ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0399.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: floating algae index (FAI); normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI); remote sensing; seaweed enhancing index (SEI); seaweed
Online: 18 October 2018 (05:10:09 CEST)
Seaweeds are regarded as one of the valuable coastal resources because of their usage in human food, cosmetics, and other industrial items. They also play a significant role in providing nourishment, shelter, and breeding grounds for fish and many other sea species. This study introduces a newly developed seaweed enhancing index (SEI) using spectral bands of near-infrared (NIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) of Landsat 8 satellite data. The seaweed patches in the coastal waters of Karachi, Pakistan were mapped using SEI, and its performance was compared with other commonly used indices - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Floating Algae Index (FAI). The accuracy of the mapping results obtained from SEI, NDVI, and FAI was checked with field verified seaweed locations. The purpose of the field surveys was to validate the results of this study and to evaluate the performance of SEI with NDVI and FAI. The performance of SEI was found better than NDVI and FAI in enhancing submerged patches of the seaweed pixels what other indices failed to do.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0186.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: rumen simulation technique; methane production; seaweed; rumen fermentation
Online: 10 August 2022 (03:35:34 CEST)
Several red seaweeds have shown to inhibit enteric CH4 production; however, adaptation of fermentation parameters to their presence is not well understood. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of three red seaweeds (Asparargopsis taxiformis, Mazzaella japonica, Palmaria mollis) on in vitro fermentation, CH4 production, and adaptation using the rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC). The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design with four treatments, duplicated in two identical RUSITEC apparatus equipped with eight fermenter vessels each. The four treatments included the control (barley straw and barley silage) and the three red seaweeds added to the control diet at 2% diet DM. The experimental period was divided into four phases including a baseline phase (d 0-7; no seaweed included), adaptation phase (d 8-11; seaweed included in treatment vessels), intermediate phase (d 12-16) and a stable phase (d 17-21). The digestibility of organic matter (P = 0.04) and neutral detergent fibre (P = 0.05) was decreased by A. taxiformis during the adaptation phase, but returned to control levels in the stable phase. A. taxiformis supplementation resulted in a decrease (P < 0.001) in molar proportions of acetate, propionate and total volatile fatty acid (VFA) production, with an increase in molar proportions of butyrate, caproate, and valerate; the other seaweeds had no effect (P > 0.05) on molar proportions or production of individual VFA. A. taxiformis was the only seaweed to suppress CH4 production (P < 0.001), with the suppressive effect increasing (P < 0.001) across phases. Similarly, A. taxiformis increased (P < 0.001) the production of hydrogen (H2, %, mL/d) across the adaptation, intermediate and stable phases, with the intermediate and stable phases having greater H2 production than the adaptation phase. In conclusion, M. japonica and P. mollis did not impact rumen fermentation or inhibit CH4 production within the RUSITEC. In contrast, we conclude that A. taxiformis is an effective CH4 inhibitor and its introduction to the ruminal environment requires a period of adaptation; however, the large magnitude of CH4 suppression by A. taxiformis inhibits VFA synthesis, which may restrict production performance in vivo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0130.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: vegetable extract; seaweed extract; agrosystems; resilience; Apulia (Italy)
Online: 9 March 2022 (09:53:25 CET)
To meet the United Nations sustainable development goals (UN-SDGs) and the European Green Deal, plant biostimulants have become a necessity in agriculture. In particular, seaweed-based biostimulants have received a greater acceptance for their several benefits in crop growth and yield. This study evaluates the effects foliar applications based on vegetables and brown algae extract (Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jol., on grapes and olive yield in two field experiments in the Apulia region known for its modern agricultural sector. In particular, grape-growing and olive production. At harvest, the yield performances were determined. The results highlighted that the crop responses differed in grape and olive orchards. The biostimulant application determined significant increases in bunch development (+ 9.5%) and bunch weight (+10%) compared to untreated control. In the olive orchard, the yield was not significantly influenced by biostimulant application, whereas we observed quality improvement in olive oil in treated plants compared with the control. To better understand the mechanisms behind this difference, the research concludes by suggesting pursuing in-depth studies and high scientific and technical proficiency to determine and optimise the rates and timing of applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0120.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: colitis disease; Eucheuma cottonii; inflammatory cytokines; red seaweed
Online: 7 June 2018 (12:22:21 CEST)
This study aims to determine the protective effects of red seaweed Eucheuma cottonii (EC) ethanol extract on acute colitis disease in mice. Male BALB/c mice used for acute colitis disease model by induced 2.5% (w/v) of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 7 days for all groups, except control group. The DSS-induced mice then treated by three different doses of EC extracts (0.35, 0.70, 1.75 g/kg body weight), curcumin (as a positive control, 0.10 g/kg), and a group was orally only by water. In 8th day, the mice sacrificed and collected the blood, then measured the body weight, colon weight, and colon length. Disease activity index (DAI), pro-inflammatory such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6, as well as IL-10 as anti-inflammatory were measured. The results showed that after treatment for 7 days, EC extract protected the weight loss and decreased the colon weight per length ratio. In addition, EC extract also decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in serum and increased the IL-10. Moreover, EC extract protected the colonic tissue damage. According to this results, the EC ethanol extract might be can used for the treatment of colitis disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0220.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: bioplastics; seaweed; lactic acid; Life Cycle Assessment; Ulva spp.
