ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0013.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: capital structure, total debt ratio, profitability, return on assets, firms, Ethiopia
Online: 8 July 2016 (10:42:31 CEST)
This study was aimed to investigate the effect of capital structure on firms’ profitability with special emphasis on Ethiopian Large Private Manufacturing Firms using panel data of five consecutive years (2006/07-2010/11G.C). The secondary data sources (audited financial statements) have been collected from the randomly selected thirty three large private manufacturing firms in Ethiopia. Linear regression model has been employed to analyze the relationship between firms’ profitability and capital structure. Specifically, Random-effect Generalized Least Square of panel data regression model has been selected to empirically test the literature driven hypotheses. Finally, the findings of this study revealed that a significant positive relationship between firms’ profitability and total debt ratio which indicate firm’s capital structure.
Thu, 23 August 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0422.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Logistics; Logistical Centralization; Logistical Decentralization
Online: 23 August 2018 (23:37:23 CEST)
In the area of health, namely hospitals, we can agree that the intrinsic need to have multidisciplinary teams, highly specialized and indispensable resources leads us to a degree of complexity that requires, daily, the best performance, not running away from the logistics area to the rule. The centralization of resources, namely distribution warehouses, emerges as a challenge and possible solution for health institutions to respond in the best possible way to their main purpose: to put the right material in the right place at the right price in the right time space. As regards the advantages of this type of organization, there are several authors who argues that the need for human resources training, ease of coordination and the use of economies of scale are the main advantage. As far as the disadvantages are concerned, there is no special agreement on them, there are disparate factors from author to author, such as: routine, centralization, objectives or operation costs.
Fri, 16 December 2016
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: depression; measurement scale; ratings; literature review
Online: 16 December 2016 (07:57:02 CET)
The range of rating instruments in depression measurement and the depth of their analytical relevance constitutes a major development in this psychiatric and psychotherapeutic field of mental health. Though the competition is acute amongst these various instruments, the results for the public have been outstandingly positive. A depression rating scale is essentially a psychiatric measuring instrument utilized in the identification and ranking of depression severity within the patient. The scale provides the practitioner, psychiatrist or psychotherapist, with sufficient information to assess the severity of the depression plotted on the scale. Not used as a “diagnostic tool” itself, nevertheless, the depression rating scale does function as an effective device for designating and assigning a behavioral score which may, then, be used in establishing the severity of depression of value in the designation of a diagnosis and treatment formula. In this paper, we will take a close look at the leading depression rating scales and briefly summarize their scope of assessment value in rating depression.
Tue, 25 April 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0162.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: agricultural productivity; extension; education; worker effect; allocative effect, Uganda
Online: 25 April 2017 (16:47:11 CEST)
This study estimates the effects of agricultural extension on agricultural productivity in the rural area of Uganda, i.e. Mbale district. The results show that agricultural extension service in Mbale district has a significantly positive impact on bean and rice production, gross farm revenue, and profit except for maize output. It presents several contributions of agricultural extension in Mbale district. First, both worker and allocative effects on bean and rice significantly contribute to agricultural performance, implying that both effects are crucial in this region. Second, extension service for each product shows positive effects through the allocative effect rather than worker effect. Specifically, the input-selection effect is found to be a more influential contributor than input-allocation effect in this area. Overall, the findings support the hypothesis of this paper that extension increases not only farmers’ direct output, also allocative ability in crop production. The results from the three function approaches lead us to the implication that local government, development project planners or stakeholders who deliver extension in Mbale district should increase investment on public extension system for more effective extension work in order to achieve long-term goals in terms of rural development in this region.
Tue, 18 April 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0101.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: tax taxation power; principles of tax; tax adjudication; constitutional tax rules; Ethiopian constitution; Turkish Constitution
Online: 18 April 2017 (02:41:03 CEST)
Constitutions as supreme legal authorities enshrine the principles of taxation which are often used as the guidance to the legislations related to fiscal aspect, requires to be explored critically so as to provide clear understanding on taxation. This article has explored the tax provisions in the constitutions of Ethiopia and Turkey from comparative perspective through the method of doctrinal legal analysis. Both the latest constitution of Turkey and Ethiopia comprise relatively related principles regarding taxation in spite of the disparities of taxation system in these two countries due to the fact that Turkey is a unitary state whereas Ethiopia is federal. In-fact, there are some disparities within these constitutions. For instance, the 1982 Constitution of Turkey specifies the citizens' duties to pay tax and the adjudication system of tax in different way than the Ethiopian 1995 constitution. The Ethiopian constitution enshrines the taxation power in detail among other things in line with the federal system of government.
Tue, 30 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0159.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: public investment; domestic private investment; FDI; crowding out effect; economic growth
Online: 30 August 2016 (04:03:38 CEST)
This paper analyzes the causal effect between domestic private investment, public investment, foreign direct investment and economic growth in Tanzania during the 1970-2014 period. The modified neo-classical growth model is used to estimate the ieffect of investment on economic growth. Also, the economic growth models based on Phetsavong and Ichihashi (2012) , and Le and Suruga (2005) are used to estimate the crowding out effect of public investment on domestic private investment on one hand and foreign direct investment on the other hand. In the same way, the crowding out effect of foreign direct investment on domestic private investment is estimated. A correlation test is applied to check the correlation among independent variables, and the results show that there is very low correlation suggesting that multicollinearity is not a serious problem. Moreover, the diagnostic tests including RESET regression errors specification test, Breusch-Godfrey serial correlation LM test, Jacque-Bera-normality test and white heteroskedasticity test reveal that the model has no signs of misspecification and that, the residuals are serially uncorrelated, normally distributed and homoskedastic. Broadly, the empirical results show that the domestic private investment and foreign direct investment play an important role in economic growth in Tanzania. Besides, a revealed negative, albeit weak, association between public and private investment suggests that the positive effect of domestic private investment on economic growth becomes smaller when public investment-to-GDP ratio exceeds 8-10 percent. Similarly, foreign direct investment tends to marginally reduce the impact of domestic private investment on growth. These results suggest that public investment and foreign direct investment need to be considered carefully in order to avoid a reduced positive impact of domestic private investment on growth. Domestic saving may be promoted to encourage domestic investment for economic growth.
Mon, 12 September 2016
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: circular economy; social ecology; consumerism; dialectical naturalism; mining
Online: 12 September 2016 (09:55:09 CEST)
The concept of a "circular economy" needs a more cogent theoretical anchor which will allow for transference of its goals and methods of attainment across cases. Tensions between ecological goals of this concept and the social implications of its implementation need to be addressed. This paper attempts to provide a theoretical framework for harnessing the strengths of a circular economy. Building on theories of social ecology which are predicated in Murray Bookchin's notion of "dialectical naturalism", the analysis presented here addresses some of the criticism of circular economic paradigms, such as their potential for stifling innovation or a neglect of human development challenges. A model for managing human "need" and "greed" within a circular economy framework is presented that also incorporates consumer choice and innovation. Planned obsolescence as a means of livelihood generation is also problematized with a view towards balancing durability of products on the one hand and ensuring throughput for manufacturing employment and innovation incentives on the other. Finally, the need for governance systems is considered to ensure that a planetary vision for a circular economy can be realized that efficiently harnesses local initiatives rather than an atomized and insular view of circularity.
Fri, 8 July 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0010.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: Stock Beta, Endogenous Structural Breaks, Time Horizon
Online: 8 July 2016 (08:35:15 CEST)
The stock beta coefficient literature extensively discusses the proper methods for the estimation of beta as well as its use in asset valuation. However, there are relatively few references with respect to the appropriate time horizon that investors should utilize when evaluating the risk-return relationship of a stock. We examine the appropriate time horizon for beta estimation differentiating our results by sector according to the Industry Classification Benchmark. We employ data from the NYSE and we estimate varying lengths of beta employing data from 30 to 250 trading days. The constructed beta series is then examined for the presence of breaks using the endogenous structural break literature. Results show evidence against the use of betas that employ more than 90 trading days of data provisional to the sector under study.
Fri, 9 September 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0012.v2
Online: 9 September 2016 (07:42:15 CEST)
Solid waste management in Accra is a major challenge to the Metropolitan Authorities and inhabitants. The rapidly increasing population coupled with poor capacity of the municipal and private waste management companies to management waste effectively has created issues of environmental concern. Due to poor waste managements systems, most household dispose waste indiscriminately leading to floods and health issues. The study showed that about 60% of household waste is organic materials which has the potential to be converted to compost for agriculture purpose. Meanwhile plastics and rubbers which litters the environment as well as blocking major storm drains and gutters hence creating huge environmental hazard is made of 11% of the total component of most household waste generated daily. The study also revealed that among the methods of disposing waste, dumping waste in skip containers located at authorized places was the preferred means of disposing waste by household though others also dispose waste by other means such as burying and burning. Inadequate skip containers per population of household in an area coupled with irregularity of tracks picking these containers makes skip containers dumping site ugly scene, hence creating health issues. Among the constraints that impact negatively on sustainable waste management in Accra Metropolis, economic constraints was perceived as the main challenge which affect efficient waste management. Currently the country is going through serious economic challenges so government does not release money timely to fund projects which waste management is key. Most donor partners that use to support the government with funds have either reduced or redrawn their services as they have no confidence in the state of Ghana economy. Aside the constrains, the study also indicated that factors such as poor public attitude towards waste management, poor enforcement of sanitation by-laws, inadequate and untimely release of government funds were also seen as the main factors affecting waste management.
Thu, 23 November 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0151.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: psychopharmacology; mental health; addiction; biopsychology
Online: 23 November 2017 (08:51:06 CET)
This study investigated the psychosocial factors influencing substance abuse among undergraduates. The study was conducted in Ekiti State university Ado Ekiti. 150 participants who are undergraduates of the university were used in this research. They consist of 82 males and 68 females selected from all faculties in the institution. 3 questionnaires were administered to respondent to measure the factors influencing substance abuse and the level at which they are abused. Independent T-test, multiple regression and Pearson Correlation method were used to analyze the data collected. Five hypotheses were tested: hypothesis 1, 2, 3 and 4 were significant while hypothesis 5 was insignificant. It was observed that there was significant influence of religiosity on substance abuse among undergraduates, the result also revealed that there was a significant influence of self-esteem on substance abuse among undergraduates, it also revealed that religiosity and self-esteem jointly predicted substance abuse among undergraduates, likewise the result also show that there was significant influence of sex on substance abuse among undergraduates and finally the result revealed there was no significant relationship between religiosity and self-esteem among undergraduates. The results were discussed in line with relevant empirical literatures, while conclusion and recommendations subsequently followed.
Fri, 3 August 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0062.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: africanization; transformation; education; reform; challenges; prospects
Online: 3 August 2018 (05:34:55 CEST)
Africanization of education was a major policy option in most countries in Africa upon the attainment of independence. This is because of the perceived negative effects of colonial education. The paper is an empirical sources study which discusses Africanization as an epistemicide and analyses efforts by some African states to Africanize their educational systems. It concludes that while some countries embraced the idea and actually initiated policies to Africanize their educational systems, the general picture indicates that Africanization has not succeeded in most countries due to various challenges. Such challenges are identified and recommendations made which could be significant for the revamping of the policy.
Sat, 25 April 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0458.v1
Online: 25 April 2020 (10:31:39 CEST)
The COVID-19 has caused gigantic negative effects on populace wellbeing, society, education, and the economy in Bangladesh. The aim is to deliver a comprehensive overview of the observed and the possible impacts that could appear in the coming days. The study is based on secondary information. During the early period, due to a lack of accurate facts about the case affected and death tension up-and-down among the nations. The total number of confirmed cases is increasing following geometric patterns in Bangladesh. Dairy farmers, vegetable producers, pharmaceuticals, poultry farmers are in deep crisis due to lower prices. Also, the pandemic has seriously affected educational systems, banking, FDI, ready-made garments, remittances, etc Finally, it is not possible to mitigate the effects of pandemic individually but the integrated effort from the state authority as well as concern people of all sectors need to come forward.
Mon, 26 February 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0065.v3
Online: 26 February 2018 (15:38:23 CET)
This study attempts to assess the impact of corruption on economic growth in the Mediterranean countries, during the period from 1998 to 2007. Econometric analysis using panel regression has been adopted to test this effect. Individual effects models such as random effects model and fixed effects model were applied to the study sample of 160 observations, and to choose the suitable model, we implemented several tests. For our analysis, we used a basic model that includes the dependent variable GDP per capita as a factor of economic growth and the corruption perception index as the independent variable concerned. Then we completed the model with several standardized macroeconomic control variables mentioned above and applied the individual effects models. The outcomes illustrate that corruption has a negative impact on the selected Mediterranean countries’ economic growth.
