ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0190.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: Biomarkers, Dye , Fluorescence, acetate detection, FLIM
Online: 9 October 2018 (15:39:16 CEST)
Development of biomarkers of analytes with interest in clinic is an important field of study. In this work, we synthesized and analyzed the new fluorescent acetate-biomarker, Iso-PG. The mechanism of detection is the acetate buffer mediated proton transfer reaction. The rate constants involved were obtained, and we measured the change in the fluorescence lifetime produced as a consequence of the presence of acetate in the medium. Finally, we checked its potential use as acetate biomarker in synthetic serum
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0176.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: gait; loading rate; ethylene-vinyl acetate; styrene-butadiene rubber
Online: 7 July 2021 (10:57:03 CEST)
It is unclear whether military shoes (combat boots and sports shoes) attenuate loading rate or affect force transfer during walking. Therefore, this study compared ground reaction forces (GRF) related to impact and force transfer between combat boots, military sports shoes and running shoes. Ten army recruits walked over a walkway with two force plates embedded. GRF were measured when walking barefoot (for data normalization) and with combat boots, military sports shoes and running shoes. Loading rate, first and second peak forces and push-off rate of force were computed along with temporal analysis of waveforms. Reduced loading rate was observed for the running shoe compared to the combat boot (p = 0.02 and d = 0.98) and to the military sports shoe (p = 0.04 and d = 0.92). The running shoe elicited a smaller second peak force than the combat boot (p < 0.01 and d = 0.83). Walking with military shoes and combat boots led to larger force transfer then running shoes potentially due to harder material used in midsole composition (i.e. styrene-butadiene rubber). These results could lead to a potentially larger risk of injuries while long duration walking in military shoes and boots compared to traditional running shoes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0239.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: edible marine alga; anticancer; hizikia fusiformis; saringosterol acetate; apoptosis
Online: 20 November 2019 (11:19:19 CET)
Hizikia fusiformis is a common, edible marine alga found in Asia. Although the anticancer activity of its extracts has previously been investigated, its active compounds have not been identified. In this study, saringosterol acetate (SA) was isolated from H. fusiformis extracts by centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) system (two phase solvents condition: n-hexane:ethyl acetate/methanol:water = 5:3:7:1, v/v), exhibited anticancer effects in the human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line, A549, by inducing apoptosis and sub-G1 phase cell cycle arrest. In addition, SA increased the expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins, Bax and cleaved caspase 3, and decreased that of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL. Although, SA did not affect the expression of p53, induces expression of Bid and caspase 8. In conclusion, we suggested that SA induces apoptosis against A549 cells via Bid and caspase 8 dependent pathway.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0037.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Consolida orientalis; ethyl acetate extract; antioxidant activity; β-sitosterol
Online: 9 September 2016 (11:18:02 CEST)
General phytochemical screening of the aerial parts of Consolida orientalis revealed the presence of steroids, terpenes, phenolic compounds, saponins, fatty acids, alkaloids. This study was conducted to investigate the bioactivities of extracts, isolation and identification the compounds from aerial parts of C.orientalis. The main goal of the present study is identifying and characterizing the antioxidant activity of the Consolida orientalis and biological isolation of active terpenoid. Aerial parts of the plant were dried at room temperature and reduced to small pieces, followed by using extraction with ethyl acetate percolation. Tree complementary analysis system was used, DPPH free radical scavenging test, total phenolic metabolites and FRAP. The total phenolic content was 38.83±2.09 mg gallic acid corresponding to g-1 extract with regarding to standard curve (y=0.0054x+0.0488, r2=0.995). IC50 value for DPPH radical – scavenging was 987.11±28.66 mgml-1. The extract was exhibited a medium reducing power compared with Vit C. The isolation and purification was afforded white crystalline powder which was subjected to physical, chemical and spectral identification by IR, 1H- and 13C- NMR and GC-MS. Isolated compound was identified as β-sitosterol. That is a terpenoid with melting point 133.4-134.5 ͦ c and with molecular formula C29H50O.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0355.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: testosterone; estrogen; cyprotenone acetate; masculinizing; feminizing; cytochrome P450; sex-specific genes
Online: 18 November 2022 (10:10:00 CET)
