REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0311.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: zoonotic pathogens; mathematical algorithms; machine learning; deep learning
Online: 17 August 2022 (08:57:27 CEST)
Globally, zoonotic diseases have been on the rise in recent years. Predictive modelling approaches have been successfully used in the literature to identify the underlying causes of these zoonotic diseases. We examine the latest research in the field of predictive modeling that verifies the growth of zoonotic pathogens and assesses the factors associated with their spread. The results of our survey indicate that popular mathematical models can successfully be used in modeling the growth rate of these pathogens under varying storage temperatures. Additionally, some of them are used for the assessment of the inactivation of these pathogens based on various conditions. Based on the results of our study, machine learning models and deep learning are commonly used to detect pathogens within food items and to predict the factors associated with the presence of the pathogens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0153.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Pathogens host; zoonotic disease; rodents; Bartonella; Borrelia crocidurae; Anaplasmataceae; Piroplasmida; Hepatozoon.
Online: 11 February 2020 (15:22:11 CET)
Rodents are known to be reservoir hosts for at least 60 zoonotic diseases and are known to play an important role in their transmission and spreading in different ways. We sampled different rodent communities within and around human settlements in Northern Senegal, an area subjected to major environmental transformations associated with global changes. Herein, we conducted an epidemiological study on their bacterial communities.One hundred and seventy-one (171) invasive and native rodents were captured, 50 from outdoors trapping sites and 121 rodents from indoors habitats, consisting on 5 species. DNA of thirteen pathogens have been successfully screened on the rodent’s spleens. We found: 2.3% of positive spleens to Piroplasmida and amplified one which gives a potentially new species Candidatus “Theileria senegalensis”; 9.35% of Bartonella spp. and amplified 10, giving three genotypes. 3.5% of filariasis species; 18.12% of Anaplasmataceae species and amplified only 5, giving a new potential species Candidatus “Ehrlichia senegalensis”; 2.33 % of Hepatozoon spp.; 3.5% of Kinetoplastidae spp; and 15.2% of Borrelia spp. and amplified 8 belonging all to Borrelia crocidurae.Some of the species of pathogens carried by the rodents of our studied area may be unknown because most of those we have identified are new species. In one bacterial taxon, Anaplasma, a positive correlation between host body mass and infection was found. Overall, male and invasive rodents appeared less infected than female and native ones, respectively.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: One Health; zoonotic disease; zoonotic disease control; anthrax; brucellosis; rabies; rift valley fever; zoonotic influenza
Online: 24 September 2021 (14:19:16 CEST)
Effectively preventing and controlling zoonotic diseases requires a One Health approach that involves collaboration across sectors responsible for human health, animal health (both domestic and wildlife), and the environment, as well as other partners. Here we describe the Generalizable One Health Framework (GOHF), a five-step framework that provides structure for using a One Health approach in zoonotic disease programs being implemented at the local, sub-national, national, regional, or international level. Part of the framework is a toolkit that compiles existing resources and presents them following a stepwise schematic, allowing users to identify relevant resources as they are required. Coupled with recommendations for implementing a One Health approach for zoonotic disease prevention and control in technical domains including laboratory, surveillance, preparedness and response, this framework can mobilize One Health and thereby enhance and guide capacity building to combat zoonotic disease threats at the human-animal-environment interface.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0103.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: lyssavirus; rabies; RAVB; zoonotic
Online: 6 September 2018 (04:45:21 CEST)
Aims: To review canine rabies, mass parental vaccination, human post-exposure prophylaxis, gene therapy and costs for fighting rabies. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Animal Science – Other, Nelwan Institution for Human Resource Development, Indonesia, between December 2017 and March 2018. Methodology: The author searched the Pubmed Database at NCBI for articles on rabies disease published between 2007 and 2018. All articles were open access and in English. For rabies virus examination, Seller’s test was used. In this article, references written by the author and other relevant publications were included. The author reviewed a rabies dog case kept at Nelwan Institution for Human Resource Development. Results: The dog showed clinical signs such as inappetance, urinary frequency and soaking in a small, juicy drain. Currently, to treat rabies, no drugs are available. For rabies prevention, vaccination is the best way. To eradicate rabies, mass vaccination in dogs, post-exposure prophylaxis, and gene therapy should be used. Fort rabies disease eradication, minimum of 70% of the dog population should receive the vaccination. In addition, humans with category II exposure should receive a rabies vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin. Conclusion: To eradicate rabies, vaccinations are required. In addition, gene therapy can eliminate rabies from the infected neurons by using rAAV-N796. CRISPR/Cas9 system in combination with the MMEJ-based method. Furthermore, mass parental vaccination, post-exposure prophylaxis, and gene therapy can reduce costs in controlling rabies disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0694.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: H9N2; influenza; aerosol; interspecies; zoonotic; pandemic
