ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0420.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: development of foreign language professional skills; motivation; communicative competence; efficiency; CLIL technology
Online: 15 June 2021 (16:15:58 CEST)
Currently the integration of Kazakhstan into the world community requires the training of highly qualified specialists fluently speaking and having a good command of foreign language. The study is devoted to the problem of development of foreign language professional skills of students of non-linguistic specialty. The aim of the research is to identify the efficiency of integrated approach use for shaping foreign language communicative skills of non-linguistic specialty students. The methodological basis of the research was communicative approach to foreign language teaching. In the framework of the research scientific and theoretical literary sources on the problem of the development of foreign language professional skills of non-linguistic specialty students were studied and summarized; the analysis of the empirical material obtained in the questioning and testing of students. To determine the level of formation of foreign language professional competence of international relations specialty students we have developed the following components: linguistic, cognitive, pragmatic. In the course of the experimental study, the authors revealed that the use of problem-based methods such as discussion, project and case technologies, debates in the framework of integrated approach to professional foreign language teaching promote students’ motivation increase and contribute to the improvement of their foreign language professional skills. The results of the study can be used in application of CLIL technology for the formation of foreign language professional competence of non-linguistic specialty students at the university.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0080.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: Foreign Language effect; decision-making; native language; second language; risk-taking
Online: 6 September 2021 (09:47:03 CEST)
Decision-making is a complex process of selecting an option from the given choices by analyzing the background information like risk, loss, and gain within the alternative options presented. It has been observed in earlier studies that people are prompt to make less rational decisions when choices are given in a language less known to them. Therefore, to understand the effect of languages on decision-making, we have questioned native Hindi speakers in French and English. French being the foreign language, and English as their second language. Thus, this effect of a non-native language brings to light the important role that the native language plays routinely in judgment and decision-making. In this paper, we developed a Neuropsychological assessment to decipher the effects on decision-making between choices when given in foreign language and second language in comparison with the native language of an individual, which is termed as foreign language effect(Fle). We have explored various possible situations to understand the foreign language effect(Fle) in decision-making and does this change translates when the decision is to be made in the second language. Our study concludes that the Foreign language is least affected by the intuitive biases, followed by the second language, and the native language is most affected by it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0240.v1
Subject: Keywords: Foreign exchange rate, economy, inflation
Online: 8 June 2021 (15:59:19 CEST)
The Foreign Exchange rate is very much crucial for determining the economic health level of the country. The foreign exchange rate provides financial stability, enhances purchasing power and allows global trades. This rate usually fluctuates due to the market forces which control the supply and demand of the currency. Nominal and relative inflation and income level have a substantial effect on determining the exchange rates. Government measures, international situations, natural disasters or any unexpected situation like Covid-19, Rohingya crisis etc. can affect the exchange rates. Besides this, the interaction between the factors can create different reasoning to affect the market. This study tries to identify some factors with relevant examples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0273.v1
Online: 29 March 2019 (08:01:17 CET)
This paper aims to research whether there is link between FDI inflows and Economic growth in the Republic of Seychelles Island. The ordinary least square results obtained shows that in the impact of FDI inflows on economic growth is low. Small Island Developing States attracts less FDI inflow because they are limited to few resources that attracts overseas firms which results in retarded development. The research lighted that impact of foreign direct investment on host countries does not only depend on the quality and quantity of the FDI inflows but some other variables such as the internal policies and the management skills, market structures, economic trends among others.
