ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0298.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Steganalysis; Steganography; Timing; Chat
Online: 17 February 2023 (06:32:37 CET)
Steganalysis is the practice of identifying potential secret communication and taking appropriate action, such as deciphering to uncover the hidden contents or destroying the object containing the hidden information if it cannot be uncovered. At times, it’s very necessary to perform Steganalysis due to the fact that steganography is often misused by those with bad intentions, making it a platform for criminal communication. This paper presents a methodology for the detection of timing steganography. The method is based on user behavior during chat, such as the time taken to read, edit, and send text, etc. The method was tested using simulation-based chat software, and it can detect intended timing samples correctly. However, this method is not a very robust one due to some reasons. For instance, it only works well with text-based chat applications, and there are many factors that affect the typing and reading speed of an individual as well as their behavior during chat. These often make the method susceptible to fault detection as it is not easy to set an accurate mean value and deviation to accommodate different typists' normal behavior, which appears as an intended timing.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0067.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Pneumonia; Timing; Antibiotics; Outcome
Online: 3 September 2020 (09:29:32 CEST)
Background: The reported associations between time to first antibiotic dose after hospital arrival and short-term mortality have varied in prior studies of CAP. It is unclear the benefit of early antibiotics in all patients given the risks of antibiotic overuse and misdiagnosis; Methods: A PubMed and Google Scholar search was performed to identify articles detailing the epidemiology, prognosis, diagnosis, and preliminary management of CAP; Results: In sepsis, antibiotics should not be delayed, and should be administered as soon as possible after recognition. For moderate or severe CAP patients without sepsis, antibiotics should be administered as soon as the diagnosis of CAP is highly likely. For stable, non–critically ill patients with CAP, the timing of antibiotics is not as clear and available evidence does not recommend strict requirements. Antibiotic timing – both rapid and delayed could be used as indicators of quality care in differing clinical scenarios; Results: The dogma of starting antibiotics quickly, within a rigid timeframe of expectations and guidelines has not improved outcomes in pneumonia patients, and has led to an increase in antibiotic treatment in uninfected patients. Severity of illness is the key factor associated with poor outcomes and should more significantly guide the timing of antibiotic initiation.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Nuclear And High Energy Physics Keywords: timing detectors; detector modelling and simulations
Online: 26 August 2020 (03:59:12 CEST)
Solid state sensors having timing capabilities are becoming an absolute need in particle tracking techniques of future experiments at colliders. In this sense, silicon sensors having 3D structure are becoming an interesting solution, due to their intrinsic speed and radiation resistance. A characteristics of such devices is the strict dependence of their performance on their geometric structure, which can be widely optimised by design, thus requiring suitable tools for an accurate modeling of their behaviour. This paper illustrates the development, performance and use of the TCoDe simulator, specifically dedicated to the fast simulation of carrier transportation phenomena in solid state sensors. Some examples of its effectiveness in the design and analysis of 3D sensors is also given.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0462.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Eclipsing binary minima timing method; Transit timing variation method; Eclipsing binary stars; CM Draconis; TESS space mission; Computational Methods
Online: 18 November 2020 (09:51:19 CET)
The Kwee van Woerden (KvW) method for the determination of eclipse minimum times has been a staple in eclipsing binary research for decades, due its simplicity and independence of external input parameters. However, its estimates of the timing error have been known to be of low reliability. During the analysis of very precise photometry of CM Draconis eclipses from TESS space mission data, KvW’s original equation for the timing error estimate produced numerical errors, which evidenced a fundamental problem in this equation. This contribution introduces an improved way to calculate the timing error with the KvW method. A code that implements this improved method, together with several further updates over the original method is presented as well. An example application on the CM Draconis light curves from TESS is given, where we show that its timing error estimates of about 1 second are in excellent agreement with error estimates obtained by other means.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0092.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: sleep-wake timing; circadian clock; entrainment; light; period; phase
Online: 8 May 2019 (11:11:49 CEST)
The Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ) has now been available for more than 15 years; its original publication has been cited 1,240 times (Google Scholar, May 2019); its online version, which was available until July 2017, has produced almost 300,000 entries from all over the world (MCTQ database). The MCTQ has gone through several versions, has been translated into 13 languages and has been validated against other more objective measures of daily timing in several independent studies. Besides being used as a method to correlate circadian features of human biology with other factors – ranging from health issues to geographical factors – the MCTQ gave rise to quantifying old wisdoms, like “teenagers are late” and has produced new concepts, like social jetlag. Some like the MCTQ’s simplicity and some view it critically; it is time to have a self-critical view on the MCTQ, to address some misunderstandings and give some definitions about MCTQ-derived chronotype and the concept of social jetlag.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0745.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Pancreatic Cancer; Adjuvant therapy; neoadjuvant therapy; biomarkers; Precision medicine; timing
Online: 30 November 2020 (16:45:30 CET)
Adjuvant chemotherapy is currently used in all patients with resected pancreatic cancer who are able to begin treatment within 3 months after surgery. Since the recent publication of the PRODIGE 24 trial results, modified FOLFIRINOX has become the standard-of-care in the non-Asian population with localized pancreatic adenocarcinoma following surgery. Nevertheless, there is still a risk of toxicity, and feasibility may be limited in heavily pre-treated patients. In more frail patients, gemcitabine-based chemotherapy remains a suitable option, for example gemcitabine or 5FU in monotherapy. In Asia, although S1-based chemotherapy is the standard of care it is not readily available outside Asia and data are lacking in non-Asiatic patients. In patients in whom resection is not initially possible, intensified schemes such as FOLFIRINOX or Gemcitabine-Nabpaclitaxel have been confirmed as options to enhance the response rate and resectability, promoting research in adjuvant therapy. In particular, should oncologists prescribe adjuvant treatment after a long sequence of chemotherapy +/- chemoradiotherapy and surgery? Should oncologists consider the response rate, the R0 resection rate alone, or the initial chemotherapy regimen? And finally, should they take into consideration the duration of the entire sequence, or the presence of limited toxicities of induction treatment? The aim of this review is to summarize adjuvant management of resected pancreatic cancer and to raise current and future concerns, especially the need for biomarkers and the best holistic care for patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0174.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: cloud computations; task timing; genetics algorithm; response time; virtual machine
Online: 10 May 2020 (16:15:14 CEST)
Cloud computations are based on the computer networks such as Internet which presents a new pattern to provide, consume and deliver services such as infrastructure, software, ground and other resources using network. The inappropriate timing of assigning loads to the virtual machines in the computational space could lead to unbalance in the system. One of the challenging planning problems. In the cloud data centers is considering both assigning and migration (transfer) of the virtual machines with the ability of reconfiguration and the integrated features of the hosting physical machines. In this article, we introduce an integrated and dynamic timing algorithm based on the Genetic evolution algorithm. The suggested method was evaluated based on these factors and different inputs. Our suggested method is done using Java programming language and cloud-SME simulation. The results show that the execution time and the response time were improved by 12 and 1 percent respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0262.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Hox genes, Retinoids, BMP, Gastrulation, Xenopus, Timing, Time Space Translation
Online: 28 March 2019 (10:33:43 CET)
The vertebrate anterior-posterior (A-P) body axis arises due to time space translation (TST). BMP dependent Hox temporal collinearity in early embryonic mesoderm generates the initial vertebrate axial pattern because the Hox codes associated with sequential times are frozen sequentially by BMP inhibiting signals from the embryonic organiser or node. There are three reasons why it is now opportune to review TST. 1/ It has become clear that this mechanism is highly relevant for current and emergent directions in medicine. Making a particular tailored stem cell or culturing a specific organoid in vitro both depend on it. 2/ This unexpected and perhaps unlikely sounding mechanism has recently been thoroughly validated. 8 recent primary publications from 6 major groups confirm that TST is the mechanism for primary axial patterning in the 4 best investigated vertebrate embryos. 3/ Its mechanism is now becoming clear. Previous publications propose it involves Hox regulation of cell movement during gastrulation or sequential stabilisation of Hox codes by anti BMP as above. Neither of these processes works alone but together they amount to a very convincing mechanism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0831.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: alfalfa; timing of haymaking; growth dynamics of one stem; yield; quality
Online: 11 May 2023 (08:57:36 CEST)
