ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0272.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: HIV; AIDS; vulnerable group; young people; trainee teachers; health education
Online: 11 February 2021 (09:39:21 CET)
Discriminatory attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS are prevalent. A Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS report (2019) indicated that more than 50% of the people surveyed in one of the studies spanning 26 countries expressed unfavorable attitudes towards HIV-positive people. The objective of this study was to assess the attitudes of senior Education Studies students at a university in Spain towards people with HIV/AIDS so as to propose specific educational interventions. The study employed a quantitative methodological approach; a questionnaire with a 14-item attitude score served as the analytical instrument. The study sample comprised 613 students from the School of Education at the University of Huelva, Spain. The results showed that more than 50% of the School’s senior students had discriminatory attitudes towards HIV-positive people, some of whom were fellow classmates. This study proposes several formative approaches to reducing the stigma suffered by HIV-positive people, while also improving senior students’ skills and capabilities in the field of health promotion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0152.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: SARS-CoV2; COVID-19; homeless people; public health; vulnerable population; Seroprevalence, cohort; residential mobility
Online: 11 January 2022 (17:20:14 CET)
Most vulnerable individuals are particularly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study takes place in a large city in France. The aim of this study is to describe the mobility of the homeless population at the begin-ning of the health crisis and to analyze its impact in terms of COVID-19 prevalence. From June to August 2020 and September to December 2020, 1272 homeless people were invited to be tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and virus in and completed questionnaires. Our data show that homeless populations are sociologically dif-ferent depending on where they live. We show that people living on the street were most likely to be relocated to emergency shelters than other inhabitants. Some neighborhoods are points of attraction for homeless peo-ple in the city while others emptied during the health crisis, which had consequences for virus circulation. People with a greater number of different dwellings reported became more infected. This first study of the mo-bility and epidemiology of homeless people in time of pandemic provides unique information about mobility mapping, sociological factors of this mobility, mobility at different scales and epidemiological consequences. We suggest that homeless policies need to be radically transformed since actual model exposes people to infection in emergency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0033.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: emotional-intelligence; life-skills; vulnerable-populations
Online: 5 October 2022 (10:55:00 CEST)
Children living in residential care homes (RCH) often present conditions of abandonment due to separation, abuse and mistreatment; circumstances that are detrimental to proper emotional development, resulting in poor self-confidence, aggressive behaviors, low self-esteem, anxiety, among other developmental problems. Additionally, pandemic lockdown hinders access to mental health services for RCH service providers, and limits children to external mental health support and resources. The objective of this study was to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a remote-applied Emotional-Intelligence-based intervention program (RA-EIBI) for children living in RCH during pandemic lockdown. A non-parametric pre-test, treatment, post-test comparative design was used to evaluate effectiveness of the intervention program. Seven children living in RCH during pandemic lockdown were initially assessed using Evaluation of Neurological Soft Signs, and Empathy Quotient (EQ-I) to estimate emotional intelligence quotient. A 10 session RA-EIBI program was designed and applied to the children after initial assessment, and a final evaluation was conducted to perform related samples comparisons. Results shown a non-significant mean increase of intrapersonal, interpersonal, stress management, adaptability, and emotional state, all emotional intelligence-related skills. A RA-EIBI program is an accessible resource for RCH, and children living under this condition. EI skills were maintained along the social isolation period due to COVID-19. Followup of emotional conditions of children demonstrated an improvement in self-perceived well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0077.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: STEAM; Teaching and learning; Sumak Kawsay; vulnerable
Online: 6 September 2021 (07:17:49 CEST)
The research is based on the question: Can teaching/learning methodologies help to achieve the objective of Sumak Kawsay in Ecuador? a STEAM work approach was applied in technical high school students and higher education students (technological), in order to determine the level of impact in terms of project generation, following the entire process, from the generation of ideas to the linking of projects with society, The analysis was carried out in students from 15 to 22 years old in two institutions in the city of Cuenca, using the method of intentional sampling and the systematic review of scientific articles in the Scopus and Google academic databases of the last 3 years, to determine the level of impact of the prototypes pub-lished in indexed journals. The most striking aspect of the results is that of the 260 students surveyed, only 19.6% of students consider that there are STEAM teachers in the classroom, and only 56.92% of students manage to link their work with society, one of the recommended strategies being the publication of scientific articles and participation in congresses disseminating the high impact work done by students in the classroom.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0402.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Tuberculosis; Vulnerable populations; Homeless Persons; Substance-Related Disorders