Tue, 16 May 2017
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0125.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: Insurance; PEST; political; risks; challenges; economy; European Union
Online: 16 May 2017 (17:01:30 CEST)
The insurance industry plays an important role for European economic stability and the threats and opportunities it faces should be carefully determined. In this paper we highlight the main challenges by using a PEST analysis. This work applies conventional actuarial thought on this area by focusing strictly on the European sector.
Wed, 1 November 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0013.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: English language; motivational intensity; survey; trends; challenges in Malaysia
Online: 1 November 2017 (10:58:01 CET)
The aim of this study is to explore the extent of English language teaching in Higher Institutions of Malaysia and investigate the current changes, trends and challenges in this niche. A sample of 100 English learners from public and private institutions participated in this study. Analysis of the responses indicated that English language is remaining to be difficult to master, due to speaking environment, proficiency of the teachers and other factors. However, the Government is on the right direction to improve this situation by following Common European Framework of Reference of Languages. As any other system, it takes time to put into realization and start up the mechanism. This observation carries a pedagogical perspective and includes the overview of the general picture based on Private, Public and Stand Alone English educational institutions. This study has highlighted the practical importance of British Framework of English learning and suggests to focus on emphasis of the learning process instead of a result.
Thu, 18 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0167.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: green hotel; environmental awareness; environmental knowledge
Online: 18 August 2016 (05:12:57 CEST)
There has been a growing awareness of the need to implement environmentally friendly operations in the hotel industry, but most studies focus on guest behaviors. Only a few studies investigate employees’ willingness to comply with hotels’ green practices. This study seeks to further the investigation from the human resource perspective. Using alumni from a tourism and hospitality programs, this study collected 233 responses. The study hypothesizes that the employees’ green ability consisting of environmental awareness, environmental knowledge, and environmental skill creates a positive impact on hotels’ green ability. The results indicate that employees contribute approximately a fifth of hotels’ ability to implement greener practices.
Tue, 22 November 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0110.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: capital structure; firm’s performance; panel data; unit root analysis; Bangladesh
Online: 22 November 2016 (09:36:36 CET)
Capital structure decision plays an imperative role in firm’s performance. Recognizing the importance, there has been many studies inspected the rapport of capital structure with performance of firms and findings of those studies are inconclusive. In addition, there is relative deficiency of empirical studies examining the link of capital structure with performance of banks in Bangladesh. This paper attempted to fill this gap. Using panel data of 22 banks for the period of 2005-2014, this study empirically examined the impacts of capital structure on the performance of Bangladeshi banks assessed by return on equity, return on assets and earnings per share. Results from pooled ordinary least square analysis show that there are inverse impacts of capital structure on bank’s performance. Empirical findings of this study is of greater significance for the developing countries like Bangladesh because it will call upon concentration of the bank management and policy makers to pursue such policies to reduce reliance on debt and to accomplish optimal level capital structure. This research also contributes to empirical literatures by reconfirming (or otherwise) findings of previous studies.
Thu, 28 June 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0474.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: Legal artificial Intelligence; Machine Learning; Deep Learning; Image Processing; Matlab
Online: 28 June 2018 (15:13:31 CEST)
Over the years, artificial intelligence (AI) is spreading its roots in different areas by utilizing the concept of making the computers learn and handle complex tasks that previously require substantial laborious tasks by human beings. With better accuracy and speed, AI is helping lawyers to streamline work processing. New legal AI software tools like Catalyst, Ross intelligence, and Matlab along with natural language processing provide effective quarrel resolution, better legal clearness, and superior admittance to justice and fresh challenges to conventional law firms providing legal services using leveraged cohort correlate model. This paper discusses current applications of legal AI and suggests deep learning and machine learning techniques that can be applied in future to simplify the cumbersome legal tasks.
Tue, 20 March 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0176.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: one-child policy; environment; OLG model; fertility; human capital; child tax
Online: 20 March 2018 (09:09:16 CET)
In this paper we take China’s one child policy as an example and investigate its environmental impact. We develop a model for an economy using a standard overlapping generation model extended with human capital, endogenous fertility, and changing life expectancy. To model the environmental impact of economic activities, we use a modified IPAT model. We show that China’s one child has a very strong positive impact on the environment, particularly if we consider the whole human legacy.
Mon, 5 November 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0108.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: society 5.0; industry 4.0; social development; sustainable innovation
Online: 5 November 2018 (11:06:51 CET)
In this working paper we intended to address the emergence of what, potentially, will be a central concept in the very near future, Society 5.0 and that arises politically in (with) following the implementation of the concept of Industry 4.0. Society 5.0 proposes to deepen the potential of the individual-technology relationship in the promotion of the improvement of the quality of life of all people through a super smart society, is an extremely recent concept as a guiding social development that can have a profound impact in societies at all levels, such as quality of life and sustainability. It is a presentation that is based on very recent3 publications, but which also has a prospective component, which always generates some indetermination and uncertainty. Also, for this reason, it is a contribution that seeks above all else to contribute to this very urgent and necessary discussion.
Thu, 8 September 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0030.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Microeconomics And Decision Sciences Keywords: carbon emissions reduction; technology spillover; game theory; supply chain coordination
Online: 8 September 2016 (11:39:40 CEST)
We study a two-echelon supply chain made up of a supplier and a manufacturer, both of which can reduce their component/product carbon emissions. With the vertical technology spillovers, we explore the optimal decisions of centralized and decentralized supply chains with price dependent demand and propose coordination strategy for the decentralized supply chain. Considering the cost contraction effectiveness of the technology spillovers, the centralized and decentralized game theoretic models of a two-echelon supply chain are developed to investigate optimal decisions of pricing and carbon emissions reduction. Through a systematic comparison and numerical analysis, we show that the profits of both players and the entire supply chain improve with the effect of technology spillovers increasing. Carbon emissions reduction will be taken by various protective measures so that the supplier and the manufacturer who do not innovate can hardly share the results of innovating via the “free-riding” methods when the technology spillover is relatively small. We also propose a revenue-cost sharing contract through bargaining to enhance the performance of the decentralized supply chain.
Tue, 31 March 2020
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0445.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: international tourism; coronavirus; COVID-19; post-viral tourism; recovery strategies
Online: 31 March 2020 (05:00:08 CEST)
The coronavirus pandemic will deeply affect the tourism and travel sector. It is already clear now that its economic impact would be more severe that in the case of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2002-2003. Although not as deadly as SARS, coronavirus infection has a longer incubation period and leaves about 85% of the infected without any (or with just mild) symptoms which makes it more difficult to track and to contain. Moreover, it appears to be much more contagious than its predecessor. The goods news is that most people recover from the disease and develop antibodies that can protect them from getting infected again (natural vaccination). Those cured might become the key element for the post-virus recovery strategies of tourism organisations. People with the acquired immunity to the virus would be capable of travelling freely without spreading the disease. Airlines, hotels and gastronomy should aim at this group offering them discounts and special offers. However, the problem is how to effectively ensure that everyone who claims to be cured from COVID-19 is telling the truth. Health tracking bracelets, apps, and other advanced technological solutions should be put in place. Recent best practices from Hong Kong, mainland China, or India might be applied.
Sun, 18 September 2016
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0052.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Dialectical Critical Realism; Education; Islam; Childhood Studies; Child Abuse; Work-Life-Balance; Roy Bhaskar; Priscilla Alderson; Margaret Archer
Online: 18 September 2016 (06:04:09 CEST)
Critical realism emerged from the philosophical writings of Roy Bhaskar, and has evolved into a philosophy of social science research using the model of “dialectical critical realism” (DCR) which begins with the researcher’s assumptions that the structures being researched have a real, ontological grounding which is independent of the researcher. This approach has proved fruitful in British and European social science research, but has had less influence in North America. We outline DCR’s four level model for understanding society and its changing social structures through “the pulse of freedom”. DCR has been used by Marxists, Muslims, Catholics and secular scholars who engage fruitfully in morphogenic dialogues leading to a critical realist understanding of society and social research, which transcends positivist and social constructionist models. Examples of DCR’s application in the fields of childhood research, child abuse, education, and research on organisations are outlined to illustrate the working of this new research paradigm. We are enthusiastic in our advocacy of DCR as a model of qualitative research, and for constructing models of positive social change, and are particularly impressed by the substantive and theoretical expositions of DCR by Priscilla Anderson, Matthew Wilkinson and Margaret Archer, whose work we document and review.
Fri, 29 July 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0094.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: Exchange traded funds, ETFs, tracking error, panel regression model, fixed effects estimation
Online: 29 July 2016 (12:39:32 CEST)
This paper uses panel data to find the determinants of tracking errors in exchange traded funds (ETFs) in the Hong Kong stock market. A comparison of tracking errors between physical and synthetic ETFs also indicates that the synthetic ETFs have higher tracking errors. The magnitude of tracking errors is found to be negatively related to size but positively related to dividend yield, trading volumes of funds, and market risk. However, this study also finds that expense ratio has a negative impact on tracking error, which is not consistent with previous studies, and which this paper addresses.
Sat, 2 July 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0001.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: PUN, artificial intelligence models, regression tree, bootstrap aggregation, forecasting error
Online: 2 July 2016 (03:48:36 CEST)
Electricity price forecasting has become a crucial element for both private and public decision-making. This importance has been growing since the wave of deregulation and liberalization of energy sector worldwide late 1990s. Given these facts, this paper tries to come up with a precise and flexible forecasting model for the wholesale electricity price for the Italian power market on an hourly basis. We utilize artificial intelligence models such as neural networks and bagged regression trees that are rarely used to forecast electricity prices. After model calibration, our final model is bagged regression trees with exogenous variables. The selected model outperformed neural network and bagged regression with single price used in this paper, it also outperformed other statistical and non-statistical models used in other studies. We also confirm some theoretical specifications of the model. As a policy implication, this model might be used by energy traders, transmission system operators and energy regulators for an enhanced decision-making process.
Fri, 6 October 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0033.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Tertiary Education, TETFUND, Management, University
Online: 6 October 2017 (09:05:56 CEST)
This study set out to determine the effect of Tertiary Education Tax Fund (TETFUND) on management in Nigerian tertiary education. Specifically, the study sought to determine whether ETF fund allocations to Nigerian Tertiary Institutions significantly affect the enrollment ratio to Nigerian Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria. The hypothesis was formulated in line with the objectives of the study. Survey and Time series research design were adopted. Data were obtained from National Bureau of Statistics by use of financial ratios and tested using regression analysis with aid of SPSS statistical package version 20.0. Based on the analysis, the study found that ETF fund allocations to Nigerian Tertiary Institutions have no correlation with the enrollment ratio of Nigerian Tertiary Institutions. Based on the findings, the study recommends that to the intervention agency to achieve meaningful on its constituents fund allocations should commensurate with enrolment ratio of tertiary institutions in Nigeria.
Wed, 14 December 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0141.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: REDD+; climate change; forests; Ghana; Nigeria; West Africa; political ecology
Online: 14 December 2016 (08:08:28 CET)
This paper analyses the design and implementation of REDD+ in the West African region, an important global biodiversity area. Drawing on in-depth interviews, analysis of policy documents and observation of everyday activities, we sought to understand how REDD+ has been designed and implemented in Nigeria and Ghana. We draw on tools from political ecology to examine how, and why REDD+ takes the form it does in these countries. We focus on three key dimensions that emerged as strong areas of common emphasis in our case studies -- capacity building, carbon visibility, and property rights. First, we show that, while REDD+ design generally foregrounds an ostensible inclusionary politics, its implementation is driven through various forms of exclusion. This contradictory inclusion-exclusion politics, which is partly emblematic of the neoliberal provenance of the REDD+ policy, is also a contingent reality and a strategy for navigating complexities and pursuing certain interests. Second, we show that though the emergent foci of REDD+ implementation in our case studies align with global REDD+ expectations, they yet manifest as historically and geographically contingent processes that reflect negotiated and contested relations among actors that constitute the specific national circumstance of each country. We conclude by reflecting on the wider implications of these findings for understanding REDD+ implementation more broadly.
