ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0161.v1
Online: 9 May 2020 (10:08:24 CEST)
Background: Corona virus disease was first reported in Wuhan City, Hubei province, China. Soon the corona virus disease has spread to many countries. World health organization has described the situation as Pandemic. By 12 March 2020, corona virus disease has affected 125 countries around the world. Corona virus was first confirmed in Iran on 19 February 2020. Objective: The aim of writing this small article is to determine the mortality rate of corona virus disease in different cities of Iran. This article will give readers an idea of different ways to control spread of corona virus disease in Iran. Methods: Author has collected the data of daily confirmed cases from different diagnostic centers and hospitals across the country from 19 February 2020 to 1 April 2020. Results: Mortality rate of corona virus disease is roughly 4%. Conclusions: Mortality rate could rise if COVID 19 infection is not controlled.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0261.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Tropheryma whipplei; epidemiology; children; immunocompromised; Iran
Online: 10 February 2021 (13:44:17 CET)
Background: Tropheryma whipplei is the causative pathogen of Whipple’s disease and other acute and chronic manifestations. Children have been identified as reservoirs of this bacterium especially in low-middle income countries. No information is currently available on the dissemination of T. whipplei in Iran. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of T. whipplei in children with immunodeficiency. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed from July 2018 to February 2019 in Qom province (central Iran). Stool samples were collected from immuno-compromised children. T. whipplei was tested by SYBR Green and Taq-Man Real-time PCR assays. For confirmation, sequencing of the isolated bacteria was done. Results: One hundred and 30 children with a mean age of 56.7 months were enrolled. Acute lymphocytic leukemia was the most reported immunodeficient disease (77%), followed by non-Hodgkin lymphoma and retinoblastoma. The majority of the children were undergoing chemotherapy during the study. Thirteen (10%) children had T. whipplei DNA in the collected stools. Sequencing results confirmed T. whipplei identification in all the cases. Eight out of 70 (11.4%) children under 5 years old resulted positive. Conclusion: This is the first study showing the circulation of T. whipplei among immunocompromised children in Iran. More epidemiological studies are needed to evaluate the prevalence of this pathogen in different risk groups in Iran and to increase the knowledge of its rare clinical manifestations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0556.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Iran; active ageing; elderly; qualitative study
Online: 27 October 2020 (15:14:45 CET)
Background: Active ageing is a multidimensional, relative, and context-dependent concept with different paths and outcomes. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore personal active ageing strategies in a specific context. Method: Following a directed content analyze procedure, we conduct semi structured individual interview with 39 elder (men and women) between the ages of 60-97 years that selected with purposeful sampling .data collection and analysis were concurrent. We analyzed the data from interviews, written narratives, and field notes using directed content analyze. The Reliability of data was fulfilled in accordance Lincoln and Guba criteria. We stopped data collection when no new concept was added and data saturation occurred. Results: Based on the experience of elders, we identified 5 categories: 1) Preventive 2) Coping 3) Internal self-control 4) Coherence maintenance strategies 5) Opportunity exploiting strategies. These described the active ageing strategies when encountering with age related change. Utilizing these strategies, the elder accompanied the life time. Conclusion: The finding suggests that active ageing is a continuous process in confronting age related change. The identified strategies can help to promote active ageing by familiarizing older with opportunities of life and training them in how to use these strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0137.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: oral health; students; medical; behavior; iran
Online: 11 October 2019 (07:30:00 CEST)
Aim: The purpose of this examination is determining predictors to oral health behaviors predict in Iranian students in district 1 Tehran based on the health belief model with added commitment to plan construct. Methods: This cross-sectional study were randomly selected conducted on 351 eligible four grade female students in the first district of Tehran, Iran in 2017. The random Multi‑stage random cluster sampling method was used to recruit students. The inclusion criteria were being graded, four female students (aged 9-11 years), or education at the fourth grade of one of the elementary schools studied in the first district of Tehran and, The health of the student from a physical and psychological of view. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the variables that predict oral health behaviors. To assess the predictors of oral health behaviors, all the expanded Health Belief Model constructs with the construct of “Commitment to Plan of Action” from “Health Promotion Model were examined as risk factors to see if they influence on the probability of brushing behavior and dental floss behavior occurrence and were interpreted through odds ratio (OR). SPSS version 19 was used to analyze the data. Results: Totally 308 four grade female students with mean age of 9.32 ± 0.81 years old took part in the study. The total 31.8% of the students reported that they were brushing behavior less than twice a day and 55.2% students claimed, use of dental floss behavior once a week or less than once a day. The results indicated that perceived self-efficacy (OR=1.46, 95% CI=0.57-3.78, P<0.001), Commitment to plan (OR=1.13, 95% CI=1.04-1.23, P<0.001) and Cues to action (OR=1.42, 95% CI=1.14–1.76, P=0.002) were the significant predicting variables which is the key factor of brushing twice a day, and use of dental floss once a day or more (OR=1.02, 95% CI=0.23-3.53, P=0.003). Conclusion: This study has shown the effectiveness of the health belief model with added commitment to plan construct to predict oral health behavior in female students. So, it seems that the model as a framework for designing training programs to improve students to improve oral health behavior can be used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0047.v2
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Cyprinidae; Luciobarbus barbulus; Luciobarbus, Iran; taxonomy
Online: 1 October 2017 (06:30:03 CEST)
Western Iran barb species are scientifically, environmentally, and economically important. Some of them are the largest riverine freshwater species, which will grow in size and weight to 170 cm, and 120 kg respectively. There is little information on taxonomy or environmental status of these species Luciobarbus barbulus is one of the important large species. During the resent year since 2013, in order to find the new record of large barb species, sampling program carried out in western Iran,. Luciobarbus barbulus briefly described by Heckel (1849) but during the time, have been synonymized with other related species or vice versa, other similar species miss-identically have been known as this species. Also the synonymy of Luciobarbus barbulus with L. pectoralis remains uncertain. The possible syntypes of L. barbulus in Vienna Museum (NMW 53957 and NMW 6596) are in too poor condition to be of any value, being mostly bones, and are dried, and. The fleshy lip of NMW 6596, (measures 119.3 mm standard length) fold of the original description could not be discerned, teeth are missing and the dorsal fin is broken off short. In 1997 this was the only syntype recognized. The catalog in Vienna lists only 1 fish, while Heckel's description refers to several fishes!. So designing of Lecotype and re-description of L. barbulus is essential. In this paper the details of description and differences between these species are given.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0135.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Cyprinidae; Luciobarbus barbulus; Luciobarbus; taxonomy; Iran
Online: 27 September 2017 (04:19:31 CEST)
Western Iran barb species are scientifically, environmentally, and economically important. Some of them are the largest riverine freshwater species, which will grow in size and weight to 170 cm, and 120 kg respectively. Although these species are vulnerable, there is little information on taxonomy or environmental status of the species Luciobarbus barbulus is one of the important large species. In order to find the new record on the present status of large barb species sampling program carried out in western Iran, during the resent year since 2013 to now. This species overlaps in distinction with L. mystaceus, L scheich, and other similar species. In this study re-description of L.barbulus is given. This species differs from L. mystaceus in having thick and very wide fleshy lip, inferior mouth and slightly shorter head. In Luciobarbus barbulus head is more inferior. The details of differences between these species are given. This species is one of stable growing fish without dimorphism, retain its shape from a fingerling species to a giant fish.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0055.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: religious, children, Reading books, school, Iran
Online: 18 July 2016 (10:48:05 CEST)
Transmission of values and religious concepts to children is one of the most important issues in the third millennium and it has drawn varied and different views among experts and scholars in the world. Research specialized in religious literature for children and adolescents create new capacities in the presentation of religious concepts to the group. Plans have been considered to transfer values and religious concepts in the curricula of primary school children in the group in Iran. It is one of the topics that the authors note to the introduction of the minutiae of religion in the first three elementary grades. In this study, the collection and analysis methods providing content related to the minutiae of religion in reading books the first till third sections of the years 2013-2015. In addition, the plan includes aspects of other branches of religion in these books on information collected from text books that collected and classified. The result is that "definitely good and forbidding the evil" and "prayer" have the highest frequency of applications in the selected books. Further branches made of branches of religion in these books, represents the values of religious, moral and social as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0670.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Group Spiritual Care; Hope; Multiple Sclerosis; Iran
Online: 26 March 2021 (15:09:07 CET)