Online: 31 March 2022 (08:05:32 CEST)
Abstract: (1) Background: tuberculosis presents an epidemiological trend towards inequality, especially among people in social exclusion and situations of vulnerability. To analyze territories where there is a concentration of people diagnosed with tuberculosis, in a street situation, and who make chronic use of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs. We will also analyze trends in this health condition in southern Brazil; (2) Methods: Ecological study, developed in the 399 municipalities of Paraná, Southern Brazil, with all tuberculosis cases in the homeless population registered in the Information System of Notifiable Diseases between 2014 to 2018. For data analysis, we used descriptive statistics, for the time series, the Prais-Winsten autoregression method, whereas for spatial analysis, we used the Getis-Ord Gi technique*; (3) Results: in total, 560 cases were reported. We found a predominance of alcohol, smoking, and illicit drugs users, with an increasing trend in the state and clusters of spatial risk in the East health macro-region; (4) Conclusions: We observed territories with critical levels of highly vulnerable people who use psychoactive substances and are in a street situation. The results highlight the importance of incorporating public policies of social protection to these individuals and resolutive health services that receive and assist in eradicating TB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0163.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: GIS and Remote sensing; Hazard; Risk; Vulnerable; Gedio Zone
Online: 12 May 2022 (08:50:27 CEST)
Abstract Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing played an important role in analyzing environmental and socio-economic drivers that created favorable condition for malaria breeding as well as in identifying hazard and risk areas. This study gives great emphasis on mapping malaria hazard and risk areas in Gedio zone of SNNPs using geospatial technology. The study identifies two major drivers like Environmental (physical) factors: which provide for the endurance of mosquitoes and Socio-economic factors. The above data were presented and analyzed quantitatively. The content analysis shows that Malaria hazard prevalence areas were mapped based on the environmental factors which are potential of providing good environmental conditions for mosquito breeding. The hazard map was produced using elevation, slope, proximity to breeding sites, and soil type as the factors for breeding mosquitoes. The malaria hazard analysis of the Gedio zone revealed that from the total area, 9.83%, 35.29% is mapped as a very high and high-risk area, whereas, the remaining 38.73%, a 16.14%, and 0.01% were mapped as moderate, low, very low level of malaria hazard respectively. The total area of the study area more than 1/3rd of the area is identified as a very high and high malaria risk area while the rest 2/3rd of an area is considered as a moderate to very low hazard risk zone. Accordingly, very high malaria risk area is found around towns because of population density. Finally, I recommend that the concerned body should have to expand health center, creating awareness of society, especially around populated areas where the risk is high and environmental and individual sanitation can reduce the risk of malaria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0475.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Climate change, vulnerable women, perception, adaptation, Bangladesh, high flood
Online: 20 May 2021 (10:23:39 CEST)
The contextual and risk perception of climate change plays a critical role in an individual’s decision-making process. It could also help people to respond appropriately to the consequences of global climate change and eventually take necessary adaptation actions. However, the perceptions of climate change are often gendered and vary among men and women. Therefore, this study explores different perceptions of climate change and its local adaptation options among ultra-poor vulnerable women, particularly in highly vulnerable flood-prone regions of Bangladesh. The research followed an empirical research methodology to collect primary and secondary information using qualitative and quantitative research tools. The study findings reveal that climate change perceptions at the individual level are relatively low (63%). Still, they have been observing significant changes in various climatic variables over the past 30 years. Moreover, this study identified some major adaptation options such as plinth raising (100%), livestock rearing (100%), homestead gardening (82%), seasonal migration (82%), and using indigenous knowledge (69%), and so on to tackle the adverse impacts of climate change-induced extreme events including flooding at the local level. For implementing these adaptation measures, the respondents spent a significant amount of financial resources from individual sources in the study area. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is used in addition to the statistical analyses to understand any connections between the climate change perceptions and other variables associated with the community under study. The SEM result shows that climate change will be a long–term problem, which offers a strong predictor in this model, considering standardized regression weight β= 0.56. It means, despite inadequate knowledge on climate change of the respondent’s, climate change is occurring and becoming the worst factor limiting cultural, economic, and environmental development in the study area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0402.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Urban streets; Aesthetics; Environment; Liveability; Safety; Vulnerable road users.
