and discussed both for soft and hard tissue applications. This review explores physical, chemical and mechanical features and ion-release effects of such composites concerning osteogenic and angiogenic respons-es in vivo and in vitro. Additionally, recent developments of BG/gelatin composites using 3D/4D printing for tissue engineering are presented. Finally, the perspectives and current challenges in developing desirable composites for the regeneration of different tissues are outlined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0282.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: liquid marble; gelatin; spreading coefficient; surface tension
Online: 19 October 2022 (10:14:43 CEST)
The unique properties and morphology of liquid marbles (LMs) make them potentially useful for various applications. Non-edible hydrophobic organic polymer particles are widely used to prepare LMs. It is necessary to increase the variety of LM particles to extend their use into food and pharmaceuticals. Herein, we focus on hydrophobically modified gelatin (HMG) as a base material for the particles. The surface tension of HMG decreased as the length of alkyl chains incorporated into the gelatin and the degree of substitution (DS) of the alkyl chains increased. HMG with a surface tension of less than 37.5 mN/m (determined using equations based on the Young-Dupré equation and Kaelble-Uy theory) successfully formed LMs of water. The minimum surface tension of a liquid in which it was possible to form LMs using HMG particles was approximately 53 mN/m. We also showed that the liquid-over-solid spreading coefficient S_(L/S) is a potential new factor for predicting if particles can form LMs. The HMG particles and the new system for predicting LM formation could expand the use of LMs in food and pharmaceuticals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0358.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: encapsulation; freeze drying; gelatin; polyphenols; spray drying
Online: 16 May 2021 (19:57:12 CEST)
Freeze drying was compared with spray drying regarding feasibility to process wild thyme drug in order to obtain dry formulations at laboratory scale starting from liquid extracts produced by different extraction methods: maceration, heat-, ultrasound-, and microwave-assisted extractions. Higher powder yield (based on the dry weight prior to extraction) was achieved by freeze than spray drying and lower loss of total polyphenol content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) due to the drying process. Gelatin as a coating agent (5% w/w) provided better TPC recovery by 70% in case of lyophilization and higher powder yield in case of spray drying by diminishing material deposition on the wall of the drying chamber. The resulting gelatin-free and gelatin-containing powders carried polyphenols in amount ~190 and 53-75 mg gallic acid equivalents GAE/g of powder, respectively. Microwave-assisted extract formulation distinguished from others by higher content of polyphenols, proteins and sugars, higher bulk density and lower solubility. The type of the drying process affected mainly position of the gelatin-derived -OH and amide bands in FTIR spectra. Spray dried formulations compared to freeze dried expressed higher thermal stability as confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry analysis and higher diffusion coefficient; the last feature can be associated with the lower specific surface area of irregularly shaped freeze-dried particles (151-223 µm) compared to small microspheres (~8 µm) in spray-dried powder.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0072.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Freeform, hydrogel, gelatin, microfluidics, FRESH, bioprinting, vascularization
Online: 2 November 2018 (16:54:05 CET)
We report a modification of the freeform reversible embedding of suspended hydrogels (FRESH) 3D printing method for the fabrication of freeform perfusable microfluidics inside a hydrogel matrix. Xanthan gum is deposited into a CaCl2 infused gelatin slurry to form filaments, which are consequently rinsed to produce hollow channels. This provides a simple method for rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices based on biopolymers and potentially a new approach to the construction of vascular grafts for tissue engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1298.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: chitosan; fish gelatin; chondroitin sulfate; hydrogel membranes; wound dressing; in vitro cell colonization; gelatin glycerol; biomedical applications; membranes
Online: 19 October 2023 (20:17:37 CEST)
Biomass and biowaste valorisation is of major interest nowadays because of the spirit of circular economy and of the neutral environmental fingerprint global target. In the current project chondroitin sulphate (ChS) was incorporated with the crustaceous’ and shrimp’s byproduct chitosan (Chi) and the fish industry byproduct gelatine (FG) to obtain dense hydrogel membranes. Glycerol (Gly) was utilized to avoid brittleness. The formation of the hydrogel membranes is attributed to secondary interactions between the natural polymers and the plasticizer. The prepared hydrogel membranes were characterized by Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The surface morphology of the membranes was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and tensile tests were also performed to evaluate the mechanical response of the membranes. The samples were also evaluated for membrane wettability, degradation rate and water vapor transmission rate (WVTR). Finally, in vitro endothelial cell attachment on the membrane were addressed. The overall results of the study indicate that the hydrogel membranes could be appropriate for external application in wound healing applications as dressings.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1126.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: hydrogel; gelatin; mechanical property; crosslinking; scaffold; tissue engineering
Online: 18 October 2023 (17:13:00 CEST)
In the last two decades, gelatin-based hydrogels have been widely used as tissue engineering scaffolds due to their excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability, easy processability, transparency, non-toxicity, and reasonable structural similarity to the natural extracellular matrix (ECM). However, intrinsic low mechanical properties of gelatin are not structurally and mechanically suitable to support cell growth and proliferation. That’s why various crosslinking strategies including physical, chemical, enzymatic and combination of them as well as networking patterns including double network, interpenetrating network and nano reinforcing mechanism have been utilized to enhance the structural stability and mechanical integrity of gelatin. In this review, the advances in modulating the mechanical properties of gelatin-based hydrogels for the design and development of structurally stable scaffolds for tissue engineering are discussed. The optimized crosslinking parameters with the adequate mechanical properties of gelatin-based hydrogels are reviewed. Gelatin-based scaffolds for a wide range of tissue engineering applications, such as bone, cartilage, cardiac, skin, and nerve tissue engineering are also outlined. Lastly, current challenges and future perspectives in this research field are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0210.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: bioactive glass; gelatin; chitosan; 3-Glycidyloxypropyl trimethoxysilane; bone.