Fri, 8 July 2016
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0014.v1
Online: 8 July 2016 (11:17:37 CEST)
There are many modern and traditional methods in valuing the performance of the company among them EVA, CVA are modern methods where as EPS, ROI, ROE etc. are some of the traditional methods. modern and traditional methods are not only used to check the performance of a company but it also used in investment decisions by the investors. Stern Stewart, managing partner of M/s Stern Stewart & Co. introduced a modified concept of economic profit in 1990 in the name of Economic Value Added (EVA) as measure of business performance and CVA is only a cash consideration in EVA. In this paper an attempt is made to study which method is used by the investors while taking the investment decisions i.e. traditional methods are modern methods. 100 respondents (Investors) are questioned and collected their views, we are assuming that there is no impact of traditional or modern methods while taking investment decisions by the investors.
Mon, 23 April 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0286.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: electricity price forecasting; deep learning; gated recurrent units; long short term memory; artificial intelligence, turkish day-ahead market
Online: 23 April 2018 (11:38:27 CEST)
Accurate electricity price forecasting has become a substantial requirement since the liberalization of the electricity markets. Due to the challenging nature of the electricity prices, which includes high volatility, sharp price spikes and seasonality, various types of electricity price forecasting models still compete and can not outperform each other consistently. Neural Networks have been successfully used in machine learning problems and Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) have been proposed to address time-dependent learning problems. In particular, Long Short Term Memory and Gated Recurrent Units (GRU) are tailor-made for time series price estimation. In this paper, we propose to use Gated Recurrent Units as a new technique for electricity price forecasting. We have trained a variety of algorithms with rolling 3-year window and compared the results with the RNNs. In our experiments, 3-layered GRUs outperformed all other neural network structures and state of the art statistical techniques in a statistically significant manner in the Turkish day-ahead market.
Wed, 21 March 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0183.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: financial inclusion; unit banking; banking in Bangladesh; banking policy
Online: 21 March 2018 (03:18:47 CET)
The financial inclusion, including all the people with the finance, is very concerned issue all over the world where Bangladesh is also trying to include all the people with the finance. Bangladesh lies in such a group of countries where only 17.6% - 38.6% adults are presently under the reach of the formal financial services. This is because the present banks and other formal financial modes consider the outcome and profitability in a way that, the rural and non-developed areas are always out of the consideration. But these areas consist of the most population of Bangladesh. And only then financial inclusiveness will be successful in Bangladesh when people from these regions will be under formal financial consideration. The paper seeks for a solution to the issue and presents the Unit Banking System as a probable way towards financial inclusion. For implementing the system in Bangladesh, the system needs a slight modification to cope in Bangladeshi economic condition and address the specific needs without hampering the surroundings. Considering all these, the paper shows the status, problems and key points of financial scenario of inclusion in Bangladesh and shows policy for a Modified Unit banking System.
Sun, 18 September 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0058.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: labor migration; migration policy; Russia; Post-Soviet space; governmentality; labor legalization
Online: 18 September 2016 (09:45:52 CEST)
The authors argue that despite significant numbers of foreign workers present in the Russian labor market Russia remains unattractive for highly skilled foreign workers. The economic crisis the country has faced since 2014 has resulted in a further outflow of foreign nationals from OECD countries. So Russia has to look for employees among newcomers from the former Soviet states, the majority of whom come from Central Asia. Russian politics with regard to immigration is characterized by the collision between “geopolitical” and domestic policy rationales. On one hand, seeking to maximize its influence in the post-Soviet space Russia provides preferential conditions of employment for citizens of partner countries in the framework of the Eurasian Economic Union. On the other hand, the Kremlin is afraid to liberalize its approach to immigration and the integration of immigrants through fear of losing popularity among the electorate. The second substantial feature of Russian immigration politics is an extreme level of securitization of migration issues. The government considers these issues primarily through a policing lens. One cannot claim that the Russian state does not take any steps to liberalize “migratory regulation”; however, the effect of these measures is being vastly reduced by new restrictions. In addition, liberally designed laws do not bring the expected results due to the corrupt practices that pervade the whole of migration regulation.
Thu, 24 November 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0122.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: green innovation; green organizational culture; sustainability; sustainability drivers
Online: 24 November 2016 (11:09:23 CET)
This study aims to examine Turkish companies from a sustainability and green innovation point of view. Through this purpose, this research’s objective is to find out relationship between sustainability drivers and green innovation and also to search for green organizational culture’s mediation effect in this relationship. Survey was carried in companies operating in Turkey which were listed among İstanbul Chamber of Industry (ICI) Top 500 companies for last 3 years successively and have ISO14001 Environmental Management Certificate. According to the survey results, it was manifested that factors directing companies to sustainability having a positive relationship with green organizational culture and green innovation. It is found that there is a partial mediation effect of green organizational culture between motivating factors for sustainability and green innovation.
Mon, 4 July 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0004.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: Bayesian modeling, long memory/anti-persistence; continuous time modeling; MCMC
Online: 4 July 2016 (09:57:31 CEST)
Using recent developments in econometrics and computational statistics we consider the estimation of the instantaneous rate of asset return process when the underlying Data Generating Mechanism (DGM) is an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, driven by fractional noise, and sampled at fixed intervals of length h. To address the problem we adopt throughout the paper an exact discretization approach. This enable us to exploit the fact that a flow sampling scheme arises naturally when observing the DGM. For, while the instantaneous rate of return process is unobservable at points in time, its time integral over successive observations is observable since it equals the increment of log-prices. Exact discretization delivers an ARIMA(1,1,1) model for log-prices with a fractional driving noise. Building on the resulting exact discretization formulae and covariance function, a new Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) scheme is proposed and we examine the properties of both the time and frequency domain likelihoods / posteriors through Monte Carlo. For the exact discrete model we adopt a general sampling interval of length h. This allow us to determine the optimal choice of h independent of the sample size. An empirical application using high frequency stock price data is presented showing the relevance of aggregation over time issues in modelling asset prices.
Thu, 19 July 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0366.v1
Online: 19 July 2018 (15:43:50 CEST)
This paper investigates how Islamic tolerance contributes to solve religious conflict today that has impacted on various aspects such as economic collapse, insecurity in life, lack of professional society, academic retrogressions, and so on. Knowledge of these issues has become an urgent to build a community that is full of peace, harmony and unity. The paper suggests that Quranic views on tolerance should be understood and practiced in order to avoid disunity in society which is due to failure to appreciate tolerance values in association. The paper concludes problems or misunderstandings always occur in different religious societies, since every religion has its own teachings and principles, as well as each of them is interpreted in different ways.
Tue, 9 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0096.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: corporate governance; EVA; board of directors; board index; EVA
Online: 9 August 2016 (11:51:50 CEST)
In 2013, the CMA at the İstanbul Stock Exchange increased the weight assigned to the Board of Directors component of its Corporate Governance Index to 35% from the previous 25%. Interpreting this as a recognition of the increasing vital role of the board, this study seeks to enhance the work of Abdıoğlu and Kılıç (2015) by putting more focus on the role of women in the boards and the effect of the busy chairman as well as the presence of outside directors on the effectivity of the Board. (The general business structure is associated with family owned groups and holdings which results into a network of intertwined board membership and cases of multiple directorship where, one board chairman can hold the same position or any directorship in as many as ten firmshence the busy chairman). I employ a different method of evaluating performance (EVA) together with the accounting measures of ROE and ROA (as opposed to the overused Tobin’s Q), which I regress against the Board Index to be created. The focus is on firms on the BIST 100 index (excluding financial) between 2009 and 2013. The results reveal that the BINDEX has a significant and positive relationship with firm performance as measured by EVA. A second model reveals no relationship between the BINDEX and firm ROA, similar to the results of Kiliç and Abdioğlu (2015). ROA however has a positive relationship with the proportion of female directors in the board, as earlier reported by LückerathRovers (2013). Another model using ROE as the proxy for performance registers a significant negative relationship with the index. The contradiction obtained in the results from these three models underscore the importance choosing the right methods when estimating the performance of a firm.
Wed, 26 July 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0071.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: social exchange theory; structural equation modeling; tourism development
Online: 26 July 2017 (06:32:58 CEST)
Background: Tourism is one of the prominent industry that has a capability to generate handsome income for developed as well as developing countries. However, the study to investigate specifically the perception of local residents towards tourism is still lacking. The perception of the locals is important since it could determine the extent of their support for tourism development. Plus, previous research found that male residents are more support better towards the tourism development. Thus, this factor is adapted as well in this study to examine whether this gender may influence to the tourism industry. 2) Methods: This study used Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) technique for determining the structural estimates between constructs. 3) Results: The respondents agree that positive perception, negative perception and tourism impact has a significant impact on support for tourism development in which has been recognized as Social Exchange Theory model. Moreover, the finding also revealed that gender has a potential to moderates the causal effect of tourism impact on tourism development. 4) Conclusion: The resident understand the tourism sector could strengthen economic nation but they also want the natural resources should be protected.
Wed, 17 August 2016
COMMENT | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0166.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Regional inequality; Multilevel regression; Markov chain; Guizhou Province
Online: 17 August 2016 (12:58:58 CEST)
This study analyses regional development in one of the poorest provinces in China, Guizhou Province, between 2000 and 2012 using a multiscale and multi-mechanism framework. In general, regional inequality has been declining since 2000. In addition, economic development in Guizhou Province presented spatial agglomeration and club convergence, which shows how the development pattern of one core area, two-wing areas and a contiguous area at the edge of the province have been developed between 2006 and 2012. Multilevel regression analysis revealed that industrialization and investment level were the primary driving forces of regional economic disparity in Guizhou Province. The influences of marketization and decentralization on regional economic disparity were relatively weak. Investment level reinforced regional economic disparity and the development of core-periphery structure in the province. However, investment level actually weakened the regional economic disparity in Guizhou Province when the variable of time was considered. In addition, both the topography and urban–rural differentiation were the two main reasons for forming a core-periphery structure in Guizhou Province.
Fri, 22 July 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0068.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Fishermen; Lake Ziway; Small scale irrigation users; Socioeconomic benefit; Wetland ecosystem service
Online: 22 July 2016 (16:02:46 CEST)
ABSTRACT This study focused for socio-economic benefit of Western shoreline of Lake Ziway ecosystem. The data collected from two woredas they are Adami Tulu Jidu Kombolch (ATJK) and Dugda woreda of fishermen and small scale irrigation users. Lake Ziway great importance food and water for both groups of respondents and additionally sources of raw material, energy, cultivation, organic fertilizers, genetic and medicinal plants. Lake Ziway also has a major economic benefit for both groups of respondents. The sampled fishermen cached mean amount of 2,524Kg per year with minimum and maximum amount of fish 504Kg and 16,800Kg per year respectively and with this fish catching they got average income of 51,398 Birr ($2,570) per year with range of 7,200 Birr ($360) and 288,000 Birr ($14,400) per year. As like of fishermen small scale irrigation also got economic benefit with their production of cereal crops, fruits and vegetables. They produce in average 13.47Quintal of cereal crop and 69.56Quintal of fruits and vegetables per year and they got average income of 7,727 Birr ($386) and with range of 13,714 Birr ($686) per year respectively. this incurred that wetland ecosystem has a lot of socio-economic benefit for the people live near by specially for developing countries like Ethiopia they are more dependent on natural ecosystem like of Lake Ziway. Because of its high importance, we have to protect and conserve and use sustainably of Lake Ziway and similar wetland ecosystems. Key Words: Wetland ecosystem service; Lake Ziway; Socioeconomic benefit; Fishermen; Small scale irrigation users
Mon, 8 May 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0067.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: cost effective; stochastic frontier; maize; technical efficiency; tobit
Online: 8 May 2017 (17:25:58 CEST)
This paper aimed to assess the technical efficiency of maize seed production and the major factors contributing on technical efficiency. Maize is the second most important staple crop in Nepal, but the average yield of maize is very low as compared to other countries having similar agro-climatic requirements. Inefficient use of resources had led to low yield in maize crop. The software Raosoft was used to determine the required sample size and total of 182 samples were selected using simple random technique in June, 2016. Stochastic production frontier model and Tobit model were used to derive the results. The average technical efficiency of maize seed production ranged from 0.25-0.92 with an average of 0.71which revealed the scope of increasing technical efficiency by 29 percent. The majority of the farmers (29.1%) were at higher technical efficiency level of 0.8-0.9 followed by 28.6 percent at 0.7-0.8 and 23.1 percent at 0.6-0.7. Age and schooling of household head, experience on maize seed production, area shared by maize crop and dummies variables such as livestock holding, source of seed and access to extension service had found significantly affecting on the technical efficiency level. For the least developed country like Nepal it would be better to use the available resources wisely and improvement of existing technologies would be more cost effective than that of discovering new technologies. The study recommended that the concerned organizations should focus on mixed agricultural farming system, access to better quality seed and provide technical knowledge which would help in improving technical efficiency.
