Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Optimization of Spiral-wound Microfiltration Process for Production of Micellar Casein Concentrate

Version 1 : Received: 20 July 2021 / Approved: 23 July 2021 / Online: 23 July 2021 (11:05:17 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Marella, C.; Sunkesula, V.; Hammam, A.R.A.; Kommineni, A.; Metzger, L.E. Optimization of Spiral-Wound Microfiltration Process Parameters for the Production of Micellar Casein Concentrate. Membranes 2021, 11, 656. Marella, C.; Sunkesula, V.; Hammam, A.R.A.; Kommineni, A.; Metzger, L.E. Optimization of Spiral-Wound Microfiltration Process Parameters for the Production of Micellar Casein Concentrate. Membranes 2021, 11, 656.

Journal reference: Membranes 2021, 11, 656
DOI: 10.3390/membranes11090656

Abstract

Micellar Casein Concentrate (MCC) is manufactured from microfiltration (MF) of skim milk utilizing ceramic or polymeric membrane filtration. While ceramic filtration has higher efficiency, use of polymeric is cost effective and the process is familiar to several US dairy processors. The aim of the present study was to develop an optimized membrane filtration process to produce MCC using spiral wound polymeric membrane filtration (SW MF) system by systematic selection of transmembrane pressure (TMP) and level of diafiltration (DF). Using skim milk as feed material, preliminary lab-scale MF experiments were conducted using 0.5 µm polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. Three TMP (34.5, 62.1, and 103.4 kPa) and three levels of DF (70, 100, and 150%) along with a process without DF as control were used in the study. Effect of TMP and effectiveness of DF on flux rates, SP removal, casein to total protein (CN/TKN) ratio, casein to true protein (CN/TP) ratio, rejection of casein (rej CN) and SP (rej SP) were evaluated. At all TMP values used in the study, the overall flux (O Flux) increased with the level of DF. Highest O Flux of 30.77 liter per meter square per hour (LMH) was obtained with 34.5 kPa pressure and 150% DF. The impact of DF was more pronounced at lower pressures than at the higher pressures used in the study. With controlled DF, instantaneous flux was maintained within 80% of initial flux for the entire process run. For all the experiments, casein has a rejection of 0.97 to 1.0, while serum protein has the lowest rejection of 0.10 at 34.5 kPa pressure and 150% DF level. Use of 34.5 kPa and DF level of 150 % contributed to 81.45% SP removal, and casein to true protein ratio of 0.96. SP removal data from the lab-scale experiments were fitted into a mathematical model using DF and square of TMP as factors. The model predicts SP removal within 90-95% of actual SP removal got from the pilot plant experiments.

Keywords

polymeric spiral-wound membrane; microfiltration; transmembrane pressure; diafiltration; micellar casein concentrate

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