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Foreign direct investment; technological innovation; ARDL approach
Online: 20 May 2021 (11:04:28 CEST)
Fostering innovation is considered one of the key policy priorities in most governments' agendas in developing countries, and foreign direct investment (FDI) is considered a principal resource for financing sustainable development, corresponding to 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs). This study analyzes the extent to which inward FDI affects innovation (proxied with patent applications) in Sri Lanka using secondary data from 1990 to 2019. We used the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) cointegration procedure to examine the long-run relationships between variables. As per the study results, the coefficient of inward FDI is a negative sign while the coefficients of per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and high technology exports (HEX) show positive signs 2.142 and 0.414, respectively, and statistically significant in the long run. It is demonstrated that per capita GDP and high technology exports are an important variable in explaining technological innovation, and inward FDI and education expenditure (EDU) did not contribute towards widening technological innovation in Sri Lanka. Shaping the future of FDI in Sri Lanka is essential to foster innovation capability.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0111.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: migrant remittances; foreign capital; consumption; investment; economic growth
Online: 7 May 2020 (08:26:35 CEST)
Economic globalization has increased interdependence, particularly among the developing economies. This has increased the potential of migration across the national borders. In a similar context, the Indian economy has witnessed a rapid growth in the number of migrants after the phase of globalization. The rise in the migrant stock has led to a massive increase in the income generated through international borders in the form of remittances. India has become one of the top recipients of remittances with 79$ billion inflows in 2018. The major factor driving the growth of migrant remittances has been the monetary incentives that raise the standard of living of the recipient’s households. The rise in the income level of these households also affects other economic parameters including consumption and investment. Apart from this, the pattern of migration has also changed since the past few years with skilled workers migrating to the developed economies and unskilled ones migrating to the Gulf economies. In this context, the present study examines the trend and pattern of remittance inflows in India for the period of 1975-2017. Additionally, the study explores how remittance inflows affect the level of household consumption and investments. This relationship was examined using a two-stage least squares method by framing a set of simultaneous equations. The findings of the two-stage least square estimates indicate that though personal remittances do not impact the gross domestic product of the economy directly. But, an increase in the inflow of personal remittances leads to a rise in consumption and investment which in turn plays an important role in determining the Gross Domestic Product of the economy.
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: emergy analysis; foreign trade; sustainable development; Shenzhen City
Online: 21 March 2019 (07:01:35 CET)
The foreign trade sustainable development index system of Shenzhen City, including the three subsystems of environment, economy, and society, was constructed based on the theory of emergy analysis.The sustainable development of foreign trade in Shenzhen City from 2009 to 2016 was evaluated, and a detailed analysis of changes in the emergy of light and heavy industries was performed. The results showed that the scale of economy has been expanding, and the total volume of imports and exports has turned from a rise to a decline in 2013. The status of sustainable development is not optimistic. The transaction volume of energy is reduced, and the quality of people's living environment is declining. The sustainable development of Shenzhen City is not perfect, but it is in a phase of gradual optimization. Moreover, the proportion of heavy industry in import and export trade is significantly higher than that of light industry, which has caused the outflow of energy to a certain extent. Therefore, to improve the level of foreign trade sustainable development, we must improve the efficiency of resource utilization, increase the import of energy products, strengthen the ability to cope with external interference and adjust the foreign trade industrial structure.
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: World Trading signals; Fruits; WTO; Foreign Trade Research; Policies
Online: 13 September 2020 (15:53:54 CEST)
Fruits play an important role in human diet and to maintain better health. Globally, India ranks second in fruits production after China. Grapes, mangoes, bananas and oranges were the selected fruit crops for study purpose. The study period is from 1990 to 2018. The present study analyzed the growth rates, instability and elasticity of export quantity, prices of selected fruit crops from major producing countries in the world and also dealt with the major export destinations of Indian fruits. The results showed that an exporting countries should export grapes to Peru, Spain and Chile; bananas to the Panama, Philippines and Ecuador; mangoes to Italy, Egypt and Australia; and, oranges to Thailand, Philippines and Mexico for generating higher revenue because in global market those countries were associated with highest export price with the stability. Globally, the export price elasticity was inelastic in all countries of grapes, oranges and bananas except Italy in oranges and panama in bananas. The study found that export price elasticity of mangoes was marginally higher in the Spain and the Netherlands. The study showed that the major destinations for Indian fruits are; USA, Germany and Netherlands for grapes; USA, Belgium and Germany for bananas; USA, the Netherlands and Viet Nam for mangoes; and, Germany, France and Netherlands for oranges. Globally, the current study gave useful data to comprehend competition of prices for fruits to importing countries. This study may assist in preparing major price strategies and policies on fruits and also assisted in foreign earnings for all nations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0090.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Economic growth; Foreign aid; Natural resources; Rent-seeking; Volatility