Online: 30 July 2021 (10:13:42 CEST)
Influenza A viruses (IAV) are widespread viruses affecting avian and mammalian species worldwide. Outbreaks of IAV in poultry are usually associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, significantly affecting the poultry industry and food security. IAVs from avian species can be transmitted to mammals including humans and, thus, they are of inherent pandemic concern. Most of the efforts to understand the pathogenicity and transmission of avian origin IAVs have been focused on H5 and H7 subtypes due to their highly pathogenic phenotype in poultry. However, IAV of the H9 subtype that circulate endemically in poultry flocks in some regions of the world have also been associated with cases of zoonotic infections. As a result, the World Health Organization includes avian origin H9N2 IAV among the top in the list of IAVs of pandemic concern. In this review, we discuss the interspecies transmission of H9N2 between avian and mammalian species and the molecular factors that are thought relevant for this spillover. Additionally, we discuss factors that have been associated with the ability of these viruses to transmit through the respiratory route in mammalian species.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0085.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: H9N2; avian influenza viruses; zoonotic; pandemic potential; poultry
Online: 11 June 2019 (07:44:44 CEST)
H9N2 avian influenza viruses have become globally widespread in poultry over the last two decades and represent a genuine threat both to the global poultry industry but also humans through their high rates of zoonotic infection and pandemic potential. H9N2 viruses are generally hyperendemic in effected countries and have been found in poultry in many new regions in recent years. In this review we examine the current global spread of H9N2 avian influenza viruses as well as their host range, tropism, transmission routes and the risk posed by these viruses to human health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0475.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Mathematical model; SARS; COVID-19; Superspreaders; Viral outbreaks; H7N9; Influenza; zoonotic
Online: 4 August 2020 (04:53:24 CEST)
Despite great advances in understanding the dynamics of viral epidemics, the emergence of rapidly spreading, highly pathogenic viruses remains a realistic and catastrophic possibility, which current health systems may not be able to fully contain. An intriguing feature in many recent zoonotic viral outbreaks is the presence of superspreaders, which are infected individuals that cause dramatically more new cases than the average. Here I study the effect of superspreaders on the early dynamics of emerging viruses that have not gained the capacity for efficient human-to-human transmission, i.e viruses with R0 < 1. I show that superspreaders have a higher chance of rapid extinction, but under crowded conditions can lead to outbreaks, causing far more cases than regular viruses. I suggest that outbreaks of highly pathogenic superspreaders are more likely when they coincide in time and space with an unrelated outbreak leading to increased hospital admission rates. These superspreader outbreaks may be difficult to detect, especially in the context of a different epidemic in progress, and can significantly affect mortality patterns observed in affected areas.
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Schistosoma japonicum; Schistosoma mekongi; NTD; epidemiology; economics; sociology; mathematical modelling; zoonotic transmission
Online: 8 February 2022 (14:12:51 CET)
Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease acquired through contact with contaminated freshwater. The definitive hosts are terrestrial mammals, including humans, with some Schistosoma species crossing the animal-human boundary through zoonotic transmission. An estimated 12 million people live at risk of zoonotic schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma japonicum and Schistosoma mekongi, largely in the World Health Organization’s Western Pacific Region and in Indonesia. Mathematical models have played a vital role in our understanding of the biology, transmission, and impact of intervention strategies, however, these have mostly focused on non-zoonotic Schistosoma species. Whilst these non-zoonotic-based models capture some aspects of zoonotic schistosomiasis transmission dynamics, the commonly-used frameworks are yet to adequately capture the complex epi-ecology of multi-host zoonotic transmission. However, overcoming these knowledge gaps goes beyond transmission dynamics modelling. To improve model utility and enhance zoonotic schistosomiasis control programmes, we highlight three pillars that we believe are vital to sustainable interventions at the implementation (community) and policy-level, and discuss the pillars in the context of a One-Health approach, recognising the interconnection between humans, animals and their shared environment. These pillars are: (1) human and animal epi-ecological understanding; (2) economic considerations (such as treatment costs and animal losses); and (3) sociological understanding, including inter- and intra-human and animal interactions. These pillars must be built on a strong foundation of trust, support and commitment of stakeholders and involved institutions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0193.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; HIV; zoonotic viruses; COVID-19 and AIDS pandemics; viral entry
Online: 8 April 2021 (10:51:11 CEST)