In the context of market relations in agriculture in the Kyzylorda region, in order to meet the needs of animal husbandry in complete feed, it is necessary to create a solid forage base. The successful solution to the tasks of increasing the number of livestock and increasing the productivity of animal husbandry in the ecological conditions of the Aral Sea region largely depends on the timely procurement of feed and the transfer of feed production to an industrial basis. It is possible to increase the production of high-quality feeds through the introduction of high-yielding varieties, the use of new resource-saving cultivation and harvesting technologies, the optimal organization of cultivation production processes, and increasing the efficiency of the use of technical means. Of all the harvested types of feeds, alfalfa has the best effect on increasing milks yield and meat gains. The green mass of alfalfa is well-eaten by all farm animals. For example, when feeding cattle, its utilization rate is 92.6%. In terms of protein richness, alfalfa hay surpasses many other feeds, so 100 kg of alfalfa hay contains 11.6 kg of digestible protein, 1.77 kg of calcium, 0.22 kg of phosphorus, and 4.5 g of carotene. In addition, in the conditions of rice crop rotation, according to its biological characteristics, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is considered indispensable in agrotechnical and reclamation relations, especially in saline soils. The economic value of alfalfa lies in its wide ecological plasticity, the ability to grow back quickly after mowing, and high productivity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0294.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: meal timing; meal frequency; skipping meals; fasting; obesity; metabolic syndrome; diabetes
Online: 22 March 2022 (04:20:50 CET)
Individuals with metabolic syndrome have increased risk for developing health conditions, in-cluding cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Modifiable risk factors, such as exercise and diet, are key components in the prevention and control of metabolic syndrome. Specifically, dietary pat-terns and habits are extremely successful in controlling more than one of the metabolic syn-drome risk factors. Meal timing and frequency have been associated with type 2 diabetes, cardi-ovascular diseases, and other chronic conditions. However, there is limited evidence linking metabolic syndrome to meal timing and meal frequency. This review summarizes and discusses how meal timing and frequency impact metabolic outcomes in adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0118.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: sleep depth; sleep duration; sleep timing; time zones; COVID-19; aviation
Online: 5 July 2021 (16:18:13 CEST)
Fatigue risk to commercial pilots operating under global pandemic conditions had not been in-vestigated prior to COVID-19. Examining how pilots slept during COVID-19 pandemic-specific flights can provide a precedent for estimating fatigue risk for future public health emergencies. Twenty (n=20) pilots flying across five COVID-19 humanitarian missions between Brazil and China wore a sleep-tracking device (the Zulu watch), which has been validated for the estimation of sleep timing (sleep onset and offset), duration, efficiency, and sleep depth (Wake, Interrupted, Light, or Deep Sleep) throughout the mission period. Pilots also reported sleep timing, duration and subjective quality of their in-flight rest periods using a sleep diary. To our knowledge, this is the first report of commercial pilot sleep behavior during ultra-long-range operations under COVID-19 pandemic conditions. Moreover, these analyses provide an estimate of sleep depth during in-flight sleep, which has not been reported previously in the literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0077.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: high-temperature sensor; inductive sensor; blade tip timing; blade health monitoring
Online: 5 July 2021 (08:04:14 CEST)
Magnetic sensors are widely used in health management systems for turbomachinery, but their applications in the hot zone are limited due to the loss of magnetic properties by permanent magnets with increasing temperature. The paper presents and verifies models and design solutions aimed at improving the performance of an inductive sensor for measuring the motion of rotating objects operating at elevated temperatures (200-1000C), such as compressor and turbine blades. Physical, analog and mathematical models of the interaction of blades with the sensor were developed. A prototype of the sensor was made and its tests were carried out on the RK-4 rotor rig for the speed of 7000 rpm, in which the temperature of the sensor head was gradually increased to 1100C. The sensor signal level was compared to that of an identical sensor operating at room temperature. The heated sensor works continuously producing the output signal whose level does not change significantly. What is more, a set of six probes passed an initial engine test in an SO-3 turbojet. It was confirmed that the proposed design of the inductive sensor is suitable for blade health monitoring of the last stages of compressors, steam turbines as well as previous generation gas turbines operating below 1000C, even without a dedicated cooling system. In real-engine applications, sensor performance will depend on how the sensor is installed and the available heat dissipation capability
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0236.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Hox genes; limb development; main body axis; timing; time space translation
Online: 20 November 2019 (10:31:55 CET)
This article is a tribute to Lewis Wolpert on the occasion of the recent 50th anniversary of the publication of his article ‘Positional Information and the Spatial Pattern of Differentiation’. This tribute relates to another of his ideas: his early ‘Progress Zone’ timing model for limb development. Recent evidence is reviewed that a mechanism sharing features with this model patterns the main body axis in early vertebrate development. This tribute celebrates the golden era of Developmental Biology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0440.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Dormant origins; replicative stress; replication timing; DNA damage; genome instability; cancer