Online: 29 July 2016 (07:48:51 CEST)
An abundance of natural resources is both an opportunity and a challenge for developing countries. Several resource-rich, low-income countries receive amounts of foreign aid that are similar to or larger than their actual or potential revenues from natural resources. In such countries, the donors may have an opportunity to help a government to use its resource revenues productively and minimize the magnitude of risks created by resource rents. Development of aid instruments tailored for such purposes might be helped by model-based analysis of the effects of foreign aid on resource-rich, low-income economies and its interactions with the flows of natural resource revenues. This paper develops a growth model à la Barro in which the government receives windfalls (from natural resources and foreign aid) and rent-seeking agents contest for public funds. The key conclusion is that making aid countercyclical helps to achieve higher economic growth, and so does conditioning disbursements on enhancement of public capital. Introducing elements of insurance in the design of both aid products financing investments in infrastructure and social services and supporting policy and institutional reforms may help to achieve both of these objectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0397.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: foreign aid; external debt; debt overhang; dependency theory; Ghana; VECM
Online: 26 September 2022 (11:21:57 CEST)
Over recent years, the Ghanaian economy has struggled to find its feet on the ground despite rising public debt and unending inflows of foreign aid. Against this backdrop, this study employs the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) estimation technique on data from 1970 to 2020 to test the usefulness of the debt overhang hypothesis and the dependency theory in the special case of Ghana. The results confirm evidence of the debt overhang hypothesis and the center-periphery wisdom of the dependency theory in Ghana. The findings depict that an increase in external debt stock and total debt service on external debt have both short and long-run growth-limiting effects on the Ghanaian economy. Similarly, foreign aid catalyzes growth only in the short run and later suppresses rather than stimulates economic growth in Ghana over the long run. The study recommends that harnessing domestic resources, maintaining fiscal discipline by cutting down unproductive expenditures, enhancing an effective tax system, and promoting institutional capabilities to counteract corruption and openness to trade are better ways to fast-track growth development in Ghana.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0611.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Time-series analysis; Foreign Direct Investment; economic growth; Bangladesh economy
Online: 24 December 2020 (09:30:19 CET)
This study investigates the impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) on economic growth and examines the causality between FDI and economic growth in Bangladesh during 1972-2013. Gross Domestic Product (GDP), export performance (EXP), Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), and Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF) are considered to capture the objective of the study. The study methodology includes some systematic steps. As the data used in the study is time-series in nature, the author employs unit root tests, and in this case, Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Phillips-Perron (PP) tests are used. Then Johansen’s cointegration test, Granger causality test, regression with Newey-West Standard Error and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) are applied. By using the ADF and PP test the study reveals that the variables of four-time series are integrated of I (1) i.e. they are stationary at first difference. Regression analysis result demonstrates that FDI has a positive effect on economic growth. The Granger Causality test discloses that there is a unidirectional relationship between FDI and economic growth. But the VECM estimation finds that in the long run FDI negatively affects economic growth.
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: foreign national prisoners; prison activities; multiculturalism; prison staff decision; motivation
Online: 26 October 2020 (08:45:11 CET)
The article presents the trends in penitentiary work with convicts of different cultures, focuses on their activation, individualisation of work, and organizational difficulties. The purpose of the research has been to discover the ways in which prison staff react to situations requiring flexibility justified by cultural differences of the inmates. The research questions have included: How does prison staff respond to the needs of culturally different inmates? How do the respondents’ reactions correlate with professional experience? Based on the literature, a hypothesis has been established that prison staff avoids individualized treatment of convicted foreigners. Despite the perceived differences in culture, religion, and their different mentality, prison procedures aim at uniformity. Tendencies towards resistance and stiffness to the needs of culturally different people become prevailing. The research method used has included a diagnostic survey (n = 232, F: 40, M: 192) conducted in prison officers in Poland. The written interview technique has been used, where the respondents has reacted to 3 situations of convicts, reflecting their national, religious, and cultural distinctiveness. In their responses, the respondents have decided on the way of action in the situation, as well as their motivation. The operationalization of the source material has been performed in two ways. There has been applied the content analysis method according to the grounded theory (B.G. Glaser, A.L. Strauss), resulting in the creation of categories marking actions and motives. A multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) of the built categories has been carried out using the Statistica program, as well as the correlation analysis of variables with the Cramer's V coefficient. The results of the analysis show statistically created, indicated manners of reacting that have occurred in the studied sample. Additionally, they point out an independent variable - seniority, which has correlated with the quality of the response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0430.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: foreign language teaching; teacher expectation; expectancy strategies; attitude; academic achievement