SARS-CoV-2 and HIV are zoonotic viruses that rapidly reached pandemic scale causing global losses and fear. The COVID-19 and AIDS pandemics ignited massive efforts worldwide to develop antiviral strategies and characterize viral architectures, biological and immunological properties, and clinical outcomes. Although both viruses have a comparable appearance as enveloped viruses with positive-stranded RNA and envelope spikes mediating cellular entry, the entry process, downstream biological and immunological pathways, clinical outcomes, and disease courses are strikingly different. This review provides a systemic comparison of both viruses’ structural and functional characteristics delineating their distinct strategies for efficient spread.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0270.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: predation; spillover; transmission; disease ecology; cross-species transmission; pathogens; contact behavior; zoonotic disease
Online: 10 December 2020 (17:50:01 CET)
Predator-prey interactions present heightened opportunities for pathogen spillover, as predators are exposed to novel parasites through consumption of prey harboring potentially infectious agents. Epizootics with high morbidity and mortality have been recorded following prey-to-predator spillover events with significant conservation implications, particularly for sensitive species. However, relatively few virulent infections following prey consumption are reported, given the very large number of exposures that presumably occur. Further, many transmitted agents are infectious but clinically silent and thus go unrecognized. Mechanisms that determine outcome of predator exposure to prey-based pathogens therefore represent an important, understudied component of disease dynamics that should be considered in modeling approaches and empirical research to better understand disease risk and emergence, particularly in vulnerable or threatened species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0403.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: zoonotic; corona virus; COVID-19; SARS; MERS; global health emergency; India; lockdown strategies
Online: 24 May 2020 (19:34:03 CEST)
Global emerge of zoonotic novel corona virus (COVID-19) became a pandemic and its effect to mankind is talk of the town now a days. This tiny, invisible enemy has affected every country in the world and almost every living directly or indirectly and nationwide complete lockdown has triggered a short-term environmental impact. Since 2003, corona virus came into existence in the form of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and more evolved Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in 2012. This time, at the end of December 2019, outbreak of novel corona virus COVID-19 (also known as SARS-CoV2, nCoV-2019) draw attention as global health emergency. World Health Organization (WHO) report says that the outbreak of this virus is so immense, it has already affected 35,57,235 people and caused death to 2,45,150 people worldwide and 46,433 Indians got affected with 1568 death as on 5th May 2020 (2:00 am) and these numbers are increasing exponentially day by day. Virologist, micro-biologist and science community are hammering their head very hard to find out cure and vaccine against this powerful virus and to prevent mass demise of mankind. In order to curb the spread of COVID-19, Janta curfew on 22.03.2020 and nationwide complete lockdown was implemented in India for 21 days (phase-I, from 25.03.2020 to 14.04.2020) to stop community transmission of third stage, for 19 days (phase-II, 15.04.2020 to 03.05.2020) and 14 days (phase-III, 04.05.2020 to 17.05.2020) complete lockdown to minimize the community transmission effect. During complete lockdown and quarantine period a drastic change in Earth’s atmosphere, including reduction in emission of greenhouse gases, air pollution (~50% fall in air quality index), noise pollution, water pollution and solid waste pollution, have been recorded by government agencies as well as private agencies. In this paper we considered data of Janta curfew, phase-I and phase-II lockdown to link between geological and environmental aspect related to environmental impact due to emerge of COVID-19 and massive reduction in pollution level during complete lockdown in India. We propose future lockdown strategies to minimize the emission of greenhouse gas by ~100 Mt to ~200Mt (3.33% to 6.66%) of GHGtotal per year by 2-4 days per month nationwide lockdown or ~70 Mt to ~140 Mt (2.33% to 4.66%) of GHGtotal per year by 2-4 days per month complete lockdown of energy sectors only.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0284.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; RT-PCR; antibody; zoonotic; animal transmission; genomics; asymptomatic fraction; herd immunity
Online: 23 June 2020 (13:30:11 CEST)
Since December 2019, a rapid increase in the number of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) cases was reported worldwide, despite strict infection control and lock down measures. Current paper investigated the actual facts behind this rapid increase in the number of cases. Study of genomic sequence reveals that domestic and wild animals were likely ancestors and zoonotic source for SARS-CoVs, MERS-CoVs, and SARS-CoV-2. Strong evidence suggest that these viruses already existed and replicated in animals and humans during past several decades, exhibiting diverse mutations, evolutions and self-limiting diseases, except during outbreaks. Serious zoonotic reservoir investigations are required to investigate animal transmission of SARS-CoVs and SARS-CoV-2 to limit current pandemic. This might be the reason of increasing number of cases via animals. SARS-CoV-2 has been retrospectively isolated in different studies in August 2019, several months before Wuhan announced. Hence, there is a possibility that viruses existed, went undetected, infecting subclinically, in past several years, and SARS-CoV-2 antigens and neutralizing antibodies may have been present in humans since long time. This might be another reason of increasing number of cases by screening as mass screening and antigen or antibody testing was not carried out in the past years. Randomized controlled trials are required to investigate human to