ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0184.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: Over mature shale gas; Magnitude of isotope reversal; CH4 polymerization; CH4 cracking; Mud gas
Online: 13 June 2022 (10:41:14 CEST)
Exploration practices have proven that over mature shale gas exhibits a feature of carbon isotope reversal. The geochemical statistics indicate that the wetness (C2-C5/C1-C5) of shale gas with carbon isotope reversal is less than 1.8%. In addition, the magnitude of carbon isotope reversal (δ13C1- δ13C2) for the over mature shale gas presents a parabolic variation with decreasing wetness. δ13C1-δ13C2 increases with decreasing wetness within a wetness range of 0.9% ~1.8% and then decreases with decreasing wetness at wetness < 0.9%. The CH4 cracking experiment demonstrates that CH4 polymerization occurring in the early stage of CH4 cracking is an important factor involved in isotope reversal of over mature shale gas. Moreover, δ13C1- δ13C2 decreases with an increase in experimental temperature prior to CH4 substantial cracking. The values of δ13C1 and δ13C2 tend to equalize during CH4 substantial cracking. The δ13C1-δ13C2 of mud gas present at different depths during shale gas drilling in Sichuan Basin increases initially, then decreases with further increase in the depth and finally tends to zero, with only a trace hydrocarbon gas being detectable. Statistical data suggests that the shale gas production in Sichuan Basin decreases with the decreasing δ13C1-δ13C2 value and wetness. Thus, δ13C1-δ13C2 and wetness could potentially serve as useful criteria to screen CH4 cracking degree and to determine the largest depth of natural gas exploration. Great care should be taken during shale gas exploration in deeper layers, with wetness and δ13C1-δ13C2 less than 0.2% and 1%, respectively, since very low wetness (<0.2%) and δ13C1-δ13C2 (<1%) might be indicative of CH4 substantial cracking in a geological setting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1422.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: friction; casing wear; wear factor; wear mechanisms; SM2535 steel; oil based mud; water based mud
Online: 28 August 2023 (04:16:01 CEST)
This work aims to explore the impact of side loads, drill-pipe tool-joint (DP-TJ) speed (RPM), and mud type on the austenitic stainless steel SM2535-110 casing wear characteristics. Actual field drill pipe tool joints, casings, and drilling muds are used in this study. The results of the study show that under both types of lubrication, the wear volume increased with radial load and DP-TJ speed. SM2535-110 casing specimens tested under oil-based mud (OBM) lubrication had higher casing wear volumes than those obtained under water-based mud (WBM) lubrication. This unexpected behavior is mainly due to the increase in the surface hardness of the casing specimens tested under WBM. The results also show that the specific wear factor (K) values of specimens tested under WBM are in general 2 to 4 times higher than those obtained under OBM. While K values under WBM increase with both the side load and RPM, those under OBM show a sharp decrease with RPM. This behavior under OBM is due to this lubricant’s higher viscosity and the change of lubrication regime from thin film to thick film lubrication at higher RPM. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the digital microscopic imaging (DMI) of SM235-110 casing specimens show that an aggressive combination of adhesive, abrasive, and plastic deformation was observed under WBM, while the dominant wear mechanism under OBM is abrasive wear.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0611.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: cyanobacteria; thermal mud; natural products; anti-inflammatory; bioactivity
Online: 24 November 2020 (10:53:33 CET)
Background: The Balaruc-les-Bains’ thermal mud was found to be colonized predominantly by microorganisms, with cyanobacteria constituting the primary organism in the microbial biofilm observed on the mud surface. The success of cyanobacteria in colonizing this specific ecological niche can be explained in part by their taxa-specific adaptation capacities, and also the diversity of bioactive natural products that they synthesize. This array of components has physiological and ecological properties that may be exploited for various applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1277.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: geomechanics, drilling, engineering, technology, sticking, mud loss, pyhton, programming, oilfield