Background and Aim: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is known as an autoimmune disease and a chronic inflammatory condition, inducing a wide variety of mood affective disorders, including depression and feelings of hopelessness in many aspects of patients’ quality of life (QoL). In view of the positive side effects of spirituality and spiritual care on finding appropriate strategies for further adaptation, this study aimed to determine the impact of group spiritual care (GSC) on levels of hope in patients suffering from MS. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on a total number of 96 patients with MS, referring to the National Multiple Sclerosis Society (NMSS) in the city of Zahedan, Iran. Following sample selection via the convenience sampling technique, the patients meeting the inclusion criteria were randomized into two groups, i.e., intervention and control. The data collection tools for this purpose included a demographic information form and the Adult Hope Scale (AHS, Snyder et al. 1991), completed by the subjects at the pre- and post-intervention stages. As well, the intervention group received five sessions of GSC during three weeks but the control group members only talked over daily issues along with their mental health problems. The data were also analyzed using the SPSS Statistics software (ver. 14). Results: The Kruskal-Wallis test results revealed that the GSC intervention could have a significant positive effect on raising hope in the patients with MS (p<0.001). Moreover, a significant growth was observed in the scores of hope dimensions including agency and pathway (p<0.001). Conclusion: GSC can effectively boost levels of hope in patients suffering from MS in all dimensions. Therefore, it is recommended to utilize this type of care in order to nurture hope in such individuals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0112.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: lung cancer; epidemiology; histopathology; Central Iran; Isfahan
Online: 8 April 2020 (03:56:28 CEST)
Background: Lung cancer is one of the common causes of death worldwide. Although the incidence rate of lung cancer in Western countries is decreasing, it presents a growing trend in developed countries. Since there is no accurate enough information about the epidemiological and Histopathologic features of lung cancer in central Iran, Isfahan, we were motivated to conduct this research. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study carried out in central Iran, Isfahan. All demographic, histopathological and clinical data of the lung cancer patients registered in MACSA, a referral charity-based cancer center in central Iran, was analyzed within 2012-2018 using SPSS v.22 software. Results: Altogether 260 patients with lung cancer were included in this study from 6127 cancer patients registered within 2012-2018 (4.2%). Out of them, 66.2% were men, and 18.8 % of the patients were alive at the time of the study. The mean age of the patients at diagnosis was 61.56 (SD=14.11, range: 9-93). Altogether, 63.1% of patients had metastasis of whom 57.6% were in stage IV at diagnosis. The Frequency of different types of lung cancer was 36.9% adenocarcinomas, 14.2% squamous cell carcinoma, 9.6% bronchogenic carcinoma and 8.1% small cell lung cancer, respectively. Altogether, 128 cases were smokers with an average 35.45 ± 14 pack- years. Only in 36.2% of the patients, the diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers had been checked, and CK7 was positive in 88.9% of the cases in which the biomarker had been checked. Conclusion: Despite to similar Iranian studies, the most common histopathologic type of lung cancer among the patients was adenocarcinoma that it may be attributed to the lower consumption of smoking in our population and their different genetic context. Molecular biomarkers had been checked in a small portion of the patients. More education of the clinicians along with the development of cancer molecular testing may lead to promote the personalized-based approach.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0201.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: Iran; sanctions; mental health; quality of life
Online: 17 November 2019 (10:53:30 CET)
In order to synchronize foreign policies of governments, firm actions in the form of economic sanctions have long been employed by western countries. Those countries that tend to have independent views and policies are made to undergo economic adversity to fall in line. But the hardest hit by these coercive actions are the ordinary citizens who have to endure immense difficulty with social and economic issues not to mention the human rights violations. This paper provides a review regarding the effect of economic sanctions on mental health and quality of life of Iranian citizens based on data available from Iran post-sanctions. From 2012 stronger sanctions have been implemented on Iran as its nuclear program failed to draw faith in terms of its peaceful execution. Evidence have pointed out that economic sanctions imposed by western countries have a detrimental and destructive effect on the health of individual Iranians and they violated some basic human rights.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0018.v1
Online: 3 July 2020 (08:27:23 CEST)