Online: 19 November 2018 (07:38:50 CET)
The aim of the existing study is to investigate the influence of teacher expectation on students’ achievement and their attitudes towards English lesson and to increase the students’ academic success and positive attitudes towards this issue. In the study, a process which defined the existing situtation and which provided the educational processes to improve by changing the existing situation could be seen. For this reason, emancipatory/improving/critical action research model was used. The study was carried out on a sample group consisting of 87 students; 43 6th graders and 44 8th graders attending a school located in the city center of Düzce during the 2015-2016 academic year. In order to collect the data, “Teacher Expectancy Scale” developed by the researchers, “Attitude Scale towards English Course” and 7 test exams prepared by Turkish Ministry of National Education (MoNE) were used. The study was conducted for a total 48 hours in 12 weeks, 4 hours a week. As the result of the study, it was revealed that teacher expectation influenced the attitudes of the students towards the English lesson in a positive way and increased their academic achievements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0344.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: SNA; Foreign Trade; Social network analysis; Electronic integrated circuits; UCINET; COVID-19
Online: 22 September 2022 (11:26:03 CEST)
Social network analysis (SNA) is an effective method for characterizing networks from various specific perspectives. Global trade contracted sharply in 2020 owing to the COVID-19 pandemic, and growth is expected to be lower than the pre-pandemic trends. This study takes countries worldwide as the primary unit of analysis and uses different procedures of social network analysis (SNA), including network density, centrality, and core-periphery structure, and applies them to the field of trade in electronic integrated circuit products (ICPT). In addition to static and descriptive analysis, this study also uses of tools such as Ucinet 6.732 for visual analysis, visual analysis, and more convenient and precise display of the network structure of ICPT. The important countries play a central role in determining the overall structural features. The core-periphery structure in the network from both spatial and temporal perspectives, data on electronic integrated circuit products for the period 2015-2021 were used in SNA. This study found that the ICPT network became denser from 2015 to 2021 but declined and picked up in 2018 and 2020. Moreover, the core-peripheral structure exists in the ICPT network. The main core network countries are Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, mainland China, Malaysia, Japan, the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, and other Asian countries, including the United States and Germany.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0330.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Female Participation in Labor Force (FPLF); Foreign Direct Investment (FDI); System GMM
Online: 21 January 2022 (13:39:27 CET)
This study assesses the impact of globalization on female participation in the labor force (FPLF). The increased globalization in the last several decades has created various economic opportunities for enterprises and individuals worldwide at an unprecedented rate. As a result, it has helped improve the quality of life for many men and women. In this process, the issue of women’s economic participation has been a critical topic for discussion worldwide. In that context, the objective of the paper is to determine if FPLF is influenced by a country’s participation in foreign markets through foreign direct investment (FDI) – a proxy for globalization. The paper uses a panel dataset obtained from the World Bank’s World Development Indicators database for 99 countries from 2001 to 2018. We then use system Generalized Method of Moments (system GMM) to estimate a dynamic panel model with appropriate specification tests. The results show that the positive effects of FDI on FPLF are more robust for low- and middle-income countries than high-income countries. We also find that results may be sensitive to outlier observations. Our results explain the seemingly inconclusive results within existing literatures and suggest that low- and middle-income countries should particularly focus on sectors that generate FDI as they stand to yield the greatest benefits with regards to female economic empowerment.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0076.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Foreign Body Reaction; deshydroxy-(18F) fluorocholine; Positron Emission Tomography; Low-grade glioma; Haemostatic material
Online: 8 April 2022 (08:48:36 CEST)
A right frontoparietal neoplastic lesion was found in a young-aged patient with analgesic refractory headache. Surgical resection was performed, and the pathologist analysis turned out a cellular ependymoma with signs of anaplasia. In the follow-up, a MRI showed a suspicious lesion, so a [18F]Fluorocholine PET/CT was performed. An increased uptake was described in the right parietal region on the margin of residual cystic lesion. The patient got a complete resection which was confirmed later by MR. In the pathology analysis, a focally congestive cerebral parenchyma with a central histiocytic reaction to foreign body area was described. Foreign body reaction in brain tissue is a very rare immune response that has not been well studied. Haemostatic material has been reported as a possible trigger of this response in other organs and could be detected by [18F]FDG PET/CT. Following the experience of the current case report, [18F]Fluorocholine PET/CT could also show a false positive related to foreign body reaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0556.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: National Security Strategy; Defense Policy; Arms Sales; Defense Cooperation Security Agency; Foreign Military Sales
Online: 23 March 2021 (09:11:17 CET)