Wed, 30 November 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0149.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Marketing Keywords: adaptive co-marketing; social marketing; community-based social marketing; social license to operate; community engagement; corporate social responsibility; marketing strategy
Online: 30 November 2016 (05:13:35 CET)
The concept of a Social License to Operate (SLO) has become increasingly important in the sustainability literature in recent years. Having its origins in the business discourse of the mining industry with respect to limiting opposition to mining projects, the notion of a social contract above and beyond legal requirements has since become applied across a number of different industries. Despite the concepts adoption confusion exists over the practices and outcomes of SLO, and particularly the nature of engagement. Given this situation it is surprising that not more attention to the role of marketing, and social marketing in particular, in operationalizing the concept. The paper discusses the potential of social marketing to contribute to SLO. Economic, political and social relations are complex in SLO and exchange is intricate in such relational environments. A community-based social marketing orientation is proposed as a means to improve exchange relations and enhance engagement. Seven models of SLO related social marketing models are discussed with community-based social marketing and adaptive co-marketing models being regarded as the most positive for the achievement of an SLO. Potential barriers to adoption of these approaches are noted.
Thu, 11 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0116.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: gaelic football; Australian rules football; performance analysis; player recruitment
Online: 11 August 2016 (10:32:35 CEST)
It has often been said that Gaelic football (GF) and Australian Rules Football (ARF) are similar sports, and amateur Gaelic footballers have been recruited to play in the professional Australian Football League. Using Wilcoxons’s test, the significant (p < 0.05) factors differentiating winning and losing performance in ARF were indirectly compared to the differentiating factors between winning and losing in GF. Of the 15 key performance indicators (KPIs) that were seen to be significant between ARF teams, six (40 %) were also seen to be significant in discriminating between winning and losing GF teams. A Mann-Whitney U test was then completed to directly compare ARF and GF, twenty-six of the 30 KPIs were seen to be significantly different to each other (p < 0.05). The findings suggest that recruiting a Gaelic footballer based on the belief that their Gaelic background will aid their transition to ARF is not an appropriate decision. Instead, staying with more traditional methods of talent identification – for example anthropometric measurements – is advocated until further research is undertaken in this area.
Fri, 26 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0212.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: FDI; GARCH; real exchange rate and price volatility; Latin America and the Caribbean
Online: 26 August 2016 (09:59:32 CEST)
This paper investigates the impact of price and real exchange rate volatility on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows in a panel of 10 Latin American and Caribbean countries, observed between 1990 and 2012. Both price and exchange rate volatility series are estimated through the Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity model (GARCH). Our results, obtained employing the Fixed Effects estimator, confirm the theory of hysteresis and option value, in so far it is found a statistically significant negative effect of exchange rate volatility on FDI. Price volatility, instead, turns out to be positive but insignificant. Moreover, we show that human capital and trade openness are key for attracting foreign capital. From the policy perspective, our analysis suggests the importance of stabilization policies as well as the one of government credibility in promoting trade openness and human capital formation.
Mon, 16 October 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0107.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: Bus; Customer satisfaction; Intercity terminal; SERVQUAL Model
Online: 16 October 2017 (12:58:16 CEST)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the nature of relationship between service quality and customers’ satisfaction thorough SERVQUAL model. This study can be considered as an applied research, from purpose point of view and descriptive-survey, with regards to the nature and method. Passengers of Kaveh and Sofeh terminal in Isfahan have been considered as research population. Sample size included 200 passengers witch was determined by Cochran formula. Spss 19 was used to analyze collected data. Results show that there is a significant positive relationship between service quality and customers’ satisfaction. It is also proved that in terms of the importance of satisfactions’ dimensions, assurance is the most important aspect and then reliability, empathy, equipment appearance and responsiveness in sequence are the most important dimensions.
Thu, 6 September 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0111.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Marketing Keywords: consumer preferences; coffee market; coffee; research results
Online: 6 September 2018 (05:59:23 CEST)
The article addresses the issue of consumer preferences for types of coffee in Poland (ground coffee, instant coffee, coffee beans, instant coffee mixes and instant cappuccino). The main source of the study is the results of primary research conducted using a structured interview (CAPI—Computer Assisted Personal Interview) on a nationwide sample of 800 coffee consumers. The research was conducted by Grupa IQS Sp. z o.o. from Warsaw in January 2016 for the MOKATE Group based on the assumptions and guidelines developed by the authors of the article. The main purpose of the article is to present the identified coffee consumer preferences in Poland with regard to various kinds of coffee. The results of the research which have been included in the article indicate, among others, ongoing changes in the preferences of Polish consumers regarding their coffee choices. They prove that Polish consumers are drinking ground coffee more and more often. The consumption of instant coffee is decreasing.
Fri, 13 October 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0092.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Yam marketing, Ordinary Least squares, Bosso Nigeria.
Online: 13 October 2017 (16:13:15 CEST)
This current study examines the economics of yam marketing in Bosso local government area of Niger State Nigeria, to this end, statistical tools such as descriptive statistics, marketing margin model, and regression analysis procedures was utilized as estimation techniques. The study relies on random sampling technique of selected 80 yam marketers. The motivation for this study, rest on the dominance of yam marketing operation in the study area as well as the need to chart a better and more efficient system of agricultural marketing for yam marketers in the sampled area. The empirical result reveals that an overwhelming majority (95.1%) of the marketers were 21-50 years of age with 6 years and above of marketing experience dominating (90%). However, most of the yam marketers started the business with capital base of N1,000- N20,000, it was also discovered was that majority (58.8%) of the marketers were female and within their active age with mean age of 35 years which goes to show that female can contribute to the responsibility of the family. The study also seeks to explore marketer’s preference for source of funding either from the formal institutions such as (Banks and Co-operatives) or the informal institutions (from friends or relatives) which is key in the effective and efficient in yam marketing. Finally, the study is set out to find out potential constraints to the attainment of the full gains of yam marketing in the study area and offer workable and visible remedy.
Fri, 3 August 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0064.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: oil price; inflation; food production; asymmetric; Algeria; Angola; Libya; Nigeria
Online: 3 August 2018 (11:35:04 CEST)
This study investigates the asymmetric impacts of oil price changes on inflation in Algeria, Angola, Libya and Nigeria. Three different oil price data were applied in this study; the specific spot oil price of individual countries, the OPEC reference basket oil price and an average of the Brent, WTI and Dubai oil price. The dynamic panels ARDL were used to estimate the short and the long-run impacts. Also, this study partitioned the oil price into positive and negative changes to capture asymmetric impacts and found both positive and negative oil price changes positively influenced inflation. However, the impact was found to be more significant when oil prices dropped. The results from the study also found that money supply, the exchange rate and GDP are positively related to inflation while food production is negatively related to inflation. Accordingly, policymakers should be cautious in formulating policies between the positive and negative changes in oil prices as it was shown that inflation increased when the oil price dropped. Additionally, the use of contractionary monetary policy would help to reduce the inflation rate, and lastly, it is proposed that the government should encourage domestic food production both in quantity and quality to reduce inflation.
Tue, 14 April 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0219.v1
Online: 14 April 2020 (08:50:30 CEST)
The article revisits previous viruses such as Ebola to extrapolate the socio-economic implications of the COVID-19. Using secondary sources and the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework (SLF) to guide understanding, the article argues that unless measures are put in place to safeguard smallholder activities in Zimbabwe, COVID-19 has the potential to reproduce the same catastrophic implications created by Ebola in West African countries where peasant food systems where shattered and livelihoods strategies maimed. With a perceptible withdrawal of the government from small-scale farming towards large-scale capital intensive operations, smallholders could now be even more vulnerable. The article concludes that social assistance should now be intensified to protect its vulnerable population from the ravages of COVID-19.
Fri, 29 July 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0091.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: urban-rural gradient; spatiotemporal patterns; landscape metrics; a roadscape transect approach; rapid urbanization; Shanghai
Online: 29 July 2016 (08:06:50 CEST)
Quantifying the landscape pattern change can effectively demonstrate the ecological progresses and the consequences of urbanization. Based on remotely sensed land cover data in 1994, 2000, 2006 and a gradient analysis with landscape metrics at landscape- and class- level, we attempted to characterize the individual and entire landscape patterns of Shanghai metropolitan during the rapid urbanization. We highlighted that a roadscape transect approach that combined the buffer zone method and the transect-based approach was introduced to describe the urban-rural patterns of agricultural, residential, green, industrial, and public facilities land along the railway route. Our results of landscape metrics showed significant spatiotemporal patterns and gradient variations along the transect. The urban growth pattern in two time spans conform to the hypothesis for diffusion–coalescence processes, implying that the railway is adaptive as a gradient element to analyze the landscape patterns with urbanization. As the natural landscape was replaced by urban landscape gradually, the urban fringe expanded radically. The results also showed that the desakota region expanded its extent widely. Satellite towns witnessed the continual transformation from the predominantly rural landscape to peri-urban landscape. Furthermore, the gap between urban and rural areas remained large especially in public service. More reasonable urban plans and land use policies should push to make more of an effort to transition from the urban-rural separation to coordinated urban-rural development. This study is a meaningful trial in demonstrating a new form of urban–rural transects to study the landscape change of large cities from a strategic viewpoint. By combining gradient analysis with landscape metrics, we addressed the process of urbanization both spatially and temporally, and provided a more quantitative approach to urban studies.
Thu, 18 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0172.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: hydropower; political ecology; social and environmental impacts; Cambodia; China
Online: 18 August 2016 (05:47:15 CEST)
Given the opportunities offered by foreign investment in energy infrastructure mostly by Chinese firms, the Government of Cambodia is giving high priority to developing hydropower resources for reducing energy poverty and powering economic growth. Using a “Political ecology of the Asian drivers” framework, this paper assesses China’s involvement in the development of large dams’ in Cambodia and its impacts on the access of natural resources such as water and energy by dam builders, local communities and the government. This analysis is based on 61 interviews and 10 focus group discussions with affected communities, institutional actors, Chinese dam builders and financiers in relation to the first large Chinese dam built in Cambodia, the Kamchay dam. Based on the results of the analysis this paper makes recommendations on how to improve the planning, implementation and governance of large dams to ensure that the dams’ benefits are shared more equally.
Mon, 29 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0226.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: educational impacts; emotional impacts; behavioral impacts; psychological impacts; physical impacts; religious impacts
Online: 29 August 2016 (12:24:27 CEST)
Cartoons in the era of digital media are among the most prevalent medium of entertainment for the children, parents also encourage them to view such contents to engage the children which make an area need to be explained exhaustively by adopting new approaches. There are lot of studies in the past conducted to explain the impacts of the cartoons on the children however, it is remarkable fact that there is lack of the studies in the literature which directly address the observation about the above mentioned impacts in view of the teacher’s. This study deals with the educational, emotional, behavioral and Religious etc. impacts of cartoons on kids in view of teachers of the primary schools as they are considered as the one who can observer these impacts in a profound way. of the of Multan. Different areas of impacts have been analyzed in this study by using survey technique and analysis is conducted and presented in the teacher’s views in this study to examine what they feel that how cartoons are effecting the personalities of the children.
Wed, 7 September 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0027.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: customer complaint process improvement; customer complaint service; big data analysis
Online: 7 September 2016 (11:38:33 CEST)
With the advances in industry and commerce, passengers have become more accepting of environmental sustainability issues; thus, more people now choose to travel by bus. Government administration constitutes an important part of bus transportation services as the government gives the right-of-way to transportation companies allowing them to provide services. When these services are of poor quality, passengers may lodge complaints. The increase in consumer awareness and developments in wireless communication technologies have made it possible for passengers to easily and immediately submit complaints about transportation companies to government institutions, which has brought drastic changes to the supply-demand chain comprised of the public sector, transportation companies, and passengers. This study proposed the use of big data analysis technology including systematized case assignment and data visualization to improve management processes in the public sector and optimize customer complaint services. Taichung City, Taiwan was selected as the research area. There, the customer complaint management process in public sector was improved, effectively solving such issues as station-skipping, allowing the public sector to fully grasp the service level of transportation companies, improving the sustainability of bus operations, and supporting the sustainable development of the public sector-transportation company-passenger supply chain.