Online: 19 July 2023 (08:37:35 CEST)
The results of applying drilling engineering tools in planned deviated and horizontal wells of oil and gas condensate fields have been examined. The basis for the implementation of a comprehensive approach was the information obtained from drilling horizontal wells in the West and East Siberia, Volga-Ural region, and Iraqi Kurdistan. A synthetic model is considered as an example of the data, incorporating geomechanical and geological properties. As a result of the conducted audit of the geomechanical model and drilling process, the methodologies used were further developed to obtain optimal drilling fluid densities, aiming to prevent cavity formation on well walls, hydraulic fractures, and other related issues. The implementation of the Python programming language was introduced in the stages of geomechanical model preparation, resulting in a time acceleration of up to 20%. During the pre-drilling stage, technological operations were synchronized with the geomechanical model, increasing the involvement of process participants through the synchronization of knowledge areas. The interrelation between drilling technology, drilling parameters, properties of flushing fluids, and rock stability analysis was established, ensuring a 5% increase in construction speed (through NPT reduction and modification of existing tools and technological operations) and accident-free drilling of complex deviated and horizontal wells, provided that the recommended drilling parameters are followed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0942.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: stabilized soil; red mud; synergistic effect; nano-SiO2; strength characteristics
Online: 13 July 2023 (13:03:15 CEST)
In order to effectively utilize red mud, an aluminum industrial waste, the stabilized soil material was developed using nano-SiO2 synergistically modified red mud, and the strength characteristics of the stabilized soil were analyzed to clarify the feasibility of such stabilized soil serves as a road base material. Through different combination schemes, the effects of different nano-SiO2 and cement contents on the strength of the stabilized materials were explored. The test results show that: in the synergistic modification of nano-SiO2 and cement, nano-SiO2 can significantly improve the early unconfined compressive strength of red mud-based stabilized soil; in the synergistic modification of nano-SiO2, gypsum and cement, the 7-d unconfined compressive strength of red mud-based stabilized soil is greater than 2 MPa, which meets the strength requirements of road base materials and shows the superiority of synergism. The nominal stress-strain curves are divided into five stages: compressed and compacted stage, elastic deformation stage, plastic deformation stage, damage deformation stage and residual deformation stage. The macroscopic compressive damage pattern of the specimens shows that the modified red mud-based stabilized soil mostly exhibits brittle damage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0853.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: red mud; nano-SiO2; synergistic modification; stabilized soil; curing mechanism
Online: 12 July 2023 (12:45:17 CEST)
In order to effectively utilize red mud and reduce its occupation of land resources as well as its impact on the environment, experiments were conducted to develop stabilized soil materials using nano-SiO2 synergistically modified red mud and to investigate the curing mechanism of stabilized soil. The unconfined compressive strength, microscopic morphology and curing mechanism of the red mud-based stabilized soil materials with different amounts of modified materials were investigated. The test results show that after 7-days curing, the unconfined compressive strength of red mud-based stabilized soil meets the compressive strength requirement of road base material when nano-SiO2, gypsum and cement are synergistically modified. In such case, the soil structure has the lowest fracture rate and the best structural compactness when the amount of nano-SiO2 is 1%; It is found that the needle-like and columnar calcium alumina in the modified red mud-based stabilized soil increases, and the binding energy of hydration product ions in the modified material is improved; The chemical curing mechanism of modified red mud-based stabilized soil includes hydration reaction, volcanic ash reaction, promotion effect of nano-SiO2, and enhancement effect of gypsum. On this base, a model of early start hydration process of red mud-based stabilized soil promoted by nano-SiO2 is established.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0421.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: growth; Korean tidal flat; mud shrimp; population dynamics; reproduction; Upogebia major