human transmission by touch, as the current evidence is limited with conflicting results. As all SARS-CoVs are basically respiratory viruses, droplet precautions and infection control measures are essential, especially for hospital staff. Increased number of SARS-CoV-2 asymptomatic, or subclinical cases are detected worldwide. This silent phase of transmission can be beneficial for humans. Lack of symptoms eventually lessen virus transmission and reduce the pathogen's long-term survival and provide humoral herd immunity up to several years. Hence, seropositivity with diverse antibodies develops against mutating SARS-CoVs which will confer strong immunity during epidemics. Strategies such as identification, contact tracing and quarantine are costly and practically difficult. Hence, asymptomatic persons can continue their work with droplet precautions and standard infection control procedures, while symptomatic or sick persons can isolate themselves in their homes without the need for strict quarantine until clinical recovery, with reduced hospital visits and minimizing chances of hospital acquired infections. RT-PCR has low sensitivity and specificity, carries a high risk of handling live virus antigens, and requires difficult protocols. As viral load also sharply declines after few days of onset of infection, this technique might overlook infection. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 infection may be present in blood when oropharyngeal swabs are negative by RT-PCR. Additionally, RT-PCR usually gives false negative and false positive results and must be interpreted cautiously. This might be again a reason of increasing number of cases by false positive RT-PCR reporting. Moreover, antibodies against SARS-CoVs develop robustly in serum even by reduced amount of antigens. In contrast to RT-PCR, ELISA for diagnosing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 demonstrates 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity, even in clinically asymptomatic individuals. These antibodies can be used for serologic surveys, monitoring and screening. However, screening tests for SARS-COV-2 should be avoided in unhygienic public places by nasopharyngeal swabs, which carry a high risk of further transmission, co-infection or superinfection. Such highly infectious virus must be isolated and tested in highly sterilized laboratory. Further strict international laws and policies are required to stop the possible spread of experimental viruses, biological warfare and bioterrorism.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0058.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Emerging infectious diseases; coronaviruses; COVID-19; SARS-CoV; SARS-CoV-2; MERS-CoV; zoonotic diseases
Online: 3 September 2020 (04:54:38 CEST)
The ongoing global pandemic caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has once again demonstrated the significance of the Coronaviridae family in causing human disease outbreaks. As SARS-CoV-2 was first detected in December 2019, information on its tropism, host range, and clinical presentation in animals is limited. Given the limited information, data from other coronaviruses may be useful to inform scientific inquiry, risk assessment and decision-making. We review the endemic and emerging alpha- and betacoronavirus infections of wildlife, livestock, and companion animals, and provide information on the receptor usage, known hosts, and clinical signs associated with each host for 15 coronaviruses discovered in people and animals. This information can be used to guide implementation of a One Health approach that involves human health, animal health, environmental, and other relevant partners in developing strategies for preparedness, response, and control to current and future coronavirus disease threats.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0315.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: protocol; review; zoonosis; zoonotic diseases; infectious diseases; burden of diseases; DALY; zDALY; monetary burden; animal losses
Online: 21 July 2022 (08:12:41 CEST)
Background: When we talk about zoonoses, it is undeniable that we have a human and animal population that has been isolated in studies over time. Besides human and animal health, zoonoses also impact the economy and society. Therefore, the integration of the analysis in this area is essential to optimize resources in public health decisions. We have new challenges in public health that we need to overcome in a more comprehensive method such as One Health. For better measures in public health, the dual burden of zoonoses seems a logical way to determine the integral impact of such diseases in society and thus take better measures to prevent and reduce the impact of these diseases. Methods: We follow the guidelines for “Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). We search human and animal zoonoses on Embase, Ovid Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar, from an unrestricted period until November 2021. For the search, we consider the Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) for the human zoonotic burden and the animal zoonotic burden in monetary terms. A librarian collaborates to optimize the search string for the databases, and two reviewers screen eligible articles (first by title, then by abstracts, and finally, by full-text assessment.) For the analysis, we aim to convert the burden of zoonoses of all selected studies into the zoonotic Disability Adjusted Life Years (zDALYs) – including the human and animal components. Discussion: The study results will provide information on published studies that have accounted for the dual burden of zoonoses (both human and animal health aspects.) In addition, the synthesis of the available literature will address the knowledge gap in this area in order to know to what extent it is possible to convert the burden of human zoonoses to the animal burden of zoonoses and integrate them into a more comprehensive approach (dual burden of zoonoses.)
