ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0366.v1
Online: 19 July 2018 (15:43:50 CEST)
This paper investigates how Islamic tolerance contributes to solve religious conflict today that has impacted on various aspects such as economic collapse, insecurity in life, lack of professional society, academic retrogressions, and so on. Knowledge of these issues has become an urgent to build a community that is full of peace, harmony and unity. The paper suggests that Quranic views on tolerance should be understood and practiced in order to avoid disunity in society which is due to failure to appreciate tolerance values in association. The paper concludes problems or misunderstandings always occur in different religious societies, since every religion has its own teachings and principles, as well as each of them is interpreted in different ways.
Tue, 7 July 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0129.v1
Online: 7 July 2020 (16:26:57 CEST)
The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic in a developing country like Bangladesh is enormous. A research conducted by South Asian network of Economic Modelling predicted that the pandemic could double the poverty. But it is not that only the socioeconomic condition is dropping in Bangladesh, the impact of COVID-19 pandemic is manifold. The poor condition of Bangladesh's health sector has also been exposed due to the pandemic. People are not getting proper treatment due to lack of isolation beds, oxygen, ICU etc. The health sector of Bangladesh is not much developed and now with this pandemic it has become impossible to provide treatment facility for all the patients. Education sector, which is the backbone of a country,has also been greatly affected by the pandemic. We know that different types of cultural occasions are an inherited tradition of Bangladesh, COVID-19 have not even spared these traditions, all the cultural programes and festivals have been cancelled due to this pandemic.In this paper, our aim is to present the present status of all these sectors.
Tue, 25 September 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0484.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Bestiality; Colombia; sexual behavior; sexuality; Zoophilia
Online: 25 September 2018 (11:49:12 CEST)
Introduction: Sex with animals is a male practice with a social acceptance in many areas of the Colombian Atlantic coast; however, this behavior has been little studied. The aim of this study was to characterize the practice of sex with animals in a group of men living in Cordoba department, Colombia. Methods: descriptive quantitative study was made. Forty-seven adults were interviewed. The information was collected through a survey which asked about sociodemographic aspects, characteristics and beliefs around the behavior. Results: Total participants knew about the practice, 68,1% stated to have had it and they said it happened between the ages of 7 and 30 years old, for an average time of seven years gap; 65,6% had it in presence of friends and relatives. 87,6% said the practice feels really good at the first time; 35,6% stated it was a beneficial practice and 37,5% said they would like their sons to experience it. Conclusion: Having sex with animals is a social accepted behavior and it is thought to be positive since it helps the correct psychosexual development and it prevents other behaviors, not culturally accepted, such as drug use or homosexuality.
Mon, 10 August 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0246.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COVID-19; university student; sociodemographic factors, satisfaction; perception; online learning; mental health; habits; institutions; continents
Online: 10 August 2020 (15:21:04 CEST)
The paper aims to present the most comprehensive and large-scale study to date of students’ perceived impacts of COVID-19 crisis on different aspects of their lives on a global level. The study with a sample of 30,383 students from 62 countries reveals that due to worldwide lockdown and transition to online learning students were most satisfied with the support of teaching staff and universities’ public relations. Nevertheless, a lack of computer skills and the perception of increased workload prevented them from perceiving higher performance in a new teaching environment. Students were mainly concerned about their future professional career and studying issues, and were feeling boredom, anxiety and frustration. The pandemic encouraged some hygienic behaviors (i.e. wearing masks, washing hands) and discouraged certain daily habits (i.e. leaving home, shaking hands). Students were also more satisfied with the role of hospitals and universities during the epidemic, compared to government and banks. Further findings demonstrate that students with selected sociodemographic characteristics (male, part-time, first level, applied sciences, lower living standard, from Africa or Asia) were, in general, more strongly affected by the pandemic as they were significantly less satisfied with their academic work/life. Key factors influencing students' satisfaction with the role of university have also been identified. Policymakers and higher education institutions worldwide may benefit from these findings when formulating policy recommendations and tactics on how to support students during the pandemic.
Wed, 3 June 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0013.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: online education; corona crisis; challenges; possibilities
Online: 3 June 2020 (08:25:46 CEST)
Online class now is the demand of the day as little scopes are to find out alternatives to online class in these unprecedented days caused by corona pandemic across the globe. The study was qualitative in approach and data were collected from secondary sources i.e. different newspapers and journals in the recent times along with a mini interview with students of private universities studying in different subjects over mobile phone by the researcher. Findings of the study show that though online education has a number of challenges faced by two main stakeholders; students and teachers, handling all these challenges carefully can have the chance to create a positive atmosphere in the field of education as an alternative teaching learning resulting in positive outcomes in all regards.
Fri, 24 July 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0599.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: crisis self-efficacy; work commitment; education workers; public schools; COVID-19 pandemic
Online: 24 July 2020 (14:47:56 CEST)
COVID-19 pandemic has affected the public educational sectors in terms of adjustment in educational modalities of instructional delivery, school operations, and policies. With this emerging paradigm shift, teachers' crisis self-efficacy and work commitment are relevant for research. This study's main objective was to determine the significant influence of crisis self-efficacy on the work commitment of public school teachers in Region XI (Davao Region), Philippines, during the COVID-19 pandemic. The sample consisted of 1,340 public school teachers across the Davao Region. The researchers collected the data through adapted questionnaires contextualized to the local setting and administered through online Google forms with appended consent. Mean, standard deviation, Pearson r, and regression analysis were used to analyze data. Results revealed that crisis self-efficacy significantly influences the work commitment of public school teachers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Uncertainty management during this crisis, in particular, best predicts teachers’ work commitment. Data also showed a high level of crisis self-efficacy in terms of action, preventive, achievement and uncertainty management, and high level of teachers’ work commitment in terms of commitment to school, commitment to students, commitment to teaching, and commitment to profession. Correlation results also showed a link between crisis self-efficacy and the work commitment of teachers amid pandemic. Finally, the study concluded with practical recommendations and directions for future research.
Tue, 18 April 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0101.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: tax taxation power; principles of tax; tax adjudication; constitutional tax rules; Ethiopian constitution; Turkish Constitution
Online: 18 April 2017 (02:41:03 CEST)
Constitutions as supreme legal authorities enshrine the principles of taxation which are often used as the guidance to the legislations related to fiscal aspect, requires to be explored critically so as to provide clear understanding on taxation. This article has explored the tax provisions in the constitutions of Ethiopia and Turkey from comparative perspective through the method of doctrinal legal analysis. Both the latest constitution of Turkey and Ethiopia comprise relatively related principles regarding taxation in spite of the disparities of taxation system in these two countries due to the fact that Turkey is a unitary state whereas Ethiopia is federal. In-fact, there are some disparities within these constitutions. For instance, the 1982 Constitution of Turkey specifies the citizens' duties to pay tax and the adjudication system of tax in different way than the Ethiopian 1995 constitution. The Ethiopian constitution enshrines the taxation power in detail among other things in line with the federal system of government.
Fri, 16 December 2016
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: depression; measurement scale; ratings; literature review
Online: 16 December 2016 (07:57:02 CET)
The range of rating instruments in depression measurement and the depth of their analytical relevance constitutes a major development in this psychiatric and psychotherapeutic field of mental health. Though the competition is acute amongst these various instruments, the results for the public have been outstandingly positive. A depression rating scale is essentially a psychiatric measuring instrument utilized in the identification and ranking of depression severity within the patient. The scale provides the practitioner, psychiatrist or psychotherapist, with sufficient information to assess the severity of the depression plotted on the scale. Not used as a “diagnostic tool” itself, nevertheless, the depression rating scale does function as an effective device for designating and assigning a behavioral score which may, then, be used in establishing the severity of depression of value in the designation of a diagnosis and treatment formula. In this paper, we will take a close look at the leading depression rating scales and briefly summarize their scope of assessment value in rating depression.
Fri, 3 August 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0062.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: africanization; transformation; education; reform; challenges; prospects
Online: 3 August 2018 (05:34:55 CEST)
Africanization of education was a major policy option in most countries in Africa upon the attainment of independence. This is because of the perceived negative effects of colonial education. The paper is an empirical sources study which discusses Africanization as an epistemicide and analyses efforts by some African states to Africanize their educational systems. It concludes that while some countries embraced the idea and actually initiated policies to Africanize their educational systems, the general picture indicates that Africanization has not succeeded in most countries due to various challenges. Such challenges are identified and recommendations made which could be significant for the revamping of the policy.
Mon, 5 June 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0029.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: teaching and learning ıssues in mathematics; social ıssues in mathematics education; cultural ıssues in mathematics education; political ıssues in mathematics education; technological ıssues in mathematics education
Online: 5 June 2017 (06:13:28 CEST)
In this paper, we discuss major issues of mathematics teaching and learning in Nepal. The issues coming from theories such as social and radical constructivism suggest that teachers are not trained to use such approach in teaching mathematics, and there is a lack of teaching aids and materials and technological tools. The issues related to social aspects are gender issues, language issues, social justice issues, and issues related to the achievement gap. The cultural issues are related to the diversity of language and ethnicity. The issues related to political aspects are equity and access, economic status, pedagogical choice, and professional organizations and unions. The issues related to technology include the technological skills, use of technology, and affordance. Finally, we suggest that all the stakeholders should pay attention to resolving these issues by improving the curriculum, training teachers, resourcing the classroom with locally made and new technological tools.
Mon, 12 September 2016
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: circular economy; social ecology; consumerism; dialectical naturalism; mining
Online: 12 September 2016 (09:55:09 CEST)
The concept of a "circular economy" needs a more cogent theoretical anchor which will allow for transference of its goals and methods of attainment across cases. Tensions between ecological goals of this concept and the social implications of its implementation need to be addressed. This paper attempts to provide a theoretical framework for harnessing the strengths of a circular economy. Building on theories of social ecology which are predicated in Murray Bookchin's notion of "dialectical naturalism", the analysis presented here addresses some of the criticism of circular economic paradigms, such as their potential for stifling innovation or a neglect of human development challenges. A model for managing human "need" and "greed" within a circular economy framework is presented that also incorporates consumer choice and innovation. Planned obsolescence as a means of livelihood generation is also problematized with a view towards balancing durability of products on the one hand and ensuring throughput for manufacturing employment and innovation incentives on the other. Finally, the need for governance systems is considered to ensure that a planetary vision for a circular economy can be realized that efficiently harnesses local initiatives rather than an atomized and insular view of circularity.
Tue, 2 January 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0010.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: serial killer; criminal profiling; victims; criminal psychology
Online: 2 January 2018 (10:10:51 CET)
Although the phenomenon of serial killers has received great attention from media, governments, and public, very little information is known about them and very few theories are presented by researchers specifically their definition and motives for killing. Through cross tabulation analysis of top ninety-eight serial killers, this present study poses six questions that investigate the correlations between, offender's gender, offender's level of education, time span of killing, killing severity, number of victims, killer's type of abuse, motives for killing, and victim's profile. Findings show that males kill more than females and for longer time, less educated serial killers kill more horribly, female serial killers consider their family members easy target, and finally males kill most for enjoyment and sex and females kill for financial gains.
Thu, 23 November 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0151.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: psychopharmacology; mental health; addiction; biopsychology
Online: 23 November 2017 (08:51:06 CET)
This study investigated the psychosocial factors influencing substance abuse among undergraduates. The study was conducted in Ekiti State university Ado Ekiti. 150 participants who are undergraduates of the university were used in this research. They consist of 82 males and 68 females selected from all faculties in the institution. 3 questionnaires were administered to respondent to measure the factors influencing substance abuse and the level at which they are abused. Independent T-test, multiple regression and Pearson Correlation method were used to analyze the data collected. Five hypotheses were tested: hypothesis 1, 2, 3 and 4 were significant while hypothesis 5 was insignificant. It was observed that there was significant influence of religiosity on substance abuse among undergraduates, the result also revealed that there was a significant influence of self-esteem on substance abuse among undergraduates, it also revealed that religiosity and self-esteem jointly predicted substance abuse among undergraduates, likewise the result also show that there was significant influence of sex on substance abuse among undergraduates and finally the result revealed there was no significant relationship between religiosity and self-esteem among undergraduates. The results were discussed in line with relevant empirical literatures, while conclusion and recommendations subsequently followed.
Thu, 19 July 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0365.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: Traditional; Communication; Media; Rural; Information Service Delivery; Adolescent
Online: 19 July 2018 (15:25:56 CEST)
This research work examined the various communication media used in the rural areas for the purpose of conveying messages to Adolescents in the selected communities in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria - Woji, Rumuigbo, Rumuola, Rumuokwuta and Elelenwo communities. The Taro Yammane Statistical formula for determination of sample size was used in drawing a sample of 363 respondents from a population of 3,630 Adolescents. The simple random sampling method was used in the distribution of the questionnaire to target respondents in the selected communities. Two hundred and eighty two (282) copies of the questionnaire were returned valid, and data from them was analysed and interpreted with the use of frequency tables and percentages. The result shows that traditional communication media is still relevant in the dissemination of information to rural dwellers in general and to Adolescents in particular. The agencies that make use of these media are; village authority, age groups, etc. The research work recommend among others that the government and rural dwellers should hold our traditional and cultural values in high esteem through the use of these media, harmonizing the use of traditional communication media and modern media for effective rural information service delivery.