Online: 7 November 2023 (10:43:28 CET)
The population parameters of the ecologically important mud shrimp Upogebia major were analyzed from 2012 to 2015 in tidal flats in Seonjaedo and Jugyo on the West coast of Korea. The shrimp density averaged 265/m2 in Seonjaedo and 118/m2 in Jugyo. The sex ratio varied monthly, often male-biased, but by size, males were significantly dominant, with a carapace length (CL) over 30 mm. Although the shrimp settled almost annually, only a single size-group was observed from 2012 to 2014. The recruitment in Jugyo in 2014 was notably successful, resulting in two cohorts persisting until 2015. Many shrimp were parasitized at varying local rates: 6.0% in Seonjaedo and 37.1% in Jugyo. The growth curves revealed that the shrimp grew annually after settlement, reaching CLs of 11.90, 18.24, and 23.02 mm in Seonjaedo and 13.73, 20.86, and 25.82 mm in Jugyo. Annual mortality was 77.2% in Seonjaedo and 67.4% in Jugyo. The estimated lifespan (tmax) was 10 years in Seonjaedo and 8 years in Jugyo, whereas the 2010 cohort in Jugyo largely disappeared in 5 years. Ovigerous females appeared from November to June and benthic juveniles between June and September. The shrimp’s growth was slower relative to other East Asian populations, likely due to colder sea water temperatures and altered food conditions from a higher shrimp density.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0278.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: High temperature tunnel; Red mud; Grouting materials; Thermal insulation performance; Viscosity
Online: 6 November 2023 (08:09:21 CET)
Grouting materials with good insulation and reinforcement performance are key factors in solving the temperature control problem of high temperature tunnels using curtain grouting, while existing grouting materials cannot balance their working performance and insulation performance in high-temperature environments. In response to the above issues, this article uses red mud to prepare high ground temperature red mud based grouting materials (RMGS), and conducts tests on the working performance (viscosity, setting time, compressive strength) and insulation performance (thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity) of grouting materials at different temperatures (20, 40, 60, and 80 ℃), and analyzes the variation patterns and micro mechanisms of various characteristics with temperature. The results indicate that an increase in temperature will accelerate the viscosity development and condensation of the grouting material, and lead to a decrease in thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity. In addition, an appropriate temperature can also improve the compressive strength of the material. The increase in temperature will accelerate the hydration reaction rate of the grouting material and the development of internal pores, which is the reason why temperature affects the performance of the grouting material. In engineering applications, cement slurry is suitable for static water grouting, cement-sodium silicate slurry is suitable for dynamic water grouting, and RMGS is suitable for high-temperature tunnel grouting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2206.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: boehmite; atmospheric leaching; alkali; hematite reduction; red mud valorization; Mössbauer spectroscopy
Online: 31 May 2023 (08:44:12 CEST)