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: zoonotic risk; viral emergence; viral ecology; genomics; machine learning; access and benefit sharing; intellectual property law; global health
Online: 7 April 2021 (11:53:59 CEST)
In light of the urgency raised by the COVID-19 pandemic, global investment in wildlife virology is likely to increase, and new surveillance programs will identify hundreds of novel viruses that might someday pose a threat to humans. Our capacity to identify which viruses are capable of zoonotic emergence depends on the existence of a technology—a machine learning model or other informatic system—that leverages available data on known zoonoses to identify which animal pathogens could someday pose a threat to global health. We synthesize the findings of an interdisciplinary workshop on zoonotic risk technologies to answer the following questions: What are the prerequisites, in terms of open data, equity, and interdisciplinary collaboration, to the development and application of those tools? What effect could the technology have on global health? Who would control that technology, who would have access to it, and who would benefit from it? Would it improve pandemic prevention? Could it create new challenges?
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0590.v2
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: African swine fever virus (ASFV); Pork shortage; Alternative meat consumption; Wildlife; Human-animal contact; Zoonotic spillover; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 25 January 2022 (10:01:12 CET)
The spillover of a virus from an animal reservoir to humans requires both molecular and ecological risk factors to align. While extensive research both before and after the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in 2019 implicates horseshoe bats as the significant animal reservoir for the new human coronavirus, it remains unclear why it emerged at this time. One massive disruption to animal-human contacts in 2019 is linked to the on-going African swine fever virus (ASFV) pandemic. Pork is the major meat source in the Chinese diet. We hypothesize that the dramatic shortage of pork following large-scale culling and restrictions of pig movement (resulting in marked price increases) led to alternative sources of meat and unusual animal and meat movements nationwide, e.g., involving wildlife, and thus greatly increased opportunities for human-sarbecovirus contacts. Pork prices were particularly high in southern provinces (Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian, Jiangxi, Hunan, and Hubei), where wildlife is farmed and more frequently consumed. Major wildlife farming provinces are spread from Northern to Southern China, which overlaps with horseshoe bat host ranges, potential hosts of the proximal SARS-CoV-2 ancestor, and wildlife sourcing provinces of Wuhan Huanan market and possibly other markets. Trading of SARS-CoV-2 susceptible wildlife in these markets, such as minks, raccoon dogs, foxes and palm civets in Wuhan markets, could have increased the risk of SARS-CoV-2 from an intermediary host. Moreover, large quantities of animals raised for fur could have entered the human food chain undetected and significantly increased risks of animal-human contact. Performing retrospective testing of stored susceptible animals and their meat sold before December 2019 may be helpful in the next stage of tracing the animal origin of SARS-CoV-2 as spillover events are more likely to have taken place in 2019 when China was experiencing the worst effects of the ASFV pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0397.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: group A rotavirus gastroenteritis; emerging zoonotic viral diseases; leopardus tigrinus and leopardus pardalis; endangered neotropical rain forest felids; rehabilitation of injured or orphaned native wild cats
Online: 19 August 2020 (08:06:31 CEST)
Rotaviruses are highly infectious and typically transmitted by fecal-oral route via in the tropics and leading the cause of diarrheal deaths in children of developing countries, besides causing significant economic impacts like neonatal disease agents of domestic animals. This present report aims to present the clinical and diagnostic findings of two confirmed cases of rotavirus (RV) infection in orphaned Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775) and Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758), the first register of the infection by group A rotavirus in these species. Both felids were rescued in the Pará State Amazon Brazil by the IBAMA (the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources), and treated by veterinarians into intensive care ward in a public Environmental Park of Belém city. After the adaptation period to the quarantine, these animals showed non-specific symptoms of acute fulminant gastroenteritis. Rotavirus group A antigen was identified in blood and faecal samples of L. tigrinus analyzed by immunochromatography (ICG) and immunoassay methods (ELISA) at the Virology Laboratory of the Institute Evandro Chagas. The animals died within few days during the clinical exacerbation unresponsive to current treatment, its necropsies and histopathological analysis were performed in the Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology of the Federal Rural University of Amazonia (UFRA). Despite the compatible pathologic findings of rotavirus infection in both animals, the atypical hemorrhagic character was a curious finding, considering the presumed etiology.