ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0231.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Phyllotactic spiral-ring pattern; Galactic spiral equations; Simulation; Fibonacci sibling sequence
Online: 12 August 2022 (08:49:00 CEST)
This short paper demonstrates that the galactic spiral equations developed from ROTASE model can be used to morphologically simulate the phyllotactic spiral-ring patterns of plants. It is also noticed during this project that although the numbers in the Fibonacci sequence dominate the phyllotactic numbers, there are still significant phyllotactic numbers are not in the Fibonacci sequence, however, most of those numbers are well fit into a Fibonacci sibling sequence starting with numbers 0 and 2. Many plants show the phyllotactic number pairs of 10-16, 16-26 and 26-42 from the Fibonacci sibling sequence, which is the second dominated sequence in the phyllotaxis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0412.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Galactic dynamics; Spiral structure; Bared spiral structure; Density wave; Gravitational retarded potential
Online: 27 February 2020 (16:10:59 CET)
Most fully developed galaxies have vivid spiral structure, but the formation and evolution of spiral structure is still a mystery that is not fully understood in astrophysics. We find that the currently used equations of galactic dynamics contain some unreasonable components. In this paper, the following three working assumptions are introduced to simplify the galactic structural equations. 1. In the research of large-scale structure, the retarded potential of the gravitational field should be taken into account. The propagating time of the gravitational field from center to border is longer than the revolution periods of the stars near the center of galaxy. Newton's gravitational potential is unreasonable for such case, and the weak field and low velocity approximation of Einstein's field equation should be adopted. 2. The stars in a fully developed galaxy should be zero-pressure and inviscid fluid, and the equation of motion is different from that of ordinary continuum mechanics. Stars move along geodesics. 3. The structure of the galaxy is only related to the total mass density distribution. The equation of state of dark halo is different from that of ordinary luminous interstellar matter, so their trajectories are also very different. Dark halo and ordinary matter in galaxy are automatically separated. The total mass density distribution can be presupposed according to the observation data, and then it can be determined by comparing the solution of the equations with the observed data. These assumptions and treatments are supported by theory and observation. The variables of the equations of simplified galactic dynamics are separated from each other, and the equations are well-posed and can be solved according to a definite procedure. Therefore, this simplified dynamic equation system provides a more reasonable and practical framework for the further study of galactic structure, and can solve many practical problems. Besides, it is closely related to the study of dark energy and dark matter.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0402.v1
Online: 27 October 2021 (11:49:50 CEST)
Universe created with the fundamental laws of science. Nature is lazy and needs to form with the least possible to be perfect. A natural pattern, such as pinecones, sunflowers, pineapples, and cacti, has a double spiral structure. Once we look at these plants' centers, we will see the seeds line up in spirals shape. The number of spirals whirling in each direction will give us the Fibonacci numbers. We can give more examples representing these natural patterns; however, one example is unique and remarkable. The similarities between spiral galaxies- Milky Way and hurricanes. Are they similar in every property or just in shape and rotational movements? What are the similarities between them? This short review article will try to find these questions' answers by reviewing some literature articles. The first part of this article gave some information about hurricanes and galaxies. The second of this article focused on the comparison between hurricanes and galaxies. Finally, we will conclude the article with our remarks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0375.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Unified Electro-Gravity (UEG) Theory; spiral galaxies; dark matter
Online: 27 September 2020 (10:41:40 CEST)
A unified electro-gravity (UEG) theory, which has been successfully used for modeling an elementary particle, is applied in this paper to model gravitation in spiral galaxies. The new UEG model would explain the "flat rotation curves'' commonly observed in the spiral galaxies, without need for any hypothetical dark matter. The UEG theory is implemented in a somewhat different manner for a spiral galaxy, as compared to the simple application of the UEG theory to an elementary particle. This is because the spiral galaxy, unlike the elementary particle, is not spherically symmetric. The UEG constant $\gamma$, required in the new model to support the galaxies' flat rotation speeds, is estimated using measured data from a galaxy survey, as well as for a selected galaxy for illustration. The estimates are compared with the $\gamma$ derived from the UEG model of an elementary particle. The UEG model for the galaxy is shown to explain the empirical Tully-Fisher Relationship (TFR), is consistent with the Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND), and is also independently supported by measured trends of galaxy thickness with surface brightness and rotation speed. The UEG theory may similarly be extended to emulate the hypothetical dark matter in galaxy clusters as well as in cosmology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0422.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: inertial spiral microfluidics; dendritic cell separation; resource-limited microfluidics