Online: 5 November 2020 (10:48:46 CET)
Bioactive glass (BG) represents a promising biomaterial for bone healing; here injectable BG pastes biological properties were improved by 25 wt% gelatin or chitosan, as well as mechanical resistance was enhanced by adding 10 or 20 wt% 3-Glycidyloxypropyl trimethoxysilane (GPTMS) cross-linker. Composites exhibited bioactivity as apatite formation was observed by SEM and XRD after 14 days immersion in SBF; moreover, polymers did not enhance degradability as weight loss was >10% after 30 days in physiological conditions. BG-gelatin-20 wt% GPTMS composites demonstrated the highest compressive strength (4.8±0.5 MPa) in comparison with 100% BG control (1.9±0.1 MPa). Cytocompatibility was demonstrated towards human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC), osteoblasts progenitors and endothelial cells. The presence of 20 wt% GPTMS conferred antibacterial properties thus inhibiting the joint pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis infection. Finally, hMSC osteogenesis was successfully supported in a 3D model as demonstrated by alkaline phosphatase release and osteogenic genes expression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0611.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: hydrogels; cardiac patches; 3D bioprinting; furfuryl-gelatin; lattice
Online: 31 July 2018 (08:06:27 CEST)
3D bioprinting holds great promise in the field of regenerative medicine as it can create complex structures in a layer-by-layer manner using cell-laden bioinks, making it possible to imitate native tissues. Current bioinks lack both the high printability and the biocompatibility required in this respect. Hence, the development of bioinks that are capable of both properties is needed. In our previous study, a furfuryl-gelatin based bioink, crosslinkable by visible light, was used for creating mouse mesenchymal stem cell-laden structures with high fidelity. In this study, lattice mesh geometries were printed in a comparative study to test against the properties of a traditional rectangular-sheet. After 3D printing and crosslinking, both structures were analysed for swelling and rheological properties, and their porosity estimated using scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that the lattice structure was relatively more porous but sturdy and exhibited a lower degradation rate compared to the rectangular-sheet. Further, the lattice allowed encapsulation of a greater number of cells, allowing them to proliferate to a greater extent compared to the rectangular-sheet that retained a lesser number of cells initially. All of these results collectively affirmed that the lattice poses as a superior scaffold design for tissue engineering applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0225.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: gelatin; nanofibers; cinnamaldehyde; solution blow spinning; antimicrobial activity
Online: 24 January 2018 (09:03:09 CET)
Cinnamaldehyde, a natural preservative that can non-specifically deactivate foodborne pathogens, was successfully incorporated into fish skin gelatin (FSG) solutions and blow spun into uniform nanofibers. The effects of cinnamaldehyde ratios (5-30%, w/w FSG) on physicochemical properties of fiber-forming emulsions (FFEs) and their nanofibers were investigated. Higher ratios resulted in higher values in particle size and viscosity of FFEs, as well as higher values in diameter of nanofibers. Loss of cinnamaldehyde was observed during solution blow spinning (SBS) process and cinnamaldehyde was mainly located on the surface of resultant nanofibers. Nanofibers all showed antibacterial activity by direct diffusion and vapor release against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes. Inhibition zones increased as cinnamaldehyde ratio increased. Nanofibers showed larger inhibition effects than films prepared by casting method when S. typhimurium was exposed to the released cinnamaldehyde vapor, although films had higher remaining cinnamaldehyde than nanofibers after preparation. Lower temperature was favorable for cinnamaldehyde retention, and nanofibers added with 10% cinnamaldehyde ratio showed the highest retention over eight-weeks of storage. Results suggest that FSG nanofibers can be prepared by SBS as carriers for antimicrobials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0189.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: biocomposite films; gelatin; oleoresins; antimicrobial compounds; food quality
Online: 29 November 2017 (10:23:11 CET)
This study developed gelatin-based films with incorporation of microcrystalline cellulose as reinforcement material. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), and black pepper (Piper nigrum) oleoresins containing antimicrobial compounds of natural origin were incorporated into films. The mechanical, thermal, optical, and structural properties, as well as color, resistance to sealing and permeability to water vapor, light, and oil of the films were determined. Adding oleoresins to the gelatin matrix increased elongation of the material and significantly diminished its permeability to water vapor and oil. Evaluation of the potential use of films containing different oleoresins as bread packaging material was influenced by the film properties. The biocomposite film containing oleoresin from black pepper was the most effective packaging material for maintaining the bread’s quality characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2020.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Bioresponsive; gelatin; hyaluronic acid; bioprinting; cell-delivery; tissue engineering