Transgender (TG) describes individuals whose gender identity differs from the social norms. Some TG people undergo gender-affirming hormone therapy (HT) and may be considered as a sub-group of population susceptible to environmental contaminants for their targets and modes of action. Aim of the work is to set appropriate HT doses and identify specific biomarkers to implement TG animal models. Four adult rats/group/sex are subcutaneously exposed to 3 doses of HT (plus control) selected starting from available data. Demasculinizing-feminizing model (dMF): β-estradiol plus cyproterone acetate: 0.09+0.33, 0.09+0.93 and 0.18+0.33 mg, 5 times/week. Defeminizing-masculinizing model (dFM): testosterone 0.45, 0.95 and 2.05 mg, 2 times/week. Clitoral gain and sperm count, histophatological analysis of reproductive organs and liver, hormone serum levels and gene expression of sex-dimorphic CYP450 are evaluated. In dMF model, the selected doses, leading to T serum levels at the range of the corresponding cisgender, induced strong general toxicity and cannot be used in long-term studies. In dFM model, 0.45 mg of testosterone represents the correct dose. In addition, the endpoints selected are considered suitable and reliable to implement the animal model. The sex-specific CYP expression is a suita-ble biomarker to set proper (de)masculinizing/(de)feminizing HT and to implement TG animal models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0014.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: electrodialysis; bioelectrochemical system; microbial fuel cell; C1 gas; carbon monoxide; acetate
Online: 3 September 2018 (08:06:49 CEST)
The conversion of C1 gas feedstock, such as carbon monoxide (CO), into useful platform chemicals has attracted considerable interest in industrial biotechnology. One conversion method is electrode-based electron transfer to microorganisms using bioelectrochemical systems (BESs). In this BES system, acetate is the predominant component of various volatile fatty acids (VFAs). To appropriately separate and concentrate the produced acetate, a BES type electrodialysis cell with an anion exchange membrane was constructed and evaluated under various operational conditions, such as the applied external current. The higher acetate flux of 23.9 mmol/m2∙hr was observed under -15 mA current in an electrodialysis-based bioelectrochemical system. In addition, the initial acetate concentration affects the separation efficiency and transportation rate. The maximum flux appeared at 48.6 mmol/m2∙hr when the acetate concentration was 100mM, whereas the effect of the initial pH of the anolyte was negligible. The acetate flux was 14.9 mmol/m2∙hr when actual fermentation broth from BES based CO fermentation, was used as a catholyte. A comparison of the synthetic medium with the actual fermentation medium suggests that unknown substances and metabolites in the actual medium interfere with electrodialysis in the BES. These results provide information on the separation and optimal concentration for VFAs produced by C1 gas fermentation through electrodialysis, and a combination of a BES and electrodialysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0312.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Komagataeibacter rhaeticus; Bacterial cellulose; Crude glycerol; Minimal medium; Whole-genome analysis; Acetate
Online: 16 August 2021 (08:32:19 CEST)
Komagataeibacter spp. have been used for the bioconversion of industrial wastes and lignocellulosic hydrolysates to bacterial cellulose (BC). Recently studies have demonstrated the capacity of Komagataeibacter spp. in the biotransformation of inhibitors found in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, aromatic lignin-derived monomers (LDMs) and acetate. In general, detoxification and BC synthesis from lignocellulosic inhibitors requires a carbon flow from acetyl-coA towards tricarboxylic acid and gluconeogenesis, respectively. However, the related molecular aspects have not yet been identified in Komagataeibacter spp. In this study, we isolated a cellulose producing bacteria capable of synthesizing BC in a minimal medium containing crude glycerol, a by-product from biodiesel production process. The isolate, affiliated to Komagataeibacter genus, synthesized cellulose in minimal medium containing glucose (3.3±0.3 g/L), pure glycerol (2.2±0.1 g/L) and crude glycerol (2.1±0.1 g/L). Genome assembly and annotation identified four copies of bacterial cellulose synthase operon and genes for redirecting the carbon from central metabolic pathway to gluconeogenesis. According to the genome annotations, a BC production route from acetyl-CoA, a central metabolic intermediate, was hypothesized and was validated using acetate. We identified that when K. rhaeticus ENS9b was grown in minimal medium supplemented with acetate, BC production was not observed. However, in presence of readily utilizable substrate, such as spent yeast hydrolysate, acetate supplementation improved BC synthesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0141.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: syntrophic acetate oxidation; energy conservation; methane production; hydrogen production; anaerobic digestion process
Online: 19 March 2018 (07:23:17 CET)
Syntrophic acetate oxidation operates close to the thermodynamic equilibrium and very little is known about the participating organisms and their metabolism. Clostridium ultunense is one of the most abundant syntrophic acetate-oxidising bacteria (SAOB) found in engineered biogas processes operating with high ammonia concentrations. It has been proven to oxidise acetate in cooperation with hydrogenotrophic methanogens. There is evidence that the Wood-Ljungdahl (WL) pathway plays an important role in acetate oxidation. In this study we analysed the physiological and metabolic capacities of C. ultunense on genome scale and conducted a comparative study of all known characterised SAOB, namely Syntrophaceticus schinkii, Thermacetogenium phaeum, Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans and Pseudothermotoga lettingae. The results clearly indicated physiological robustness beneficial for anaerobic digestion environments and revealed unexpected metabolic diversity with respect to acetate oxidation and energy conservation systems., Unlike S. schinkii and Th. phaeum, C. ultunense clearly does not employ the oxidative WL pathway for acetate