Abstract Background: The highest incidence rate of covid-19 in Iran was reported from Shahroud County. This study was conducted by geographic information systems (GIS) to determine the geographical distribution of Covid-19 in 60 days. Study design: A cross-sectional study Methods: This study was conducted in counties covered by Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, namely Shahroud and Mayami, from February 20, 2020 to April 18, 2020. The GIS can better show the spread of epidemics. This software indicates geographical distribution of disease spread and is very helpful in controlling the epidemics. Therefore, maps of spatial distribution and risk of infection to COVID-19 were prepared in different regions of Shahroud county using Arc-GIS software to better implement health policies. Results: During this sixty-day period, 529 confirmed cases were detected, of which 51% were men and the average age was 55 years. The maps showed high-risk to risk-free regions. Shahroud and Bastam cities were known as the coronavirus hot spots. The eastern region of Shahroud has the highest number of cases but some high risk areas are spread throughout the Shahroud city due to high infectivity of virus. Risk-based time maps indicated a reduction in the risk of infection at the end of the research period due to some mitigation and suppression strategies. Conclusions: Shahroud and Bastam are the most dangerous cities that, the number of patients and dissemination has decreased over time because of tracking definite patients and people in contact with them and implementation of preventive care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0159.v1
Online: 10 July 2018 (05:36:05 CEST)
Background: Prostate cancer is a complex condition, in which both genetic and environmental factors concomitantly contribute to the tumor initiation and progression. Recently, HOXB13 has been proposed as a susceptibility gene for prostate cancer. Objective: So the current study was conducted to test the existence of potential variations in HOXB13 gene in Iranian men with prostate cancer (PCa) compared to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) cases. Methods: The HOXB13 genetic status was screened in 51 samples, including 21 blood and tissue of PCa cases compared to 30 cases affected by BPH using PCR/sequencing. Then potential association between genomic DNA alterations in blood and tissue PCa specimens was investigated Results: Analysis of BPH tissues showed single nucleotide variations c.366C > T (rs) or c.513T > C (rs9900627) in exon 1, but not in exon 2. Evaluation of PCa tissues revealed two cases with both synonymous c.366C > T and c.513T > C variants and two cases with the synonymous c.366C > T variant in exon 1. The variants c.366C > T and c.513T > C simultaneously or separately were found blood samples of PCa patients. The novel variant c.127A > G in the exon 2 was detected in 1 PCa blood sample. Our analysis indicated a significant reciprocal correlation between HOXB13 mutation in tissue and blood in PCa cases (P=0.02). Conclusion: The variants in exon 2 of HOXB13 may influence the risk of prostate cancer. Also, evaluation of HOXB13 mutation may be considered as a novel marker for screening of PCa. Further investigations are warranted to evaluate the clinical significance of HOXB13 in Iranian population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0106.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: completed suicide; hanging out; self-Immolation; Bushehr; Iran
Online: 24 January 2017 (04:16:45 CET)
Background: Suicide is a major health problem. The aim of this study was a comparative study of the causes and methods of completed suicide referred to legal Medicine Organization in Bushehr Province during the years 2006- 2015. Methods: This consideration has been done as a retrospective cross-sectional study; the data were collected by the check list. After coordination to the medico legal 343 cases of completed suicide lead to death over a ten year period from 2006 to 2015 were extracted and the data were analyses by SPSS software. Results: The rate of completed suicide was 2.43 and 1.12 suicides per 100,000 people in male and female, respectively. The mean age were 29.25 and 27.61 years in male and female, respectively p>0.05. A higher completed suicide rate was found among single people. The most common ways of a suicide among people who live in Bushehr were hanging out 184(53.6%), self-Immolation 83(24.2%) and firearms 37(10.8%). Motive of suicide was psychological disorders, Physical disease, Conflict with family and substance abuse. 43(12.5%) people smoking and 22(6.4%) people were both smoking and opioid. During the ten year period of studied, throughout the all years that frequency of hanging out has been higher than others. Conclusion: Due to the high incidence of completed suicide in young people and unmarried individuals also hanging out in male and self-burning in females are prevalent. So determination of preventive measures appears to be necessary. Social factors such as psychological disorders and family conflicts have a noticeable role from .Bushehr people.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0305.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Australia; cooperative learning; Iran; quality of implementation; university instructor
Online: 17 November 2021 (12:01:05 CET)