Tue, 10 December 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0127.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: ESL Reading; ELLs; reading strategies; reading aloud; silent reading
Online: 10 December 2019 (06:45:51 CET)
Research has shown that second language reading is the bridge that leads to developing otherlanguage skills such as speaking, writing, and vocabulary acquisition. Hence, the present studyaimed to explore adult language learners’ perspectives regarding the most effective andbeneficial reading strategies that can be used to develop their reading competency. Using aqualitative research method, the study examined what specific reading strategies languagelearners believe is effective in developing their reading skills. Analysis of the focus groupsrevealed five different reading strategies mentioned by the participants. These strategies were:Reading Aloud, Silent Reading, Shared Reading, Scanning or Skimming, and Timed Reading. Findings suggest that understanding the use of different reading strategies is important, solanguage teachers need to devote more learning time to introduce reading strategies during ESL classes.
Wed, 13 May 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0226.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: androgens; athletic performance; cross-hormone therapy; gender dysphoria; muscle; sex hormones; sporting policies; strength; transgender men; transgender women
Online: 13 May 2020 (11:25:23 CEST)
Sex dimorphism starts during early embryogenesis and is further manifested in response to hormones during puberty. As this leads to physical divergence that is measurably different between sexes, males enjoy physical performance advantages over females within competitive sport. While this advantage is the underlying basis of the segregation into male and female sporting categories, these sex-based categories do not account for transgender persons who experience incongruence between their biological sex and their experienced gender identity. Accordingly, the International Olympic Committee determined criteria by which a transgender woman may be eligible to compete in the female category, requiring total serum testosterone levels to be suppressed below 10 nmol/L for at least 12 months prior to and during competition. Whether this regulation removes the male performance advantage has not been collectively scrutinized. Here, we aim to review how differences in biological characteristics between biological males and females affect sporting performance and assess whether evidence exists to support the assumption that testosterone suppression in transgender women removes the male performance advantage. In this review, we report that the performance gap between males and females amounts to 10-50% depending on sport. The performance gap is more pronounced in sporting activities relying on muscle mass and strength, particularly in the upper body. Longitudinal studies examining the effects of testosterone suppression on muscle mass and strength in transgender women consistently show very modest changes, where the loss of lean body mass, muscle area and strength typically amounts to approximately 5% after 1 year of treatment. Thus, current evidence shows that the biological advantage enjoyed by transgender women is only minimally reduced when testosterone is suppressed. Sports organizations may therefore be compelled to reassess current policies regarding participation of transgender women in the female category of sport.
Wed, 13 January 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0243.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Traditional settlement; Vernacular architecture; Manipuri Community; Sylhet
Online: 13 January 2021 (12:13:56 CET)
This study intends to study a distinct typology of vernacular architecture built by the Manipuri communities of Bangladesh. The Manipuris are one of the ethnic diasporic communities in Bangladesh commonly known for their diverse cultural practice, including their dance form. This research aims to reveal the cultural entity of Manipuri that has been transformed into their living environment and household architecture. Architectural elements adapted by the Manipuris are assessed here as a part of cultural symbols to have a rigorous view of the philosophy of living. This study is a documentation of Manipuri habitat culture through the intervention of their living environment, which will attract any future working on this issue. This research shows that despite a rapid socio-economic change of context, the Manipuri housing practice is deeply connected to their socio-cultural and religious values. As the authors used an observational and ethnographical approach to studying vernacular architecture for this research.
Wed, 19 August 2020
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: COVID-19; Economic; Environment; Development; Social; Tourism
Online: 19 August 2020 (17:22:04 CEST)
The Corona Virus (COVID-19) pandemic situation has posed significant effect on tourism industry. Tourism destinations have embraced emergency health care measures and restrictions imposed on human movement around the world. Beaches and resorts are empty, peoples’ movements are stopped and travelling between territories is strictly controlled. The COVID-19 lockdown around the world has imposed negative impact on the livelihood of people and world economy as well. The present study attempts to find out the scopes for sustainable tourism development in near future from the consequences of social, economic, and environment in COVID-19 pandemic situation.
Tue, 31 March 2020
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0445.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: international tourism; coronavirus; COVID-19; post-viral tourism; recovery strategies
Online: 31 March 2020 (05:00:08 CEST)
The coronavirus pandemic will deeply affect the tourism and travel sector. It is already clear now that its economic impact would be more severe that in the case of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2002-2003. Although not as deadly as SARS, coronavirus infection has a longer incubation period and leaves about 85% of the infected without any (or with just mild) symptoms which makes it more difficult to track and to contain. Moreover, it appears to be much more contagious than its predecessor. The goods news is that most people recover from the disease and develop antibodies that can protect them from getting infected again (natural vaccination). Those cured might become the key element for the post-virus recovery strategies of tourism organisations. People with the acquired immunity to the virus would be capable of travelling freely without spreading the disease. Airlines, hotels and gastronomy should aim at this group offering them discounts and special offers. However, the problem is how to effectively ensure that everyone who claims to be cured from COVID-19 is telling the truth. Health tracking bracelets, apps, and other advanced technological solutions should be put in place. Recent best practices from Hong Kong, mainland China, or India might be applied.
Fri, 4 December 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0099.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: COVID–19; combat; Inter–Agency Task Force (IATF); pandemic; safety and security; university
Online: 4 December 2020 (11:09:02 CET)
To define and evaluate the areas of consideration concerning in identifying the critical factors that top universities in Nueva Ecija, Philippines can be used for triangulating the courses of actions that can be applied to improve the current practices of universities towards its combat to the COVID–19 disease is the primary objective of this study. The researchers used a descriptive design of methodology by using questionnaire–checklist to scientifically describe the situation, problems, phenomenon, or program, or provide information about certain issues related to the virus outbreak. The respondents of the study were faculty and staff of five established universities in Nueva Ecija, Philippines wherein the researchers employed a non–probability sampling technique to be logically assumed as the representative of the entire population. The results of the study shown that the top universities in Nueva Ecija have made efforts to ensure the safety of university workers by complying with the Inter–Agency Task Force (IATF) protocols. It can be inferred, in reality, that there are some areas that must be improved especially when it comes to ensuring the welfare of the personnel who are still reporting to work even in this time of the pandemic. The researchers suggested an enhancement plan that can be adapted by these universities to resolve the concerns of the faculty and staff especially in reducing the spread of the virus without sacrificing the day–to–day transactions of the academic institutions.
Tue, 27 July 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0472.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Online misinformation; COVID-19 vaccination; fully vaccinated; Intelligence Quotient; per capita income
Online: 27 July 2021 (13:47:59 CEST)
The objective of the study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with lower COVID-19 vaccination rates in the United States. The study evaluated the effect of red-blue political affiliation, and the effect of the US state's average intelligence quotient (IQ) and per capita income on states vaccination rates. The study found that states with concomitantly lower income along with lower intelligence quotient (IQ) are less vaccinated while the states with higher income have higher vaccination rates even among those with lower intelligence quotients. These findings stayed significant after adjusting for red-blue political affiliation where states with red political affiliation have lower vaccination rates. Further study is needed to evaluate how to stop online misinformation among low-income low intelligence quotient states and whether such an effort will increase overall vaccination rates in the United States.
Wed, 1 November 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0013.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: English language; motivational intensity; survey; trends; challenges in Malaysia
Online: 1 November 2017 (10:58:01 CET)
The aim of this study is to explore the extent of English language teaching in Higher Institutions of Malaysia and investigate the current changes, trends and challenges in this niche. A sample of 100 English learners from public and private institutions participated in this study. Analysis of the responses indicated that English language is remaining to be difficult to master, due to speaking environment, proficiency of the teachers and other factors. However, the Government is on the right direction to improve this situation by following Common European Framework of Reference of Languages. As any other system, it takes time to put into realization and start up the mechanism. This observation carries a pedagogical perspective and includes the overview of the general picture based on Private, Public and Stand Alone English educational institutions. This study has highlighted the practical importance of British Framework of English learning and suggests to focus on emphasis of the learning process instead of a result.
Wed, 14 October 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0295.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: stormwater drainage; urban flood; urban drainage management; food disaster management
Online: 14 October 2020 (10:18:17 CEST)
Stormwater drainage and urban flooding are the popular issues in policy agendas and academia. Although the research on these title increases steadily an integrated review on stormwater drainage and urban flood with a focus on pluvial flooding has yet to be produced. This paper presents a critical review on stormwater drainage and urban flood based on 78 selected journal papers published over the period of 1990 to 2018. The review focus on pluvial flooding to relate urban stormwater drainage management and urban flood disaster management and to show the links between the two. The methods taken to manage urban stormwater drainage and urban flooding as well as the complexity of achieving a comprehensive urban flood disaster management are evaluated and discussed. To better understand the concepts behind urban flood and improve the urban flood risk management strategies, recommendation of future research directions are also provided.
Mon, 5 November 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0108.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: society 5.0; industry 4.0; social development; sustainable innovation
Online: 5 November 2018 (11:06:51 CET)
In this working paper we intended to address the emergence of what, potentially, will be a central concept in the very near future, Society 5.0 and that arises politically in (with) following the implementation of the concept of Industry 4.0. Society 5.0 proposes to deepen the potential of the individual-technology relationship in the promotion of the improvement of the quality of life of all people through a super smart society, is an extremely recent concept as a guiding social development that can have a profound impact in societies at all levels, such as quality of life and sustainability. It is a presentation that is based on very recent3 publications, but which also has a prospective component, which always generates some indetermination and uncertainty. Also, for this reason, it is a contribution that seeks above all else to contribute to this very urgent and necessary discussion.
Tue, 20 April 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0526.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Marshall McLuhan; General Theory of Media; Laws of Media; scientific laws, the Law, enhance, obsolesce, retrieve; reverse; media; technology
Online: 20 April 2021 (11:03:35 CEST)
We suggest that despite McLuhan’s claim not to have a theory of communication that in fact the body of his work does indeed constitute a theory of media and their effects which I have called his General Theory of Media (GToM) that also includes his Laws of Media (LoM). Both McLuhan’s GToM and his LoM are described. A comparison is made of three notions of law: i. McLuhan’s notion of law as used in his Laws of Media; ii. the notions of the Law in the legal sense and iii. the notion of law as formulated in scientific laws. McLuhan’s understanding of media is used to analyze some of the negative effects of social media suggesting that laws need to be formulated to prevent the misuse of social media that are antithetical to democracy and the invasion of the privacy of the individual users of these apps. McLuhan’s Laws of Media are then used to provide insights into the nature of scientific laws, the Law in the legal sense and his own Laws of Media.
Thu, 28 June 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0474.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: Legal artificial Intelligence; Machine Learning; Deep Learning; Image Processing; Matlab
Online: 28 June 2018 (15:13:31 CEST)
Over the years, artificial intelligence (AI) is spreading its roots in different areas by utilizing the concept of making the computers learn and handle complex tasks that previously require substantial laborious tasks by human beings. With better accuracy and speed, AI is helping lawyers to streamline work processing. New legal AI software tools like Catalyst, Ross intelligence, and Matlab along with natural language processing provide effective quarrel resolution, better legal clearness, and superior admittance to justice and fresh challenges to conventional law firms providing legal services using leveraged cohort correlate model. This paper discusses current applications of legal AI and suggests deep learning and machine learning techniques that can be applied in future to simplify the cumbersome legal tasks.
Wed, 16 September 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0362.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Government Keywords: Artificial intelligence; Fourth Industrial Revolution; Poverty
Online: 16 September 2020 (11:31:39 CEST)
Though the share of the world population living in extreme poverty declined to 10 percent in 2015, from 16 percent in 2010 and 36 percent in 1990, data shows that the world is not on track in achieving the target of less than 3 percent of people living in extreme poverty by 2030. Hence the study sought to investigate the influence of AI on poverty reduction. Using content analysis one of the unobtrusive research techniques, the study found out that, the availability of relevant data is making AI be able to deliver value to humanity and AI has a strong influence on poverty in areas of relevant data collection through poverty maps, its ability to revolutionize agriculture, education, and the financial sector through digital financial inclusion. The study also discovered that many countries especially developing nations are not collecting as much data to identify the number of poor people and the regions where these people are located. However, the existence of AI is assisting to change this, or instance the study discovered that the research team at Stanford University is using satellite images to provide an alternative to map poverty, to identify the regions where poverty is more concentrated. Also, various robotics and AI programs such as Google and Stanford University’s Sustainability and Artificial Intelligence Lab, are coming forth with AI programs in agriculture which are doing a lot to improve farming, through the identification of diseases, prediction of crop yields, and location of areas prone to a scarcity among several other notable signs of progress in education. Therefore, the study recommends that governments, development institutions and other organizations that are striving to fight poverty to invest more in AI as well as adopting and scaling up its use as it presents benefits in the quest to ensure that poverty is reduced.
Sun, 2 August 2020
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0021.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: diversity; inclusion; equity; fieldwork; research
Online: 2 August 2020 (11:55:47 CEST)
As a result of identity prejudice, certain individuals are at higher risk for conflict and violence when they are in the field. At-risk individuals include minority identities of the following: race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, disability, gender identity, and/or religion. Everyone deserves to conduct fieldwork as safely as possible; therefore, it is paramount for anyone conducting fieldwork to be informed of the increased risk certain populations face when conducting field research and to define informed strategies. Research groups should adhere to best practices to minimize risk for all individuals who go into the field. Here we provide strategies that 1) acknowledge that some individuals encounter dangerous situations in the field due to their identity(ies), and 2) minimize the chance of conflict between and among researchers and other communities present at field sites. The inclusion of this document as a key resource in a research lab, a university department, or any active research or work environment sends a positive signal to at-risk individuals that their professional community acknowledges their risk and is willing to implement actions to ensure their safety. We suggest that this document be made freely available to anyone who is directly or indirectly involved in fieldwork. Supervisors who support the information in this document should publicly commit to promote a diverse and inclusive environment in order to maintain the safety of their researchers.