Online: 19 August 2020 (08:32:05 CEST)
(1) Background: A growing number of communities are re-discovering the value of their streets as important public spaces for many aspects of daily life, thus creating the need for a transformation in the quality of streets. An emerging concept is to accommodate all users of the transportation system, a concept that has been labelled ‘complete streets’. (2) Methods: In this paper, we present sustainable complete streets design criteria that integrate complete streets by adding in socio-environmental design criteria related to aesthetics, environment, liveability, and safety. (3) Results: Proposed design criteria provide a street network which provides improvements in aesthetics, to recover historical urban character and realize historical area planning goals; environment, to increase permeable surfaces, reduce the heat island, and absorb traffic-related air pollution; liveability, to create a public space destination in the urban landscape; and safety, to improve the safety of all road users. and (4) Conclusions: The case study of the urban rehabilitation of the “Mostra d’Oltremare” area and of its cultural and architectural assets in Naples, Italy, highlights the practical application of the proposed criteria and the possibility of using these criteria in other urban contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0306.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Microeconomics And Decision Sciences Keywords: income distribution; cost distribution; vulnerable region; adaptation measures; Bangladesh
Online: 22 May 2018 (12:54:33 CEST)
Widespread poverty is the most serious threat and social problem that Bangladesh faces. Regional vulnerability to climate change threatens to escalate the magnitude of this poverty. It is essential that projections of poverty be made while bearing in mind the effects of climate change. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the agrarian sub-national regional analysis of climate change vulnerability in Bangladesh under various climate change scenarios and its potential impact on poverty. This study is relevant to socio-economic research on climate change vulnerability and agriculture risk management and has the potential to contribute new insights to the complex interactions in household income and climate change risks to agricultural communities in Bangladesh and South Asia. The current study uses analysis of variance, cluster analysis, decomposition of variance and log-normal distribution to estimate the parameters of income variability that ascertain vulnerability levels and help us to understand the poverty levels that climate change could potentially incur. It is found that the income share in income sources revealed that income category shares across the various regions of Bangladesh are far from uniform. The variance decomposition of income showed that agricultural income in Mymensingh and Rangpur is the main cause of income difference. Moreover, large variance of agricultural income in the regions is induced by gross income from rice production. Additionally, constant reduction of rice yield due to climate change in Bangladesh is not such a severe problem for farmers, however, the extreme events like flood, flash flood, drought, sea level rise, and greenhouse gas emission based on RCPs could increase the poverty rates in Mymensingh, Rajshahi, Barisal, and Khulna regions that would be highly affected by unexpected yield loss due to extreme climatic events. Therefore, research and development of adaptation measures to climate change for regions where farmers are largely dependent on agricultural income is important.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0391.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Emigrants and Immigrants; Somatization disorders; Stress, Psychological; Primary Health Care; Vulnerable populations
Online: 13 November 2020 (16:20:01 CET)
The process of international migration causes a situation of vulnerability in people's health and greater difficulty in coping with disease. Furthermore, the adversities suffered during migration can trigger reactive signs of stress and cause anxious, depressive, confusional and somatic symptoms. This article studies the relationships between psychosocial risk, psychological distress and somatization in immigrants from 4 communities: Maghrebis, Sub-Saharans, South Americans and South Asian. A cross-sectional study was carried out with questionnaires on 602 immigrants who were surveyed in the Primary Care Centres of an urban area of Catalonia. The instruments used were the Demographic Psychosocial Inventory (DPSI), the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and the Somatic Symptom Inventory (SSI). The average psychosocial risk obtained was 0.35, with the highest values in the sub-Saharan community. Psychological distress showed a mean value of 0.66, with the sub-Saharan community scoring the lowest in all dimensions except depression. The average somatization values were 1.65, with the sub-Saharan community scoring the least. The female gender is a risk factor for somatization and psychological distress. Perceived psychosocial risk is a predictor of psychological distress, but not somatization, suggesting that the use of more adaptive coping strategies could minimize the effect of the migration process on somatizations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0566.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: transportation mode classification; vulnerable road users; recurrence plots; computer vision; image classification system
Online: 24 September 2020 (04:41:32 CEST)