Cooperative learning (CL) is a teaching and learning pedagogy that has been used widely in school but there is limited information on instructors’ perceptions of CL nor observations of how CL is implemented in higher education settings. In this study, we investigated the ad-vantages and challenges of embedding CL into instructors’ teaching in Iran and Australia. Data were collected through interview and observation. Results showed that despite challenges such as the lack of familiarity of CL and how it can be implemented in university curricula, issues associated with assessment, and time constraints, CL created an interactive, pleasant and safe environment for deep learning in both countries. The findings showed that there were challenges in Iran such as a tendency to use traditional approaches to teaching, insufficient understanding of how to establish teamwork, and a lack of up-to-date teaching resources. In Australia, changing courses, working with external students, catering for individual differences, and building positive relationships were some of the challenges of implementing CL. We believe that these challenges can be overcome if university instructors are prepared to address them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0524.v1
Online: 21 June 2021 (15:46:22 CEST)
The article reviews Iranian sports in three periods: prehistoric, ancient, and modern. In prehistoric times, remaining cases have shown the existence of movement activities based on recreational and religious ceremonies. In the period of ancient history, documents such as Hasanlu Golden Cup and Arjan Cup, and in the continuation of architectures leftover from different eras, refer to the prosperity of sports activities with different approaches. Among all kinds of activities, Iranian zoorkhaneh sport has a significant cultural background and effect. Modern sports entered Iran through embassies, oil contractors, Western-educated students, and military representatives in other countries (in the modern era). Iran became a member of the International Olympic Committee in 1947 and won its first Olympic medal in 1948. Entering the 21st century, the sports industry in Iran began to grow and the number of clubs, sports careers, and sports science students in universities increased significantly. The growing dimension of attention and interest in sports among Iranians shows that sports will be one of the main areas in Iran's development in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0563.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Iran; Pan Evaporation; Genetic Algorithm; MLP Neural Network; Experimental Relationship
Online: 31 August 2021 (11:20:33 CEST)
Evaporation from surface water plays a key role in water accounting of basins, water resources management, and irrigation systems management, so simulating evaporation with high accuracy is very important. In this study, two methods for simulating pan evaporation under different climatic conditions in Iran were developed. In the first method, six experimental relationships (linear, quadratic, and cubic, with two input combinations) were determined for Iran’s six climate types, inspired by a multilayer perceptron neural network (MLP-NN) neuron and optimized with the genetic algorithm. The best relationship of the six was selected for each climate type, and the results were presented in a three-dimensional graph. In the second method, the best overall relationship obtained in the first method was used as the basic relationship, and climatic correction coefficients were determined for other climate types using the genetic algorithm optimization model. Finally, the accuracy of the two methods was validated using data from 32 synoptic weather stations throughout Iran. For the first method, error tolerance diagrams and statistical coefficients showed that a quadratic experimental relationship performed best under all climatic conditions. To simplify the method, two graphs were created based on the quadratic relationship for the different climate types, with the axes of the graphs showing relative humidity and temperature, and with pan evaporation was drawn as contours. For the second method, the quadratic relationship for semi-dry conditions was selected as the basic relationship. The estimated climatic correction coefficients for other climate types lay between 0.8 and 1 for dry, semi-dry, semi-humid, Mediterranean climates, and between 0.4 and 0.6 for humid and very humid climates, indicating that one single relationship cannot be used to simulate pan evaporation for all climatic conditions in Iran. The validation results confirmed the accuracy of the two methods in simulating pan evaporation under different climatic conditions in Iran.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Disabled Persons; Health Status; Iran; Psychometrics; Quality of Life; Reliability
Online: 7 September 2020 (03:24:54 CEST)
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the performance of the SF-36 health survey (SF-36) in a sample of subjects with physical disabilities. Material and Methods: 305 patients recruited using the convenient sampling method from September 2019 to March 2020 in Kermanshah, Iran. Another similar 300 patients were selected to assess the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results: The Cronbach’s α ranged from 0.70 to 0.93, and intra-class correlation coefficients from 0.71 to 0.88; and with the no ceiling and floor effect for two main subscales. Convergent validity was supported by moderate to good correlation between SF-36 subscales and Moorong self-efficacy subscales (r= 0.25- 0.53). The SF-36 divergently validated with HADS total score and subscales (r= -0.24- -0.65), concurrently validated with its subscales (r=0.49- 0.88), and physically discriminated between persons with different level of disability (t-test: p<0.001). Factorial analysis identified seven factors, confirmed with second-order in another 300 samples (chi-square (χ2/df) = 2.61(p < .001); RMSEA = 0.07 (90% CI = 0.07–0.08); AGFI=0.75; GFI = 0.78; CFI= 0.85; and NFI = 0.78). Conclusions: the SF-36 is a reliable and valid tool in physical disables. However, SF-36 shows insufficient eight-factor validity. Future studies should focus on evaluating other psychometric properties, such as sensitivity to change in subjects with physical disabilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0357.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: FDI inflows; sanctions; political stability; macroeconomic factors; GDP growth; Iran