Thu, 13 August 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0298.v1
Online: 13 August 2020 (10:22:24 CEST)
Green development ensures the socioeconomic development that incorporates environmental issues while remaining economically viable for owners and tenants. Government as the authority of the state should provide favorable incentives, policy and regulatory pressure for green development. The present study aims to investigate the government policies and regulations for green development in Bangladesh and make a critical discussion of the initiatives. The study is descriptive in nature and collects secondary information. Evidence suggests that environmental degradation and climate change related risks and vulnerabilities have intensified in Bangladesh. The government of Bangladesh (GOB) is concerned about green development and formulates various Acts, regulations and policy initiatives since 2010. Major green development initiatives observed in the financial institutions due to the mandatory requirements by Bangladesh Bank but green bond and green insurance in capital market are yet to be developed. The GOB required taking proper policy initiatives for the garments and leather industries to ensure pollution free production system which ensures green trade initiatives. The environmental taxes and ecological compensation mechanisms should be revised. Urban green space and Government green procurement are still less concerning matter. The GOB should make effective collaboration with all related stakeholders to ensure the green development.
Mon, 7 December 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0147.v1
Online: 7 December 2020 (12:24:47 CET)
Postdocs who land faculty jobs at research-intensive institutions need to juggle several new large-scale tasks: identifying space and equipment needs for their lab, negotiating the hiring package, outfitting the lab with supplies, building a team, and learning to manage time in ways that can promote productivity and happiness. Here we share tips to help new hires think clearly about each of these tasks.
Thu, 20 May 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0456.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Misconceptions; errors; learning; place value; mathematics; literature review
Online: 20 May 2021 (08:26:09 CEST)
Children’s learning of place value is critical to their future study of mathematics. However, its learning presents a huge challenge for many learners. As result they develop misconceptions and thencommit errors that become an encumbrance to their understanding of place value. It is therefore important to identify these misconceptions and their associated errors early and help children to overcome them. This article reports the findings from literature on what misconceptions learners display in the learning of place value and how they can best be supported to overcome them. The results show that despite the importance of this topic there are limited studies devoted to its research. The dearth of these studies creates a gap in the study of place value.
Fri, 17 April 2020
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0290.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: academia; higher education; coronavirus pandemic; online tuition; social distancing; COVID-19; digital revolution
Online: 17 April 2020 (01:56:58 CEST)
COVID-19 pandemic instigated a digital revolution in academia and higher education. Social distancing, months-long quarantine, as economic shutdown will help the majority of people working in academia and higher education not only to complete their personal transition to the fully functional and operational online tuition, but also to understand that online defences, online entrance and final exams, as well as online academic jobs are as effective and meaningful as those conducted “in real life”. Due to the crisis induced by the coronavirus epidemic, innovations in academia and higher education that would have normally taken several years due to the various contradictory administrative regulations are now introduced promptly in a matter of days. This is a clear example of the Schumpeterian ‘creative destruction’ in making that will forever change the status quo in academia and higher education.
Mon, 22 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0190.v1
Online: 22 August 2016 (11:35:11 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to examine the cognitive processes underlying the listening comprehension section of IELTS and to investigate if they vary in terms of difficulty. For this purpose, a checklist of possible cognitive operations was prepared based on the literature and the candidates’ feedback. The checklist consisted of six cognitive operations. A sample of IELTS listening test was given to 310 upper intermediate and advanced students of English. Linear logistic test model was employed to analyse the data. Findings showed that keeping up with the pace of the speaker and understanding reduced forms were the most difficult operations for the listeners. Altogether, the six operations explained 72% of the variance in item difficulty estimates. Implications of the study for the testing and teaching of listening comprehension are discussed.
Wed, 17 August 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0325.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: Hallyu; Korean Wave; Korean language; Tagalog language; Second Language Acquisition; Vocabulary Acquisition; Proto-Lexicon
Online: 17 August 2022 (12:42:10 CEST)
Hallyu or the Korean wave has sweeped through nations especially the Philippines. This exploratory study offers a dip into the effects of the Hallyu wave on a Filipino speaker through ambient exposure, consequently on the development of a Korean proto-lexicon through indirect vocabulary acquisition. Finally, a focus group discussion and a preliminary assessment tested out the waters of the effects of Hallyu on casual Filipino speakers. A thorough statistically comprehensive qualitative study on the acquisition framework is recommended to provide substantial evidence to support the framework.
Sun, 5 February 2017
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0018.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: mastery learning strategy; learning retention; achievement; physical geography; conventional method
Online: 5 February 2017 (10:01:59 CET)
The need to alleviate the difficulties of abstraction and improve students’ achievement in Physical Geography informed this research. This study investigated the Effects of Mastery Learning Strategy and Learning Retention on Senior Secondary School Students’ Achievement in Physical Geography. The study adopted the quasi experimental non-equivalent pre-test, post-test control group design. The Multi-stage sampling technique at four levels was used to select four co-educational secondary schools in Ganye Educational Zone in Nigeria. The sample for the study was 218 Senior Secondary School two (SS II) students offering Geography from four intact classes in the four selected secondary schools. The instrument used for data collection was “Physical Geography Achievement and Retention Test” (PGART). The reliability of the instrument was established using Kendall tau b statistic. This gave a reliability index of 0.74. Data collected were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U and t-Test. The results showed that Mastery Learning Strategy has the potentials to improve students’ learning outcomes, retention and achievement in all spheres of cognitive domain in Physical Geography better than the Conventional Method. Hence the need to incorporate this teaching strategy during instruction so that learners would be guided to learn meaningfully and be assisted to retain content learnt in Geography.
Tue, 9 April 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0114.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: International development, urban planning culture, social maladies, local authority, Chipata District, Zambia
Online: 9 April 2019 (12:53:50 CEST)
Since the public inauguration of the URP (Urban and Regional Planning) Bill in 2009, which is now law (The Urban and Regional Planning Act No. 3 of 2015), urban planning in Zambia has undergone changes. In partnership with the Volunteer Service Overseas (VSO) Federation, the Zambian parliament put into effect pilot urban planning assistance programs to assist districts around the country, including Chipata District in 2011, transition to a more decentralized, integrated and locally-defined approach to urban planning. However, the presence of discrimination, corruption, and negative attitudes towards urban planning engagement, social maladies prominently displayed in Zambian society, pose challenges to implementing the ideal goals of the 2009 URP Bill. The extreme, widespread poverty in Zambia merely exacerbates the propensity towards corrupt and discriminatory behavior, and influences poor attitudes toward urban planning engagement. This paper describes the projects undertaken by the VSO volunteer from the USA between 2011 and 2012 in the light of the specific urban problems facing Chipata District, and discusses the ways the social maladies play out in Zambian society to pose challenges to implementing the recommended changes to the planning system scribed in the 2009 URP Bill.
Mon, 25 July 2016
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0075.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: travel mode detection; GPS raw data; smartphones
Online: 25 July 2016 (06:34:26 CEST)
Over the past couple of decades, Global positioning system (GPS) technology has been utilized to collect large-scale data from travel surveys. As the precise spatiotemporal characteristics of travel could be provided by GPS devices, the issues of traditional travel survey, such as misreporting and non-response, could be addressed. Considering the defects of dedicated GPS devices (e.g., need much money to buy devices, forget to take devices to collect data, limit the simple size because of the number of devices, etc.), and the phenomenon that the smartphone is becoming one of necessities of life, there is a great chance for the smartphone to replace dedicated GPS devices. Although, several general reviews have been done about smartphone-based GPS travel survey in the literature review section in some articles, a systematic review from smartphone-based GPS data collection to travel mode detection has none. The included studies were searched from six databases. The purpose of this review is to critically assess the current literature on the existing methodologies of travel mode detection based on GPS raw data collected by smartphones. Meanwhile, according to the systematic comparison among different methods from data-preprocessing to travel mode detection, this paper could carefully provide the Strengths and Weaknesses of existing methods. Furthermore, it is the crucial step to develop the methodologies and applications of GPS raw data collected by smartphones.
Thu, 20 December 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0255.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Political Socialization, Political Participation, Social Networking, Political Science Students, Islamic Azad University
Online: 20 December 2018 (13:19:22 CET)
The present study was conducted with the aim of analyzing the impact of social networks on political socialization and political participation of political science students of the Islamic Azad University of Tehran, Tehran south branch during 2007-2017. This article is a descriptive-survey research based on the theory of planned behavior and has been done based on random sampling with a population of 280 samples. The findings indicate that 93% of students use social media and spend a significant part of their study hours on social networks, which mainly include Telegram, Instagram, Facebook, Twitter and WhatsApp. The variables related to social networks affect the socialization and political participation of students, and the extent of the impact of social networks on encouraging individuals to participate in the election as a component of political socialization is positive and significant. This finding and other findings are a positive and significant impact of social networks on the attitudes, values and norms, attitudes and behaviors of political science students as a sample population, and thus the hypothesis of this research has been confirmed.
Sun, 18 September 2016
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0052.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Dialectical Critical Realism; Education; Islam; Childhood Studies; Child Abuse; Work-Life-Balance; Roy Bhaskar; Priscilla Alderson; Margaret Archer
Online: 18 September 2016 (06:04:09 CEST)
Critical realism emerged from the philosophical writings of Roy Bhaskar, and has evolved into a philosophy of social science research using the model of “dialectical critical realism” (DCR) which begins with the researcher’s assumptions that the structures being researched have a real, ontological grounding which is independent of the researcher. This approach has proved fruitful in British and European social science research, but has had less influence in North America. We outline DCR’s four level model for understanding society and its changing social structures through “the pulse of freedom”. DCR has been used by Marxists, Muslims, Catholics and secular scholars who engage fruitfully in morphogenic dialogues leading to a critical realist understanding of society and social research, which transcends positivist and social constructionist models. Examples of DCR’s application in the fields of childhood research, child abuse, education, and research on organisations are outlined to illustrate the working of this new research paradigm. We are enthusiastic in our advocacy of DCR as a model of qualitative research, and for constructing models of positive social change, and are particularly impressed by the substantive and theoretical expositions of DCR by Priscilla Anderson, Matthew Wilkinson and Margaret Archer, whose work we document and review.
Thu, 23 August 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0418.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: academic stress; psychological and physical well-being; adolescence; secondary education; validity; reliability; gender and age differences
Online: 23 August 2018 (15:32:43 CEST)
This study presents the validation process of the Questionnaire on Academic Stress in Secondary Education –QASSE-, designed to assess the wide variety of school sources and situations related to academic stress in adolescence, and their relationship with students’ physical and psychological well-being. Participants were 860 Spanish high school students (52.9% girls) with an average age of 14.62 years (SD = 1.8). Through a cross-validation process, EFA and CFA supported QASSE multifactorial structure with four first-order factors -academic overload, interaction with classmates, family pressure, and future-oriented perspective- and a second-order factor of academic stress, showing a significant and intense relationship with adolescents’ psychological and physical well-being. Results also highlight the effects of the gender*educational level interaction on the students’ stress, with girls showing higher levels of stress in the transition courses between educational phases (sophomore and junior years). The QASSE demonstrates good validity and reliability, showing potential for both research and educational application. The results show the high impact of the QASSE dimensions on psychological and physical well-being in adolescence, highlighting its special usefulness for designing and adjusting educational prevention and intervention actions in this area to the students’ specific characteristics and needs
Tue, 5 May 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0050.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: COVID-19 Pandemic; Review Literature; Psychosocial Support System; Public Health Administration
Online: 5 May 2020 (02:23:47 CEST)
The state of community lock-down due to COVID-19 pandemic caused restricted movements of people. There are existing evidence of the negative impact of quarantine and isolation to the mental health of a person in different contexts. A scoping review of literature using Google Scholar was conducted to discover records about the public mental health while in a community quarantine due to COVID-19 pandemic. A methodological approach suggested by Arksey and O’Malley was utilized. It comprised (a) identifying the research questions, (b) identifying relevant literatures, (c) selecting literature, (d) charting the extracted data, and (e) summarizing, analyzing, and reporting the results. As of April 17, 2020, there were only 4 original articles found that discuss psychosocial aspect of the COVID-19 crisis. After an online survey, they present evidence that (1) there is an outward change in the people’s behavior toward self-care during the pandemic and (2) trusting the community governing bodies can minimize the level of anxiety and stress. Other literatures found are original articles in preprint (n=8), letters, commentaries, editorial (n=6), review paper (n=4), and WHO guideline (n=1). It is evident that the psychosocial aspect of COVID-19 crisis needs more attention from the scholars and a large research gap can be lessened trough expansion of online platforms.
Thu, 8 September 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0030.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: carbon emissions reduction; technology spillover; game theory; supply chain coordination
Online: 8 September 2016 (11:39:40 CEST)
We study a two-echelon supply chain made up of a supplier and a manufacturer, both of which can reduce their component/product carbon emissions. With the vertical technology spillovers, we explore the optimal decisions of centralized and decentralized supply chains with price dependent demand and propose coordination strategy for the decentralized supply chain. Considering the cost contraction effectiveness of the technology spillovers, the centralized and decentralized game theoretic models of a two-echelon supply chain are developed to investigate optimal decisions of pricing and carbon emissions reduction. Through a systematic comparison and numerical analysis, we show that the profits of both players and the entire supply chain improve with the effect of technology spillovers increasing. Carbon emissions reduction will be taken by various protective measures so that the supplier and the manufacturer who do not innovate can hardly share the results of innovating via the “free-riding” methods when the technology spillover is relatively small. We also propose a revenue-cost sharing contract through bargaining to enhance the performance of the decentralized supply chain.