The Bayer process is the maim method of alumina production worldwide. The use of low-quality bauxites for alumina production results in the formation of a significant amount of technogenic waste - bauxite residue (BR). The Bayer reductive method is one possible way to eliminate BR stockpiling, but it requires high-pressure leaching at temperatures higher than 220 °C. In this research, the possibility of boehmitic bauxite atmospheric pressure leaching at both the first and second stages or high-pressure leaching at the second stage with the simultaneous reduction of hematite was investigated. Bauxite and solid residue after NaOH leaching were characterized using XRD, SEM-EDS, and Mössbauer spectroscopy methods. The first stage of leaching under atmospheric pressure with the addition of Fe(II) species in a strong alkali solution (330-400 g L–1 Na2O) results in a partial reduction of the iron minerals and an extraction of more than 60% of Si and 5-25% of Al (depending on caustic modulus of solution) after 1 h. The obtained desilicated bauxite was subjected to atmospheric leaching at 120 °C in a strong alkali solution (350 g L-1) or high-pressure leaching at 160-220 °C using the Bayer process mother liquor in order to obtain a concentrate with a magnetite content higher than 83 wt. %.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0743.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: diatom assemblages; sediments; Daginsky Mud Volcano; thermal springs; Nyisky Bay; Eastern Sakhalin
Online: 9 August 2023 (09:41:00 CEST)
Diatom assemblages in mud volcanoes are quite rare and poorly studied. The finding of a rich diatom flora in the sediments of the Daginsky Mud Volcano (DMV), located in the tidal zone of the Nyisky Bay of the Sea of Okhotsk, is interesting for studying the conditions for the formation of host sediments in the zone of influence of various extreme factors, such as outflows of gases and water-mud mass, thermal springs, and tides, etc. For this purpose, the composition of diatoms and their concentration in DMV sediments were studied, a comparison was made with diatoms of geothermal springs of the Russian Far East associated with volcanic activity, and the stratigraphic distribution of the found extinct diatoms was analyzed, which is important for determining their source and age of mud volcano roots. Diatom assemblages from DMV sediments are mainly characterized by the predominance of Metascolioneis tumida, Paralia sulcata, Odontella aurita, Pinnunavis yarrensis, Petroneis marina, Cocconeis scutellum, and Navicula digitoradiata. They consist of diatoms of different biotopes and extinct species. The diversity and abundance of brackish water and marine species indicates the predominant influence of sea waters on the formation of DMV sediments. The diverse freshwater species were mainly introduced into sediments with river runoff, but it is likely that some of them, cosmopolitan alkaliphilic species, are inhabitants of geothermal springs. The presence of extinct species from the underlying Neogene sediments from where they were carried with gas-water-mud masses, is the most typical for diatom assemblages of the DMV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0105.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: alkali leaching; red mud; high-iron waste; disposal; Al-goethite; conversion; magnetite
Online: 7 November 2022 (04:30:13 CET)
Bauxite residue (BR), also known as red mud, is a by-product of the production of alumina via the Bayer process. Because of the high sodium oxide and other impurities content, this material is not used to obtain iron or other iron-containing products. In this paper, the hydro-chemical conversion of goethite (FeOOH) to magnetite (Fe3O4) in high-iron BR from the Friguia alumina refinery (Guinea) by Fe2+ ions in highly concentrated alkaline media was studied. The simultaneous extraction of Al and Na made it possible to obtain a product containing more than 96% Fe3O4. The results show that the magnetization of Al-goethite and Al-hemetite accelerates the dissolution of the Al from the iron mineral solid matrix and from the desilication product (DSP). After ferrous sulfate (FeSO4·7H2O) was added directly at the FeO:Fe2O3 molar ratio of 1:1 at 120 °C for 150 min in the solution with the 360 g L-1 Na2O concentration, the alumina extraction ratio reached 96.27% for the coarse bauxite residue size fraction (Sands) and 87.06% for fine BR obtained from red mud. The grade of iron (total iron in the form of iron element) in the residue can be increased to 69.55% for Sands and 58.31% for BR. The solid residues obtained after leaching were studied by XRD, XRF, TG-DTA, VSM, Mössbauer spectroscopy and SEM to evaluate the conversion and leaching mechanisms and the recovery ratio of Al from different minerals. The iron-rich residues can be used in the steel industry or as a pigment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0413.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: bauxite residue; red mud; scandium; acid leaching; kinetics; shrinking core model; waste utilization.