As the Autonomous Vehicle (AV) industry is rapidly advancing, classification of non-motorized (vulnerable) road users (VRUs) becomes essential to ensure their safety and to smooth operation of road applications. The typical practice of non-motorized road users’ classification usually takes numerous training time and ignores the temporal evolution and behavior of the signal. In this research effort, we attempt to detect VRUs with high accuracy be proposing a novel framework that includes using Deep Transfer Learning, which saves training time and cost, to classify images constructed from Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA) that reflect the temporal dynamics and behavior of the signal. Recurrence Plots (RPs) were constructed from low-power smartphone sensors without using GPS data. The resulted RPs were used as inputs for different pre-trained Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) classifiers including constructing 227×227 images to be used for AlexNet and SqueezeNet; and constructing 224×224 images to be used for VGG16 and VGG19. Results show that the classification accuracy of Convolutional Neural Network Transfer Learning (CNN-TL) reaches 98.70%, 98.62%, 98.71%, and 98.71% for AlexNet, SqueezeNet, VGG16, and VGG19, respectively. The results of the proposed framework outperform other results in the literature (to the best of our knowledge) and show that using CNN-TL is promising for VRUs classification. Because of its relative straightforwardness, ability to be generalized and transferred, and potential high accuracy, we anticipate that this framework might be able to solve various problems related to signal classification.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0057.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: atherosclerosis; biomechanics; border detection; coronary artery disease; optical coherence to-mography; stents; vulnerable plaque
Online: 7 April 2022 (08:13:34 CEST)
Coronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an intravascular, near-infrared light-based imaging modality capable of reaching axial resolutions of 10-20 µm. This resolution allows for accurate determination of high-risk plaque features, such as thin cap fibroatheroma; however, visualisation of morphological features alone still provides unreliable positive predictive capability for plaque progression or future major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Biomechanical simulation could assist in this prediction, but this requires extracting morphological features from intravascular imaging to construct accurate three-dimensional simulations of patients’ arteries. Extracting these features is a laborious process, often carried out manually by trained experts. To address this challenge, numerous techniques have emerged to automate these processes while simultaneously overcoming difficulties associated with OCT imaging, such as its limited penetration depth. This systematic review summarises advances in automated segmentation techniques from the past five years (2016-2021) with a focus on their application to the three-dimensional reconstruction of vessels and their subsequent simulation. We discuss four categories based on the feature being processed, namely: coronary lumen; plaque characteristics and subtypes; artery layers; and stents. Areas for future innovation are also discussed as well as their potential for future translation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0097.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Community health workers; Primary healthcare; Mental health; Psychosocial support; Vulnerable populations; COVID-19; Health crisis
Online: 2 March 2021 (14:31:40 CET)
Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic some family physicians were overburdened and experienced difficulties reaching vulnerable patients and meeting the increased need for psycho-social support. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) tested whether a primary healthcare (PHC) based community health worker (CHW) intervention could tackle psychosocial suffering due to physical distancing measures in patients with limited social networks. Methods: CHWs provided 8 weeks of tailored psychosocial support to the intervention group. Control group patients received ‘care as usual’. The impact on feelings of emotional support, social isolation, social participation, anxiety and fear of COVID-19 were measured longitudinally using a face-to-face survey to determine their mean change from baseline. Self-rated change in psychosocial health at 8 weeks was determined. Results: We failed to find a significant effect of the intervention on the prespecified psychosocial health measures. However, the intervention did lead to significant improvement in self-rated change in psychosocial health. Conclusions: This study confirms partially the existing evidence on the effectiveness of CHW in-terventions as a strategy to address mental health in PHC in a COVID context. Further research is needed to elaborate the implementation of CHWs in PHC to reach vulnerable populations during and after health crises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0456.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: social farming; farming for health; inclusive model; migrants inclusion; ethics; innovation; social service; vulnerable people
Online: 29 February 2020 (08:55:22 CET)
The agricultural sector, even though it has been greatly reduced and is in constant transformation, continues to be of strategic importance. Although it does not represent a quantitatively relevant employment sector, the dynamics are interesting because they reflect the structural, economic and social transformations that are affecting the sector in recent years; there is a growing need for external labour that corresponds to a massive recourse of foreigners to work. Innovative approaches are required to explore the capacity of social farming to create a sustainable and inclusive workplace for migrant. The overall methodological approach of the paper seeks to synthesize fieldwork research and qualitative interviewing to validate the Italian inclusive model. To do this, we have selected four experiences of Italian social agriculture in which migrants are included.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0460.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Occupation, vulnerable workers, Informal Economy, Occupational Health and Safety challenges, Health and Safety, low wage earners