Fri, 25 August 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0087.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: numerical cognition; zero; number status of zero; items based number representation
Online: 25 August 2017 (12:28:23 CEST)
While the knowledge about the development of understanding positive integers is rapidly growing, the development of understanding zero is not well-known. Here we tested several components of preschoolers’ understanding zero: whether they can use empty sets in numerical tasks, whether they can use empty sets as soon as they understand the cardinality principle, whether they know what the word “zero” refers to, and whether they categorize zero as a number. The results show that preschoolers can handle empty sets in numerical tasks as soon as they understand the cardinality principle or even earlier, and some of them know that these sets are labeled as “zero.” However, they are unsure whether zero is a number. We argue that preschoolers might understand numbers as the properties of items or objects in a set. In this view, zero cannot be a number, because an empty set does not include any items, and the missing items cannot have any property, excluding also the number property. This model might explain why zero is handled correctly in numerical tasks, while it is not regarded to be a number.
Wed, 14 June 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0065.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: DAPTQ; adaptive personality; psychometric properties; HEXACO; psychopathic personality traits; confirmatory factor analysis; test-retest validity
Online: 14 June 2017 (07:47:55 CEST)
Multiple studies reported a negative relationship between the Honesty-Humility factor of the HEXACO model and psychopathy. The Durand Adaptive Psychopathic Traits Questionnaire (DAPTQ), which was developed to assess adaptive traits known to be related to psychopathic traits, has previously demonstrate positive relationships with all factors of the Big Five Model, at the exception of a negative relationship with neuroticism. The current study aims to validate the previously reported association between the DAPTQ and the five major components of the personality, while also examining its relationship with the Honesty-Humility factor as defined by the HEXACO model. The results (N = 171) support the good internal consistency, two weeks test-retest validity and inter-correlation of the DAPTQ. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis further supports the nine-factor model of the DAPTQ. When compared to the HEXACO, the DAPTQ did not display any relationship with the Honesty-Humility factor, nor the Agreeableness and Openness factors, but kept its similar association to Emotionality, Extroversion, and Conscientiousness as initially reported in its development phase. Overall, the results support the discriminant validity of the DAPTQ to assess adaptive traits related to the psychopathic personality without overlapping with psychopathic personality traits. Results are discussed in terms of implications and further improvements to validate the DAPTQ.
Sun, 29 September 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0321.v1
Online: 29 September 2019 (04:40:24 CEST)
Sociology and History as consolidated scientific and academic projects have maintained a peculiar and paradoxical relationship. The growing disciplinary and subdisciplinary specialization of these two sciences poses relevant epistemological and methodological challenges to face potential situations of isolation, fragmentation and enable the apology of an interdisciplinary perspective characterized by the historicity of social structures, actions and senses.Several types of reasons shape this diffuse process of approach/distinction between Sociology and History, namely, epistemological and methodological, disciplinary closure, academic, professional, configuring what can be called contained dialogues. This paper, starting from the sociological perspective of the authors, seeks to contribute to the reflection on the relevance of a scientific project aimed at affirming an interdisciplinary perspective that may foster the heuristic potentialities of both Sociology and History in the analysis of the complexity of social reality and human action.
Mon, 18 March 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci1010014.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: agriculture land use; conversion; peri-urbanization; food security; Asante-Akim South; Ghana
Online: 18 March 2019 (00:00:00 CET)
Rapid peri-urbanization has resulted in increasing demand for and pressure on peri-urban lands at the expense of agricultural lands. Households’ decision to convert from agricultural land uses to residential and commercial land uses is driven by a myriad of factors, ranging from social to economic, in the Asante-Akim South district of the Asante region, Ghana. The paper examined the effects of agricultural land use trade-off on food production in the district. Using a triangulation of qualitative and quantitative methods, 115 household respondents were proportionately sampled from three selected communities in the district, for the collection of data through the administration of questionnaires. The data were subjected to the Pearson’s chi-square, embedded in the SPSS V.16, to test for association among the variables. We report that the increasing rate of agricultural land uses conversions was as a result of increasing demand for residential and commercial land usage at the expense of agricultural land uses. Converting prime agricultural lands into other land uses was seen as profitable to agricultural expansion. A re-examination of the district land use plans by the Ghanaian Physical (Town and Country) Planning Department in tandem with the Lands Commission is therefore recommended.
Sun, 12 January 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0121.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicles; smart farming; precision agriculture; technological frames; case study
Online: 12 January 2020 (14:48:29 CET)
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are one of the most promising innovative technologies invented in recent years to promote precision agriculture and smart farming. UAVs can not only reduce labor requirements but also increase production output, reduce the use of pesticides, and protect the environment. However, previous studies on agricultural UAVs have mostly focused on technical problems such as software and hardware design. Few studies have examined users’ behaviors in the implementation process. On the basis of Orlikowski and Gash’s technological frames, this study explored the participants’ cognition and expectation of farmers, pesticide, sprayers, and agriculture officials, who are three key groups of stakeholders involved in the application of UAVs to pesticide spraying, regarding agricultural UAVs and examined how the conflicts between their cognition and expectation influenced the choice of using pesticide spraying UAVs. The conclusions of this study contributed to supplement the content and broaden the scope of application of technological frame theory and provided a crucial reference for the promotion of agricultural UAVs in practice.
Wed, 9 June 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0258.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Black Nazarene; Popular Devotion; Filipino Catholics; Sacred Liturgy; New Evangelization
Online: 9 June 2021 (11:10:28 CEST)
Popular devotions are reflections and expressions of the people’s faith. They are expressions of how people recognize God in their lives, and as a shared experience, they foster expressions of devotion and thus become a manifestation of prayer. Popular devotions as forms of prayer and worship do not contradict the Sacred Liturgy but are acknowledged as legitimate by the Apostolic See. Moreover, popular devotions, in general, lead to the cultivation of some values. One of the most popular devotions among Filipino Catholics is the devotion to the Black Nazarene, a life-sized statue of Jesus Christ kneeling in one knee carrying the cross-dressed in a maroon robe. His face is marked with wounds and blood. His head is crowned with thorns with three gold-plated metal rays on the top of his head, with his eyes looking up to heaven. The Black Nazarene devotion balances Christology from below and above, i.e., Christ does not remain crucified. Instead, he brings the hope of resurrection to those who fervently approach him with faith, hope, and love. It suffices to say that the Black Nazarene serves as a means for the Filipino faithful to encounter Christ in their lives. Given this, this paper aims to appraise the Black Nazarene Devotion as a means that contributes to the New Evangelization among Filipino Catholics. More specifically, this paper seeks to answer how the devotion to the Black Nazarene aids Filipino Catholics in their desire to sustain and grow in their faith amidst the crises and problems they are facing.
Wed, 19 August 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0246.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COVID-19; university student; socio-demographic factors, satisfaction; perception; online learning; mental health; habits; institutions; continents
Online: 19 August 2020 (08:20:09 CEST)
The paper presents the most comprehensive and large-scale study to date on how students perceive the impacts of the COVID-19 crisis on various aspects of their lives on a global level. With a sample of 30,383 students from 62 countries, the study reveals that amid the worldwide lockdown and transition to online learning students were most satisfied with the support provided by teaching staff and their universities’ public relations. Still, deficient computer skills and the perception of a higher workload prevented them from perceiving their own improved performance in the new teaching environment. Students were mainly concerned about issues to do with their future professional career and studies, and experienced boredom, anxiety and frustration. The pandemic has led to the adoption of particular hygienic behaviours (e.g. wearing masks, washing hands) and discouraged certain daily practices (e.g. leaving home, shaking hands). Students were also more satisfied with the role played by hospitals and universities during the epidemic compared to the government and banks. The findings also show that students with selected socio-demographic characteristics (male, part-time, first level, applied sciences, lower living standard, from Africa or Asia) were generally more strongly affected by the pandemic since they were significantly less satisfied with their academic work/life. Key factors influencing students' satisfaction with the role of their university are also identified. Policymakers and higher education institutions around the world may benefit from these findings while formulating policy recommendations and strategies to support students during this and any future pandemics.
Wed, 9 June 2021
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0260.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Pancasila; Millennial Generation; Industrial Revolution; human capital management
Online: 9 June 2021 (11:20:18 CEST)
Introduction: The imbalance between technological development and ideological strengthening has resulted in the fading of the Pancasila ideological values of millennials. Technology that accompanies everyday life seems to be the main character in human life. Yet if humans themselves do not use technology wisely, technology can be a threat to both individuals and the life of the nation and state. If technology is increasingly out of control, threats to the Pancasila ideology are very likely to occur, such as in the G 30S PKI incident. Therefore, it is necessary to take action both from the government and the community as individuals to safeguard the development of technology to be used wisely. That way, we can prevent the threat to the Pancasila ideology together. Writing this article aims to analyze how the role and influence of the Pancasila ideology on the millennial generation in the 4.0 industrial revolution and to find solutions so that the values of Pancasila remain attached to the next generation of the Indonesian nation. Method: Writing This article uses a qualitative method by using literature reviews from the results of related research journals that have been published online through websites and other online media. Results: Thirteen journals and one book have met the criteria for the inclusion of a predetermined review. Research is based on the stigma of society regarding technological developments in the Industrial revolution 4.0. Therefore, the government is expected to be more severe in implementing human capital management. Conclusion: By procuring human capital management, it will be possible that Human Resources (HR) in Indonesia will be able to carry out the ideals of a golden Indonesian generation with Pancasila values inherent in the hearts of the people and the nation's future generations.
Wed, 29 April 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0506.v1
Online: 29 April 2020 (12:18:52 CEST)
This case study was conducted to disentangle the stories of unsuccessful LET examinees, their responses to failure, and their perspectives of the factors that contributed to their failure. The results demonstrate five themes related to the failure experience. Factors related to the physical environment, psychological well-being, and preparedness influenced the performance of the examinees. Contributory factors to failure provided several implications to teacher education practice. Educators have a responsibility to identify, inform, and intervene with students who are at high risk of failing the LET, and this responsibility could be executed capably. However, the role should be extended beyond graduation. The responsibility to help graduates transition from failure to licensure is the final step of successful undergraduate teacher education.
Tue, 18 February 2020
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: agricultural activities; central region; forest cover depletion; LULC; urbanization
Online: 18 February 2020 (10:54:53 CET)
Cameroon territory is experiencing significant land use and land cover (LULC) changes since its independence in 1960. But the main relevant impacts are recorded since 1990 due to intensification of agricultural activities and urbanization. LULC effects and dynamics vary from one region to another according to the type of vegetation cover and activities. Using remote sensing, GIS and subsidiary data, this paper attempted to model the land use and land cover (LULC) change in the Centre Region of Cameroon that host Yaoundé metropolis. The rapid expansion of the city of Yaoundé drives to the land conversion with farmland intensification and forest depletion accelerating the rate at which land use and land cover (LULC) transformations take place. This study aims at assessing the impacts of both agriculture and urbanization on the LULC change in the Centre Region of Cameroon. A detailed LULC map from MAPBOX high resolution images and three LULC maps were produced from Landsat TM-OLI images (1984-2015). A maximum likelihood classification techniques using ERDAS Imagine, showed forest decline with a total loss of 54% in thirty years. Also, Landsat and MAPBOX images to which we added 1951 aerial photograph and SPOT 6 (2006) were used to analyse urban growth in the city of Yaoundé. The results show a remarkable urban spatial spread of the metropolis between 1951 and 2015, with a peak in 2000. Images processing enabled us to analyse the long term dynamics of LULC change since the 1950s in this Region using ArcGIS & QGIS software’s. Based on this dynamic, a LULC projection map was produced using Markov model on IDRISI Selva, demonstrating the decrease of the dense forest (45% in 2015 to 0.25% in 2050). It was estimated that by 2050, the entire dense forest can be depleted if nothing is done, while only 12.67% of the secondary forest would remain in the Region. Such a projected map is very useful to decision makers for council development and urban planning. This effective forest depletion ties with the hypothesis that urbanization of Yaoundé and its secondary surrounding satellite cities (within a radius of 30-100km) is a veritable driving force of deforestation.
Sat, 7 May 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0093.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: anxiety; low participation; mother tongue; speaking performance
Online: 7 May 2022 (05:36:27 CEST)
The goal of classroom English instruction is to educate students on how to use the English language effectively for communication in any scenario. It is identified by presenting various teaching tactics and speaking activities to encourage students to participate more actively in conversations. The study intended to identify the problems in the speaking performance of Grade 8 Jade in Tagum City National High School. The study was conducted using a quantitative non-experimental descriptive survey method. Results revealed that the problems in speaking performance have garnered a mean of 3.20 (moderate) as descriptive equivalent and it was found out that the prevailing speaking problem is anxiety with a mean of 3.84, interpreted as high. Thus, an intervention program is designed to address the problems in the speaking performance of the respondents. This program is divided into two: Overcoming Speaking Anxiety Seminar-Workshop and Speaking Enhancement Activities.
Sun, 12 April 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0195.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COVID-19; digital transformation; education; 4IR; South Africa
Online: 12 April 2020 (14:39:03 CEST)
The study sought to gauge the impact of COVID-19 pandemic in unleashing digital transformation in the education sector in South Africa. In order to gauge the impact, the study tracked the rate at which the 4IR tools were used by various institutions during the COVID-19 lockdown. Data were obtained from secondary sources, mainly newspaper articles, magazines and peer-reviewed journals. The findings are that, in South Africa, during the lockdown, a variety of 4IR tools were unleashed from primary education to higher and tertiary education where educational activities switched to remote learning (online learning). These observations point to the fact that South Africa generally has, some pockets of excellence to drive the education sector into the 4IR, which has the potential to increase access. Access to education, particularly at a higher education level, has always been a challenge due to a limited number of spaces available. Much as this pandemic has brought with it massive human suffering across the globe, there is an opportunity to assess successes and failures of deployed technologies, costs associated with them, and scaling these technologies to improve access.