Online: 28 February 2020 (11:54:44 CET)
Microfluidics technology has not impacted the delivery and accessibility of point of care health services like diagnosis of infectious disease diagnosis, monitoring health or delivering interventions. Most microfluidics prototypes from academic research are not easy to manufacture with industrial scale fabrication techniques and cannot be operated without complex manipulations of supporting equipment and additives such as labels or reagents. We propose a label- and reagent-free inertial spiral microfluidic device to separate red blood, white blood and dendritic cells from blood fluid for applications in health monitoring and immunotherapy. We demonstrate that using larger channel widths in the range of 200 to 600 µm allows separation of cells into multiple streams according to different size ranges and we utilize a novel technique to collect the closely separated focused cell streams without constricting the channel. When tested on actual human blood cells, 77% of dendritic cells were separated and 80% of cells remained viable after our assay. Our contribution is a method to adapt spiral inertial microfluidic designs to separate more than two cell types in the same device which is robust against clogging, simple to operate and suitable for fabrication and deployment in resource-limited populations.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: necroptosis; cisplatin; ototoxicity; organ of corti; spiral ganglion neuron
Online: 19 March 2019 (10:40:20 CET)
Cisplatin induces early-onset ototoxicity, resulting in hearing loss. The exact mechanism by which cisplatin causes ototoxicity remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify the involvement of receptor-interacting protein kinase(RIP)3-dependent necroptosis in cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in animal models. Sprague–Dawley rats (SD, 8 week) were treated via intraperitoneal (i.p) injection with cisplatin (16 mg/kg for 1 day), and their hearing thresholds were was measured by the auditory brainstem response (ABR) method. Hematoxylin and eosin (H-E) staining, immunohistochemistry, and western blots were performed to determine the effect of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity on cochlear morphology. H-E stains outlined necroptotic changes in the organ of Cortis (OCs) and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). Additionally, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis showed overexpression of RIP3 in the OCs and SGNs that were treated with cisplatin. These results suggest that RIP3-dependent necroptosis was substantial in cisplatin-induced ototoxicity; inner cochlear regions, the OCs, and SGNs were especially sensitive to necroptosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0207.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: prime numbers; galactic spiral equations; ROTASE model; phyllotaxis; sunflower seed head
Online: 16 May 2022 (11:04:46 CEST)
In this paper, the sequential prime numbers are used as variables for the galactic spiral equations which were developed from the ROTASE model. Special spiral patterns are produced when prime numbers are treated with the unit of radian. The special spiral patterns produced with the first 1000 prime numbers have 20 spirals arranged in two groups. The two groups have perfect central symmetry with each other and are separated with two spiral gaps. The special spiral pattern produced with natural numbers from 1 to 7919 shows 6 spirals in the central area and 44 spirals in the outer area. The whole 7919 spiral points can be plotted with either 6-spiral pattern or 44-spiral pattern. For the spirals only produced by the prime numbers in the 6-spiral pattern plotting, the spiral 2 and spiral 3 each has only one spiral point produced by prime number 2 and 3, respectively, all other spiral points produced by other prime numbers are located on the spiral 1 and spiral 5. The special spiral pattern is well explained with careful analysis, it is concluded that all prime numbers greater than 3 must meet one of the equations: P1 = 1 + 6 * n (n > 0) P5 = 5 + 6 * n (n ≥ 0) In other words, every prime number greater than 3 is either a P1 prime number or a P5 prime number, no exception. Matching one of the equations is a necessary condition for a number to be a prime number, not a sufficient condition. Hope such sufficient condition can be found in the future. The number of P1 prime numbers roughly equal the number of P5 prime number in the first 2 billion prime numbers. The galactic spiral equations with golden angle can duplicate Vogel’s result for the simulation of sunflower seed head pattern, and a pinwheel pattern can be produced also with galactic spiral equations and 1 degree more than golden angle.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0208.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Spiral steroids; Ionotropin; digoxin-like materials; NaK-ATPase; potassium sparing diuretics
Online: 13 December 2021 (13:35:50 CET)
In addition to the classical steroids, which have cholesterol as a precursor, there are steroids with 7-dehydrocholesterol as a precursor. This review describes the identification of these steroids, their biosynthesis and some aspects of their function. There are three classes of these compounds, distinguished by the number of their carbon atoms, 23, 24 and 25. Each class has a spiral steroid and is a phosphodiester. Up until these investigations, no spiral steroids or steroid phosphodiesters were known. There are at least 13 compounds of which six have been purified to near homogeneity. Each one has been characterized by its mass and proposed composition. They function by regulating the NaK-ATPase. Based on the tissues in which they have been detected, each class of compound seems to regulate a different isoform of the NaK-ATPase. This is an important site of endocrine regulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0540.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: polymeric spiral-wound membrane; microfiltration; transmembrane pressure; diafiltration; micellar casein concentrate