Online: 31 October 2022 (01:41:46 CET)
Previous studies have shown that agricultural works bear a disproportionately higher burden of HIV, which is the highest HIV prevalence ever reported in any working population in South Africa. This study aimed to assess HIV knowledge, attitudes and practices of agricultural workers, as a precarious and vulnerable workforce. A cross-sectional study design was employed. A pre-piloted paper-based questionnaire was administered to a consenting sample of agricultural workers. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed using stata version 16.1 software, 0.05 level was used as a measure of significance. The majority of agricultural workers had adequate knowledge level (72.1%) regarding HIV/AIDS. Knowledge was significantly associated with having some level of education,) secondary education (AOR: 1.46, 95% CI:1.01-2.12), and post-matric qualification (AOR: 3.07, 95% CI: 1.61-5.83). The attitudes level of workers towards HIV was good (88.1%). Attitude was negatively associated with residing in informal settlements (AOR: 0.64, 95% CI 0.43-0.97). Majority of participants exhibited poor prevention practices regarding HIV (60.9%). Half of participants reported low condom usage (50.9%) and multiple sexual partners (50.6%). The portrayed risky sexual behavior establishes agricultural workers as an HIV high-risk population. Strategizing non-conventional approaches to HIV prevention and behavior change communication targeting agricultural workers is recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0598.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Zambezi; Health Care Workers; cigarette smoking; Cigarettes; Gender differences; Prevalence; Tobacco use; Vulnerable populations; Risk factors
Online: 23 December 2020 (16:28:15 CET)
Smoking is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases and remains a significant public health challenge in many lower- and middle-income countries (LMIC) including Namibia. The purpose of the study was to estimate the prevalence of smoking and its associated risk factors among HCWs and non-HCWs in Zambezi region. An exploratory cross-sectional survey was conducted between March and October 2020 among residents of the eight (8) constituencies of Zambezi region. Four hundred and sixty-one (461) respondents who had been residents of the selected constituencies for over five years and aged between 17-60 years were selected for the study. The main outcome measure was current cigarette smoking status. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents. We stratified data analysis by individual being health workers or non-health workers. A bivariate Pearson Chi-square test was used to determine the association between socio-demographic characteristics and the smoking status. Statistically significant variables in the bivariate analysis were used as predictors in the univariate and multivariate models. The response rate of potential participants was 95% (n=434). The mean (±SD) age of participant’s was 32.5 (± 11.34 years). Significant relationships were observed between smoking status and area of residency (constituency), gender, age category, level of education, age of onset of smoking and the daily smoking frequency. The majority of smokers (n=108) were none-HCWs with males being the majority (n=62). Age (p=0.001), education levels (p=0.001) and area of residency (p=0.022) were highly associated with smoking among none-HCW while marital status was associated with smoking among HCWs (p=0.013). In the final multivariate model, the odds of smoking among female non-HCWs were significantly lower (OR: 0.386; 95% CI: 0.228 – 0.655). Furthermore, the odds of smoking among this same group were lower among those who had secondary level education (OR: 0.178; 95% CI: 0.0659 – 0.483), post-secondary (OR: 0.117, 95% CI: 0.0412 – 0.330) and first stage tertiary (OR: 0.306: 95% CI: 0.106 – 0.881) compared to those who had primary school education. In conclusion, smoking prevalence among none HCWs and HCWs working in Zambezi included in the study was similar to that of the general Namibian population but higher than other neighboring countries within SADC. The results showed a need for the establishment of specific smoking related strategies that target HCWs to address smoking use parallel to the running of none HCWs which would ultimately decrease the smoking prevalence and improve health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0101.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: RUSLE model; GIS; soil water erosion; integrated approach; sustainable development; land degradation; vulnerable areas; soil loss rate
Online: 6 February 2023 (10:51:54 CET)