Online: 29 June 2023 (02:20:28 CEST)
Development of bioresponsive extrudable hydrogels for 3D bioprinting is imperative to address the growing demand for scaffold design and efficient and reliable methods of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This study proposed genipin-crosslinked gelatin-hyaluronic acid hydrogel bioink with different amounts of gelatin tailored for 3D bioprinting, focusing on high cell density loading and less artificial extra-cellular matrix (ECM) effect, as well as exploring their potential applications in tissue engineering. The bioresponsiveness of these hydrogel scaffolds was successfully evaluated in different physiological conditions. 3D and four-axis printing of complex structures such as shapes of hollow tube, star, pyramid, and four-axis tubular scaffolds prove the hydrogel’s high extrusion ability and post-printing shape fidelity. Cytocompatibility and high cell density 3D bioprinting using this moderately stable hydrogel exhibit high potential for precise cell-delivery modes in tissue engineering as well as regenerative medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0594.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Hybrid scaffold; Bioactive Glass; Gelatin; GPTMS; Bone tissue engineering
Online: 28 January 2021 (16:13:18 CET)
Hybrid scaffolds based on bioactive glass (BAG) particles (<38µm), covalently linked to the gelatin (G*), using 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS), have been studied for bone bioengineering. In this study, two glass compositions (13-93 and 13-93B20 [where 20% of the SiO2 was replaced with B2O3]) were introduced in the gelatin matrix. The Cfactor (Gelatin/GPTMS molar ratio) was kept constant at 500. The hybrids obtained were found to be stable at 37°C, in solution; condition at which pure gelatin is liquid. All hybrids were characterized by in vitro dissolution in TRIS solution (for up to 4 weeks) and Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) (for up to 2 weeks). Samples processed with 13-93B20 exhibit a faster initial dissolution and significantly faster precipitation of a hydroxyapatite (HA) layer. The faster ion release and HA precipitation recorded from the G*/13-93B20 samples, is attributable to the higher reactivity of borosilicate compared to the silicate glass. MC3T3-E1 cells behavior, in direct contact with the hybrids, was investigated, showing that the cells were able to proliferate and spread on the developed biomaterials. Tailoring the glass composition allows to better control the material’s dissolution, biodegradability, and bioactivity. Bioactive (especially with 13-93B20 BAG), and biocompatible, the hybrids are promising for bone application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1630.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: carboxymethyl chitosan; gelatin; edible coating; performance optimization; sweet cherry; preservation
Online: 25 July 2023 (05:17:40 CEST)
To prepare an edible coating with a good preservative effect on sweet cherries, carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) and gelatin (GL) were selected as the film-forming matrix in this experiment, and CaCl2 and ascorbic acid (AA) were added as crosslinking agents and antioxidants, respectively. First, the film was prepared by the casting method, and the film formula with better mechanical and barrier performance was filtered out by one-factor and response surface optimization test, and the differences in the preservation effect of different film formulations (CMCS-GL, CaCl2- CMCS-GL, AA -CaCl2- CMCS-GL) on sweet cherries were compared. and then the different film formulations were compared. The difference in film formulation on the preservation effect of sweet cherries was investigated. The results showed that the optimal formulation for an edible film based on CMCS-GL with good performance was CMCS: GL (w:w)=2:1, with the additional amount of 1% glycerol, 2% CaCl2, 0.1% Tween-20, 2% AA, the tensile strength, elongation at break, oxygen permeability and water vapor permeability of the film obtained with this formula were: 16.28 MPa, 71.46%, 1.39×10-12 g- cm/(cm2-s-Pa), 5.10×10-11 cm3-cm/(m2-s-Pa), respectively. In the preservation of sweet cherries, all three film formulations effectively reduced the rotting rate and weight loss during storage while preserving the high hardness and skin color of the fruit. Among them, the formulation AA -CaCl2- CMCS-GL showed the best preservation effect and can be used as a new method for postharvest preservation of sweet cherries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0138.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: α- Fe2O3; hematite; gelatin; f-127; hexagonal-flake; adsorption; ibuprofen
Online: 8 October 2021 (11:17:24 CEST)