oxidation, as its genome (and that of P. lettingae) lack important key genes. In both those species, a proton motive force is likely formed by chemical protons involving putative electron-bifurcating [Fe-Fe] hydrogenases rather than proton pumps. No genes encoding a respiratory Ech hydrogenase, as involved in energy conservation in Th. phaeum and S. schinkii, were identified in C. ultunense and P. lettingae. Moreover, two respiratory complexes sharing similarities to the proton-translocating ferredoxin:NAD+ oxidoreductase (Rnf) and the Na+ pumping NADH:quinone hydrogenase (NQR) were predicted. These might form a respiratory chain involved in reduction of electron acceptors other than protons. However, involvement of these complexes in acetate oxidation in C. ultunense and P. lettingae needs further study. This genome-based comparison provides a solid platform for future meta-proteomics and meta-transcriptomics studies and for metabolic engineering, control and monitoring of SAOB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0339.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: acetate; acetyl-coenzyme A; ATP citrate lyase; acetyl-CoA synthetase; acetylation; transcriptional regulation
Online: 19 January 2023 (01:40:55 CET)
Coordination of cellular biological processes is regulated in part via metabolic enzymes acting to match cellular metabolism to current conditions. The acetate activating enzyme, acyl-coenzyme A synthetase short-chain family member 2 (Acss2) has long been considered to have a predominantly lipogenic function. More recent evidence suggests that this enzyme has regulatory functions in addition to its role in providing acetyl-CoA for lipid synthesis. We used Acss2 knockout mice (Acss2-/-) to further investigate the roles this enzyme plays in three physiologically distinct organ systems that make extensive use of lipid synthesis and storage including the liver, brain and adipose tissue. We examined the resulting transcriptomic changes resulting from Acss2 deletion and assessed these changes in relation to fatty acid constitution. We find that loss of Acss2 leads to dysregulation of numerous canonical signaling pathways, upstream transcriptional regulatory molecules, cellular processes, and biological functions, which were distinct in the liver, brain and mesenteric adipose tissues. The detected organ-specific transcriptional regulatory patterns reflect the complementary functional roles of these organ systems within the context of systemic physiology. While alterations in transcriptional states were evident, the loss of Acss2 resulted in few changes in fatty acid constitution in all three organ systems. Overall, we demonstrate Acss2 loss institutes organ-specific transcriptional regulatory patterns reflecting the complementary functional roles of these organ systems. Collectively, these findings provide further confirmation that Acss2 regulates key transcription factors and pathways under well-fed, non-stressed conditions, and acts as a transcriptional regulatory enzyme.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0109.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: key words: sake; fermentation; hybrid; ginjo; ethanol; ethyl hexanoate; isoamyl acetate; yeast; saccharomyces; metabolism
Online: 9 December 2019 (03:23:15 CET)
The use of interspecific hybrids during the industrial fermentation process has been well established, positioning the frontier of advancement in brewing to capitalize on the potential of Saccharomyces hybridization. Interspecific yeast hybrids used in modern monoculture inoculations benefit from a wide range of volatile metabolites that broaden the organoleptic complexity. This is the first report of sake brewing by Saccharomyces arboricola and its hybrids. S. arboricola x S. cerevisiae direct-mating generated cryotolerant interspecific hybrids which increased yields of ethanol and ethyl hexanoate compared to parental strains, important flavor attributes of fine Japanese ginjo sake rice wine. We used hierarchical clustering heatmapping with principal component analysis for metabolic profiling and found that the low levels of endogenous amino/organic acids clustered S. arboricola apart from the S. cerevisiae industrial strains. In sake fermentations, hybrid strains showed a mosaic profile of parental strains, while metabolic analysis suggested S. arboricola had a lower amino acid net uptake than S. cerevisiae. Additionally, we found an increase in ethanolic fermentation from pyruvate and increased sulfur metabolism. Together, our results suggest S. arboricola is poised for in-depth metabolomic exploration in sake fermentation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0267.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Electrochemistry Keywords: adsorption; coatings; poly(vinyl butyral-co-vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate); corrosion tests; atomic force microscopy
Online: 20 December 2019 (07:00:55 CET)
Poly(vinyl butyral-co-vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate) named further PVBA was investigated as protective coating for copper corrosion in 0.9 % NaCl solution using electrochemical measurements such as, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization associated with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The PVBA coating on the copper surface (Cu-PVBA) was modeled in methanol containing PVBA. Its inhibitory properties against corrosion was comparatively discussed with those of the copper sample treated in methanol without polymer (Cu-Me) and of untreated sample (standard copper). A protective performance of PVBA coating of 80 % was computed from electrochemical measurements, for copper corrosion in NaCl solution. Also, AFM images designed a specific surface morphology of coated surface with PVBA, clearly highlighting a polymer film adsorbed on the copper surface, which presents certain deterioration after corrosion, but metal surface was not significantly affected compared to those of untreated samples or treated in methanol, in the absence of PVBA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0309.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: phenyltin derivatives; tetraphenyltin; triphenyltin chloride; triphenyltin acetate; triphenyltin hydroxide; fabric phase sorptive extraction (FPSE), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