The aim of the study is to characterize the U.S. and Lithuanian defense cooperation from 1990–2020 including arms procurements. Findings suggest close defense cooperation between countries at Presidential, Congressional, and Defense Ministry/Secretary levels. The most developed cooperation areas are joint participation in international operations, improvements of the Lithuanian Armed Forces’ capabilities, and an increase of the U.S. military presence in the Baltic region. An analysis of Lithuanian defense procurements between 1990–2020 indicates that the majority of defense armaments were acquired from the U.S. using the Foreign Military Sales venue while other options to obtain armaments were not used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0104.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: renewable energy; education expenditure; environmental degradation; health expenditure; carbon emissions; and foreign direct investments
Online: 11 January 2019 (07:06:47 CET)
This panel study investigates the relationship between green logistics indices, economic, environmental, and social factors in the perspective of Asian emerging economies. This study adopted FMOLS and DOLS methods to test research hypothesis, catering the problem of endogenity and serial correlation. The results suggest that logistics operations, particularly LPI2 (efficiency of customs clearance processes), LPI4 (quality of logistics services) and LPI5 (trade and transport-related infrastructure), are positively and significantly correlated with per capita income, manufacturing value added and trade openness. While, greater logistics operations are negatively associated with social and environmental problems including, climate change, global warming, carbon emissions, and poisoning atmosphere. In addition, human health is badly affected by heavy smog, acid rainfall, and water pollution. The findings further extend and reveal that political instability, natural disaster and terrorism are also a primary cause of poor economic growth and environmental sustainability with poor trade and logistics infrastructure. Further, the application of renewable energy resources and green practices can mitigate negative effects on social and environmental sustainability without compromising the performance of economic growth. There is very limited empirical work presented in literature using renewable energy and green ideology to solve macro-level social and environmental problems, while this study will assist the policymakers and researchers to understand the importance of green concept in improving countries’ social, economic and environmental performance.
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Foreign Exchange Market, Volatility Spillover, Return Spillover, VAR Framework, Variance Decomposition, Financial Crisis, Financial Interdependence
Online: 8 June 2021 (13:03:39 CEST)
In this paper, we investigate the “statics and dynamics” return and volatility spillovers transmission across developed and developing countries. Quoted against the U.S. dollar, we study twenty-three global currencies over 2005 – 2016. Focusing on the spillover index methodology, the generalised VAR framework is employed. Our findings indicate no evidence of bi-directional return and volatility spillovers between developed and developing countries. However, a unidirectional volatility spillover from developed to developing countries is highlighted. Furthermore, our findings document significant bi-directional volatility spillovers within the European region (Eurozone and non-Eurozone currencies) with the British Pound (GBP) and the Euro (EUR) as the most significant transmitters of volatility. The findings reiterate the prominence of volatility spillovers to financial regulators.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0044.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: deep reinforcement learning; model-based RL; hierarchy; trading; cryptocurrency; foreign exchange; stock market; risk; prediction; reward shaping
Online: 2 November 2021 (10:57:23 CET)
Deep reinforcement learning (DRL) has achieved significant results in many Machine Learning (ML) benchmarks. In this short survey we provide an overview of DRL applied to trading on financial markets, including a short meta-analysis using Google Scholar, with an emphasis on using hierarchy for dividing the problem space as well as using model-based RL to learn a world model of the trading environment which can be used for prediction. In addition, multiple risk measures are defined and discussed, which not only provide a way of quantifying the performance of various algorithms, but they can also act as (dense) reward-shaping mechanisms for the agent. We discuss in detail the various state representations used for financial markets, which we consider critical for the success and efficiency of such DRL agents. The market in focus for this survey is the cryptocurrency market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0450.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Credit to Private Sector; Foreign Direct Investment; Government Consumption Expenditure; Public Investment; Error Correction Model and South Africa
Online: 31 January 2022 (11:15:23 CET)
This study aims to explore the link between public investment and private investment in South Africa, using time series data spanning 40 years (1980–2020). Private investment is subdivided into credit to private sector (CPS) and foreign direct investment (FDI). Several econometric methodologies were used in the study, including the unit root test, cointegration test, and Error Correction Method (ECM). The Phillips-Perron (PP) test results point out that all the variables are stationary at levels with the exception of public investment (PI) which is stationary at first difference. The co-integration test reveals that the variables have a long-run equilibrium relationship. According to the findings of the ECM, public investment has a negative relationship with private investment (as measured by credit to private sector and foreign direct investment). The conclusion implies that in South Africa, public investment crowds out private investment. Other results revealed that, RGDP crowds in credit to private sector while crowding out foreign direct investment. Finally, the ECM findings show that government consumption expenditure crowds out credit to private sector and foreign direct investment. The residuals are homoskedastic and show no serial correlation, indicating that the model is adequate, according to the test for adequacy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0230.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Poverty; Foreign direct investment inflows; Human capital; Trade openness; Export product diversification; Economic growth; Labour productivity; Financial development; Infrastructure development.