Thu, 7 July 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0006.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: adaptation; Brazil; climate change policy; mitigation; risks
Online: 7 July 2016 (10:54:49 CEST)
Subnational governments play a key role responding to climate change risks in terms of policy strategies and instruments. This article analyzes how Brazilian municipal and state governments have developed and implemented public policies to mitigate and to adapt to climate change risks. We surveyed all cities’ and states’ climate policies within the country. The methodological approach includes five main points of analysis: 1. mitigation targets and intentions; 2. adaptation actions; 3. stakeholders’ participation; 4. policy implementation; 5. participation in networks related to climate change. Our results suggest that even though subnational climate policies in Brazil are isolated initiatives within the national context, they play an important role responding to climate change risks in different scales and levels. The strongest Brazilian policies with both mitigation and adaptation actions counted on previous mobilization for the climate issue involving different stakeholders from several segments of the society. These governments have also participated in transnational cooperation networks related to climate change.
Mon, 1 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0004.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: technical efficiency; SFA; rice production; Cambodia; agriculture; productivity
Online: 1 August 2016 (10:09:07 CEST)
The present study aims to measure the technical efficiency and establish core factors effecting rice production in Cambodia. Four-years dataset generated from the central government document “Profile on Economics and Social” of entire 25 provinces between 2012-2015 and the stochastic production frontier model (SFA) was applied. The results indicated that the technical efficiency of Cambodian rice production varied according to the different level of capital investment in agricultural machineries, total rice actual harvested area, and technically fertilizers application within provinces. Furthermore, evidence revealed the overall mean efficiency of rice production is 78.4% implies that there is still room to further improve technical efficiency by given the same level of inputs and technology. More importantly, the findings revealed that irrigation, production technique and amount of agricultural supporting staffs are being as the most important influencing factors of rice production in Cambodia. In conclusion, present study strongly recommends the development of irrigation systems and good water management practices to be considered and bring into more effective actions by the central government as well as related agencies for improving rice production in Cambodia in addition to capital investment and improving technical skills of supporting staffs and rural farmers.
Sun, 26 February 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0089.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: EVs; PHEVs; penetration; adoption; barriers; preference; willingness; attitude
Online: 26 February 2017 (10:33:14 CET)
China planned to promote the large-scale adoption of Electric Vehicles (EVs) in the thirteenth five-year plan, however, this target faces many obstacles. This paper was trying to analyze the main barriers to widespread adoption of EVs through a survey in Shenzhen, which has the biggest EVs market share in China major cities. Based on previous scholarly findings, this paper conducted a new study which collected 406 approved questionnaires among 500 participants. The study proposed five hypotheses to examine the main barriers to widespread adoption of EVs. The analysis conducted by statistical methods: two-way frequency tables, chi-square test, and factor analysis. The results noted that perception of EVs advantages and recharging access remained the main barriers to EVs large-scale penetration. Besides, financial incentives drop would not cause a significant decline of EVs adoption in future. The study proposed suggestions to carmaker and government policy administrator on the analysis and discussion.
Fri, 12 October 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0274.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Bilingual program; Academic performance; Learning competence; English proficiency; Student workload
Online: 12 October 2018 (14:51:07 CEST)
Despite the rapid adoption of bilingual programs (English-Chinese) in China's higher education institutions (HEIs), concerns have been raised on perceived language hindrance to students’ academic comprehension and then performance. In response to this, this paper investigates the effects of bilingual instruction on content-based learning and provides empirical evidence after testing related influential factors in bilingual environment. Analyzing a sample of 498 undergraduate students enrolling in a fundamental business course in a sample university in China, we find insignificant statistical difference in students' academic performance between bilingual and L1 classes. We attribute this to the English language support provided by the university and show that learning competence can help students to minimize language barrier and furthermore solve the common learning problems confronted by both bilingual and L1 students. Overall, our paper aims to identify key determinants of students' academic performance in bilingual instruction and provide policy implication for developing desirable bilingual programs in HEIs.
Tue, 30 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0222.v2
Online: 30 August 2016 (08:54:34 CEST)
Achieving high economic growth rate while maintaining low inflation rate, has become the main objective of monetary authorities all over the world. Indeed, empirical literature reflects that high inflation rates are detrimental to long run growth and entail welfare costs. To achieve this objective, central banks have availed different options from time to time which include inflation targeting. Monetary authorities in Tanzania have been targeting an inflation level of around 5 percent per annum for economic policy purposes. However, when high inflation is to be controlled, tight monetary policy is put in place which might in turn affect the economic activity. Also, the Tobin effect suggests that inflation causes individuals to substitute out of money and into interest earning assets, which leads to greater capital intensity which in turn promotes economic growth. Against these major points, this paper examines a non linear relationship between inflation and economic growth using both a quadratic and threshold endogenous models and attempts to identify the existence of threshold effects between these variables. The paper uses a data set spanning from 1967 to 2015. The most interesting finding of the estimations is that the estimated coefficient of the linear term of inflation is negative while the estimated coefficient of the square term of inflation is positive, suggesting a U-shaped effect as opposed to inverse or inverted U-shaped relationship found in other countries by previous studies. These results suggest that the Tobin effect may be valid for high inflation, in which people strongly realize the importance of substituting money for interest-bearing assets. This leads to an increase in capital investment, and in turn, an increase in economic growth even with high inflation rate. However, this U-shaped relationship between inflation and economic growth suggests that, the economy is better off at extremely low inflation episodes. The optimal inflation rate that ranges between 3.25 percent and 3.75 percent is obtained by minimizing the residual sum of squares and/or maximizing adjusted R-squared. These findings have some policy implications for the policymakers and development partners. The paper is consistent with policy suggestions by international agencies. Efforts to minimize inflation to a very low level are likely to have a positive effect on economic growth.
Wed, 20 July 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0062.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Remittances; Economic Growth; Bangladesh; Remittances Utilisation
Online: 20 July 2016 (10:27:13 CEST)
The paper examines the impact of inward remittances flows on per capita GDP growth in Bangladesh during 1976-2012. We find that the growth effect of remittances is negative at first but becomes positive at a later stage, an evidence of a non-linear. Unproductive use of remittances was rampant in the beginning when they were received by migrant families but better social and economic investments led to more productive utilisation of remittances receipts at later periods. This was the possible mechanism behind the U-shaped relationship. Unlike what is suggested in the literature that the effect of remittances is more pronounced in a less financially developed economy, our evidence do not show that the effect of remittances on per capita GDP growth in Bangladesh is conditional on the level of financial development.
Mon, 13 March 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0063.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: cultural tourism; world heritage site; sustainability; satisfaction; cordoba; Spain
Online: 13 March 2017 (09:23:32 CET)
The recognition of a place as a World Heritage Site (WHS) by UNESCO is fundamental to preserve its historical and artistic inheritance and, at the same time, to encourage visits to that area. The purpose of this article is to contribute to the study of the relationship between WHS and cultural tourism, with a marked sustainable character, through the presentation of the results of research conducted in the city of Cordoba (Spain) and which analyses the sociodemographic profile of the tourists, the variables that influence their level of satisfaction and of their loyalty and the classification of the travelers through different variables. The principal results of the research show the significant educational level of the surveyed tourists, as well as the high level of satisfaction with the visit, the high number of countries of origin and the outstanding motivation for knowing the city’s heritage roots.
Wed, 10 August 2016
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0105.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Climate change; disaster risk reduction; participatory scenario planning; pastoralism; Ethiopia
Online: 10 August 2016 (10:14:00 CEST)
Climate change is a major development challenge to Ethiopia. Unless adaptation measures are widely implemented, climate change can set back development efforts and achievements by years. Recognizing this, the Government of Ethiopia (GoE) and civil society organizations have since recently been making considerable efforts to tackle the climate change problem. This paper documents the experience of CARE International in Ethiopia in facilitating bottom-up approaches to promote community-led disaster risk management and climate change adaptation planning through a participator scenario planning (PSP) methodology. PSP is a coordinated approach which leverages a variety of stakeholders' skills and mandates to explore potential climate change risks and their impacts, and then develop locally relevant and shared adaptation action plans that support livelihoods, social capital and ecosystem resilience. The approach has facilitated timely access to and communication of seasonal climate advisories which in turn is empowering communities to take advantage of opportunities that climate presents, which is a key part of adapting to climate change. The institutionalization of the approach by district and regional disaster prevention and food security coordination offices in the southern pastoral regions of Ethiopia encouraged integration of PSP into community livelihood adaptation and local government development planning, hence continuity of the process. Sustainability is expected to be fully achieved when local government planning processes recognize the importance of and provides resources for the participation of meteorological services and community forecasting experts to help refine plans on a seasonal basis, and for systems for dissemination of advisories. Key words: Climate Change, Disaster Risk Reduction, Adaptation, Pastoralism, Ethiopia,
Thu, 8 September 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0183.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: biocultural resources; biocultural design; alternative food networks; sustainable rural development; local food systems; Bolivia
Online: 8 September 2016 (10:19:43 CEST)
Biocultural heritage-based products, including regional specialty foods, are increasingly part of sustainable rural development strategies. While export-oriented biocultural products are often the most visible, we examine the role of campesino gastronomic heritage in the Central Valley of Tarija, Bolivia, as a case study of a local market-centered biocultural resource-based development strategy reflected in an alternative agri-food network. We develop a biocultural sustainability framework to examine this network from ecological, economic and sociocultural perspectives. Data are drawn from interviews (n=77), surveys (n=89) and participant observation, with primary and secondary producers of traditional and new products, as well as restaurant owners, market vendors and local consumers. We find that campesino biocultural heritage and the alternative agri-food network surrounding it represent an influential territorial project that underpins many household economies, particularly for women. We conclude that the relatively small investments by local governments to promote campesino gastronomic heritage are having positive ripple effects on small-scale producer livelihoods and on biocultural sustainability. We suggest that further support to increase market access and reduce other barriers to participation in alternative food networks will likely increase the options and benefits available to small-scale producers mobilising campesino gastronomic heritage within the local economy.
Wed, 14 December 2016
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0072.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: racial discrimination; employment; United Kingdom; The Netherlands; black and ethnic minorities; women; Islam; alienation
Online: 14 December 2016 (07:54:52 CET)
The measurement of discrimination in employment is a key variable in understanding dynamics in the nature of and change in ‘race relations’. Measuring such discrimination using ‘situation’ and ‘correspondence’ tests was influenced by John Rex’s sociological analyses, begun in in England in the 1960s, and replicated in Europe and America in later decades. This literature is reviewed, and the methodologies of testing for employment discrimination are discussed. Recent work in Britain and The Netherlands is considered in detail in the light of changing social structures, and the rise of Islamophobia. Manchester, apparently the city manifesting the most discrimination in Britain, is considered for a special case study, with a focus on one individual, a Muslim woman seeking intermediate level accountancy employment. Her vita was matched with that of a manifestly indigenous, white Briton. Submitted vitas (to 1,043 potential employers) indicated significant discrimination against the Muslim woman candidate. Results are discussed within the context of Manchester’s micro-sociology, and Muslim women’s employment progress in broader contexts, drawing on our work in Jordan and Palestine. We conclude with the critical realist comment that the “hidden racism” of employment discrimination shows that capitalist societies continue to be institutionally racist, and the failure to reward legitimate aspirations of minorities pushes ethnic minorities into a permanent precariat, with implications for social justice and social control, which denies minority efforts to “integrate” in society’s employment systems.
Thu, 18 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0170.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: migration; female genital mutilation; sexual health; reproductive health; communication
Online: 18 August 2016 (05:30:20 CEST)
Objectives: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a significant public health problem. It is estimated around 14,700 women affected by FGM live in Switzerland, primarily among women with a history of migration. Our qualitative research investigated the sexual health of immigrant women living with FGM in Switzerland, describing their own perception of health, reproductive life and sexuality. Methods: We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with a group of eight immigrant women of African origin living in Switzerland with Type III FGM (infibulation). Results: Seven of the women were from Somalia and one from Ivory Coast. All of the Somali women were mothers and married (two separated), and the Ivorian woman was a single mother. The women in our study reported a low level of sexual satisfaction and reproductive health. They affirmed their desire to improve, or at least change, their condition. Although they rarely talk with their husbands about sexual subject matter, they would like to include them more and improve dialogue. Conclusions: Specific socio-sexual management is recommended when caring for immigrant women living with FGM in order to respond to their specific health care needs. Multidisciplinary approaches may be able to offer more comprehensive health care, including facilitated communication to improve dialogue between women and health care professionals, and eventually between women and their husbands in discussing sexual matter.