Online: 23 November 2021 (09:07:23 CET)
One of the potential sources of rare-earth elements (REEs) is the solid waste from alumina industry - bauxite residue, known as “red mud” (RM). The main REEs from the raw bauxite are concentrated in RM after the Bayer leaching process. The earlier worldwide studies were focused on the scandium (Sc) extraction from RM by concentrated acids to enhance the extraction degree. This leads to the dissolution of major oxides (Fe2O3 and Al2O3) from RM. This article studies the possibility of selective Sc extraction from alkali fusion red mud (RMF) by diluted nitric acid (HNO3) leaching at pH ≥ 2 to prevent co-dissolution of Fe2O3. RMF samples have been analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Sc extraction has been found to be 71.2 % at RMF leaching by HNO3 at pH=2 and at 80 °C during 90 min. The kinetic analysis of experimental data by the shrinking core model has shown that Sc leaching process is limited by the interfacial diffusion and the diffusion through the product layer. The apparent activation energy (Ea) was 19.5 kJ/mol. We have established that according to EPMA of RMF, Sc is associated with iron minerals; it could act as the product layer. The linear dependence of Sc extraction of magnesium (Mg) extraction has been revealed. This fact indicates that Mg can act as a leaching agent of Sc presented in RMF by ion-exchangeable phase.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0017.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Residual fat; Red Mud; Chemical activation; Thermal catalytic cracking; Fixed bed reactor; Liquid hydrocarbons
Online: 4 April 2022 (11:54:32 CEST)
This work aims to investigate the effect of catalyst content and reaction time by catalytic upgrading from pyrolysis vapors of residual fat at 450 °C and 1.0 atmosphere, on the yields of reaction products, physicochemical properties (density, kinematic viscosity, refractive index, and acid value) and chemical composition of organic liquid products (OLP), over a catalyst fixed bed reactor, in semi pilot scale. Pellets of Red Mud chemically activated with 1.0 M HCl were used as catalysts. The experiments were carried out at 450 °C and 1.0 atmosphere, using a process schema consisting of a thermal cracking reactor of 2.0 L coupled to a catalyst fixed bed reactor of 53 mL, without catalyst and using 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0% (wt.) Red Mud pellets activated with 1.0 M HCl, in batch mode. Samples of liquid phase products were withdrawn during the course of reaction at 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 min in order to analyze the process kinetics. The physicochemical properties (density, kinematic viscosity, acid value, and refractive index) of OLP were determined by official methods. The chemical functions present in OLP determined by FT-IR and the chemical composition by GC-MS. The thermal catalytic cracking of residual fat show OLP yields from 54.4 to 84.88 (wt.%), aqueous phase yields between 2.21 and 2.80 (wt.%), solid phase yields (coke) between 1.30 and 8.60 (wt.%), and gas yields from 11.61 to 34.22 (wt.%). The yields of OLP increases with increasing catalyst content while those of aqueous, gaseous and solid phase decreases. For all the thermal and thermal catalytic cracking experiments, the density, kinematic viscosity, and acid value of OLP decreases with increasing reaction time. The GC-MS of liquid reaction products identified the presence of hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics) and oxygenates (carboxylic acids, ketones, esters, alcohols, and aldehydes). For all the thermal and thermal catalytic cracking experiments, the hydrocarbon content within OLP increases with reaction time, while those of oxygenates decrease, reaching concentrations of hydrocarbons up to 95.35% (area.). The best results for the physicochemical properties (density, kinematic viscosity, and acid value) and the maximum hydrocarbon content of OLP were obtained at 450 °C and 1.0 atmosphere, using a catalyst fixed bed reactor, with 5.0% (wt.) Red Mud pellets activated with 1.0 M HCl as catalyst.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0168.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: aquaculture; shellfish; future food; nursery stage; mud crab; juvenile; seed production; hatchery; crablet; breeding
Online: 5 February 2021 (16:18:19 CET)