Online: 6 November 2020 (09:03:02 CET)
The present paper investigates the effect of poverty on foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows in developing countries. It complements the important extant literature on the effect of FDI inflows on poverty by examining the issue the other way around. The analysis is conducted using a sample of 117 countries over the period 1980-2017, and the two-step system Generalized Methods of Moments (GMM) technique. It has relied on two indicators of poverty, namely poverty headcount ratio and poverty gap. Findings indicate that over the full sample, poverty influences negatively FDI inflows, including through its adverse effect on human capital (that is, both education and health). Unsurprisingly, low-income countries (considered as poorest countries in the full sample) experience a higher negative effect of poverty on FDI inflows than other countries. On another note, participation in international trade matters for the effect of poverty on FDI inflows. In fact, an increase in poverty levels results in lower FDI inflows in countries that experience low workers' productivity, a less developed financial sector, and a low level of infrastructure development. Furthermore, the effect of poverty on FDI inflows does not depend on the prevailing economic growth rate. Finally, the analysis has revealed the existence of a non-linear effect of poverty on FDI inflows for the poverty headcount indicator, but not for the poverty gap indicator. The non-linear effect of poverty headcount on FDI inflows is such that a rise in poverty headcount ratio results in lower FDI inflows, but an additional increase in poverty more than further discourages FDI inflows. The conclusion discusses the implications of these findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0004.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: SMI (silicone mammary implants); FBR (foreign body response); wound healing; wound infection; capsular fibrosis; implant encapsulation; early-stage fibrosis; surface adsorption; immunomics; biomarkers
Online: 1 December 2022 (02:02:11 CET)
The etiology of exaggerated fibrous capsule formation around silicone mammary implants (SMI) is multifactorial but primarily induced by immune mechanisms toward the foreign material silicone. The aim of this work was to enlighten the disease progression from implant insertion and immediate tissue damage response reflected in (a) the acute wound proteome, and (b) the adsorption of chronic inflammatory wound proteins at implant surfaces. An intra-individual absolute quantitation TMT-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry approach was applied to profile wound proteome formed around SMI the first five days post-implantation. Compared to plasma, the acute wound profile resembled a more complex composition comprising plasma-derived and locally differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). DEPs were subjected to functional enrichment analysis, which revealed the dysregulation of signaling pathways mainly involved in immediate inflammation response and ECM turnover. Moreover, we found time-course variations in protein enrichment immediately post-implantation and adsorbed to SMI surfaces after 6-8 months. Characterization of the expander-adhesive proteome by label-free approach uncovered a long-term adsorbed acute wound and the fibrosis-associated proteome. Our findings propose a wound biomarker panel for the early detection and diagnosis of excessive fibrosis that could potentially broaden insights into the characteristics of fibrotic implant encapsulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0687.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: automatic speech recognition (ASR); automatic assessment tools; foreign language pronunciation; pronunciation training; computer-assisted pronunciation training (CAPT); automatic pronunciation assessment; learning environments; minimal pairs
Online: 29 June 2021 (07:31:41 CEST)
General–purpose automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems have improved their quality and are being used for pronunciation assessment. However, the assessment of isolated short utterances, as words in minimal pairs for segmental approaches, remains an important challenge, even more for non-native speakers. In this work, we compare the performance of our own tailored ASR system (kASR) with the one of Google ASR (gASR) for the assessment of Spanish minimal pair words produced by 33 native Japanese speakers in a computer-assisted pronunciation training (CAPT) scenario. Participants of a pre/post-test training experiment spanning four weeks were split into three groups: experimental, in-classroom, and placebo. Experimental group used the CAPT tool described in the paper, which we specially designed for autonomous pronunciation training. Statistically significant improvement for experimental and in-classroom groups is revealed, and moderate correlation values between gASR and kASR results were obtained, beside strong correlations between the post-test scores of both ASR systems with the CAPT application scores found at the final stages of application use. These results suggest that both ASR alternatives are valid for assessing minimal pairs in CAPT tools, in the current configuration. Discussion on possible ways to improve our system and possibilities for future research are included.