Hematite (-Fe2O3) with uniform hexagonal flakes morphology has been successfully synthesized using a combination of gelatin as natural template with F127 via hydrothermal method. The resulting hematite was investigated as adsorbent and photocatalyst for removal of ibuprofen as pharmaceutical waste. Hexagonal flake-like hematite was obtained following calcination at 500 oC with the average size was measured at 1-3 µm. Increasing the calcination temperature to 700 oC transformed the uniform hexagonal structure into cubic shape morphology. Hematite also showed high thermal stability with increasing the calcination temperatures, however, the surface area was reduced from 47 m2/g to 9 m2/g. FTIR analysis further confirmed the formation Fe-O-Fe bonds, and the main constituent elements of Fe and O were observed in EDX analysis for all samples. Fe2O3-G samples have an average adsorption capacity of 55-25.5 mg/g at 12-22% of removal efficiency when used as adsorbent for ibuprofen. The adsorption capacity was reduced with increasing the calcination temperatures due to the reduction of available surface area of the hexagonal flakes when transformed into cube. Photocatalytic degradation of ibuprofen using hematite flakes achieved 50% of removal efficiency meanwhile combination of adsorption and photocatalytic degradation further removed 80% of ibuprofen in water/hexane mixtures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0026.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: TiO2-ZnO photocatalysts; gelatin; William-Hall plots; Rhodamine B degradation
Online: 1 October 2020 (17:03:10 CEST)
Herewith we report a facile synthesis of zinc oxide doped with (5, 10, 15, and 20 wt%) titanium oxide nanocomposites in gelatin under ultra-sonication. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) data revealed ZnO the formation in addition to a rutile phase TiO2. The ZnO phase size decreased, and the rutile TiO2 phase increased with a TiO2 loading increment. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) displayed a combination of spherical and hexagonal particles with a 60 – 80 nm size distribution. The prepared nanostructures photocatalytic activity was assisted using Rhodamine B dye, where they showed enhanced photodegradation competence under visible light irradiation. The kinetics of photodegradation followed the first-order kinetics with the 20 % wt sample having the maximum activity. The mechanistic investigation revealed the dominance of h+ and •O2- species during the dye photodegradation. The results indicate the potential application of such gelatin stabilized nanostructures for dye illumination from aqueous solutions under sunlight.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0006.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: Centella asiatica extract; gelatin; carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC); antioxidant; functionality properties
Online: 1 May 2018 (11:10:24 CEST)
This study aimed to characterize the antioxidant, mechanical and physical properties of chicken skin gelatin/CMC/Centella asiatica blended film. The influence of Centella asiatica at 0.3% and 0.7% on antioxidant activities; mechanical properties and physical properties of chicken skin gelatin/CMC/Centella asiatica film were investigated. Characterization of the blended films with 0.7% Centella asiatica extract shows higher antioxidant activities with a total phenolic content of 0.36 mg/g of GAE, DPPH of 89.26%, and reducing power of 0.80 nm compared to 0.3% Centella asiatica extract. The addition of 0.3% of Centella extract provide higher value in tensile strength (5.0 × 10−2 MPa), elongation at break (281%), melting point (131.31 °C), transparency (0.86) but lower UV-light penetration. While the addition of 0.7% Centella extract contribute to higher value in WVP (1.13 × 10−4 g m−1s−1Pa−1) and puncture test (0.06 N). There are no significant differences between functional groups obtained from this blended film as evaluated by FTIR analysis (p > 0.05). Furthermore, XRD analysis showed the addition of extract decrease the crystallinity of film. In conclusion, the incorporation of Centella asiatica extracts on film greatly increased antioxidant levels and improved some of the mechanical and physical properties of the film blends.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1849.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: antioxidant activity; biotechnology; functional groups; hydrolysate; microbial population; molecular weight; gelatin
Online: 29 November 2023 (11:01:37 CET)
Chicken collagen is a promising raw material source to produce gelatins and hydrolysates. Gelatins and hydrolysates can be prepared biotechnologically using proteolytic enzymes produced by submerged fermentation of genetically modified microorganisms. By choosing the appropriate process conditions, such changes can be achieved at the molecular level of collagen, making it possible to prepare products with targeted properties for advanced cosmetic, pharmaceutical, medical or food applications. The research aims to investigate: i) antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS) in model samples of chicken collagen products (gelatin and hydrolysates); ii) distribution of molecular weights by the GPC-RID analysis method; iii) functional groups and configuration of polypeptide chains related to molecular level properties using FTIR; iv) the microbiological properties on SDA, PCA, TSA and VRBL microbial populations using MALDI method. Antioxidant activity towards ABTS radicals of more than 80% was found for all samples. The molecular weights of all gelatin samples showed typical α- and β-chains. FTIR analysis confirmed that the samples showed all typical vibrational regions for collagen cleavage products, Amide A and B, Amide I, II, and III at characteristic values. Microbiological analysis of the prepared samples showed no undesirable bacteria that would limit advanced applications of the prepared products. Gelatins and hydrolysates from chicken stomachs represent a promising alternative to products made from standard collagen tissues of terrestrial animals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0021.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: chitosan; dexketoprofen trometamol; drug delivery; gelatin; NSAIDs; personalized medicine; smart polymers