Online: 24 April 2018 (07:45:23 CEST)
This paper reports a novel fabric phase sorptive extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-ultra violet detection (FPSE-HPLC-UV) method for the simultaneous extraction and analysis of four phenyltin derivatives that include triphenyltin hydroxide, triphenyltin acetate, triphenyltin chloride and tetraphenyltin in environmental water (agricultural waste water and municipal waste water) and canned food samples. The selected analytes were well resolved by Waters Nova pack C18 column (3.9 x 150 mm, 4 µm particle size) in isocratic elution mode within 15 minutes. The new microextraction media has been analytically evaluated using phenyltin derivatives as model compounds. The factors affecting the extraction efficiency of FPSE have been evaluated and the optimum extraction conditions were determined. Under these optimum conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) for sol-gel C18 coated fabric phase sorptive extraction (FPSE) media in combination with HPLC-UV for the analysis of the phenyltin derivatives were in the range of 10-100 ng/mL with high precision (low relative standard deviation) at 10 ng/mL concentration with good absolute recoveries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first FPSE extraction procedure applied to environmental water and canned food samples for the simultaneous determination of phenyltin derivatives and could be readily adopted as a rapid and robust green analytical tool for routine environmental and food analytical laboratories.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0010.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: amorphous polyphosphate microparticles; retinyl acetate; enamel cracks/fissures; Streptococcus mutans; human mesenchymal stem cells; collagen type I; alkaline phosphatase
Online: 4 February 2017 (07:37:55 CET)
Here we report the preparation and characterization of a novel biomimetic toothpaste containing morphogenetically active amorphous polyphosphate (polyP) microparticles enriched with retinyl acetate (“a-polyP/RA-MP”). The spherical microparticles (average size, 550±120 nm), prepared by co-precipitating sodium-polyP with calcium chloride and supplemented with retinyl acetate, were incorporated into a basis toothpaste at a final concentration of 1% or 10%. The paste containing “a-polyP/RA-MP” significantly increased the growth of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), compared to a commercial toothpaste which acts rather inhibitory and the paste without polyP and retinyl acetate. qRT-PCR experiments revealed that the retinoid causes an induction of the expression of the MSC marker genes for osteoblast differentiation encoding collagen type I and alkaline phosphatase. On the other hand, the polyP ingredient, supplied as Zn-polyP microparticles (“Zn-a-polyP-MP”) strongly inhibited the growth of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans. We demonstrate that the amorphous polyP-containing toothpaste, enriched with retinyl acetate, efficiently repairs both cracks/fissures and carious lesions in the tooth enamel, and reseals dentinal tubules, already after a 5 d treatment (brushing) of teeth twice daily for 5 min as examined by SEM and quantitative EDX analysis. The stability of the occlusion of dentin cracks even turned out to resist against short high power sonication treatment. Our results demonstrate that the novel toothpaste prepared here, containing amorphous polyP and retinyl acetate, is particularly suitable for prevention/repair of (cariogenic) damages of tooth enamel/dentin and for treatment of dental hypersensitivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0593.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Electrochemistry Keywords: brass coating; Cu-Zn alloy coating; electrodeposition; non-cyanide bath; ionic liquids; 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate; olive-like structure
Online: 28 January 2021 (16:07:31 CET)
One method of creating a brass coating is through electrodeposition, which is most often completed in cyanide galvanic baths. Because of the toxicity of cyanides, many are working on the development of cyanide-free baths, which are promising but not satisfactory to replace the classic methods. The purpose of the study was to explore a new generation of non-aqueous cyanide-free baths based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ionic liquids. The study involved the formation of copper, zinc, and brass coatings. The influence of the bath composition, cathodic current density, and temperature was determined. The obtained coatings were characterized by their morphology, chemical composition, roughness, and corrosion resistance. It was found that the structure of the obtained coatings is strongly dependent on the process parameters. The three main structures observed were fine-grained, porous, and olive-like. To the best knowledge of the authors, it is the first time the olive-like structure was observed in the case of an electrodeposited coating. The Cu-Zn coatings consisted of 19–96 at.% copper and exhibited relatively strong corrosion resistance. High improvement of corrosion properties was found in the case of copper and brass coatings with an olive-like structure.