Online: 21 September 2018 (16:00:30 CEST)
Maintenance of the human chromosomes stability requires a tight regulation of DNA replication to duplicate once and only once the entire genome of a single cell. In mammalians cells, origin activation is controlled in space and time by a cell specific and robust program called replication timing. About 100 000 of potential origins are loaded onto the chromatin at the G1 phase but only 20-30% are selected and active during the replication of a given cell. When the replication fork is slowed down by exogenous or endogenous sources, the cell need to activate more origins to complete the replication on time. Thus, the large choice of origins that can be activated may be a key player in the protection of the genome. The aim of this review is to discuss about the role of these dormant origins as housekeepers of the human genome in response to replicative stress.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1093.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Timing of mitosis; Cell cycle; CDC6; CDK1; cyclins; CDC25; Xic1; Mitotic entry
Online: 16 May 2023 (05:10:23 CEST)
Timely mitosis is critically important for the early embryo development. It is regulated by the activity of the ubiquitously conserved CDK1 kinase. The dynamics of CDK1 activation must be precisely controlled to assure physiologic and timely entry into mitosis. Recently, a known S-phase regulator CDC6 emerged as a key player in the mitotic CDK1 activation cascade in early embryonic divisions, operating together with Xic1 as a CDK1 inhibitor upstream of the Aurora A- and PLK1 kinases, both CDK1 activators. Herein we review the molecular mechanisms that underlie the control of the mitotic timing, with special emphasis on how CDC6/Xic1 function impacts CDK1 regulatory network. We focus on the presence of two independent mechanisms inhibiting the dynamics of CDK1 activation: Wee1/Myt1- and CDC6/Xic1-dependent, and how they cooperate with CDK1 activating mechanisms. As a result we propose a comprehensive model integrating CDC6/Xic1-dependent inhibition into the CDK1-activation cascade. The physiological dynamics of CDK1 activation appear to be tuned by the system of multiple inhibitors and activators and their integrated modulation ensures concomitantly both the robustness and certain flexibility of the control of this process. Identification of multiplied activators and inhibitors of CDK1 activation upon M-phase entry allows a better understanding of why cells divide at a specific time, and how the pathways involved in the timely regulation of the cell division are all integrated to precisely tune the control of mitotic events.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0394.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: acute subdural hematoma; comorbidity; elderly; outcome; surgery; timing of surgery; traumatic brain injury
Online: 23 August 2022 (05:08:46 CEST)
Background: The incidence of traumatic acute subdural hematomas (ASDH) in elderly is increasing. Despite surgical evacuation, these patients have poor survival and low rate of functional outcome, and surgical timing plays a no clear role as predictor. We investigated if the timing of surgery has a major role in influencing outcome in these patients.Methods: We retrospectively retrieved clinical and radiological data of all patients ≥70 years operated on for post-traumatic ASDH in a 3 years period in 5 Italian Hospitals. Patients were divided in 3 surgical timing groups from hospital arrival: ultra-early (within 6h); early (6-24h); delayed (after 24h). Outcome was measured at discharge using two endpoints: survival (alive/dead) and functional outcome at Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). Univariate and multivariate predictor models were constructed.Results: We included 136 patients. About 33% died for consequences of ASDH and among the survivors only 24% were in good functional outcome at discharge. Surgical timing groups appeared different according to presenting GCS, which was on average lower in ultra-early surgery group, and radiological findings, which appeared worse in the same group. Delayed surgery was more frequent in patients with subacute clinical deterioration. Surgical timing appeared associated neither with survival nor with functional outcome also after stratification for preoperative GCS. Preoperative midline shift was the strongest outcome predictor. Conclusions: An earlier surgery was offered to patients with worse clinical-radiological findings. Also after stratification for GCS it was not associated with better outcome. Among the radiological markers, preoperative midline shift was the strongest outcome predictor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0129.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: circadian timing system; EEG; spectral analysis; sleepiness; melanopic equivalent daylight illuminance; melatonin; slow-wave activity
Online: 12 September 2019 (10:59:27 CEST)