This study attempted to explain the definition, objectives, and key stages in mud crab nursery activities. The nursery stages of Scylla spp was started from megalopa stage to several crablet instar stages or started from earlier crablet stage to several crablet stages. Direct stocking of megalopa into ponds is not recommended due to their sensitivity. Instead, nursery rearing is needed to produce mud crab of larger size before stocking. Individual nursery rearing results in higher survival rate (up to 100%), but with reduced growth rate, and a more complicated maintenance process compared with communal rearing. Nursery of mud crab can be done indoors, or outdoors, with adequate shelter and feed required to obtain good survival and growth performance. Artemia nauplii are the main, established nursery feed, particularly at megalopa stage, while survival rate may be improved if combined with artificial feed, such as micro bound diet formulations. Water quality parameters, identical to those proposed in tiger shrimp culture, can followed. Crablets may be transported to the pond location with, or without water. The provision of monosex seeds from mud crab hatcheries is expected to become more common, increasing seed price, and thus improving income of farmers. Numerous aspects of mud crab nursery, including nutrition, feeding strategies, understanding of their behaviour, i.e., cannibalism, control of environmental factors, and practical rearing techniques, still need further improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1334.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: hematite electroreduction; boehmitic bauxite; Al extraction; reductive leaching; red mud; bauxite residue; magnetite; waste utilization
Online: 19 July 2023 (10:44:46 CEST)
Reductive leaching in the Bayer cycle using of iron (2+) allows Al extraction to be significantly increased by magnetization of Al-goethite and Al-hematite. However, the use of expensive iron (2+) salts or iron powder as a source of iron (2+) leads to a significant increase in production costs. In this work, the feasibility of a new method, the reductive leaching of bauxite using an electrolysis process, was investigated. Reduction of iron minerals of boehmitic bauxite in both Bayer solution and purely alkaline solutions were carried out. Experiments were performed using a plate cathode and a bauxite suspension in alkaline solution, as well as using a bulk cathode with a stainless-steel mesh at the bottom of the cell as the current supply. During the electrolysis process, the potential of the cathode relative to the reference electrode was measured as a function of current at different concentrations of solid (100-300 g L–1) and suspension temperatures (95-120 °C). It is shown that the current efficiency using suspension and plate cathode with the predominant deposition of Fe doesn’t exceed 50% even with the addition of magnetite to increase the contact of solid phase with the current supply. With the use of a bulk cathode, the reduction of iron minerals leads predominantly to the formation of magnetite with the efficiency of using electric current more than 80%. As a result of preliminary desilication and electroreduction it is possible to extract more than 97% of Al from bauxite, and to increase the iron content in the bauxite residue to 57-58%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0471.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: biodegradable lubricating grease; friction; energy; penetration; sugar cane filter cake mud oil; temperature and wear
Online: 30 September 2022 (02:28:30 CEST)
Environment approachable products such as fuels and lubricants are among the best choices in several countries that contain renewable products as alternatives. To protect human life, alternative methods of saving the environment and production balance is needed to reduce the effects of the crisis and the contamination of the Environment. This research concentrated on the Manufacturing and testing of bio- grease from sugar cane filter mud vegetable oil as a lubricant for friction reduction and determining the properties of both bio grease and Mineral oil grease with environmental problems. SC filter mud oil as an alternative use for bio-grease preparation in addition to mineral oil grease. The Testing was accepted to determine the quality of the eco-friendly grease produced. For the preparation of this bio- grease, the SC Filter cake sample is taken from different sugar factory which found in Ethiopia. The sample has a moisture content of 78%. Using this sample first oil is extracted by Soxhlet apparatus, n-hexane solvent and temperature for extraction from 42 -68℃. The maximum temperature and time for extraction of oil were 68 and 7hrs respectively. The extracted oil's physical properties include color, acid value, specific graphite, saponification value, iodine value, density, and viscosity. Finally, the friction behavior in function of time for both grease at identical load, the friction coefficient vs time for SC filter Cake Grease_ Na_ MoS2 and industrial mineral one (I_ Greasily _ MoS2), grease was determined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0118.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: natural caving mining; underground mud-rock flow; drawing shear factor; rheological properties; thixotropic properties; experimental study
Online: 2 June 2023 (05:46:28 CEST)