Wed, 27 July 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0083.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: urban sustainability; environmental governance; energy policy
Online: 27 July 2016 (05:56:56 CEST)
As the world’s second largest economy, China ranks amount the world’s top nations when it comes to carbon emission, and therefore its attitude towards climate change is closely followed by all parties concerned. There have been few researches on the role of environmental governance in low-carbon city transformation process, especially the Chinese one. This paper analyses the role of government environmental regulation played in the low-carbon city transformation process by taking Shenzhen as the research object. One of the world's youngest super cities, it also happens to be the lowest carbon emission intensity city in China. Striving to explore green low-carbon development path for the whole country, Shenzhen provides practical experience for countries to cope with global climate change. However, its efforts to reduce the total carbon emissions failed, but it emphasized the carbon emission intensity, which is consistent with the international commitments made by the central government. China’s policy towards handling climate change relies on hierarchical governance arrangement. The strength of the NGOs in the country is weak and incomparable with the government’s, which has mastered most of the resources and is just a reality in China.
Wed, 28 March 2018
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0238.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: applied behaviour analysis; autism; policy; randomised controlled trials; fake news
Online: 28 March 2018 (12:40:58 CEST)
Since autism was first recognised, prevalence has increased rapidly. The growing economic as well as social cost to society can only be mitigated by effective interventions and supports. It is therefore not surprising that most governments have developed public policy documents to address the management of autism. Over the past 40-50 years, meaningful evidence has accrued showing that interventions based on the scientific discipline of Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) can help people with autism reach their potential. In view of this, nearly all of North America has laws to mandate that ABA-based interventions are available through the health care systems. In contrast, across Europe there are no such laws. In fact, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), the body guiding health and social policy in the UK, concluded that it could not find any evidence to support ABA, and therefore could not recommend it. This paper addresses the reasons for these diametrically opposed perspectives. In particular, it examines what happens when health and social care policy is misinformed about effective autism intervention.
Sat, 6 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0066.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: learning management system; integrated planning and advising system; information system; field education; social work; graduate education
Online: 6 August 2016 (11:28:58 CEST)
In graduate programs such as social work, field education is the signature pedagogy of education. As such, student placement with an appropriate field education agency is critical to ensure academic success and career readiness. A variety of Learning Management System (LMS) and Integrated Planning and Advising Service (IPAS) technologies have been developed to fully integrate technology into the educational system and streamline and improve the learning experience for students, educators, and administrators. Few (if any) of the existing solutions have capabilities to match students with field educators on the basis of an individual student’s completed coursework and area of specialization, as well as field educator needs and opportunities. This paper describes our experience developing a custom LMS/IPAS system—the School of Social Work information System (SSWiS)—that was designed specifically for student learning, faculty advising, and academic administration within our social work graduate program. We present the challenges that motivated the design of the SSWiS before describing the architecture and functionality of our solution. We then discuss our preliminary evaluation results. We conclude with a discussion of the benefits and limitations of our system in the context of today’s technical needs in graduate education in social work and other fields.
Thu, 11 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0129.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: parabolic Volterra integro-differential equations; memory kernel; Laplace transform; Fourier transform; convolution theorem; analytical solution
Online: 11 August 2016 (11:47:10 CEST)
This article focuses on obtaining the analytical solutions for parabolic Volterra integro- differential equations in d-dimensional with different types frictional memory kernel. Based on theories of Laplace transform, Fourier transform, the properties of Fox-H function and convolution theorem, analytical solutions of the equations in the infinite domain are derived under three frictional memory kernel functions respectively. The analytical solutions are expressed by infinite series, the generalized multi-parameter Mittag-Leffler function, Fox-H function and convolution form of Fourier transform. In addition, the graphical representations of the analytical solution under different parameters are given for one-dimensional parabolic Volterra integro-differential equation with power-law memory kernel. It can be seen that the solution curves subject to Gaussian decay at any given moment.
Tue, 7 February 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0021.v1
Online: 7 February 2017 (16:41:16 CET)
The paper presents the findings of research on companies in the early stage of development based on the concept of ensuring their sustainability. The starting point is attributes shaping a sustainable model of start-ups. A solution has been proposed and examined that identifies the factors dynamising a business model, which give the company the ability to make fast changes in the configuration of the business model, and that applies stabilizing factors based on the concept of the Triple Bottom Line. The research problem is a response to the phenomena of the bankruptcy of many start-ups that cannot find a way to survive in the long term. The business models of companies in the early stage of development should be designed taking into account the possibility of their dynamic and iterative changes when the earlier assumptions do not work when implemented in practice. A cognitive gap has been observed as the relevant literature does not propose a systemic solution to the problem of instability of the startups viewed from the perspective of the business model concept. The research problem, therefore, is to identify potential new methods to ensure the sustainability of young companies trying to combine aspects dynamising changes in business models, taking into account economic, environmental and social aspects. The findings of research on companies in the early stage of development show that when the methods of increasing the flexibility of the business model are applied and attention is drawn to environmental and social activities and a strong emphasis is put on financial performance, reflecting the expectations of shareholders, the concept of ensuring the sustainability of young companies from the point of view of sustainable business model attributes emerges.
Tue, 9 April 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0114.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: International development, urban planning culture, social maladies, local authority, Chipata District, Zambia
Online: 9 April 2019 (12:53:50 CEST)
Since the public inauguration of the URP (Urban and Regional Planning) Bill in 2009, which is now law (The Urban and Regional Planning Act No. 3 of 2015), urban planning in Zambia has undergone changes. In partnership with the Volunteer Service Overseas (VSO) Federation, the Zambian parliament put into effect pilot urban planning assistance programs to assist districts around the country, including Chipata District in 2011, transition to a more decentralized, integrated and locally-defined approach to urban planning. However, the presence of discrimination, corruption, and negative attitudes towards urban planning engagement, social maladies prominently displayed in Zambian society, pose challenges to implementing the ideal goals of the 2009 URP Bill. The extreme, widespread poverty in Zambia merely exacerbates the propensity towards corrupt and discriminatory behavior, and influences poor attitudes toward urban planning engagement. This paper describes the projects undertaken by the VSO volunteer from the USA between 2011 and 2012 in the light of the specific urban problems facing Chipata District, and discusses the ways the social maladies play out in Zambian society to pose challenges to implementing the recommended changes to the planning system scribed in the 2009 URP Bill.
Fri, 13 January 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0065.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: lee-carter; cairns-blake-dowd; mortality models; backtesting
Online: 13 January 2017 (01:56:49 CET)
The work proposes a backtesting analysis in comparison between the Lee-Carter and the Cairns-Blake-Dowd mortality models, employing Italian data. The mortality data come from the Italian National Statistics Institute (ISTAT) database and span the period 1975-2014, over which we computed back-projections evaluating the performances of the models in comparisons with real data. We propose three different backtest approaches, evaluating the goodness of short-run forecast versus long-run ones. We find that both models were not able to capture the improving shock on the mortality observed for the male population on the analyzed period. Moreover, the results suggest that CBD forecast are reliable prevalently for ages above 75, and that LC forecast are basically more accurate for this data.
Mon, 31 October 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0135.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: technical efficiency; stochastic frontier production function (SFA model); rice production; Battambang; Cambodia; agricultural productivity
Online: 31 October 2016 (03:31:11 CET)
The aims of this study are to measure the technical efficiency (TE) of Cambodian household’s rice production and trying to determine its main influencing factors using the stochastic frontier production function. The study utilized primary data collected from 301 rice farmers in three selected districts of Battambang by structured questionnaires. The empirical results indicated the level of household rice output varied according to differences in the efficiency of the production processes. The mean TE is 0.34 which means that famers produce 34% of rice at best practice at the current level of production inputs and technology, indicates that rice output has the potential of being increased further by 66% at the same level of inputs if farmers had been technically efficient. Furthermore, between 2013-2015, TE of household’s rice production recorded -14.3% decline rate due to highly affected of drought during dry season of 2015. Moreover, evidence reveals that land, fertilizer, and pesticide are the major influencing input factors of household’s rice production, while disaster, education of household head, family size and other crops’ cultivated area are core influencing factors decreasing TE. Conversely, the main influencing factors increasing TE are irrigated area, number of plot area and sex of household head.
Wed, 31 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0235.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: president election; renewable energy; energy future; public opinion; polarization
Online: 31 August 2016 (08:34:50 CEST)
As the leader of the largest economy, President of the United States has substantive influence on addressing the global climate change problem. However, presidential election is often dominated by issues other than energy problems. This paper focuses on the on-going 2016 presidential election, examining the energy plans proposed by the leading Democrat and Republican candidates. Our data from the Iowa caucus survey in January 2016 suggests that voters are more concerned about terrorism and economic issues than environmental relative issues. We then compare the Democratic and Republican candidate’s view of American’s energy future, and evaluate their proposed renewable energy targets. We find that the view on renewable energy is polarized between Democratic and Republican candidates, while candidates from both parties agree on the need for energy efficiency. Results from our ordinal least squares regression models suggest that Democratic candidates have moderate to ambitious goals for developing solar and other renewable energy. The Republican candidates favor fossil fuel and they neglect to provide any plan for renewable energy. In addition, this trend of polarization has grown more significant when compared with the past three presidential elections. Our observation suggests that energy issues need to be discussed more to draw broader attention to salient issues of diversifying and decarbonizing the nation’s energy system.
Mon, 8 August 2016
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0074.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: reflection; healthcare education; umbrella review
Online: 8 August 2016 (10:40:19 CEST)
Reflection in healthcare education is an emergent topic with many studies and reviews being published. The purpose of the present review is to map the literature in this field by performing a systematic review of reviews (umbrella review) and to explore which definitions and models are currently in use, how reflection impacts on design, evaluation and assessment and future challenges. Nineteen reviews were identified that satisfied inclusion criteria. Emerging themes were: reflection is currently portrayed as self-reflection and critical reflection with the epistemology-of-practice notion not being as much as expected in tandem with the evidence-based-medicine paradigm modern science advocates. Reflective techniques were recognised in multiple settings (e.g. summative, formative, group vs individual etc.) and have been associated with learning but assessment remains a research topic with issues of validity, reliability and replicability. Future challenges involve the epistemology of reflection in healthcare education and how to practice and assess reflection without losing its theoretical background.
Thu, 7 July 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0007.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: Bayesian networks; directed acyclic graphs; employee loyalty; employment arrangements; flexi-time; job satisfaction; teleworking; workplace employment relations survey
Online: 7 July 2016 (12:12:14 CEST)
This study explores the relationship between job satisfaction, employee loyalty and two types of flexible employment arrangements; teleworking and flexi-time. The analysis relies on data derived by the Workplace Employee Relations Survey (WERS) in 2004 and 2011. A propensity score matching and least squares regressions are applied. Furthermore, Bayesian Networks (BN) and Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs) are employed in order to confirm the causality between employment types explored and the outcomes of interest. Finally, an instrumental variables (IV) approach based on the BN framework is proposed and applied in this study. The results support that there is a positive causal effect from these employment arrangements on job satisfaction and employee loyalty.
Thu, 22 December 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0112.v1
Online: 22 December 2016 (09:48:05 CET)
This paper advances privacy theory through examination of online shaming, focusing in particular on persecution by internet mobs. While shaming is nothing new, the technology used for modern shaming is new and evolving, making it a revealing lens through which to analyze points of analytical friction within and between traditional conceptions of privacy. To that end, this paper first explores the narrative and structure of online shaming, identifying broad categories of shaming of vigilantism, bullying, bigotry and gossiping, which are then used throughout the paper to evaluate different angles to the privacy problems raised. Second, this paper examines shaming through three dominant debates concerning privacy - privacy’s link with dignity, the right to privacy in public places and the social dimension of privacy. Certain themes emerged from this analysis. A common feature of online shaming is public humiliation. A challenge is to differentiate between a humbling (rightly knocking someone down a peg for a social transgression) and a humiliation that is an affront to dignity (wrongly knocking someone down a peg). In addition, the privacy concern of shamed individuals is not necessarily about intrusion on seclusion or revelation of embarrassing information, but rather about the disruption in their ability to continue to participate in online spaces free from attack. The privacy interest therefore becomes more about enabling participation in social spaces, enabling connections and relationships to form, and about enabling identity-making. Public humiliation through shaming can disrupt all of these inviting closer scrutiny concerning how law can be used as an enabling rather than secluding tool.
