Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Time Space Translation: A Confirmed Primary Axial Patterning Mechanism in Vertebrates

Version 1 : Received: 26 March 2019 / Approved: 28 March 2019 / Online: 28 March 2019 (10:33:43 CET)

How to cite: Durston, A.J. Time Space Translation: A Confirmed Primary Axial Patterning Mechanism in Vertebrates. Preprints 2019, 2019030262 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201903.0262.v1). Durston, A.J. Time Space Translation: A Confirmed Primary Axial Patterning Mechanism in Vertebrates. Preprints 2019, 2019030262 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201903.0262.v1).

Abstract

The vertebrate anterior-posterior (A-P) body axis arises due to time space translation (TST). BMP dependent Hox temporal collinearity in early embryonic mesoderm generates  the initial vertebrate axial pattern because the Hox codes associated with sequential times are frozen sequentially by BMP inhibiting signals from the embryonic organiser or node. There are three reasons why it is now opportune to review TST. 1/ It has become clear that this mechanism is highly relevant for current and emergent directions in medicine. Making a particular tailored stem cell or culturing a specific organoid in vitro both depend on it.  2/ This unexpected and perhaps unlikely sounding mechanism has recently been thoroughly validated. 8 recent primary publications from 6 major groups confirm that TST is the mechanism for primary axial patterning in the 4 best investigated vertebrate embryos. 3/ Its mechanism is now becoming clear. Previous publications propose it involves  Hox regulation of cell movement during gastrulation or sequential stabilisation of Hox codes by anti BMP as above. Neither of these processes works alone but together they amount to a very convincing mechanism.

Subject Areas

Hox genes, Retinoids, BMP, Gastrulation, Xenopus, Timing, Time Space Translation

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