Online: 1 October 2021 (13:53:53 CEST)
Chronic and non-healing wounds demand personalized and more effective therapies for treating complications and improve patient adherence. This work aims to develop a suitable chitosan-based scaffold to provide 24 hours controlled release of DKT, by taking advantage of chitosan’s thermo-responsive behavior as well as local hyperthermia in wounds. Three formulation prototypes were developed using chitosan (F1), 2:1 chitosan: PVA (F2), and 1:1 chitosan:gelatin (F3). Compatibility tests were done by DSC, TG, and IR spectroscopy. SEM was employed to examine the morphology of the surface and inner layers from the scaffolds. In vitro release studies were performed at 32 °C and 38 °C to evaluate the release profiles, which were later adjusted to different kinetic models for the best formulation. F3 showed the most controlled release of DKT at 32 °C for 24 hours (77.75 ± 2.72 %), and reduced the burst release in the initial 6 hours (40.18 ± 1.00 %), while at 38 °C the release reached 88.52 ± 2.07 % at 12 hours. The release profile for this formulation fits with Hixson-Crowell and Korsmeyer-Peppas kinetic models at both temperatures. Therefore, the developed chitosan/gelatin thermo-responsive scaffold provides a suitable system for wound healing with a controlled release of DKT for 24 hour-use, which can overcome adherence issues and wound complications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0412.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: fish processing waste; Alaska pollock; Pacific cod; fish gelatin; gelling component.
Online: 19 July 2021 (13:14:52 CEST)
Waste from fish cutting (heads, swim bladders, fins, skin, bones) is a high-value technological raw material for obtaining substances and products based on them with a wide range of properties. The possibility of using waste from cutting fish of the Gadidae family: the Alaska pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) and the Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus), processed in the coastal zone, is scientifically substantiated. In this work, a technology has been developed for processing accumulated waste from fish cutting in order to obtain fish gelatin, which is characterized by high protein content (more than 80.0%) and a full set of essential and nonessential amino acids. We studied the quality of fish gelatin obtained from wastes from cutting the fish of the Gadidae family. The possibility of using fish gelatin as a component of fish products is shown; the dose of its introduction into the fish products is substantiated. The data obtained made it possible to recommend the use of fish processing waste products as a gelling component and a source of amino acids in multicomponent food systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1573.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: scaffold design; PLA; gelatin-chitosan hydrogel; tissue engineering; bone regeneration; 3D printing
Online: 26 November 2023 (05:44:24 CET)
Scaffolds for tissue engineering are expected to respond to a challenging combination of physical and mechanical requirements, guiding the research towards the development of novel hybrid materials. This study introduces innovative three-dimensional bioresorbable scaffolds, in which a stiff poly(lactic acid) lattice structure is meant to ensure temporary mechanical support, while a bioactive gelatin-chitosan hydrogel is incorporated to provide a better environment for cell adhesion and proliferation. The scaffolds present a core-shell structure, in which the lattice core is realized by additive manufacturing, while the shell is nested throughout the core by grafting and crosslinking a hydrogel forming solution. After subsequent freeze-drying, the hydrogel network forms a highly interconnected porous structure that completely envelops the poly(lactic acid) core. Thanks to this strategy, it is easy to tailor the scaffold properties for a specific target application, by properly designing the lattice geometry and the core/shell ratio, which are found to significantly affect the scaffold mechanical performance and its bioresorption. Compression stiffness and strength provided by poly(lactic acid) lattices are overall within the range of values displayed by human bone tissue and remain stable after prolonged immersion in water at body temperature for several weeks. On the other hand, the hydrogel undergoes gradual and homogeneous degradation over time, but the core-shell integrity and structural stability are nevertheless maintained during at least 7-week hydrolytic degradation tests. In vitro experiments with human mesenchymal stromal cells reveal that the core-shell scaffolds are biocompatible and their physical-mechanical properties and architecture are suitable to support cell growth and osteogenic differentiation, as demonstrated by hydroxyapatite formation. These results suggest that the bioresorbable core-shell scaffolds can be considered, and further studied, in view of clinically relevant endpoints in bone regenerative medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1086.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: 3D printing; alginate-gelatin hydrogel; pH; CaCl2; BaCl2; U2OS; NIH/3T3; fluid-phase