The shear factor of ore drawing is one of the important factors affecting the formation of underground debris flow, and it has an important contribution to the formation of underground debris flow. The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of mining shear factor on underground debris flow in natural caving method. Based on the research background of the underground debris flow in Plan copper mine, this paper analyzes the characteristics of the slurry material structure of the underground debris flow, the influence of drawing shear factor on formation mechanism of underground debris flow is analyzed. The results show that the slurry of the underground debris flow in Plan mine is not only a pseudoplastic fluid but also a thixotropic fluid. It is indicated that once there is shearing force in drawing, it will deform, and its viscosity will decrease with the increase of shear rate and time. It is considered that the shear force produced by the flow of ore particles first produces shear action on the paste in the shear boundary region of ore drawing, it is reduced in viscosity and increased in fluidity, so that its “Activation” and then become a flowable paste, along with the bulk ore flow through the mouth. The continuous ore drawing process will continuously shear the new moraine slurry in the ore drawing channel and continuously “Activate” the moraine slurry in the ore drawing channel, finally, a certain scale and destructive down-hole debris flow accident. This paper is the first to study the effect of ore drawing shear factor on the formation mechanism of underground debris flow. It not only broadens the research field of debris flow, but also fills up the deficiency of systematic research on underground debris flow, and provides theoretical guidance for the prevention and control of underground debris flow.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0377.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Environmentally friendly processes; Bayer residue; waste management; basic catalyst, contaminants, red mud, fatty acid methyl ester
Online: 6 May 2023 (05:00:47 CEST)
Red mud (RM) is composed of a waste alkaline solution (pH = 13.3) obtained from the production of alumina. It contains high concentrations of soluble hematite (Fe2O3), goetite (FeOOH), gibisite [Al(OH)3], a boemite (AlOOH), anatase (Tetragonal - TiO2), rutile (Ditetragonal dipyramidal - TiO2), hydrogarnets [Ca3Al2(SiO4)3−x(OH)4x], and perovskite (CaTiO3). It was shown to be an excellent catalytic mixture for biodiesel production. To demonstrate the value of RM, an environmentally friendly process of transesterification in aqueous medium using waste cooking oil (WCO), MeOH and waste alkaline solution (WAS) obtained from aluminum production was proposed. Triglycerides of WCO reacted with MeOH at 60 oC to yield mixtures of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) in the presence of 0.019% (w/w) WAS/WCO using the WAS (0.204 mol L-1, predetermined by potentiometric titration) from aluminum production by the Bayer process. The use of the new catalyst (WAS) resulted in a high yield of the products (greater than 99% yield).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0288.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: bauxite; bauxite residue; red mud; rare earth elements; rare earth minerals; rare earth ferrotitanate; perovskite; loparite
Online: 30 January 2018 (20:42:31 CET)
The purpose of present work was to provide mineralogical insight in the rare earth element (REE) phases in bauxite residue to improve REE recovering technologies. Experimental work was performed by electron probe microanalysis with energy dispersive as well as wavelength dispersive spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. REEs are found as discrete mineral particles in bauxite residue. Their sizes range from < 1 μm to about 40 μm. In bauxite residue, the most abundant REE bearing phases are light REE (LREE) ferrotitanates, that form a solid solution between the phases with major compositions (REE,Ca,Na)(Ti,Fe)O3 and (Ca,Na)(Ti,Fe)O3. These are secondary phases formed during the Bayer process by an in-situ transformation of the precursor bauxite LREE phases. Comparing to natural systems, the indicated solid solution resembles loparite-perovskite series. LREE particles often have a calcium ferrotitanate shell surrounding them, that probably hinders their solubility. Minor amount of LREE carbonate and phosphate minerals as well as manganese-associated LREE phases are also present in bauxite residue. Heavy REEs occur in the same form as in bauxites, namely as yttrium phosphates. These results show that Bayer process has an impact on the initial REE mineralogy contained in bauxite. Bauxite residue as well as selected bauxites are potentially good sources of REEs.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Alkali Activated Composite Mud Mortar; Alternate to Cement Mortar; Numerical Analysis; ANSYS; Bond strength; Shear crack behaviour