Wed, 22 November 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0141.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: organizational culture; mission; consistency; involvement; adaptability
Online: 22 November 2017 (04:19:38 CET)
The main goal of this paper is to address how quickly and to what extent are international organizational cultures, brought by the world companies after the process of privatization, being implemented in a single monolithic culture. For this purpose was adopted and applied Denison model of organizational culture, which has been chosen because it emphasizes the need for balance between requirements for organization’s stability demands and its required flexibility. Considering that a different organizational culture reflects systematic change of an entire organization, this paper focuses on exploring the differences in culture dimensions among companies in domestic and foreign ownership in Serbia. A sample of 1000 employees was statistically processed. Changes in organizational culture tend to be relatively slow. The results confirm that organizational culture is a complex working environment, concerning organizational values, which represents a fundamental element of organizations. Given that the process of company ownership changes occurred fifteen years prior to the research implementation, obtained results show effects of interaction between national and organizational culture in this, relatively short, period of time. Obtained results can be generalized to countries that are passing or have recently passed a transition, and are similar in cultural characteristics.
Tue, 7 April 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0078.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; R0; WHO; social distancing; H1N1; H2N2; influenza
Online: 7 April 2020 (02:48:13 CEST)
The current outbreak of the novel coronavirus also known as COVID-19 was declared as a public health emergency by the WHO where over a million people have been affected by the disease with over 50000 deaths till date. Social distancing is a method to minimize crowd interactions and prevent the spread of disease within groups of people. This is a common practice which has been carried out over generations to minimize the spread of virus by limiting its reproduction rate (R0) among communities. The article focuses on how social distancing has been used to deal previous pandemics globally and the issues that needs to be addressed to tackle the COVID-19 threat.
Mon, 11 January 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0174.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Hindu Temples; Sacred landscape; Bhaishnavism; Conservation; Architectural Documentation
Online: 11 January 2021 (09:57:50 CET)
This article represents survey data of historical and architectural documentation of Sri Radha Binod Ashrama locally known as the Panishail temple. Temple architecture is a common feature of traditional religious architecture practice in Bangladesh. This article is a historical and architectural investigation of a less known and mixed type of Hindu temple style in the Bengal region. The Panishail temple complex has a collection of structures that include tomb, temples, and residences aged between fifty to two hundred years. Over the ages, these heritage buildings have displayed a unique architectural style of ancient Bengal and still serving as a living sacred landscape heritage. However, like most of the ancient monuments of Bangladesh, Panishail structures inside this complex stand against the threat of decay and anthropogenic destruction with no effort to conserve them. There is a need for immediate action of research, exploration and preservation to save this historic landmark. This research aims to investigate historic and physical features of the temple complex through a systematic survey and documentation effort. This research will lay a foundation for future conservation intervention on this site. Moreover, this work will significantly contribute to historic temple architecture study in Bangladesh.
Fri, 16 November 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0375.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: environmental literacy; environmental pollution; awareness; attitude; Yazd
Online: 16 November 2018 (05:19:57 CET)
Introduction: Different factors such as rapid growth of population, urbanization and industrialization of communities have detrimental effects on the environment. In regard to the importance of the environment and its fundamental role in sustainable development along with the awareness and attitude of the people of Yazd which has not yet been assessed, this study aims to assess the level of awareness, attitude and environmental literacy of the people of Yazd in relation to environmental issues and challenges in the year 2017. Materials and methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, the sample size was obtained from 410 Yazd city residents through prior studies and the Cochran formula. The sample was then selected by the stratified random sampling method. The data selection tool was a questionnaire with questions on demographic characteristics, awareness level, attitude and practices in relation to menopause. The data was analyzed upon collection by the SPSS-20 software and Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, and Chi-Square non-parametric tests along with the Spearman correlation test. In this study, the significance level was considered as 0.05. Results: In this study, a total of 404 questionnaires were completed and evaluated. Based on the obtained results, 224 individuals (55.4%) male, 53.3% married, 31.2% had at least a bachelor’s degree and the majority of individuals (40.1%) were in the 18-27 age group. In terms of area of residence, 64.1% reside in region 2. From all the participants, 51.3% of the participants believed that the main environmental issue in Yazd was water deficiency and pollution. The awareness score was statistically significant with the age, education level and employment status variables. Attitude only had significant relationship with the employment status variable. The relationship between the practices score was statistically significant with the age, marital status, and area of residence variables. There is a significant relation between age, income level and knowledge level but there is no significant relation with attitude levels. There is no significant relation between gender, education level, marital status, area of residence, awareness and attitude levels (p-value > 0.05). There is a positive correlation between awareness, attitude and practices scores. The results indicated that the attitude score of most participants (51.5%) was lower than the average score but the awareness and practices score of most participants was average. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, although the awareness of Yazdi citizens on some environmental issues and institutions that are active in the environmental pollution control field in the country appears low, but in general, the awareness of the people of Yazd, specifically regarding health issues stemming from pollution was assessed as adequate. Considering the importance of environmental factors’ role in communities’ health and its continuous improvement, due to the expansion of automated life namely in large cities within the country, it is necessary to conduct various researches to identify and control these factors and to carry out interventional studies to determine suitable solutions before implementing them.
Wed, 14 December 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0141.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: REDD+; climate change; forests; Ghana; Nigeria; West Africa; political ecology
Online: 14 December 2016 (08:08:28 CET)
This paper analyses the design and implementation of REDD+ in the West African region, an important global biodiversity area. Drawing on in-depth interviews, analysis of policy documents and observation of everyday activities, we sought to understand how REDD+ has been designed and implemented in Nigeria and Ghana. We draw on tools from political ecology to examine how, and why REDD+ takes the form it does in these countries. We focus on three key dimensions that emerged as strong areas of common emphasis in our case studies -- capacity building, carbon visibility, and property rights. First, we show that, while REDD+ design generally foregrounds an ostensible inclusionary politics, its implementation is driven through various forms of exclusion. This contradictory inclusion-exclusion politics, which is partly emblematic of the neoliberal provenance of the REDD+ policy, is also a contingent reality and a strategy for navigating complexities and pursuing certain interests. Second, we show that though the emergent foci of REDD+ implementation in our case studies align with global REDD+ expectations, they yet manifest as historically and geographically contingent processes that reflect negotiated and contested relations among actors that constitute the specific national circumstance of each country. We conclude by reflecting on the wider implications of these findings for understanding REDD+ implementation more broadly.
Sat, 23 July 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0070.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Self-Action Leadership (SAL), SAL model, SAL theory, nomological, existential growth, organizational (or corporate) citizen, SAR project, SAL project, step-habit, Self-Declaration of Independence, Self-Constitution
Online: 23 July 2016 (10:26:10 CEST)
In 2015, the Self-Action Leadership Theory—a qualitative, nomological expansion of self-leadership theory rooted in atmospheric and astronomical metaphor aimed at expanding the personal freedom of individuals, organizations, and nations by bolstering the existential growth of individuals through a series of Maslow-esque stages of holistic, personal development. This article introduces an accompanying, practitioner-based Model of Self-Action Leadership (SAL) aimed at the implicit enhancement of a holistic range of administrative processes through explicit training, mentoring, and coaching in the model’s general and universally-applicable principles and practices. The SAL model produces an original construct of personal leadership practice that builds upon the extant self-leadership academic canon, which dates back to 1983 (Manz, 1983). It also provides an analogue to four of the five core processes of Project Management by positioning a self-action leader (an individual) as the ongoing “project” at hand. The SAL Model is rooted in action research and was developed through a variety of self-oriented, action research projects in conjunction with a comprehensive, qualitative, analytical autoethnographic study of a scholar’s life experiences.
Thu, 10 December 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0260.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Community Radio; Holistic Development; Integrated Development; Sustainable Development; Community Radio Practices
Online: 10 December 2020 (12:59:05 CET)
Community radios play a paramount role in the development of the community. Community radio stations have been highly engaged in addressing social, economic, cultural, educational, health, environmental, sanitation, and disaster issues effectively and strategically using local languages in context. Community radios are also used to express, and share indigenous views, thoughts, ideas, problems, and perspectives of local people. The purpose of this analysis is to explore the role of community radio for integrated and sustainable development in Ethiopia. It used a systematic narrative review. Nine research works and five assessments report were selected purposively and analyzed in a quantitative approach. Currently, in Ethiopia, there are 50 community radio stations that received broadcast licenses from Ethiopian Broadcast Authority with four types of licensing and broadcasting in 29 local languages. Community radio helps the community to identify their common goals, create holistic plans, monitor the progress of their developmental activities, and guide on sustainable development. It contributes to integrated and sustainable development in a collaborative and creative process that cultivates the social, economic, and political conditions needed for the community to succeed which aimed to improve and sustain the livelihoods of the community. However, the media can’t achieve its target goal to support the development activities and bring holistic development of the community. As a result; this review paper focuses on reviewing how Ethiopians use community radios for holistic development. And it suggested the way how we can use community radios for the prospective holistic development in Ethiopia.
Thu, 13 October 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0047.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: psychopathy; Machiavellianism; parental style; gender differences; socialization theories
Online: 13 October 2016 (05:25:48 CEST)
Psychopathy and Machiavellianism are two components of the Dark Triad including personality traits such as egoism, coldheartedness and deceitfulness. While psychopathy and Machiavellianism possess some etiological differences, prior investigations showed similarities regarding the onset of these personality traits, namely in the field of parental behavior. The present study investigated potential correlations between psychopathy and Machiavellianism traits in adulthood, alongside reports of parental behavior during childhood. A community sample from Hungary (N = 70) was recruited and completed the Machiavellian Personality Scale (MPS), the Mach-IV inventory (Mach-IV), the Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (SRPS) and the Short-EMBU (s-EMBU). No strong correlations were found between parental behaviors and psychopathy or Machiavellianism. However, positive correlations were found between the Machiavellian measures and the measures of psychopathy by subtypes. Analysis of the gender differences between the psychopathy and Machiavellianism revealed a positive correlation for primary psychopathy and Machiavellianism for both gender, as well as a positive correlation between secondary psychopathy and Machiavellianism for males only. Results are explained in terms of gender differences in socialization. Further implications and limitations are discussed.
Tue, 9 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0091.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: sustainable waste management behaviors; protection motivation theory; pro-environmental behaviors; threat appraisal, coping appraisal
Online: 9 August 2016 (10:29:00 CEST)
This study aims to explain individual engagement in sustainable waste management behaviors (SWMBs) based on the application of protection motivation theory (PMT). SWMBs include waste avoidance, green purchasing behavior, reuse and recycle, and waste disposal behaviors. This study applies PMT to explore how individuals’ SWMBs are influenced by their perceived threats caused by environmental contamination from waste disposal and their perceived coping capability. The Bangkok metropolitan area was selected as a case study because it has faced serious waste management problems caused by massively increasing amounts of solid waste during the last ten years. Questionnaire surveys were conducted with 193 public and private officers residing in the city of Bangkok. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to justify the effect of individual threat appraisal and coping appraisal on the engagement in SWMBs. The results demonstrated that respondents’ self-efficacy highly influenced all types of SWMBs. The perceived probability of being impacted from pollutants influenced all of the SWMBs except green purchasing behaviors. Response efficacy did not influence all SWMBs; however, the perceived severity of adverse consequences caused by pollutants highly influenced reuse and recycle behaviors. It could be suggested that PMT is well suited for investigating low-cost and simple SWMBs. It could also be suggested that different communication campaigns should be established to enhance citizens’ engagement in each type of SWMB.
Fri, 8 November 2019
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0088.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: systematic review; second language acquisition; research interests; second language teaching and learning
Online: 8 November 2019 (04:21:41 CET)
The purpose of this systematic review is to provide second language acquisition (SLA) researchers with an overview of research trends in this field in the last ten years (2009-2019). In doing so, three international peer-reviewed journals, Studies in Second Language Acquisition, Language Teaching Research, and The Modern Language Journal, were selected. 150 articles were systematically selected and analyzed. The analysis of data resulted in identifying six descriptive themes. Results showed that some areas of second language acquisition still need further exploration while some areas are of great interest for researchers. Some suggestions for future research as well as implications of the study were discussed in detail.
Mon, 13 November 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0078.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Keywords: excessive fertilization; agro environment; rental land; traditional way; younger farmers; environmental consciousness
Online: 13 November 2017 (16:14:39 CET)
Abstract: The study focuses on how socio-economic and demographic indicators affect fertilization sustainability (excessive amount of fertilization). Principally we aim to examine the significance magnitude of the effects of three socio-demographic variables such as traditional way of fertilization, rental land farming, and farmers’ younger age on over-fertilization in Bangladesh and other developing countries. In 1960s, Bangladesh state authority launched a campaign ‘Grow more Food’ to feed huge numbers of population and thus the farmers are provided chemical fertilizers and pesticides at a subsidized low price. Farmers began to use huge amount of fertilizers for gaining high yields and continued it to present causing environmental woes a lot. We interview (face-to-face, focus group discussion, and phone interview) 210 Bangladesh farmers in 2016 by semi-structured questionnaire. Data has been analyzed using General Linear Model (GLM) in Univariate Analysis of Variance. The study found the effect of traditional way of fertilization on excessive amount of fertilization is strongly significant at 1% level. Apart from, rental land farming and farmers’ younger age have a significant influence on over- fertilization; though their significance level (5% and 10% respectively) is quasi-strong. Policy makers can be able to formulate fertilizer policy on the basis of these findings.