Online: 13 June 2018 (16:28:59 CEST)
An exploratory Life Cycle Assessment was carried out to provide insight into the environmental impacts of using the green seaweed Ulva spp. as a feedstock for production of bioplastic. The study focused on the production of lactic acid as a precursor of polylactic acid. The studied production process consists of (1) the cultivation of Ulva spp. in Integrated Multitrophic Aquaculture, (2) the processing of the biomass for solubilisation of sugars, (3) the fermentation of the sugars to lactic acid and (4) isolation of lactic acid from the fermentation broth. The study identifies environmental hotspots and compares the experimental seaweed production chain with conventional feedstock. The main hotspot identified is electricity consumption during seaweed cultivation. This impact of electricity consumption can be lowered by reducing energy use and sourcing renewable energy, and by improving the material efficiency in the product chain. To improve understanding of the environmental impacts of the production process, future studies can broaden the system boundaries and broaden the scope of sustainability issues included in the environmental assessment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0284.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: seaweed; sulfated polysaccharides; alginates; fucoidans; carrageenans; ulvans; wound dressing; wounds
Online: 14 July 2020 (03:37:56 CEST)
Wound healing involves a complex cascade of cellular, molecular, and biochemical responses and signaling processes. It consists of successive interrelated phases, the duration of which depends on multifactorial processes. Wound treatment is a major healthcare issue that can be resolved by development of effective and affordable wound dressings based on natural materials and biologically active substances. Proper use of modern wound dressings can significantly accelerate wound healing with minimal cosmetic defects. The innovative biotechnologies for creating modern natural interactive dressings are based on sulfated polysaccharides from seaweeds with their unique structures and biological properties, the availability of their sources in the form of wild bushes, and in the form of aquaculture, as well as with a high potential for participation in process control wound healing. These natural biopolymers are a novel and promising biologically active source for designing wound dressings based on alginates, fucoidans, carrageenans, and ulvans, which serve as active and effective therapeutic tools. The aim of this review is to summarize available information about the modern wound dressing’s technologies based on seaweed-derived polysaccharides, including those successfully implemented in commercial products, with the emphasis on promising and innovative designs. The further prospect of using marine biopolymers is related to the need to analyze the results of numerous in vitro and in vivo experiments, summarize clinical trial data, develop a scientifically based approach and relevant practical recommendations for the treatment of wounds.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0017.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Bioenergy; marine fermentation; seawater; marine yeast; microalgae; seaweed; circular economy; high value chemicals
Online: 1 October 2021 (12:19:47 CEST)
Biofuels have many environmental and practical benefits as a transportation fuel. They are among the best alternatives to fossil fuels due to their capacity for negative carbon emissions, which is vital for archiving the global ambition of a Net-Zero Economy. However, conventional biofuel production takes place on inland sites and relies on freshwater and edible crops (or land suitable for edible crop production), which has led to the food vs fuel debate. It also suffers technical and economical barriers due to the energy balance and the cost of production compared to fossil fuels. Establishing a coastal integrated marine biorefinery (CIMB) system for the simultaneous production of biofuels, high-value chemicals, and other co-products could be the ultimate solution. The proposed system is based on coastal sites and relies on marine resources including seawater, marine biomass (seaweed) and marine microorganisms (marine yeasts and marine microalgae). The system will not require the use of arable land and freshwater in any part of the production chain and will be linked to offshore renewable energy sources to increase its economic and environmental value. This article aims to introduce the CIMB system as a potential vehicle for addressing global warming and speeding the global effort on climate change mitigation as well as increasing global water, food and energy security. I hope this perspective may serve to draw attention into research funding for this approach.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0342.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: seaweed; metabolites; neuroprotection; Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; ischemic stroke; computer-aided drug discovery
Online: 21 May 2020 (09:49:29 CEST)
Beyond their significant contribution to the dietary and industrial supplies, marine algae are considered to be a potential source of some unique metabolites with diverse health benefits. The pharmacological properties, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cholesterol homeostasis, protein clearance and anti-amyloidogenic potentials of algal metabolites endorse their protective efficacy against oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and impaired proteostasis which are known to be implicated in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders and the associated complications after cerebral ischemia and brain injuries. As was evident in various preclinical studies, algal compounds conferred neuroprotection against a wide range of neurotoxic stressors, such as oxygen/glucose deprivation, hydrogen peroxide, glutamate, amyloid β, or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) and, therefore, hold therapeutic promise for brain disorders. While a significant number of algal compounds with promising neuroprotective capacity have been identified over the last decades, a few of them have had access to clinical trials. However, the recent approval of an algal oligosaccharide, sodium oligomannate, for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease enlightened the future of marine algae-based drug discovery. In this review, we briefly outline the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases and brain injuries for identifying the targets of pharmacological intervention, and then review the literature on the neuroprotective potentials of algal compounds along with the underlying pharmacological mechanism, and present an appraisal on the recent therapeutic advances. We also propose a rational strategy to facilitate algal metabolites-based drug development.