Online: 31 August 2020 (05:05:14 CEST)
This study identifies new Alkali Activated Composite Mud Mortar to alternate Cement Mortar used for laying masonry works. This study handles both experimental and numerical analysis of strength and durability for mortar, especially bond strength along mortar and brick joints have studied detail and compared with ANSYS. The bond strength has estimated through the triplet brick prism of shear behavior. The strength and deformation characteristics of masonry constituents obtained from these tests depend on the actual composite conduct of masonry. There is always a good reception for environmentally friendly, low energy, new construction materials, and used in preparing mortar/brick unit combinations all around the world. Also, this study fulfills those requirements. Especially, masonry laid with the mud mortar meets all. Fly Ash, Ground Granulated Blast furnace Slag, and Quarry Dust have utilized the new composites' preparation with 8Molority, 10Molority developed excellent strength. The composite specimens are having compression and bond strength, ranging from 4.84-5.14 and 0.12-0.18N/mm2. The mixed ratio of materials has taken (0.5 parts of Fly Ash, 0.5 parts of Steel Slag, 1.75 parts of Soil, and 0.25 parts of Quarry Dust). The samples tested resistance against acidic, sulfate, and alkalinity indicated PH values less than 7 and 9 simultaneously. Compression strength varied from 10-20% and gained more and fit composite used for mortar in masonry works.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0065.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: red mud; bauxite residue; reduction roasting; sodium sulfate; magnetic separation; alumina; high pressure acid leaching; hydrochloric acid; recycling; utilization
Online: 1 February 2021 (17:32:51 CET)
Red mud is a hazardous waste of alumina industry that contains high amounts of iron, aluminum, titanium and REEs. One of the promising methods for the extraction of iron from red mud is car-bothermic reduction with the addition of sodium salts. This research focuses on the process of hy-drochloric high-pressure acid leaching using 10–20% HCl of two samples of non-magnetic tailings obtained by 60-minute carbothermic roasting of red mud at 1300 °C and the mixture of 84.6 wt. % of red mud and 15.4 wt. % Na2SO4 at 1150 °C, respectively, with subsequent magnetic separation of metallic iron. An influence of temperature, leaching duration, solid-to-liquid-ratio and acid con-centration on dissolution behavior of Al, Ti, Mg, Ca, Si, Fe, Na, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sc, Zr were studied. Based on the investigation of the obtained residues, mechanism of passing of valuable elements into the solution was proposed. It has shown that 90% Al, 91% Sc and above 80% of other REEs can be dissolved under optimal conditions; Ti can be extracted into the solution or the residue depending on the leaching temperature and acid concentration. Based on the research results, novel flowsheets for red mud treatment were developed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0523.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: rare earth elements; deposits; alternative sources; marine sediments; river sediments; phospho-rites; red mud; fly ash; acid mine drainage; e-waste; extra-terrestrial
Online: 28 January 2023 (08:38:38 CET)
Currently, there is increasing industrial demand for rare earth elements (REE) as these elements are now integral to the manufacture of many carbon-neutral technologies. The depleting REE ores and increasing mining costs are prompting to look for alternative sources for these valuable metals, particularly from waste streams. Although REE concentrations in most of the alternate resources are lower than current REE ores, some sources such as marine sediments, coal ash, and industrial wastes like red mud are looking promising with significant concentrations of REE in them. This review focuses on the alternative resources for REE such as ocean bottom sediments, continental shelf sediments, river sediments, stream sediments, lake sediments, phosphorites deposits, industrial waste products like red mud, and phosphogypsum, coal, coal fly ash, and related materials, waste rock sources from old and closed mines, acid mine drainage, and recycling of e-waste. Possible future Moon exploration and mining for REE and other valuable minerals are also discussed. It is evident that REE extractions from both primary and secondary ores alone are not adequate to meet the current demand, and sustainable REE recovery from the alternative resources described here is also necessary to meet the growing REE demand. An attempt is made to identify the potential of these alternative resources and sustainability challenges, benefits, and possible environmental hazards to meet the growing challenges in meeting the future REE requirements.