Wed, 26 July 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0071.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: social exchange theory; structural equation modeling; tourism development
Online: 26 July 2017 (06:32:58 CEST)
Background: Tourism is one of the prominent industry that has a capability to generate handsome income for developed as well as developing countries. However, the study to investigate specifically the perception of local residents towards tourism is still lacking. The perception of the locals is important since it could determine the extent of their support for tourism development. Plus, previous research found that male residents are more support better towards the tourism development. Thus, this factor is adapted as well in this study to examine whether this gender may influence to the tourism industry. 2) Methods: This study used Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) technique for determining the structural estimates between constructs. 3) Results: The respondents agree that positive perception, negative perception and tourism impact has a significant impact on support for tourism development in which has been recognized as Social Exchange Theory model. Moreover, the finding also revealed that gender has a potential to moderates the causal effect of tourism impact on tourism development. 4) Conclusion: The resident understand the tourism sector could strengthen economic nation but they also want the natural resources should be protected.
Mon, 8 January 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0064.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: restoration experience; Biophilia Hypothesis; Stress Recovery Theory (SRT); Attention Restoration Theory (ART); Supportive Environment Theory (SET)
Online: 8 January 2018 (10:58:02 CET)
Contact with nature is suggested to be as an important resource for human health and well-being. Stress alleviation and reduction of mental fatigue are main instances of improvement of human health and well-being in contact with nature. Although the term restoration experience in contact with nature has been used repeatedly for concepts of stress alleviation and reduction of mental fatigue, these refer to different sets of theories and research studies. In this paper, by reviewing the nature-health related theories of Biophilia, Stress Recovery Theory, Attention Restoration Theory and Supportive Environment Theory (SET), the similarities and differences between these two concepts have been discussed. Moreover, the measurement approach instruments based on different study methodologies and aims are provided. This paper could provide information for future studies with focus on factors to be of benefit for restoration experience in design and planning of natural landscape environments with the aim of health and well-being development.
Mon, 8 July 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0122.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: food allergy, food allergen, fruits, seafood, nut and milk
Online: 8 July 2019 (14:32:18 CEST)
Food allergy has been recognised by the World Health Organisation as a chronic disease that could lead to fatality. The symptoms can mediate from mild to severe consequences. Some cases have reported that food allergy sufferers are bullied and are discriminated at workplace, thus increasing their stress level, apart from facing difficulty in consuming certain food due to allergy. This has an adverse effect on the quality of life amongst food allergy sufferers. Medical bills are increased when food allergy sufferers become unknowingly exposed to food allergen. Hence, this study investigated food allergens among food allergy sufferers in order to make their lives better. A total of 250 respondents participated in an online survey. Surprisingly, apart from chicken, soybean and other food allergens that have been listed under the Big Eight Allergens, the respondents mentioned some fruits that could trigger allergic reactions, such as rambutans and watermelons. Food allergy sufferers can be allergic to seafood and seafood products as well, such as shrimp paste or locally known as belacan, which refers to fermented shrimp paste cured under the sun. It is a common food ingredient used among Malaysians. The study findings offer practical insights, such as avoidance of food allergens amidst food allergy sufferers and help the government to carefully manage for menu planning. The knowledge contribution of this study reveals several specific food and fruits, as aforementioned, which appear to be common and nutritious food, yet harmful to food allergy sufferers.
Wed, 29 August 2018
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0505.v1
Online: 29 August 2018 (15:52:44 CEST)
Background: Alcohol is a psychoactive substance that leads to dependence and harmful drinking in worldwide. Alcohol use is the most prevalent among age from 13 to 29 year particularly in high school, college, and university students. It affected students mentally, physically, economically and their social issues. In low and middle-income countries particularly in Ethiopia, there is lack of data in systematic review and meta-analysis regarding the prevalence of alcohol use and associated factors among students. Methods: We will search studies using computerized search engine, main electronic databases and other applicable sources. PubMed/Medline, Global Health, Africa-wides, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and direct Google search will be searched to retrieve studies written in English language from 2010 to 2017. Observational studies (case control, cross-sectional, cohort or longitudinal survey, and surveillance reports) on the prevalence of alcohol use and associated factors among students in Ethiopia will be eligible. Data will be extracted by two authors independently. Data synthesis and statistical analysis will be carried out. Pooled estimate will be done to determine the prevalence of alcohol use by using comprehensive meta-analysis software. Protocol registration PROSPERO: 2017: CRD42018083222.
Thu, 11 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0116.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: gaelic football; Australian rules football; performance analysis; player recruitment
Online: 11 August 2016 (10:32:35 CEST)
It has often been said that Gaelic football (GF) and Australian Rules Football (ARF) are similar sports, and amateur Gaelic footballers have been recruited to play in the professional Australian Football League. Using Wilcoxons’s test, the significant (p < 0.05) factors differentiating winning and losing performance in ARF were indirectly compared to the differentiating factors between winning and losing in GF. Of the 15 key performance indicators (KPIs) that were seen to be significant between ARF teams, six (40 %) were also seen to be significant in discriminating between winning and losing GF teams. A Mann-Whitney U test was then completed to directly compare ARF and GF, twenty-six of the 30 KPIs were seen to be significantly different to each other (p < 0.05). The findings suggest that recruiting a Gaelic footballer based on the belief that their Gaelic background will aid their transition to ARF is not an appropriate decision. Instead, staying with more traditional methods of talent identification – for example anthropometric measurements – is advocated until further research is undertaken in this area.
Tue, 23 August 2016
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0191.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: nhst; p-values; apa; content mining; tdm; errors
Online: 23 August 2016 (10:33:53 CEST)
In this data deposit, I describe a dataset that is the result of content mining 167,318 published articles for statistical test results. As a result of this content mining, 688,112 results from 50,845 articles were extracted. In order to provide a comprehensive set of data, the statistical results are supplemented with metadata from the article they originate from. The dataset is provided in a comma separated file (CSV) in long-format. For each of the 688,112 results, 20 variables are included, of which seven are article metadata and 13 pertain to the individual statistical results (e.g., reported and recalculated p-value). A five-pronged approach was taken to generate the dataset: (i) collect journal lists, (ii) spider journal pages for articles, (iii) download articles, (iv) add article metadata, and (v) mine articles for statistical results.
Wed, 17 August 2016
COMMENT | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0166.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Regional inequality; Multilevel regression; Markov chain; Guizhou Province
Online: 17 August 2016 (12:58:58 CEST)
This study analyses regional development in one of the poorest provinces in China, Guizhou Province, between 2000 and 2012 using a multiscale and multi-mechanism framework. In general, regional inequality has been declining since 2000. In addition, economic development in Guizhou Province presented spatial agglomeration and club convergence, which shows how the development pattern of one core area, two-wing areas and a contiguous area at the edge of the province have been developed between 2006 and 2012. Multilevel regression analysis revealed that industrialization and investment level were the primary driving forces of regional economic disparity in Guizhou Province. The influences of marketization and decentralization on regional economic disparity were relatively weak. Investment level reinforced regional economic disparity and the development of core-periphery structure in the province. However, investment level actually weakened the regional economic disparity in Guizhou Province when the variable of time was considered. In addition, both the topography and urban–rural differentiation were the two main reasons for forming a core-periphery structure in Guizhou Province.
Sat, 30 November 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0380.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: TESOL; English teaching; ESL; EFL; teaching methodology research interests
Online: 30 November 2019 (04:41:57 CET)
This paper provides a systematic review of the research around teaching English as a second or foreign language over the last ten years. The review aims to help second and foreign language researchers to recognize the trends that have impacted English teaching and learning research. More than 400 articles from four leading journals (TESOL Journal, TESOL Quarterly, ELT Journal, and Second Language Research) were reviewed to examine the trends and method that were used. The findings suggested that the research interests in the TESOL field have changed as many topics and trends have risen based on students’ academic and social needs. Topics such as teaching methodology, digital literacy, and using technology to teach English have dominated the research during the last decade.
Mon, 4 December 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0020.v1
Online: 4 December 2017 (08:27:41 CET)
This article will examine the ambivalence in the views of Jewish authorities towards suicide. There are Jewish rulings which forbid the taking of one's own life, including requested euthanasia. There are seemingly contrary rulings which tolerate and sometimes admire suicide, particularly under conditions of religious persecution. The article will attempt an overview of suicide rates in Jewish communities, indicating variations in different circumstances. The question of whether religiosity affects suicide will be raised and examined. These variations—and of course other factors—may offer some clues to the precursors of suicide, and the processes which may be involved. The causal and risk factors in self-harm among Jews will also be examined. The article then turns to post-suicide events, behaviours and attitudes in Jewish communities.
Wed, 2 October 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0030.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: Pakistan; Rahim Yar Khan; female employment; gender discrimination
Online: 2 October 2019 (10:52:18 CEST)
As a traditional Muslim country, the problem of gender discrimination in employment among women in Pakistan is more common. If we let it develop without taking measures, it will seriously restrict the speed and quality of Pakistan’s domestic economic development in the long run. In this study, the author obtained the first-hand information on the employment status of professional women in the Rahim Yar Khan region of Pakistan through questionnaire survey, supplemented by the public data of the Federal Statistical Office of Pakistan, and combined with the existing research results of the predecessors. Sex discrimination in employment of professional women in Pakistan. Through the collection of the data obtained from the questionnaire, the author found that economic factors are one of the main factors that cause local women to encounter gender discrimination in employment. Specifically, it includes the imbalance of labor supply and demand and the pursuit of maximum profits. At the same time, the traditional Muslim culture, women's own literacy and the imperfect legal system in Pakistan are also the key factors that cause female employees in the local area to encounter gender discrimination in employment. Women’s gender discrimination in employment is a universal problem. In any country in the world, gender discrimination may exist as long as women are involved in the work. Based on Pakistan's basic national conditions and relevant professional knowledge, the author provides several suggestions for eliminating the problem of gender discrimination in employment for local female employees in Pakistan. 1) The Pakistani government should further promote the domestic economic growth, increase the number of jobs, and ease the imbalance between the supply and demand of labor. At the same time, encourage self-employment and provide corresponding policy support. A variety of measures are also intended to address local gender discrimination in employment for women. 2) The government's leadership accelerates the transformation of the concept of the whole society. On the one hand, it requires the whole society to correctly understand the social status and social contribution of women, and strives to bring the concept of equality between men and women into the hearts of the people. It is intended to encourage qualified women to go out of the family to participate in social work. At the same time, correctly guide corporate values. Enterprises should not unilaterally pursue the maximization of interests, and should take the initiative to assume social responsibilities. 3) Women should also actively and consciously improve their literacy. Including not only active learning advanced cultural knowledge and professional skills. For the professional skills that have already been mastered, you must study harder and make yourself more and more progressive. At the same time, families should guarantee that girls of the appropriate age receive the education they deserve, so that they can gather their strengths in the workplace in the future.
Fri, 12 October 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0274.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: Bilingual program; Academic performance; Learning competence; English proficiency; Student workload
Online: 12 October 2018 (14:51:07 CEST)
Despite the rapid adoption of bilingual programs (English-Chinese) in China's higher education institutions (HEIs), concerns have been raised on perceived language hindrance to students’ academic comprehension and then performance. In response to this, this paper investigates the effects of bilingual instruction on content-based learning and provides empirical evidence after testing related influential factors in bilingual environment. Analyzing a sample of 498 undergraduate students enrolling in a fundamental business course in a sample university in China, we find insignificant statistical difference in students' academic performance between bilingual and L1 classes. We attribute this to the English language support provided by the university and show that learning competence can help students to minimize language barrier and furthermore solve the common learning problems confronted by both bilingual and L1 students. Overall, our paper aims to identify key determinants of students' academic performance in bilingual instruction and provide policy implication for developing desirable bilingual programs in HEIs.
Mon, 29 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0226.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: educational impacts; emotional impacts; behavioral impacts; psychological impacts; physical impacts; religious impacts
Online: 29 August 2016 (12:24:27 CEST)
Cartoons in the era of digital media are among the most prevalent medium of entertainment for the children, parents also encourage them to view such contents to engage the children which make an area need to be explained exhaustively by adopting new approaches. There are lot of studies in the past conducted to explain the impacts of the cartoons on the children however, it is remarkable fact that there is lack of the studies in the literature which directly address the observation about the above mentioned impacts in view of the teacher’s. This study deals with the educational, emotional, behavioral and Religious etc. impacts of cartoons on kids in view of teachers of the primary schools as they are considered as the one who can observer these impacts in a profound way. of the of Multan. Different areas of impacts have been analyzed in this study by using survey technique and analysis is conducted and presented in the teacher’s views in this study to examine what they feel that how cartoons are effecting the personalities of the children.
Thu, 17 September 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0393.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: Code-switching; Gender difference; Bilingualism
Online: 17 September 2020 (10:35:52 CEST)
As a behavior of bilingual individuals and an indispensable part of bilingual speech, code-switching has been investigated by many researchers. However, there are many variables influencing code-switching, and each variable has the potential to be a confounding variable. Among these variables is the gender; however, whether there are significant gender differences and what are the gender differences in code-switching remains unknown for Mandarin Mandarin-English child bilinguals, as previous literature diverse on the existence of gender differences. Therefore, this paper seeks potential code-switching and distribution of code-switching by quantitative analysis of speech data in Singapore Bilingual Corpus. The results indicate that gender differences are significant in the amount of intra code-switching. However, neither considerable gender difference is observed in the amount of inter nor the code-switching related environment.