Online: 15 September 2023 (12:59:12 CEST)
Alginate-gelatin hydrogels are extensively used in bioengineering. However, despite different formulations being utilized for growing different cell types in vitro, their pH and its effect, together with the crosslinking ions, of those formulations are still infrequently assessed. In this work we studied how these elements can affect hydrogel stability and printability and influence U2OS and NIH/3T3 cell viability and metabolism on the resulting 3D prints. In this context, 6% alginate + 2% gelatin hydrogels were prepared with 0.1 M MES buffer with pH 5.5, 6.5, 7.0 or 8.0, printed by extrusion-based 3D printing, and crosslinked immediately after printing with either CaCl2 or BaCl2. Our results showed that both the buffer pH and the crosslinking ion (Ca2+ or Ba2+) influence the swelling and degradation rates of the prints. Moreover, the buffer pH influenced the printability of the hydrogel in air, but when printed directly in a fluid-phase CaCl2 or BaCl2 crosslinking bath. In addition, both U2OS and NIH/3T3 cells showed greater cell metabolic activity on one-layer prints crosslinked with Ca2+. Besides, Ba2+ increased cell death of NIH/3T3 cells while had no effect on the U2OS cell viability. The pH of the buffer also caused an important impact on the cell behaviour. U2OS cells showed a 2.25-fold cell metabolism increase on one-layer prints prepared at pH 8.0 in comparison to those prepared at pH 5.5. Whereas, NIH/3T3 cells showed greater metabolism on one-layer prints with pH 7.0. Finally, we observed a difference on cell arrangement of the U2OS cells growing on prints prepared from hydrogels with acidic buffer in comparison to cells growing on those prepared using neutral or basic buffer. These results show that both pH and crosslinking ion influence hydrogel strength and cell behaviour.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2064.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: freeze-drying; biomaterials; collagen; gelatin; alignment; medical devices; biomedical engineering; modeling; Artificial Intelligence
Online: 30 May 2023 (07:23:46 CEST)
Freeze-drying is a well-established process in biomedical engineering for the fabrication of three-dimensional open-porous medical devices, especially those based on biopolymers. One of the most used biopolymers in this field is collagen, the most abundant protein in the human body and the main component of the extracellular-matrix, as well as its derivatives. Freeze-dried collagen-based sponges with a wide variety of attributes can be produced by design and have led to a wide range of successful commercial medical devices, foremost for dental, orthopedic, hemostatic and neuronal applications. However, this is still considered a high-cost and time-consuming process that is often used in a non-optimized manner. By combining advances in other technological fields, the opportunity arises to further evolve this process in a sustainable manner, and optimize the resulting products as well as create new opportunities in this field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1001.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Eclipta prostrata; gelatin; foam dressing; wound dressing; physical property; absorption; dehydration; pH environment
Online: 26 April 2023 (15:23:50 CEST)
Developing novel wound dressings containing medicinal plant extracts can have several potential benefits, including improving the therapeutic value of the dressings and reducing the cost of producing wound dressings. In this study, we prepared foam dressing containing Eclipta prostrata leaf extract and gelatin (Eclipta prostrata dressing). Chemical composition was verified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and pore structure was obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The physical properties, including absorption and dehydration properties, were also evaluated. The chemical properties were measured to determine the pH environment after being submerged with Eclipta prostrata dressings. The results revealed that the Eclipta prostrata dressing had a pore structure with an appropriate pore size (313.25 ± 76.51 µm and 383.26 ± 64.45 µm for the Eclipta prostrata A and Eclipta prostrata B dressings, respectively). The Eclipta prostrata B dressing was more consistent porosity, resulting in a higher absorption capacity and faster dehydration rate. According to physical properties, the Eclipta prostrata B dressing is best used on low-exuding wounds. Furthermore, the Eclipta prostrata A and B dressings make a slightly acidic environment. Therefore, our foam dressing will not interfere wound healing process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0443.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: critical sized bone defect; bone tissue regeneration; nano-gelatin/ hydroxyapatite fiber (NGF); metformin.