Online: 9 April 2020 (09:55:45 CEST)
In this paper, we investigate the role of sanctions in the relationship between macroeconomic determinants and foreign direct investment inflows. We also investigate the moderating role of sanctions in FDI inflows into Iran. The empirical results reveal that macro determinants such as infrastructure, exchange rate, inflation rate, investment return, and governance have a long-run impact on FDI inflows in Iran. Our findings also show that GDP growth rate and trade openness have no significant effect on FDI. Our results indicate that sanctions do not have a significant moderating role in the relationship between macroeconomic factors and foreign direct investment. Surprisingly, international sanctions have a positive relationship with FDI inflows in Iran. Furthermore, sanction has a positive impact on the inflation rate and exchange rate in Iran. Finally, our findings show that sanctions have had a significant impact on Iran's economic growth in recent years due to increasing the severity level of sanctions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0323.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Logistics, Supply Chain, Integrated, Fuzzy Vikor, Network, Iran Khodro Co
Online: 26 June 2018 (15:07:46 CEST)
Logistics Engineering has transcended over the decades into an approach for competitive benefits in organisational performance and logistics efficiency. Most industries are recognising that significant savings are available to companies that are able to ordinate and improve within their logistics operations. Companies today face great challenges because the successful supply of many products and services needs to the effective integration of logistics activities across a prolongation supply chain and an increasing geographical separation. Moreover, logistics integration approach involves both internal integration for an ordinated, unified process as well as relationships to react flexibly, changeability, and responsibility to customer's demands. In this study, by using of Fuzzy Vikor (F-Vikor), the best combination of RIR was selected and RIR Locating was done. The main aim of this paper is survey and design of the integrated operational logistics network (IOLN) and also, a proposed IOLN to integration of the Iran Khodro Co Supply Network.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0022.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design; LEED; sustainable construction cost; Iran
Online: 3 January 2020 (04:42:10 CET)
Buildings use 30-40 % of all energy resources and are thus their main consumers in modern society. Moreover, buildings require a vast amount of different raw materials. During the last two decades, several green building certifications have been created in order to consider social, economic and environmental aspects of sustainability of buildings. One of the most famous and widely used of these certifications is Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED). So far, the use of LEED has concentrated in the US and other developed countries. One reason that restricts the use of this point-based system certification in developing countries is the limited data about its costs. In this study, the extra cost of the certification process will be evaluated besides the changes needed in the design of the building to reach the points required by LEED. At the first stage, the number of points the case study earns in its current format (Scenario 1) were found out, then the cost difference of getting either the Certified (Scenario 2) or Silver (Scenario 3) level LEED certification for the building was studied. It was found that besides some technical considerations, filling the criteria of the Certified and Silver level increases the total costs of construction by 3.4% and 5.9%. Further improvement of the building’s energy efficiency would enable the attainment of a higher-level certification. The results of the study could help to promote the use of green building certifications in Western Asia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0164.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: major river; fold; geomorphology; interactions; remote sensing; characteristics; Karun; Dez; Iran
Online: 12 July 2019 (05:26:16 CEST)
There are frequently interactions between active folds and major rivers (mean annual water discharges > 70 m3s-1). The major river may incise across the fold, to produce a water gap across the fold, or a bevelling (or lateral planation) of the top of the fold. Alternatively, the major river may be defeated to produce a diversion of the river around the fold, with wind gaps forming across the fold in some cases, or ponding of the river behind the fold. Why a river incises or diverts is often unclear, though influential characteristics and processes have been identified. A new scheme for investigating fold-river interactions has been devised, involving a short description of the major river, climate, and structural geology, and 13 characteristics of river and fold geomorphology: 1) Channel width at location of fold axis, w, 2) Channel-belt width at location of fold axis, cbw, 3) Floodplain width at location of fold axis, fpw, 4) Channel sinuosity, Sc, 5) Braiding index, BI, 6) General river course direction, RCD, 7) Distance from fold