Sat, 15 February 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0201.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: Developing country; Awareness towards SDGs; Literacy Rate
Online: 15 February 2020 (14:56:38 CET)
Aim of this study is to gather information regarding the sustainability development goals from the public as well as the organizations of Pakistan. A sample of 500 respondents each from five main cities including employs and general public is selected for their opinion regarding sustainability development goal. The level of awareness as well as level of commitment towards the fulfilment of Sustainable Development Goals varies across the cities of Pakistan due to difference in literacy level. The commitment to achieve Sustainable Development Goals of the organizations across the selected cities varies according to the nature of the business, volume and the membership with the United Nations. This study provides the policy makers with the ground level data regarding the awareness and commitment of Pakistan based organizations and public towards SDGs fulfilment. A glance towards the attitudes of the people towards the subject matter could also be seen through this study. This a comprehensive study conducted at federal and provincial level of Pakistan which has yielded ground realities towards the implementation of SDGs. The results could be used for policy making and planning at national level and also serve as bench mark for other countries.
Thu, 27 August 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0601.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: deep structure and surface structure; Idealized Cognitive Model (ICM); Transformational Generative Grammar (TGG); counterintuitive compound words; usage frequency
Online: 27 August 2020 (08:42:16 CEST)
This study attempts to classify compound words on the basis of Cognitive Linguistics and compares their usage trends using Computational Linguistics. Using Noam Chomsky’s concept of deep and surface structures of a sentence, Lees treated compound words, not as separate units but as a kind of embedded sentences and hinted for possible presence of deep and surface structures in compound words, which this study tries to investigate. Then on the basis of the Idealized Cognitive Model proposed by Lakoff and Fauconnier, compound words have been classified into transparent, opaque and counterintuitive compound words. Using Google Books Corpus, this study also compares their usage trends. This is done using usage frequency, defined in this work, which is analogous to productivity for affixed words calculated by G.E.Booij. Each class of compound word formed on the basis of ICM is found to have different usage frequency. The possible reasons for this are discussed.
Fri, 6 October 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0047.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: psychopathy; Machiavellianism; parental style; gender differences; socialization theories
Online: 6 October 2017 (15:23:37 CEST)
Recent findings support an association between childhood maltreatment and the presence of elevated psychopathic traits in adulthood. Using a community sample recruited online (N = 210), we sought to (1) confirm the relationship between childhood traumas and psychopathic traits, and (2) investigate the role of parenting styles in psychopathic traits. Consistent with our predictions, we found an association between all types of childhood traumas and disinhibition. Age and gender moderated the relations between psychopathic traits and childhood maltreatments. Parental rejection and overprotection were positively correlated with the presence of psychopathic traits, while parental emotional warmth was negative correlated. Although our results converge with previous findings, the strength of the correlations observed was not as compelling as in research on undergraduate students. We discuss the numerous interpretations for our findings, and highlight the limitations of research in the field of psychopathy and childhood trauma in the general population.
Mon, 24 April 2017
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0152.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: suicide; suicidal mental imagery; flash-forwards; intrusions; preventive intervention; eye movement dual task (EMDT)
Online: 24 April 2017 (11:59:53 CEST)
Suicide and suicidal behavior are major public health concerns and affect 3-9% of the population worldwide. Despite growing evidence, there are still few effective interventions available to reduce suicide risk. In this article, we describe theoretical models of suicide ideation and behavior and propose to examine the possible effectiveness of a new and innovative preventive strategy. A model of suicidal intrusion (mental imagery related to suicide, also referred to as suicidal flash-forwards) is presented describing one of the assumed mechanisms in the etiology of suicide and the mechanism of therapeutic change. We provide a brief rationale for an Eye Movement Dual Task (EMDT) treatment for suicidal intrusions describing techniques that can be used to target these suicidal mental images and thoughts to reduce overall behavior. Based on the available empirical evidence for the mechanisms of suicidal intrusions, this approach appears to be a promising new treatment to prevent suicidal behavior as it potentially targets one of the linking pins between suicidal ideation and suicidal actions.
Mon, 10 September 2018
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0149.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: sensory processing sensitivity; highly sensitive person; highly sensitive child; differential susceptibility; environmental sensitivity; temperament; personality; aetiology; animal model; neuroscience; cognition; mental health
Online: 10 September 2018 (04:58:01 CEST)
Sensory Processing Sensitivity (SPS) is a trait describing inter-individual differences in sensitivity to environments, both positive and negative ones. SPS has attracted growing societal interest. However, (neuro)scientific evidence is lagging behind. We critically discuss how to measure SPS, how it relates to other theories of Environmental Sensitivity and other temperament and personality traits, how SPS interacts with environments to influence (a)typical development, what the underlying aetiologies and mechanisms are, and its relation to mental disorders involving sensory sensitivities. Drawing on the diverse expertise of the authors, we set an agenda for future research to stimulate the field. We conclude that SPS is a heritable, evolutionarily conserved trait, linked to increased risk for psychopathology and stress-related problems in response to negative environments, as well as to greater benefits (e.g., intervention responsivity, positive mood) in positive environments. We need advances in objective assessment of SPS, understanding mechanisms, differentiating it from (seemingly) related mental disorders, to exploit the potential of SPS to improve mental health, preserve human capital, and prevent adverse effects.
Mon, 16 March 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0380.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Infodemiology; COVID-19 infodemic; social contagion; collective perceptual bias; collective behavioral propensities; psychological typhoon eye effect
Online: 16 March 2020 (15:12:33 CET)
Less aligned emphasis has been given to the COVID-19 infodemic coordinating with the COVID-19 outbreak. Global profusion of tangled monikers and hashtags has found their ways in daily communication and contributed to backlash against Chinese. Official naming efforts against infodemic should be meet with a fair share of identification. Based on brief critical reviews on previous multifarious naming practices, we punctuate heuristic introspection in scientific conventions and sociocultural paradigms. Infodemiological analysis promises to articulate that people around the globe are divided in their favor stigmatized monikers in the public and scientific communities because of perceptual bias. There is no positive correlation between the degree of infection in their territories and collective perceptual bias to COVID-19. The official portfolio “COVID-19” and “SARS-CoV-2” has not become de facto standard usages, but full-fledged official names are excepted to duly contribute to the resilience of negative perceptual bias and collective behavioral propensities.
Thu, 30 April 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0550.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: COVID-19; strategic management; scenario analysis; response plans; lockdown
Online: 30 April 2020 (22:47:23 CEST)
Global pandemic COVID-19 is in stage 4 of widespread local transmission in Bangladesh- the country which did not have a noteworthy health policy and legislative structures to combat COVID-19 like a pandemic. Early strategic planning and groundwork for evolving and established challenges are crucial to assemble resources and react in an appropriate timely manner. This article, therefore, focuses on the public perception of comparative lockdown scenario analysis and how they may affect the sustainable development and the strategic management regime of COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh socioeconomically. Response from 159 respondents was collected via a purposive sampling survey method through a questionnaire, and 54 statements were collected for scenario analysis. Datasets were analyzed through a set of statistical techniques including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), hierarchical Cluster Analysis (CA), Pearson’s correlation matrix (PCM), Linear regression analysis (LRA), and psychometric characteristics were included in the Classical Test Theory (CTT) analysis. There were good associations among the lockdown scenarios and response strategies to be formulated. A strong significant positive relationship was observed between people who will start moving towards regular life and the formal and informal economic activities will be started in lockdown scenario 1(r=0.671, p<0.01). The scenario one describes how the death and infection rate will increase if Govt withdraw the partial lockdown before 40 to 50 days. Scenario 2 outlines people’s movement will enable low-level community transmission of COVID-19 with the infection and death rate will increase slowly (r=0.540, p<0.01). Moreover, there will be less supply of necessities of daily use with a price hike (r= 0.680, p<0.01). Scenario 3, full lock down will reduce the community transmission and death from COVID-19 (r=0.545, p<0.01). Moreover, along with the other problems gender discrimination and gender-based violence will increase rapidly (r=0.661, p<0.01). Form regression analysis, due to full lockdown, the formal and informal business, economy and education sector will be hampered severely (R=0.695), there was a strong association between the loss of livelihood and unemployment rate will increase due to business shutdown (p<0.01) and poor communities both in urban and rural areas will be affected severely (p<0.01).All these will further aggravate the humanitarian needs of the most vulnerable groups in the country in the coming months to be followed which needs to be dealt with proper response plans. It will undoubtedly affect the targets of global sustainable development goals (SDGs) of 2030 and all other development targets.
Thu, 22 December 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0112.v1
Online: 22 December 2016 (09:48:05 CET)
This paper advances privacy theory through examination of online shaming, focusing in particular on persecution by internet mobs. While shaming is nothing new, the technology used for modern shaming is new and evolving, making it a revealing lens through which to analyze points of analytical friction within and between traditional conceptions of privacy. To that end, this paper first explores the narrative and structure of online shaming, identifying broad categories of shaming of vigilantism, bullying, bigotry and gossiping, which are then used throughout the paper to evaluate different angles to the privacy problems raised. Second, this paper examines shaming through three dominant debates concerning privacy - privacy’s link with dignity, the right to privacy in public places and the social dimension of privacy. Certain themes emerged from this analysis. A common feature of online shaming is public humiliation. A challenge is to differentiate between a humbling (rightly knocking someone down a peg for a social transgression) and a humiliation that is an affront to dignity (wrongly knocking someone down a peg). In addition, the privacy concern of shamed individuals is not necessarily about intrusion on seclusion or revelation of embarrassing information, but rather about the disruption in their ability to continue to participate in online spaces free from attack. The privacy interest therefore becomes more about enabling participation in social spaces, enabling connections and relationships to form, and about enabling identity-making. Public humiliation through shaming can disrupt all of these inviting closer scrutiny concerning how law can be used as an enabling rather than secluding tool.
Tue, 7 June 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0093.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: higher education; sustainability; enrollment; graduation; unemployment
Online: 7 June 2022 (04:06:44 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to investigate trends in undergraduate enrollment, graduation, and employment in Ethiopia. It looked at data from the past 20 years of enrollment and graduation, as well as the 15 years of unemployment trends. For enrollment, we used the ARIMA(0,1,0) model, for graduation, the Holt-Winter model, and unemployment, the Simple model. Results showed that enrollment rates increased dramatically, but graduation rates remained constant. Besides, enrollment is expected to continue rising, while graduation rates are expected to fall. On the other hand, between 1999 and 2018, the overall unemployment trend declined. Yet, between 2009 and 2018 the unemployment trends stayed stable. According to the findings, for the next ten years, higher education enrollment and graduation will continue. Nevertheless, it is shown the diminishing demand for jobs in the labor market. As part of improving the existing realities of higher education, the study suggests reconsidering job-driven policy formulation, strengthening higher education-labor market alignment, controlling higher education expansion, and sustaining the development qualification systems.
Wed, 29 August 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0497.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: Journal ranking; Publication; Mathematical Algorithm; Academic Research; Promotion; Quantitative; Developing Countries.
Online: 29 August 2018 (13:10:13 CEST)
Academic publishing appears to be the most important key of the academic functions (academic research, excellence in teaching and learning and community services). Selecting the right journal to publish research results is a challenge to academics. Yet, there is inadequate knowledge about a model specifically directed at the topic of the journal selection process with a mathematical certainty. The objectives of this research are: to identify the main factors that an author or researchers consider when selecting an academic journal for submitting a manuscript, and, to develop a mathematical algorithm of journal selection that provide the best journal choice with a mathematical certainty based on difficulty of each factor. Quantitative research through questionnaires has been applied as an appropriate instrument base to address the researcher’s identification of the factors that should be considered when selecting a journal. Questionnaire developed and emailed to academics in 31 public and private universities in the developing countries. Academics reported that the most important publication difficulty factors were publishing in reputable journals, and publishing in a journal that has an impact factor. However, the most least publication difficulty factors were found to be: number of issues per year and if the journal is an open access. The proposed mathematical algorithm of journal’s publication difficulty factors was developed and tested.
Fri, 5 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0046.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: visual symmetry; affine projection; fractals; visual sensation; aesthetics; preference
Online: 5 August 2016 (05:15:32 CEST)
Evolution and geometry generate complexity in similar ways. Evolution drives natural selection while geometry may capture the logic of this selection and express it visually, in terms of specific generic properties representing some kind of advantage. Geometry is ideally suited for expressing the logic of evolutionary selection for symmetry, which is found in the shape curves of vein systems and other natural objects such as leaves, cell membranes, or tunnel systems built by ants. The topology and geometry of symmetry is controlled by numerical parameters, which act in analogy with a biological organism's DNA. The introductory part of this paper reviews findings from experiments illustrating the critical role of two-dimensional design parameters and shape symmetry for visual or tactile shape sensation, and for perception-based decision making in populations of experts and non-experts. Thereafter, results from a pilot study on the effects of fractal symmetry, referred to herein as the symmetry of things in a thing, on aesthetic judgments and visual preference are presented. In a first experiment (psychophysical scaling procedure), non-expert observers had to rate (scale from 0 to 10) the perceived beauty of a random series of 2D fractal trees with varying degrees of fractal symmetry. In a second experiment (two-alternative forced choice procedure), they had to express their preference for one of two shapes from the series. The shape pairs were presented successively in random order. Results show that the smallest possible fractal deviation from "symmetry of things in a thing" significantly reduces the perceived attractiveness of such shapes. The potential of future studies where different levels of complexity of fractal patterns are weighed against different degrees of symmetry is pointed out in the conclusion.