Online: 19 February 2021 (14:35:11 CET)
Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine has gradually evolved as a promising therapeutic strategy to the modern healthcare of the aging and diseased population. In this study, we developed a novel nano-fibrous scaffold and verified its application in the critical bone defect regeneration. The metformin-incorporated nano-gelatin/hydroxyapatite fibers (NGF) was produced by electrospinning, cross-linked, and then characterized by XRD and FTIR. Cytotoxicity, cells adhesion, cell differentiation, and quantitative osteogenic gene and protein expression were analyzed by bone marrow stem cells from rat. Rat forearm critical bone defect model was performed for the in vivo study. The nano-gelatin/hydroxyapatite fibers (NGF) were characterized by their porous structures with proper interconnectivity without significant cytotoxic effects; the adhesion of bone marrow stem cells on the nano-gelatin/hydroxyapatite fibers (NGF) could be enhanced. The osteogenic gene and protein expression were upregulated. Post implantation, the new regenerated bone in bone defect was well demonstrated in the NGF samples. We demonstrated that the metformin-incorporated nano-gelatin-hydroxyapatite fibers greatly improved healing potential on the critical sized bone defect. Although metformin-incorporated nano-gelatin/hydroxyapatite fibers had advantageous effectiveness during bone regeneration, further validation is required before it can be applied to clinical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1671.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: hydrogel; gelatin; chitosan; conductive carbon black; nanocomposite; cyclic compression; dissipation energy; anisotropy; tissue engineering
Online: 23 August 2023 (11:53:29 CEST)
Conductive nanocomposites play a significant role in tissue engineering by providing a platform to support cell growth, tissue regeneration, and electrical stimulation. In this present study, a set of electroconductive nanocomposite hydrogels based on gelatin (G), chitosan (CH) and conductive carbon black (CB) was synthesized with the aim to develop novel biomaterials for tissue regeneration application. Incorporation of conductive carbon black (10, 15 and 20 wt %) significantly improved electrical conductivity and enhanced mechanical properties with the increased CB content. We employed an oversimplified unidirectional freezing technique to impart anisotropic morphology with interconnected porous architecture. An investigation into whether any anisotropic morphology affects the mechanical properties of hydrogel was conducted by performing compression and cyclic compression tests in each direction parallel and perpendicular to macroporous channels. Interestingly, nanocomposite with 10 % CB produced both anisotropic morphology and mechanical property, whereas anisotropic pore morphology diminished at higher CB concentration (15 and 20 %) imparting denser texture. Collectively, the nanocomposite hydrogels showed great structural stability as well as good mechanical stability and reversibility. Under repeated compressive cyclic at 50 % deformation, the nanocomposite hydrogels showed preconditioning, characteristic hysteresis, nonlinear elasticity, and toughness. Overall, the collective mechanical behavior resembled the mechanics of soft tissues. Electrical impedance associated to the hydrogels was studied in terms of modulus and phase in dry and wet condition. The electrical properties conducted in wet conditions, which is more physiologically relevant, showed low impedance at high frequencies due to capacitive currents. Overall, impedance of the nanocomposite hydrogels decreased with increased CB concentrations. These gelatin-chitosan–carbon black nanocomposite hydrogels show great promise for use as conducting substrates for the growth of electro-responsive cells in tissue engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0451.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Electrospun wound dressing; Skin tissue engineering; Regenerative medicine; Gelatin; Poly (glycerol sebacate); Diabetic wound
Online: 8 May 2023 (05:15:40 CEST)
Infectious diabetic wounds can result in severe injuries or even death. Biocompatible wound dressings offer one of the best ways to treat these wounds, but creating a dressing with suitable hydrophilicity and biodegradation rate can be challenging. To address this issue, we used the electrospinning method to create a wound dressing composed of poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) and gelatin (Gel). We dissolved the PGS and Gel in acetic acid (75 v/v%) and added EDC/NHS solution as a crosslinking agent. Our measurements revealed that the scaffolds' fiber diameter ranged from 180.2 to 370.6 nm, and all the scaffolds had porosity percentages above 70%, making them suitable for wound healing applications. Additionally, we observed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the contact angle from 110.8° ± 4.3° for PGS to 54.9° ± 2.1° for PGS/Gel scaffolds, indicating an improvement in hydrophilicity of the blend scaffold. Furthermore, our cell viability evaluations demonstrated a significant increase (p < 0.05) in cultured cell growth and proliferation on the scaffolds during the culture time. Our findings suggest that the PGS/Gel scaffold has potential for wound healing applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1504.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: dual release, daptomycin, BMP-2, β-TCP scaffold, ADA-gelatin gel, bone infection, bone regeneration
Online: 24 November 2023 (08:41:16 CET)