Online: 23 July 2021 (11:05:17 CEST)
Micellar Casein Concentrate (MCC) is manufactured from microfiltration (MF) of skim milk utilizing ceramic or polymeric membrane filtration. While ceramic filtration has higher efficiency, use of polymeric is cost effective and the process is familiar to several US dairy processors. The aim of the present study was to develop an optimized membrane filtration process to produce MCC using spiral wound polymeric membrane filtration (SW MF) system by systematic selection of transmembrane pressure (TMP) and level of diafiltration (DF). Using skim milk as feed material, preliminary lab-scale MF experiments were conducted using 0.5 µm polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. Three TMP (34.5, 62.1, and 103.4 kPa) and three levels of DF (70, 100, and 150%) along with a process without DF as control were used in the study. Effect of TMP and effectiveness of DF on flux rates, SP removal, casein to total protein (CN/TKN) ratio, casein to true protein (CN/TP) ratio, rejection of casein (rej CN) and SP (rej SP) were evaluated. At all TMP values used in the study, the overall flux (O Flux) increased with the level of DF. Highest O Flux of 30.77 liter per meter square per hour (LMH) was obtained with 34.5 kPa pressure and 150% DF. The impact of DF was more pronounced at lower pressures than at the higher pressures used in the study. With controlled DF, instantaneous flux was maintained within 80% of initial flux for the entire process run. For all the experiments, casein has a rejection of 0.97 to 1.0, while serum protein has the lowest rejection of 0.10 at 34.5 kPa pressure and 150% DF level. Use of 34.5 kPa and DF level of 150 % contributed to 81.45% SP removal, and casein to true protein ratio of 0.96. SP removal data from the lab-scale experiments were fitted into a mathematical model using DF and square of TMP as factors. The model predicts SP removal within 90-95% of actual SP removal got from the pilot plant experiments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0482.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: WBC isolation; Spiral microchannels; Inertial microfluidics; Passive cell separation; High-throughput separation
Online: 29 September 2021 (09:35:31 CEST)
Rapid isolation of white blood cells (WBCs) from whole blood is an essential part of any WBC examination platform. However, most conventional cell separation techniques are labor-intensive and low throughput, require large volumes of samples, need extensive cell manipulation, and have low purity. To address these challenges, we report the design and fabrication of a passive, label-free microfluidic device with a unique U-shaped cross-section to separate WBCs from whole blood using hydrodynamic forces that exist in a microchannel with curvilinear geometry. It is shown that the spiral microchannel with a U-shaped cross-section concentrates larger blood cells (e.g., WBCs) in the inner cross-section of the microchannel by moving smaller blood cells (e.g., red blood cells (RBCs) and platelets) to the outer microchannel section and preventing them from returning to the inner microchannel section. Therefore, it overcomes the major limitation of a rectangular cross-section where secondary Dean vortices constantly enforce particles throughout the entire cross-section and decrease its isolation efficiency. Under optimal settings, more than 95% of WBCs can be isolated from whole blood under high-throughput (6 ml/min), high-purity (88%), and high-capacity (180 ml of sample in 1 hour) conditions. High efficiency, fast processing time, and non-invasive WBC isolation from large blood samples without centrifugation, RBC lysis, cell biomarkers, and chemical pre-treatments make this method an ideal choice for downstream cell study platforms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0200.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Augmentation,; exoskeleton; lifting strategy; lumbar support; SEA; series elastic actuator; spiral spring; machine design
Online: 14 June 2022 (08:50:27 CEST)
Lumbar support exoskeletons with active and passive actuators are currently the cutting-edge technology for preventing back injuries in workers while lifting heavy objects. However, many challenges still exist in both types of exoskeletons, including rigid actuators, risks of human-robot interaction, high battery consumption, bulky design, and limited assistance. In this paper, the design of a compact, lightweight energy storage device combined with rotary series elastic (ES-RSEA) is proposed for use in a lumbar support exoskeleton to increase the level of assistance and exploit the human bioenergy during the two stages of the lifting task. ES takes the responsibility to store and release passive mechanical energy while RSEA provides excellent compliance and prevents injury from the human body's undesired movement. The experimental tests on the spiral spring showed excellent linear characteristics (above 99%) with an actual spring stiffness of 9.96 Nm/rad. The results demonstrate that ES-RSEA can provide maximum torque assistance in the ascent phase with 66.6 Nm while generating nearly 21 Nm of spring torque during descent without turning on the DC motor. Ultimately, the proposed design can maximize the energy storage of human energy, exploit the biomechanics of lifting tasks, and reduce the burden on human effort to perform lifting tasks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0398.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: genomes; hyperbolic sequences; harmonic progression; recurrence sequence; harmonic numbers; natural logarithm; logarithmic spiral; biological spirals; tensor product