core to location of river crossing, C-RC, 8) Distance from fold core to river basin margin, C-BM, 9) Width of geological structure at location of river crossing, Wgs, 10) Estimate of erosion resistance of surface sediments/rocks and deeper sediments/rocks in fold, ERs, ERd, 11) Channel water surface slope at location of fold axis, s, 12) Average channel migration rate, Rm, 13) Estimate of fold total uplift rate, TUR. The first 10 geomorphological characteristics should be readily determinable for nearly all major rivers using widely available satellite imagery and fine scale geological maps. The last 3 characteristics should be determinable for most major rivers where other data sources are available. This study demonstrates the methodology of this scheme, using the example of the major rivers Karun and Dez interacting with active folds in the foreland basin tectonic setting of lowland south-west Iran. For the rivers Karun and Dez (mean annual water discharges 575 m3s-1 and 230 m3s-1, respectively), it was found that geomorphological characteristics Nos. 2, 3 and 7 had statistically significant differences (p-value ≤ 0.05) between the categories of river incision across a fold and river diversion around a fold. For river incision, at the fold axis, channel-belt width was always < 2.7 km, and floodplain width was generally (80 % of cases) < 5.7 km; whereas for river diversion, at the projection of the fold axis, these two characteristics had a wide range of values. For river incision, the distance from the fold core to the location where the river channel crossed the fold axis, was generally (80 % of cases) ≤ 8.5 km; whereas for river diversion, this distance was always > 22 km. Since it is highly likely that different characteristics will be important for other major rivers interacting with other folds, it is recommended that this scheme is now used to investigate a variety of major rivers from across the globe. By comparing the same parameters for different major rivers, a better understanding of fold-river interactions should be achieved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0406.v1
Subject: Keywords: phylogeny; trend; COVID-19; MENA; Jordan; Oman; Egypt; Iran; Saudi Arabia; Morocco
Online: 19 August 2020 (08:59:25 CEST)
Phylogeny construction can help to reveal evolutionary relatedness among molecular sequences. The spike (S) gene of SARS-CoV-2 is the subject of an immune selective pressure which increases the variability in such region. This study aimed to identify mutations in the S gene among SARS-CoV-2 sequences collected in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), focusing on the D614G mutation, that has a presumed fitness advantage. Another aim was to analyze the S gene sequences phylogenetically. The SARS-CoV-2 S gene sequences collected in the MENA were retrieved from the GISAID public database, together with its metadata. Mutation analysis was conducted in Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis software. Phylogenetic analysis was done using maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian methods. A total of 553 MENA sequences were analyzed and the most frequent S gene mutations included: D614G=435, Q677H=8, and V6F=5. A significant increase in the proportion of D614G was noticed from (63.0%) in February 2020, to (98.5%) in June 2020 (p<0.001). Two large phylogenetic clusters were identified via ML analysis, which showed an evidence of inter-country mixing of sequences, which dated back to February 8, 2020 and March 15, 2020 (median estimates). The mean evolutionary rate for SARS-CoV-2 was about 6.5 × 10-3 substitutions/site/year based on large clusters’ Bayesian analyses. The D614G mutation appeared to be taking over the COVID-19 infections in the MENA. Bayesian analysis suggested that SARS-CoV-2 might have been circulating in MENA earlier than previously reported.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0361.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Agro-economic crop water productivity; Hydro-economic modeling; CSPSO-MODSIM; Economic benefits; Crop pattern planning; Crop water Irrigation depth; Climate change; Iran.
Online: 5 November 2018 (11:12:25 CET)
For water-stressed regions like Iran improving the effectiveness and productivity of agricultural water-use is of utmost importance due to climate change and unsustainable demands. Therefore, a hydro-economic model has been developed here for the Zarrine River Basin with the central concept of that demands are value-sensitive functions, where quantities of water-uses at different locations and times have a changeable economic benefits. To do this, the potential crop yields and the surface and groundwater resources, especially Boukan Dam inflow are simulated using the hydrologic model, SWAT, based on predicted climatic scenarios i.e. quantile mapping-downscaled projections. Then, to allocate the agricultural water based on the agro- economic crop water productivity (AEWP) of crops, a basin-wide water management tool, MODSIM, is customized. Next, a simulation- optimization model has been developed using a coupled CSPSO-MODSIM, to optimize the total AEWP, considering climatic impact and crop pattern scenarios, for 2020-2038, 2050-2068 and 2080-2098 periods. Finally, the optimum crop pattern and crop water irrigation depths are presented for different RCPs and periods. The results indicated that this approach will improve considerably the AEWPs and decrease the agricultural water-use up to 40%. Thus, this integrated model is able to support water authorities and other stakeholder in a water-scarce basin, as is the study area.