Tue, 9 August 2016
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0097.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: vulnerability; resilience; rice value chains; climate change; Sub-Saharan Africa
Online: 9 August 2016 (12:09:07 CEST)
Abstract: Rice is one of the most important food crops in sub-Saharan Africa. Climate change, variability, and economic globalization threaten to disrupt rice value chains across the subcontinent, undermining their important role in economic development, food security, and poverty reduction. This paper maps existing research on the vulnerability of rice value chains, synthesizes the evidence and the risks posed by climate change and economic globalization, and discusses agriculture and rural development policies and their relevance for the vulnerability of rice value chains in sub-Saharan Africa. Important avenues for future research are identified. These include the impacts of multiple, simultaneous pressures on rice value chains, the effects of climate change and variability on parts of the value chain other than production, and the forms and extent to which different development policies hinder or enhance the resilience of rice value chains in the face of climatic and other pressures.
Thu, 31 January 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0318.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: intellectual capital; firm value; managerial ownership; Tobin's Q; VAIC
Online: 31 January 2019 (06:44:01 CET)
Rapidly changing dynamics of globalization and increasing market competition are causing the companies all around the world confronting several new challenges and opportunities. To be competitive and successful apart from relative importance of physical resources, companies must adapt modern strategies and policies regarding market flexibility and development. The purpose of this study is to empirically investigate the relationship between intellectual capital and firm value. Furthermore, the moderating role of managerial ownership has been evaluated with the help of regression analysis. The sample included the panel data taken from non-financial firms listed on Pakistan stock exchange (PSX) covering the period 2010-2015. A sample of 79 firms out of 384 firms have been selected with the help of systematic sampling technique. VAIC (Value Added Intellectual Coefficient) model has been used for the calculation of intellectual capital. Tobin's Q has been taken as a measure of firm value. Managerial ownership has been tested as moderator. Based on data analysis, it is concluded that the relationship between intellectual capital and firm value is positively significant. It is also concluded that managerial ownership moderates the relationship between intellectual capital and firm value negatively.
Fri, 14 October 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0053.v1
Online: 14 October 2016 (10:30:30 CEST)
In this study the impact of terrorist attacks on exchange rate is estimated. Particularly, the study focuses on Turkish terrorist attacks and its implication on Turkish lira versus pound sterling exchange rate. In order, to find the causal effect the study employed Autoregressive distributive lag (ARDL) bound testing approach as an estimation technique. Accordingly, the analysis reveals that terrorist attack has a negative impact on the exchange rate in both short and long-run. However, the negative effect of terrorism tends to be small in both the short-run and long-run. More precisely, terrorist attack depreciates the exchange rate between Turkish lira and pound sterling by approximately 0.00072 in the next trading day. The long-term effect also shows that terrorist attack depreciates the exchange rate on average by 0.00212.
Mon, 10 October 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0031.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: Solvency II; standard formula; risk measure; diversification; aggregation; monotony; homogeneity; subadditivity; Euler’s principle; capital allocation
Online: 10 October 2016 (11:53:00 CEST)
We introduce the notions of monotony, subadditivity, and homogeneity for functions defined on a convex cone, call functions with these properties diversification functions and obtain the respective properties for the risk aggregation given by such a function. Examples of diversification functions are given by seminorms, which are monotone on the convex cone of non-negative vectors. Any Lp norm has this property, and any scalar product given by a non-negative positive semidefinite matrix as well. In particular, the Standard Formula is a diversification function, hence a risk measure that preserves homogeneity, subadditivity, and convexity.
Fri, 10 February 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0034.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Rebound Effect; Intervention; monetary policy rate; panel data
Online: 10 February 2017 (17:39:25 CET)
This study examines the exchange rate rebound effects of the Central Bank intervention in the selected ECOWAS economies. An empirical understanding of these effects is very important to trade adjustment as well as the macroeconomic stability in these countries. Using the panel data modelling framework, the study finds that the impact of the Central Bank intervention on exchange rate is insignificant and it does not lead to the exchange rate rebound. In addition, money supply as well as monetary policy rate implemented by the monetary authorities significantly influences the level of exchange rate in a positive direction.
Wed, 11 January 2017
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: green infrastructure; sustainable urban development; urban planning; landscape representations
Online: 11 January 2017 (07:44:52 CET)
In the quest for more sustainable urban landscape development, the concept of ‘green infrastructure’ (GI) has become central in policy documents and as a multifunctional general planning tool. GI is not however a simple and unambiguous solution. While there in policy documents are claims for more and connected GI, actual urban development takes another direction. The densifying imperative is hard to combine with an increased and more connected GI. This paper argues for a critical and diversified approach to the concept of GI, to facilitate its implementation in urban planning and management. While GI most often is seen as a common asset and a public good, the actual land use negotiations and management responsibilities cannot be limited to a public service discourse, but should address more clearly a variety of actors. Linguistic as well as spatial definitions of the two relevant dichotomies of ‘green-grey’ and ‘public-private’ are crucial in GI location, design, construction and management, it is argued. Overarching representations of GI will be needed, but also – and linked to it – a spatial storm water plan and an overall plan for public space. The development over time will need an intersectorial implementation and management program. Thus some of the GI intentions may be implemented in planning processes, some through reorganisation and redesign of public space, and some by agreements with landowners.
Sat, 6 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0061.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: sustainability; farmers’ markets; choice experiment; consumers; willingness to pay
Online: 6 August 2016 (08:12:57 CEST)
Sustainable food consumption has attracted a widespread attention during last decades by scholars, policy makers and consumers. In line with this, farmers’ markets (FMs) have the potential to encourage sustainable agricultural production and consumption. By reducing the number of actors and distances along the food chain, these alternative food systems foster the reconnection between farmers and consumers and contribute to different social, economic and environmental sustainable goals. This paper provides insights on the role of consumers' sustainability concerns related to their motivation for shopping at FMs. By means of a choice experiment, we analyze the determinants of consumers’ WTP for buying apples at FMs. We are particularly interested in understanding how attitudes towards the three sustainability dimensions are related to consumer preferences in this context. We find that consumer attitudes towards direct contact with producers, contributing to farmers’ income, and environmental benefits can be directly related to product characteristics that are specific to FMs.
Tue, 8 May 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0121.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: economic growth; public expenditure; panel cointegration; sub-Saharan Africa
Online: 8 May 2018 (05:20:33 CEST)
In this paper, the validity of the Wagner’s law is investigated in tenth selected Sub- Saharan African countries, namely Botswana, Equatorial Guinea, Mauritania, Nigeria, South Africa, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Madagascar, and DR Congo. Five variants of the Wagner’s law were tested for the period 2005-2014, using panel econometric approaches encompassing cointegration and causality. The study found a long run relationship between the public expenditure and the various explanatory variables used as proxies of income. The long-run causality tests indicate that there is bidirectional causality between expenditure and income in all models with the exemption of the Gupta model. It is concluded that for Sub-Saharan Africa, both the Wagner’s law the Keynesian hypothesis tend to be valid under the period of investigation. The explanation is that there has been the tendency for public expenditure to grow relative to national income (Wagner’s law) and that public expenditure is a policy instrument (an exogenous factor) for improving national income (Keynesian hypothesis) during the 10-year period.
Tue, 8 August 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0027.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Autoethnography; poetic narrative; mystical narrative; emancipation
Online: 8 August 2017 (08:02:12 CEST)
The purpose of this paper is to reflect on “My Autoethnography” that I performed during writing dissertation for M.Phil. in Education at a university in Nepal. For this, I reflect on my experience of doing autoethnography with four turning points – a connection to mentors, a presentation of poetic narrative in a class, a proposal for this research, and the dissemination of “My Autoethnography”. I present an evocative narrative of ‘the parallels’ connecting childhood experiences with blissful eternal dance. I analyse it from the perspective of methodological, relational and ethical lenses. I present some merits and caveats of autoethnography as a method of research based on my experience of using the approach. This also helped me to see not only to the past and present, but it also opened my eyes to envision the future in terms of learning and teaching mathematics. The other merit was access to my private world through the construction of thick and rich evocative narratives with a variety of textual expressions and a sense of mental emancipation. The major caveats of this approach were associated with the extent of focus in writing the narratives, vagueness with mystical expression and imaginative connections between the events of different time, an indulgence on personal stories making forceful connection with theories, self-disclosure of sensitive issues, and ethical issues related to the narratives about the others. I conclude the paper with a reflection and poetic reminiscent of ‘My Autoethnography’.
Fri, 12 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0121.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: lagged consumption; dynamic function; water management; average price; marginal price
Online: 12 August 2016 (09:29:43 CEST)
The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical evidence to water policy-makers and the evaluation of the application of economic instruments such as price and other factors affecting demand, they contribute to improved decision-making around water management in the Biosphere Reserve El Vizcaino, Mexico. It was estimated a dynamic function with average price specification and other price perception specification. The findings show that consumers react to average price perceived and not the marginal price; long-run price elasticity is higher than short-run and both elasticities are inelastic. Elasticities inelastic with rising prices generate high incomes to improve water planning, supply quality and expand service coverage. The results suggest that the level of knowledge of users on the price is key to take into account restructuring rates in a scenario where the consumer has asymmetric information and themselves achieve goals of economic efficiency, social equity and environmental sustainability.
Sat, 9 July 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0016.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: initial public offering; underpricing; private equity; brand value
Online: 9 July 2016 (11:02:46 CEST)
The present study aims at investigating the relationship between Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) variables mainly underpricing on one hand, and the brand value measures on the other. Our final data set is 104 international brand companies. We implement empirical approach using hierarchical OLS regression and descriptive statistics. We show that underpricing is positively related to brand value which emphasizes the marketing role of going public and underpricing in enhancing brand equity through the product market, which additionally confirms some information asymmetry models. We also find that on average brand companies had not been recognized as brands at the IPO time. Moreover, we show the positive role of private equity in enhancing brand value, additionally, the non-linear association between underpricing and brand value is not evident. Finally, we draw some policy implication and suggestions for future research.
Mon, 7 May 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0115.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: heroin users; junkies; cinematic representations; social constructionism; cultural criminology
Online: 7 May 2018 (11:05:31 CEST)
This article responds to an identified and significant gap in the existing scholarly canon to consider the extent to which cinematic representations construct heroin users—the ‘junkie’—as a criminalised ‘Other’ which confer legitimacy on the notion that such are criminogenic and deviant. Positioned within the disciplinary bounds of cultural criminology, this article focuses on five films - Sid and Nancy (1986); The Basketball Diaries (1995); Trainspotting (1996); Requiem for a Dream (2000); and, T2 Trainspotting (2017). Drawing together Hall’s (1997) theories of representation and Hjelm’s (2014) theories of social constructionism, the findings from a narrative analysis of each of the films—individually and comparatively—explores the following themes, junkies: as criminogenic; as dangerous underclass; as embodying decay and depravity; and in relation to female junkies, as junkie whores. In doing so, this article elucidates new thinking and ideas about cinematic representations of junkies and how this shapes and influences social norms and mores.
Tue, 8 November 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0046.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: agricultural productivity; Battambang; Cambodia; rice production; stochastic frontier production function (SFA model); technical efficiency
Online: 8 November 2016 (08:51:50 CET)
The aims of this study are to measure the technical efficiency (TE) of Cambodian household’s rice production and trying to determine its main influencing factors using the stochastic frontier production function. The study utilized primary data collected from 301 rice farmers in three selected districts of Battambang by structured questionnaires. The empirical results indicated the level of household rice output varied according to differences in the efficiency of production processes. The mean TE is 0.34 which means that famers produce 34% of rice at best practice at the current level of production inputs and technology, indicates that rice output has the potential of being increased further by 66% at the same level of inputs if farmers had been technically efficient. Furthermore, between 2013-2015 TE of household’s rice production recorded -14.3% decline rate due to highly affected of drought during dry season of 2015. Moreover, evidence reveals that land, fertilizer, and pesticide are the major influencing input factors of household’s rice production, while disaster, education of household head, family size and other crops’ cultivated area are core influencing factors decreasing TE. Conversely, the main influencing factors increasing TE are irrigated area, number of plot area and sex of household head.
Mon, 12 December 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0050.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: road trip; destination image; perceived value; tourist satisfaction; destination loyalty; China
Online: 12 December 2016 (09:47:49 CET)
This study aims to test a model linking destination image, perceived value, tourist satisfaction, and tourist loyalty. Based on a sample of 300 tourists travelling by car from the World Natural Heritage Site of Tianchi, China, a new model of destination image was explored and data were analysed using partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). The results show that perceived value and satisfaction are direct antecedents of destination loyalty. Above all, perceived value and tourist satisfaction mediate the relationship between destination image and loyalty. Finally, this study discusses the theoretical and management implications of the findings in order to boost the tourism industry in the context of car trips.