Wed, 22 July 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0500.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: INGOs; democratization; funding; developing-countries; better-living
Online: 22 July 2020 (05:49:17 CEST)
The paper examines the impact of INGOs on the democratization of developing countries. Following the ‘end of history,’ the INGOs multiplied globally, and the number of aids to developing countries was given through them in billions of dollars in the past three decades. It is envisaged that with the increase in their population, the developing countries will be better off with a standard form of living that is attributable to standard democratization. However, despite the billions of dollars spent, the citizens of the developing countries are still worse in poverty, poor leadership, and corruption. On the contrary, some countries, including Nigeria, are threatening legislation that will curtail the INGOs, sighting their opacity and lack of tangible results as reasons. The research used Nigeria as a case study to analyze the methods, approaches, and the capacity of these INGOs and how they affect the democratization of their host countries. Through a review of existing records, non-participatory observations, and reviews of conference proceedings. The paper analyzed the parallel gaps that exist by arguing that, taking a broad, multi-disciplinary method from the various works of literature studied will provide essential conceptual and practical insights that can inform current debates.
Fri, 6 July 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0118.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: smart library; smart city; library marketing; public library; academic library
Online: 6 July 2018 (14:13:31 CEST)
Can the smart city provide a new perspective for public and academic libraries? How does the smart city impact the libraries as cultural and scientific assets? And how can libraries contribute to the development of the smart city? An overview of recent library models, like the learning center or the green library, reveals affinities with the concept of the smart city, especially regarding the central role of information and the integration of technology, people and institution. From this observation, the paper develops the outline of a new concept of the smart library which can be described on four dimensions, i.e. smart services, smart people, smart place and smart governance. However, the smart library concept does not constitute a unique model or project but a process, a way how to get things done, less linear, less structured, more creative and innovative. Also, smartness may not be a solution for all library problems.
Thu, 4 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0030.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: occupational stress; job burden-capital model; structural equation model; depression; well-being
Online: 4 August 2016 (12:47:57 CEST)
Background: This study aimed to identify the association between occupational stress and depression-well-being by proposing a comprehensive and flexible job burden-capital model with its corresponding hypotheses. Methods: For this research, 1618 valid samples were gathered from the electronic manufacturing service industry in Hunan Province, China; self-rated questionnaires were administered to participants for data collection after obtaining their written consent. The proposed model was fitted and tested through structural equation model analysis. Results: Single-factor correlation analysis results indicated that coefficients between all items and dimensions had statistical significance. The final model demonstrated satisfactory global goodness of fit (CMIN/DF=5.37, AGFI=0.915, NNFI=0.945, IFI=0.952, RMSEA=0.052). Both the measurement and structural models showed acceptable path loadings. Job burden and capital were directly associated with depression and well-being or indirectly related to them through personality. Multi-group structural equation model analyses indicated general applicability of the proposed model to basic features of such a population. Gender, marriage and education led to differences in the relation between occupational stress and health outcomes. Conclusions: The job burden-capital model of occupational stress-depression and well-being was found to be more systematic and comprehensive than previous models.
Wed, 10 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0106.v1
Online: 10 August 2016 (09:04:27 CEST)
People often say that beer tastes better from a bottle than from a can. However, one can ask whether this perceived difference is reliable across consumers; And, if so, whether it is purely a psychological phenomenon (associated with the influence of packaging on taste perception), or whether instead it reflects some more mundane physico-chemical interaction between the packaging material (or packing procedure/process) and the contents. We conducted two experiments in order to address these important questions. In the main experiment, 151 participants at the 2016 Edinburgh Science Festival were served a beer in a plastic cup. The beer was either poured from a bottle or can (i.e., a between-participants experimental design was used) and the participants were encouraged to pick up the packaging in order to inspect the label before tasting the beer. The participants rated the perceived taste, quality, and freshness of the beer, as well as their likelihood of purchase, and their estimate of the price. All of the beer came from the same batch (from Barney’s Brewery in Edinburgh). Nevertheless, those who evaluated the bottled beer rated it as tasting better than those who rated the beer that had been served from a can. Having demonstrated such a perceptual difference in terms of taste, we then went on to investigate whether people would prefer one packaging format over the other when the beer from bottle and can was served to a new group of participants blind (i.e., when the participants did not know the packaging material). The participants in this control study (N = 29) were asked which beer they preferred or else could state that the two samples tasted the same. No sign of preference was obtained under such conditions. Explanations for the psychological impact of the packaging format, in terms of differences in packaging weight (between tin and glass), and/or prior associations of quality with specific packaging materials/formats (what some have chosen to call ‘image molds’) are discussed.
Wed, 26 May 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0642.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: colours; preferences; personality traits; agreeableness; extraversion
Online: 26 May 2021 (13:45:15 CEST)
Colours are important features in human and natural environments and are related to several psychological functions. However, a possible relation between colour preferences and personality traits is scarcely investigated. The aim of the present study was to find out whether differences in preferences for colours also reflected differences in Big Five personality traits. The sample consisted of 206 individuals voluntarily recruited from a student sample. The participants chose one of six primary colours (blue, green, red, yellow, black, white) from the Natural Colour System (NCS) as their favorite colour. Personality traits were measured with the Big Five Inventory-44 (BFI-44. Blue and yellow was the most and least preferred chromatic colour, respectively. There were no gender differences in preferences for the chromatic colours, but more women preferred white and men preferred black. Compared to the rest of the sample, the blue group had higher scores on agreeableness and extraversion, and the red group had lower scores on agreeableness. Pairwise comparisons showed that the blue group had higher scores on agreeableness and extraversion than the red group, and higher scores on agreeableness compared to the green group. There were no significant personality differences for the other chromatic and achromatic colour groups.
Fri, 17 March 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0143.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: entrepreneur, individual entrepreneur, sole proprietor, economic subject
Online: 17 March 2017 (21:53:12 CET)
An entrepreneur is a business-able physical person who performs activities to gain the profit and who is registered according to law. Starting from the national and theoretical and legal solutions and court practice from comparative law, the authors analyze the concept and the legal position of an individual entrepreneur noticing the problems and inconsistencies in legal regulations. The authors of the work make a few conclusions and suggestions: 1) terminology is not coordinated with legal terminology from comparative law. In our law, the legal term is “entrepreneur”, which is a too wide and unspecified term because in economic profession this term represents the genus term for individual and collective entrepreneurship; 2) analyze all forbidden activities for entrepreneurs, judge the reasons pro et contra and work on eliminating prohibitions and favouring legal entities; 3) set by law the bankruptcy of an individual entrepreneur i.e. the individual bankruptcy of a physical person; 4) work on passing a separate legislation in the field of the individual entrepreneurship, especially on passing and changing the laws which would regulate handicrafts (including old crafts and jobs of home industry), free professions as well as agricultural activity.
Mon, 11 January 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0201.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Public Housing; Housing Affordability; Global Cities; Subsidized Ownership; Demand-Side Policies; Social-Welfare
Online: 11 January 2021 (14:35:49 CET)
Affordable Housing, the basic human necessity has now become a critical problem in global cities with direct impacts on people's well-being. While a well-functioning housing market may augment the economic efficiency and productivity of a city, it may trigger housing affordability issues leading crucial economic and political crises side by side if not handled properly. In global cities e.g. Singapore and Hong Kong where affordable housing for all has become one of the greatest concerns of the Government, this issue can be tackled capably by the provision of public housing. In Singapore, nearly 90% of the total population lives in public housing including public rental and subsidized ownership, whereas the figure tally only about 45% in Hong Kong. Hence this study is an effort to scrutinizing the key drivers of success in affordable public housing through following a qualitative case study based research methodological approach to present successful experience and insight from different socio-economic and geo-political context. As a major intervention, this research has clinched that, housing affordability should be backed up by demand-side policies aiming to help occupants and proprietors to grow financial capacity e.g. subsidized rental and subsidized ownership can be an integral part of the public housing system to improve housing affordability.
Tue, 28 July 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0681.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Government Keywords: asymptomatic disease; communicability; COVID-19; death rate; Ro; SARS-CoV-2; social distancing; transmission rate; infection rate; quarantine
Online: 28 July 2020 (11:57:26 CEST)
Decisions affecting the COVID-19 pandemic, by the individual and those with highest authority, are being made on the basis of unreliable data. Data about cases and deaths are collected daily but represent only a sample of reality. Statistics convert sample data into more reliable estimates. However, statistics have no magical powers; reliability requires dependable data. It is futile to rail against this darkness; COVID-19 is not a scientific experiment. However, we must do better both with data collection and data analysis. In this review, I focus on one element of the data, the asymptomatic case of COVID-19. Without reliable information about this number, decision makers are significantly blinded. By its nature, the asymptomatic case is hidden but contaminating to understanding COVID-19. The true case rate and death rate per case are unknowable without knowing the fraction of cases that are asymptomatic. The best estimate of asymptomatic cases is in the CDC document: COVID-19 Pandemic Planning Scenarios. For four different scenarios the estimates range from 10% to 70%, with the best estimate of 40% for asymptomatic cases. However, even the definition of the asymptomatic case is problematic. In simplest terms, two elements are required: an infection and no symptoms. How is “no symptoms” to be usefully defined? It appears to be analogous to pontificating about black swans from studying only white swans. It implies infection, but how is infection defined? Is it presence of the virus, replication of the virus, or presence of antibodies? Is asymptomatic disease an oxymoron? Without extensive, purposeful screening for specifically defined, essential symptoms and appropriate virus and antibody testing over time, the class of asymptomatic cases remains unknown. Current estimates range from <20% to ˃80%. If low, it can be ignored; if high, it dramatically and proportionately lowers the case rate and the death rate per case. Consequentially, the asymptomatic rate dramatically affects our societal and political responses. In this focused review, we assess the limitations of the published estimates, bring attention to the importance of obtaining accurate data, and exhort that high priority be given in the scientific community to understanding the issue, asymptomatic COVID-19 cases.
Sun, 28 July 2019
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0323.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: biophilia; biophilic design; sustainability; sustainable architecture; built environment; well-being; restorative environment
Online: 28 July 2019 (17:24:11 CEST)
Can ‘restoration and therapy in design’ signify something more than the places like hospitals and healing gardens? Can those restorative environments be brought inside the working and living environments to mitigate the psychological problem at the source? The main objective of this paper is to look at the strategies and developments of Biophilic design with respect to therapy and restoration in order to achieve sustainability in terms of quality of life within the immediate built-environment. The paper explores the mental health issues under the domains of built-environment and indoor environment with respect to their connection with nature. Biophilic design has gained a favourable momentum within the last four decades and is now visualised as a medium that bridges the gap between humans and the nature. Out of a variety of measures of sustainable environmental design, biophilic design focuses on the end-results of naturally nurtured or inspired habitats and workplaces. It embodies strategies of Green and Intelligent buildings, works as a mitigation strategy for foul indoor environment and establishes the vision that veristic sustainability can only be achieved if there is qualitative control over human physiological prosperity and psychological health. In context of work efficiency, preference and productivity within the indoor environment, it is seen as a promoter of constructive thoughts and enhancer of creativity. The paper aims to enlist biophilic design and retrofitting strategies, which can improve cognitive function, reduce stress and provide mental peace within the built environment.
Tue, 18 April 2017
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0103.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: suicide prevention; e-mental health; implementation; fundamental research; ecological momentary assessment; experience sampling; network analysis
Online: 18 April 2017 (03:24:13 CEST)
Suicidal behaviour remains difficult to predict and prevent, even for experienced mental health care professionals. The known distal risk factors for suicidal behaviour are not sufficiently specific to fully understand the complex dynamic processes that precede a suicide attempt. Real-time mobile monitoring data can be used to analyse proximal risk mechanisms within the suicidal process. At the same time smartphone-based safety planning and self-monitoring may enhance a patient’s self-management skills thereby increasing their capacity to respond to a suicidal crisis and to become more aware of crisis symptoms. The current paper describes the theoretical and conceptual rationale for the CASPAR study which applies an innovative approach to the study of suicidal processes. It uses basic science approaches to inform the implementation of an innovative suicide prevention intervention. We aim to develop and implement mobile safety plan in conjunction with real-time monitoring in order to both directly implement suicide prevention interventions and to study the ongoing dynamics of individual suicidal behaviour by applying network analysis.
Thu, 23 August 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0420.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Government Keywords: communication model, volcanic eruption, contingency planning, risk management, Sinabung
Online: 23 August 2018 (16:06:15 CEST)
This study aims to find a communication model of contingency plan for disaster risk management of Sinabung Volcano eruption, in North Sumatera. The object of the research is communication and coordination across the government, non-government organization, and community. This study used planning theory, the concept of communication planning, and types of disaster management plan as tools for analysing. Descriptive qualitative is used as the method. Data collection was obtained from the focus group discussion (FGD), in-depth interviews, observation, and study documentation. There are three stages in descriptive qualitative research that is data reduction, data presentation, and conclusion. An analysis was conducted qualitatively on the program and competence actors. The results found the communication model of disaster risk management through documents of contingency planning to overcome the threat of Mount Sinabung eruption. During the emergency response period a core model was used to reduce the impact of the Mount Sinabung eruption. The contingency plan becomes the Karo District Government’s document. This document were authorized by an authorized official and is ready to be applied to the Emergency Response Operation Plan. Plans for emergency response operations are carried out based on information regarding damage and the need to obtain results of a quick review. Contingency plans are submitted to the legislature for political commitment and support and budget allocation.