Background: Antibiotic-containing carrier systems are one option that offers the advantage of releasing active ingredients over a longer period of time. In vitro sustained drug release from a carrier system consisting of microporous β-TCP ceramic and alginate has been reported in previous works. Alginate dialdehyde (ADA) gelatin gel showed both better mechanical properties when loaded into a β-TCP ceramic and higher biodegradability than pure alginate. Methods: Dual release of daptomycin and BMP-2 was measured on days 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 14, 21, and 28 by HPLC and ELISA. After release, the microbial efficacy of the daptomycin was verified and the biocompatibility of the composite was tested in cell culture. Results: Daptomycin and the model compound FITC protein A (n=30) were released from the composite over 28 days. A Daptomycin release above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by day 9 and a burst release of 71.7 ± 5.9 % were observed in the loaded ceramics. Low concentrations of BMP-2 were released from the loaded ceramics over 28 days.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0049.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: compostable; edible films; Duplex; Triplex Laminates; whey protein; gelatin; sodium alginate; film structure; mechanical; barrier properties
Online: 4 March 2020 (05:05:32 CET)
The objective of this study was to assess the ability of producing laminated edible films manufactured using the following proteins; gelatin (G), whey protein isolate (WPI), and polysaccharide; sodium alginate (SA), and to evaluate their physical properties. Additionally, films’ preparation employing these ingredients was optimized through the addition of corn oil (O), Overall, 8-types of laminated films (G-SA, G-WPI, SA-WPI, SA-G-WPI, GO-SAO, GO-WPIO, SAO-WPIO, SAO-GO-WPIO were developed in this study. The properties of the prepared films were characterized through the measurement of; tensile strength (TS), elongation at break point (EB), puncture resistance (PR), tear strength (TT), water vapour permeability (WVP) and oxygen permeability (OP). The microstructure of cross-sections of laminated films was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mechanical properties of films were dramatically enhanced through the addition of film layers. GO-SAO laminate showed the best barrier properties to water vapour (22.6 ± 4.04 g mm/kPa d m2) and oxygen (18.2 ± 8.70 cm3 mm/kPa d m2). SAO-GO-WPIO laminate film was the strongest of all laminated films tested, having the highest TS of 55.77 MPa, PR of 41.36 N and TT of 27.32 N. SA-G-WPI film possessed the highest elasticity with an EB value of 17.4%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0212.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: plant polyphenol; EGCG; gelatin; bone formation; congenital bone defect; dedifferentiated fat cell; adipose-derived stem cell; scaffold
Online: 8 November 2018 (11:34:11 CET)
Cost-effective and functionalized scaffolds are in high demand for stem-cell-based regenerative medicine to treat refractory bone defects in craniofacial abnormalities and injuries. One potential strategy is to utilize pharmacological and cost-effective plant polyphenols and biocompatible proteins, such as gelatin. Nevertheless, the use of chemically modified proteins with plant polyphenols in this strategy has not been standardized. Here, we demonstrated that gelatin chemically modified with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the major catechin isolated from green tea, can be a useful material for dedifferentiated fat cells and adipose-derived stem cells and can induce bone regeneration in a rat congenial cleft-jaw model in vivo. Vacuum-heated gelatin sponge modified with EGCG (vhEGCG-GS) induced superior osteogenesis from these two cell types compared with vacuum-heated gelatin sponge (vhGS). The EGCG-modification converted the water wettability of vhGS to a hydrophilic property (contact angle: 110° to 3.8°) and the zeta potential to a negative surface charge; the modification enhanced the cell adhesion property and promoted calcium phosphate precipitation. These results suggest that the EGCG-modification with chemical synthesis can be a useful platform to modify the physicochemical property of gelatin. This alteration is likely to provide a preferable microenvironment for multipotent progenitor cells, inducing superior bone formation in vivo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0023.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: gelatin-oleic conjugate; self-assembled biodegradable nanoparticles; biomimetic shear stress; cell dynamic environment; cellular drug delivery; paclitaxel
Online: 4 April 2017 (10:59:02 CEST)
Fluid flow in human body is generally known to influence a variety of cellular behaviors. Different nanoparticle properties as well as cell type, interaction with other cells and cellular environments also show significant effect on nanoparticle uptake and drug efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of shear stress on cellular behaviors of biocompatible and biodegradable nanoparticles to cancer cells (A549 cell lines) in a biomimetic microfluidic system. We prepared a gelatin-oleic conjugate (GOC) as an amphiphilic biomaterial to prepare self-assembled gelatin-oleic nanoparticles (GON). Coumarin-6 and paclitaxel were used as the fluorescence marker and model drug, respectively, and were loaded into GONs by incubation (C-GONs; PTX-GONs). Additionally, we evaluated the cellular uptake of fluorescence labeled C-GONs and the drug efficacy of PTX-GONs. The cellular uptake of C-GONs by A549 cells in the absence of shear stress revealed that the mean fluorescence intensity was slightly decreased compared to that in the presence of shear stress. The results also indicated that negatively charged PTX-GONs had a lower cancer killing effect under dynamic conditions than that under static conditions. It also suggested that fluidic shear stress did not significantly affect drug uptake and efficiency in case of PTX-GONs. The cellular interactions between nanoparticles and cells in drug delivery should be carefully examined according to the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles such as the type of materials, size and mainly surface charge in a biomimetic microfluidic condition.