We examined whether the ambient illuminance during extended wakefulness modulates the homeostatic increase in human deep sleep [i.e. slow wave sleep (SWS) and electroencephalographic (EEG) slow-wave activity (SWA)] in healthy young and older volunteers. Thirty-eight young and older participants underwent 40 hours of extended wakefulness [i.e. sleep deprivation (SD)] once under dim light (DL: 8 lux, 2800K), and once under either white light (WL: 250 lux, 2800K) or blue-enriched white light (BL: 250 lux, 9000K) exposure. Subjective sleepiness was assessed hourly and polysomnography was quantified during the baseline night prior to the 40-h SD and during the subsequent recovery night. Both the young and older participants responded with a higher homeostatic sleep response to 40-h SD after WL and BL than after DL. This was indexed by a significantly faster intra-night accumulation of SWS and a significantly higher response in relative EEG SWA during the recovery night after WL and BL than after DL for both age groups. No significant differences were observed between the WL and BL condition for these two particular SWS and SWA measures. Subjective sleepiness ratings during the 40-h SD were significantly reduced under both WL and BL compared to DL, but were not significantly associated with markers of sleep homeostasis in both age groups. Our data indicate that not only the duration of prior wakefulness, but also the experienced illuminance during wakefulness affects homeostatic sleep regulation in humans. Thus, working extended hours under low illuminance may negatively impact subsequent sleep intensity in humans.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0279.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: blade vibration; blade tip-timing; rotating stall; axial compressor; blade health monitoring; least squares; bladed disc dynamics
Online: 24 November 2019 (13:32:49 CET)
Complex blade responses such as a rotating stall or simultaneous resonances are common in modern engines and their observation can be a challenge even for state-of-the-art tip-timing systems and trained operators. This paper analyses forced vibrations of axial compressor blades, measured during the bench tests of the SO-3 turbojet. In relation to earlier studies conducted in ITWL with a small number of sensors, a multichannel tip-timing system let us observe simultaneous responses or higher-order modes. To find possible symptoms of a failure, blade responses in a healthy and unhealthy engine configuration with an inlet blocker were studied. The used analysis methods covered all-blade spectrum and the circumferential fitting of blade deflections to the harmonic oscillator model. The proposed modal solver can track the vibration frequency and adjust the engine order on the fly. That way, synchronous and asynchronous vibrations are observed and analysed together with an extended variant of least squares. The proposed approach helps to avoid common mistakes and saves a lot of work related to configuring the conventional solver.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0659.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Timing Deficits; Magnocellular Deficits; Remediating Cognitive Skills; Cortical Plasticity; Reading, Attention, Memory, and Executive Control Networks; Perceptual Learning
Online: 27 May 2021 (08:09:31 CEST)
(1) Background: Substantial evidence that neural timing deficits are prevalent in developmental disorders, aging, and concussions resulting from a mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) is presented. We show that if timing deficits are remediated using low-level movement discrimination training, then high-level cognitive skills, including reading, attention, processing speed, and working memory improve substantially. (2) Methods: Two case studies are presented using MEG source imaging on an adult dyslexic, and a healthy older adult observed before and after training on movement discrimination two times/week for 8 weeks for adult dyslexic. (3) Results: We found improvements in reading, attention, processing speed, and working memory on neuropsychological tests. Substantial MEG signal increases in visual Motion Networks (V1, V3, MT, MST), Attention Networks (ACC, dlPFC, vlPFC and precuneous/ PCC areas) and Memory Networks (dlPFC). (4) Conclusions: Improving neural timing deficits before cognitive exercises to improve specific cognitive skills provides a rapid and effective method to improve cognitive skills. Improving the timing and sensitivity of low-level dorsal pathways, improving feedforward and feedback pathways, is essential to improve high-level cognitive skills. This adaptive training with substantial feedback shows cognitive transfer to tasks not trained on, significantly improving a person’s quality of life rapidly and effectively.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0109.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: dyslexia; reading; magnocellular neurons; vision; hearing; phonology; sequencing; timing; temporal processing; transient; coloured filters; rhythm; music; omega 3s
Online: 12 January 2018 (07:15:33 CET)
Until the 1950s, developmental dyslexia was defined as a hereditary visual disability, selectively affecting reading without compromising oral or non-verbal reasoning skills. This changed radically after the development of the phonological theory of dyslexia; this not only ruled out any role for visual processing in its aetiology, but also cast doubt on the use of discrepancy between reading and reasoning skills as a criterion for diagnosing it. Here I argue that this theory is set at too high a cognitive level to be explanatory; we need to understand the pathophysiological visual and auditory mechanisms that cause children’s phonological problems. I discuss how the ‘magnocellular theory’ attempts to do this in terms of slowed and error prone temporal processing which leads to dyslexics’ defective visual and auditory sequencing when attempting to read. I attempt to deal with the criticisms of this theory and show how it leads to a number of successful ways of helping dyslexic children to overcome their reading difficulties.