Online: 19 August 2020 (08:15:03 CEST)
The article is devoted to biological models using recurrence sequences, which are connected with the harmonic progression 1, 1/2, …, 1/n, and some cooperative properties of genomes. The harmonic progression is itself one of the recurrence sequences based on the harmonic mean. This progression appears in the hyperbolic rules of oligomer cooperative organization in eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes. This allows thinking that the harmonic progression is also related to inherited physiological systems, which must be structurally consistent with the genetic coding system for their transmission to descendants and survival in evolution. The harmonic progression is one of historically known mathematical series, whose features were studied by Pythagoras, Leibniz, Newton, Euler, Fourier, Dirichlet, Riemann. It is widely used in many known algorithms and is closely related to some other important mathematical objects, for example, the function of the natural logarithm and harmonic numbers. Accordingly, the article describes the possibilities of using these interrelated mathematical objects to model biological structures, including logarithmic spirals and some other. Modeling inherited spiral configurations seems to be a particularly urgent task, since they are extremely common at all levels of organization of living bodies and, according to Goethe, are lines of life. The principle of a recurrence similarity, that is a special similarity of parts and transformations presented in recurrence sequences of numbers and matrix operators (the scale similarity and scale transformations are only particular cases of such similarity), is considered as one of the key principles of structural organization of living bodies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0293.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: Golden ratio; Irrational numbers; Fibonacci sequence; Spiral galaxy; Planetary orbits; KAM Theorem; Ultimatum game; Proteins; Penrose tiling; Quasicrystals
Online: 16 August 2022 (14:29:27 CEST)
The Golden ratio is an irrational number that has a tendency to appear in many different scientific and artistic fields. It may be found in natural phenomena across a vast range of length scales; from galactic to atomic. In this review, the mathematical properties of the Golden ratio are discussed before exploring where in nature it has been found; beginning at astronomical scales and progressing to smaller lengths, until reaching those of atomic and quantum physics. In making such a tour across length scales, it is illustrated just how prevalent this single number is within the natural universe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0004.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: ROTASE model; formation of spiral arms; X-matter; black hole; matter conversion; hydrogen generation; chain-link; single ring; double rings; ring crossing
Online: 2 November 2021 (17:48:35 CET)
This paper extends the application of the ROTASE model for the formation of spiral arms of disc galaxies, questions and confusions from readers about this model are addressed. The optical trail effect behind the spiral arm rotation is the natural consequence of the model. The morphologies of ring-galaxies are classified into four categories: type I: single ring; type II: 8-shaped double ring; type III: 8-shaped double ring wrapped by a larger outer ring; type IV: single ring without spiral and bar. All four types of ring galaxies can be described by the ROTASE model. The ROTASE model predicts that the false impression of spiral arm rotating ahead of the galactic bar in the galaxy MCG+00-04-051 will change with time, it will look like a normal galaxy with about 30° to 40° bar rotation in the future and the galactic bar ends will look like rotating ahead of the spiral arms with further 10 ° to 15 °bar rotation. The formation of one arm galaxies is due to X-matter at one side of supermassive black hole is much stronger than other side. More evidence is found to support the explanation of the formation and the evolution of the Hoag’s object. The possible evolution of spiral pattern of galaxies is illustrated by UGC 6093. The winding of the Milky Way could be tighter in the future based on the ROTASE model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0160.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Complex Adaptative Systems (CAS); Complex Sociology; Socio Ecological Systems (SES); Constructivism; Spiral Dynamics; Systemic Governance; Polycentric Institution Governance; Innovation Facilitation; Transformation; Agile
Online: 12 November 2020 (08:33:58 CET)
Most mature companies have started some kind of “transformation”, either digital, or agile transformations, to cope with changes in the environment, yet most fail, ending up delivering nothing or just one more reorganization. We postulate that considering the Organization as a self-aware Complex Adaptative System (CAS) is paramount, as the common conception (Industrial: mechanistic and predictive) results in bringing the systems in a frozen or defensive mode. Stimulating the system enables us to use its adaptative power to develop new capabilities, and all layers should be tackled simultaneously, to prevent the system from collapsing back into its original state. To ensure this, it is necessary to create a seed per level, and a mechanism to propagate the transformation, with a focus on development instead of growth, that is qualitative change rather than quantitative. A common vocabulary should also be provided, so conversations can occur at every level. Finally, changing mindsets is key, and both concepts and techniques should be provided as enablers to the adequate mindset level. We detail one such transformation that resulted in distributed leadership and more intrinsic motivation, providing both an account of the transformation itself and a model to read it.