Soil erosion is one of the most important environmental problems which can have various negative consequences, such as land degradation affecting the sustainable development and the agricultural production, especially for developing countries like Tunisia. Moreover, soil erosion is a major problem around the world because of its effects on soil fertility by nutriment loss and siltation in water bodies. Apart from this, soil erosion by water is the most serious type of land loss in several regions both locally and globally. This study evaluated regional soil erosion risk through the derivation of appropriate factors, using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), which was applied to establish a soil erosion risk map of the whole Tunisian territory and to identify the vulnerable areas of the country. RUSLE model take into account all the factors playing a major role in erosion processes, namely the erodibility of soils, topography, land use, rainfall erosivity and anti-erosion farming practices. The equation is thus implemented under Geographic Information System (GIS) “Arc GIS Desktop”. The results indicated that Tunisia has a serious risk of soil water erosion, showing that 6.43% of the total area of the country is affected by a very high soil loss rate estimated at more than 30 t/ha/year and 4.20% are affected by high mean annual soil loss ranging from 20 to 30 t/ha/year. The most eroded areas were identified in west southern, central and western parts of the country. The spatial erosion map can be used as a decision support document to guide decision-makers towards better land management and provide the opportunity to develop management strategies for soil erosion prevention and control in the global scale of Tunisia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0651.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: 3,4-Dimethylpyrazole phosphate; Durum Wheat; Environmental impact; Methylene Urea; Nitrogen Management; Nitrate-Vulnerable zones; Sustainable Agriculture; Urea
Online: 27 May 2021 (07:43:23 CEST)
In Nitrate Vulnerable Zones (NVZ) site-specific techniques are needed to match N availability with durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum Desf.) requirements. Enhanced-efficiency fertilizers (EEF) can improve efficient N supply and reduce leaching, thus contributing to sustainable agriculture. To study the effects of rates, sources and timings of nitrogen application, two-year field experiments were carried out at two Mediterranean NVZs of Central Italy (Pisa and Arezzo). The trial compared: i) two N rates: one based on the crop N requirements (NO), the other on the Action Programmes’ prescriptions of the two NVZ (NAP); ii) three N sources (urea, methylene urea (MU), and nitrification inhibitor (NI) 3,4-Dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP); and two top-dressing timings (1st tiller visible and 1st node detectable). Grain yield and yield components were determined, together with N uptake. Results showed that: i) grain and biomass production were reduced with NAP at both locations; ii) urea performed better than slow-release fertilizers; iii) the best application time varied depending on N source and location: at Pisa enhanced-efficiency fertilizers achieved higher yields when applied earliest, while for urea the contrary was true; at Arezzo different N fertilizers showed similar performances between the two application timings. Different behaviors of top-dressing fertilizers at the two localities could be related to the diverse patterns of temperatures and rainfall. Therefore, optimal fertilization strategies vary according to environmental conditions.
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (CITS); Vehicle to Pedestrian (V2P); Vulnerable 15 Road Users (VRU); GPS; smartphones; Inertial Measurement Units sensors
Online: 6 February 2020 (03:44:08 CET)
The field of Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems and more specifically Pedestrians to Vehicles could be characterized as quite challenging, since there is a broad research area to be studied, with direct positive results to society. Pedestrians to Vehicles is a type of Cooperative Intelligent Transport System, within the group of Early Warning Collision/Safety System. In this article, we examine the research and applications carried out so far within the field of Pedestrians to Vehicles Cooperative Transport Systems by leveraging the information coming from Vulnerable Road Users’, smartphones. Moreover, an extensive literature review has been carried out in the fields of Vulnerable Road Users Outdoor Localisation via smartphones and Vulnerable Road Users Next Step/Movement Prediction, which are closely related to Pedestrian to Vehicle applications and research. We identify gaps that exist in these fields that could be improved/extended/enhanced or newly developed, while we address future research objectives and methodologies that could support the improvement/development of those identified gaps.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0056.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; Impacts; Nurturing Care; Early Childhood Development (ECD); Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health; Child Growth Development; Early Brain Development; Vulnerable Children and Families
Online: 3 September 2020 (04:54:37 CEST)
In Kenya, millions of children have limited access to nurturing care. With the COVID-19 pandemic, it is anticipated that vulnerable children will bear the biggest brunt of the direct and indirect impacts of the pandemic. This review aimed to deepen understanding of the effects of COVID-19 on nurturing care from conception to four years of age, a period where the care of children is often delivered through caregivers or other informal platforms. The review has drawn upon the empirical evidence from previous pandemics and epidemics, and anecdotal and emerging evidence from the ongoing COVID-19 crisis. Multifactorial impacts fall into five key domains: direct health; health and nutrition systems, economic, social and child protection, and child development and early learning. The review proposes program and policy strategies to guide the re-orientation of nurturing care, prevent the detrimental effects associated with deteriorating nurturing care environments, and support the optimal development of the youngest and most vulnerable children. These include the provision of cash transfers and essential supplies for vulnerable households, and strengthening of community-based platforms for nurturing care. Further research on COVID-19 and the ability of children’s ecology to provide nurturing care is needed, as is further testing of new ideas.