Sat, 27 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0219.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: pollution; cost-effectiveness analysis; Cocody; environmental policies; environmental constraints
Online: 27 August 2016 (11:01:22 CEST)
The pollution of the bays in Abidjan is a major concern for the Ivorian policy makers. In fact, the pollution of the bays induce high costs to the society while impacting population health dramatically. As a result, pollution reduction management of production activities has been undertaken in the Cocody Bay area. To our knowledge, no study has yet proposed a model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of these pollution management strategies. A cost-effectiveness model, based on Monte Carlo simulation, was developed to assess the economic and environmental impacts of various scenarios characterized by a set of production practices, both in the short term and in the long term. The authors discuss the steps and input parameters of the model presented. The proposed model may serve as the basis for identifying an optimal production scenario defined as the scenario with the best incremental cost-effectiveness ratio considering a willingness to pay (WTP) threshold. The WTP, to be estimated based on the gross domestic product of Côte d’Ivoire, represents the opportunity costs associated with selecting the optimal scenario. The current framework can also be applied to other settings facing similar challenge.
Thu, 25 May 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0185.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: transport policy; ASEAN countries; low-carbon transport; comparative analysis; climate change mitigation
Online: 25 May 2017 (08:30:52 CEST)
Emerging countries in Southeast Asia are facing considerable challenges in addressing rising motorisation and its negative impact on air quality, traffic, energy security, liveability, and greenhouse gas emissions. Indeed, even as initial policies to address these issues are being agreed and implemented, current trends are incompatible with sustainable development and long-term climate change targets. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the approach and status of sustainable, low-carbon transport policy in ASEAN countries and identifies differences and similarities, with the aim of helping assessment of feasibility of future policies and informing future studies on policy innovations and cross-country learning. The methodology is based on the taxonomy of policy components developed by Howlett and Cashore, and our data on comprehensive country studies for Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam and interviews. We find that each country has a specific set of goals, objectives and targets that support sustainable transport, and, directly or indirectly, climate change mitigation. In terms of specific instruments and calibrations, which we analyse based on the Avoid-Shift-Improve approach, there are notable differences between the countries, for example in fuel economy policy.
Fri, 14 October 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0051.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: residential electricity consumption; income; piecewise linear model; China; robust tests
Online: 14 October 2016 (09:53:13 CEST)
There are many uncertainties and risks in residential electricity consumption during the economic development. Knowledge of the relationship between residential electricity consumption and its key determinant—income—are important to the sustainable development of electric power industry. Using panel data from 30 provinces for the 1995-2012 period, this study investigates how residential electricity consumption changes as incomes increase in China. Previous studies typically used linear or quadratic double-logarithmic models imposing ex ante restrictions on the indistinct relationship between residential electricity consumption and income. Contrary to those models, we employed a reduced piecewise linear model that is self-adaptive and highly flexible and circumvents the problem of “prior restrictions.” Robust tests of different segment specifications and regression methods are performed to ensure the conservatism of the research. The results provide strong evidence that the income elasticity was approximately one, and it remained stable throughout the estimation period. The income threshold at which residential electricity consumption automatically remains stable or slows has not been reached. To ensure the sustainable development of the electric power industry, introducing higher energy efficiency standards for electrical appliances and improving income levels are vital. And government should emphasize electricity conservation in industrial sector rather than in residential sector.
Tue, 13 September 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0004.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: technical efficiency; SFA; rice production; Cambodia; agriculture; productivity
Online: 13 September 2016 (10:20:53 CEST)
The present study aims to measure the technical efficiency and establish core factors effecting rice production in Cambodia. Four-years dataset generated from the central government document “Profile on Economics and Social” of entire 25 provinces between 2012-2015 and the stochastic production frontier model (SFA) was applied. The results indicated that the level of output (quantity) of Cambodian rice production varied according to the different level of capital investment in agricultural machineries, total rice actual harvested area, and technically fertilizers application within provinces. Furthermore, evidence revealed the overall mean efficiency of rice production is 78.4% implies that there is still room to further improve technical efficiency by given the same level of inputs and technology. More importantly, the findings revealed that irrigation, production technique and amount of agricultural supporting staffs are being as the most important influencing factors of rice production’s technical efficiency in Cambodia. In conclusion, present study strongly recommends the development of irrigation systems and good water management practices to be considered and bring into more effective actions by the central government as well as related agencies for improving rice production in Cambodia in addition to capital investment and improving technical skills of supporting staffs and rural farmers.
Fri, 10 February 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0032.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: individual travel cost method; zero truncated poisson regression model; endogenous stratification; consumer surplus
Online: 10 February 2017 (11:10:04 CET)
To estimate the recreational value provided by the Foy’s Lake annually using the most applicable model for on-site data is the main objective of this study. Adhere to the objective of this study; Individual Travel Cost Method (ITCM) has been applied and Zero Truncated Poisson Regression Model has been found plausible among other models to estimate consumer surplus. Based on the findings of the study, an estimate of the consumer surplus or recreational benefits per trip per visitor can be recommended as BDT 5,875 or US $ 73.44 and counting the consumer surplus per trip per visitor, the annual recreational value (total consumer surplus) provided by the lake is found to be BDT 321 million or US $ 40.2 million.
Mon, 18 July 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0047.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: SAINT model; SiZer; local linear fitting; mortality data
Online: 18 July 2016 (10:35:40 CEST)
The main contribution of this paper is to develop a graphical tool to evaluate the suitability of a candidate parametric model to fit a data set. The practical motivation is to check the adequacy of the so called SAINT model proposed in Jarner and Kryger (2011). This model has been implemented in practice by an important European pension fund concerned with setting annuity reserves for all current or former employees of Denmark. So, one particular relevant question is whether this mortality model is actually fitting old-age. Our graphical test can be described as follows. First we transform the data by means of the parametric model which is being evaluated. Should the model be correct, the transformed data will be in accordance with an Exponential distribution with rate 1. Then we construct a family of local linear hazard estimates based on the data on the transformed scale. Finally we use the statistical tool SiZer to assess the goodness-of-fit of the Exponential distribution to the data on the transformed scale. If the model is correct the SiZer map should not reveal any significant feature in the family of kernel estimates. Our method allow us to establish a diagnostic regarding the validity of the SAINT model when describing mortality patterns in four different countries.
Thu, 26 January 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0124.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: textile industry; water footprint; economic growth; decoupling; decomposition
Online: 26 January 2017 (17:07:20 CET)
The rapid development of China’s textile industry leads to consumption and pollution of large volumes of water. Therefore, the textile industry has been the focus of water conservation and waste reduction in China’s 13th Five-Year Plan (2016–2020). The premise of sustainable development is to achieve decoupling of economic growth from water consumption and wastewater discharge. In this work, changes in blue water (water consumption), grey water (water pollutants), and water footprints of the textile industry from 2001 to 2014 were calculated. The relationship between water footprint and economic growth was then examined using the Tapio decoupling model. Furthermore, factors influencing water footprint were determined through logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) method. Results show that the water footprint of China’s textile industry has strongly decoupled for five years (2002, 2006, 2008, 2011, and 2013) and weakly decoupled for four years (2002, 2007, 2009, and 2010). A decoupling trend occurred during 2001–2014, but a steady stage of decoupling has not been achieved yet. Based on the decomposition analysis, the total water footprint is mainly increased by production scale and inhibited by the technology. In addition, the effect of industrial structure adjustment is relatively weak.
Tue, 12 July 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0021.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: Solvency capital requirements capital, standard formula, near unit root, spurious correlation, VaR—implied correlations, tail dependence
Online: 12 July 2016 (09:38:23 CEST)
The Solvency II regulatory framework specifies procedures and parameters for determining solvency capital requirements (SCRs) for insurance companies. The proposed standard SCR calculations involve two steps. The Value–at–Risk (VaR) of each risk driver is measured and, in a second step, all components are aggregated to the company’s overall SCR, using the Standard Formula. This formula has two inputs: the VaRs of the individual risk drivers and their correlations. The appropriate calibration of these input parameters has been the purpose of various Quantitative Impact Studies that have been conducted during recent years. This paper demonstrates that the parameter calibration for the equity–risk module—overall, with about 25%, the most significant risk component—is seriously flawed, giving rise to spurious and highly erratic parameter values. As a consequence, an implementation of the Standard Formula with the currently proposed calibration settings for equity–risk is likely to produce inaccurate, biased and, over time, highly erratic capital requirements.
Tue, 27 June 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0124.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: agency theory； property rights； transaction costs； efficiency； public service sector
Online: 27 June 2017 (08:22:37 CEST)
The past few decades have been characterized by a growing body of profit-seeking public service areas with the understanding that profit-seeking organizations will deliver public services more efficiently than government can. These sectors include, but are not limited to, health care, corrections and education. Governments have created quasi markets to attract private providers of services in these sectors, with varying results. Organizational economics has provided the primary explanation for quasi markets, but questions about the sought-for efficiencies actually realized through these markets persist. We integrate resource dependence theory and organizational economics to provide a more comprehensive explanation of the persistence of quasi markets.
Mon, 13 November 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0078.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Keywords: excessive fertilization; agro environment; rental land; traditional way; younger farmers; environmental consciousness
Online: 13 November 2017 (16:14:39 CET)
Abstract: The study focuses on how socio-economic and demographic indicators affect fertilization sustainability (excessive amount of fertilization). Principally we aim to examine the significance magnitude of the effects of three socio-demographic variables such as traditional way of fertilization, rental land farming, and farmers’ younger age on over-fertilization in Bangladesh and other developing countries. In 1960s, Bangladesh state authority launched a campaign ‘Grow more Food’ to feed huge numbers of population and thus the farmers are provided chemical fertilizers and pesticides at a subsidized low price. Farmers began to use huge amount of fertilizers for gaining high yields and continued it to present causing environmental woes a lot. We interview (face-to-face, focus group discussion, and phone interview) 210 Bangladesh farmers in 2016 by semi-structured questionnaire. Data has been analyzed using General Linear Model (GLM) in Univariate Analysis of Variance. The study found the effect of traditional way of fertilization on excessive amount of fertilization is strongly significant at 1% level. Apart from, rental land farming and farmers’ younger age have a significant influence on over- fertilization; though their significance level (5% and 10% respectively) is quasi-strong. Policy makers can be able to formulate fertilizer policy on the basis of these findings.
Mon, 17 July 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0040.v1
Online: 17 July 2017 (04:54:50 CEST)
Islam is not a mono-dimensional religion, therefore studying Islam with all its aspects is not enough with the scientific method, ie philosophical, human, historical, sociological methods. Likewise, understanding Islam with all its aspects can not be-be doctrinaire. A scientific and doctrinal approach should be used together (Scientific Cum Doctrine).
Thu, 8 November 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0224.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Teff, Smallholder, market participation, Heckman two stages, Gena-Bossa.
Online: 8 November 2018 (15:11:03 CET)
Increasing market participation among smallholder farmers have a big potential to uplift living standards of poor through increasing production and consumption pattern. Although, smallholder farming made 95% of total crop production in Ethiopia, they are exposed to a marketing bottleneck that hinders benefits from their produce. The objective of this study was analyzing factors determining smallholder Teff farmer decision to participate in output market and level of marketed output.The study used data from 190 respondents from four selected Teff dominant kebeles of Gena-Bossa districts in Dawro Zone, through structured questioner. This investigation was imperative because no adequate research has been done in study area in examining the hindering factors of farmers’ market participation. Moreover, in the prior study, different authors come up with varied outcomes in diverse country and geographic location concerning poor farmers’ market participation decision. The descriptive statistics and Heckman two stage econometric methods were employed to analyze data collected from sampled household. The significance of coefficient of inverse Mill’s ratio ( ) indicates the presence of self-selection bias and the effectiveness of applying Heckman two stage model. The results of study show that the smallholder decision to participate in output market were positively influenced by size of land holding, availability of family labor force, education status of household head, accessibility of credit service and access to market price information. On the other hand, size of family member, sex of house hold head being female and distance to market place discourage probability of Teff farmer market participation decision. Moreover, the second stage estimation reveals that, the education status of house hold head, size of farm land, amount of Teff crop produced, accessibility of market information, the size of family labor force and being member to farm cooperative increase the quantity of marketable output, whereas, large number of family size decline the level of Teff crops marketed. The policy that assist poor farmers in obtaining market skills; create affordable credit service; strengthen community based producer groups and capacitating the females socially and economically in the community believed to minimize the problems encountering small farmers in a way to market their crop