ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0274.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: energy performance contracting; trust; annual energy saving quantity; annual cost saving; investment
Online: 16 May 2018 (11:14:51 CEST)
A lack of trust in Energy Service Company (ESCo) is the most critical factor affecting the development of Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) in China compared with other constraints. One cannot easily estimate the energy-saving performance of an EPC project. Under that condition, lack of trust may cause the Energy-Consuming Unit (ECU) to suspect the energy-saving performance promised by the ESCo, thus leaving potentially profitable projects without necessary funding. Currently, specific studies taking an across-projects viewpoint on annual energy-saving performance of EPC projects in multiple subsectors objectively and quantitatively are lacking. This paper studies the regression relationships of annual energy-saving quantity in terms of revamping cost and the regression relationships of annual cost saving in terms of revamping cost. The regression results show that there are statistically significant correlations in the above relationships in the nine subsectors investigated. This is significant for ESCos and ECUs because knowledge on energy-saving performance could contribute to EPC investment decisions and trust relationships between ESCos and ECUs. Then a multiple linear regression model of revamping cost is set up to analyze its influencing factors. The model indicates that the subsector the sample belongs to, financing, registered capital of the ESCo, and contract period have significant effects on revamping cost. Thus, policy implications regarding innovation of EE promotion technology, clarifying ESCos’ exit mechanism, innovation of financing mechanism, and improving the market credit environment for promoting investment in EPC projects are provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0078.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Energy saving, cornering, camber, Magic Formula
Online: 9 February 2018 (15:31:02 CET)
Actively controlling the camber angle to improve energy efficiency has recently gained interest due to the importance of reducing energy consumption and the driveline electrification trend that makes cost-efficient implementation of actuators possible. To analyse how much energy that can be saved with camber control, the effect of changeing the camber angles on the forces and moments of the tyre under different driving conditions should be considered. In this paper, Magic Formula tyre models for combined slip and camber are used for simulation of energy analysis. The components of power loss during cornering are formulated and used to explain the influence that camber angles have on the power loss. For the studied driving paths and the assumed driver model, the simulation results show that active camber control can have considerable influence on power loss during cornering. Different combinations of camber angles are simulated, and a camber control algorithm is proposed and verified in simulation. The results show that the camber controller has very promising application prospects for energy-efficient cornering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0002.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: sensing; energy-saving; duty cycles; Fibonacci tree optimization
Online: 1 June 2021 (08:35:20 CEST)
Wireless sensor networks are attractive largely because they need no wired infrastructure. But precisely this feature makes them energy constrained. Recent studies find that sensing behaviors that are otherwise deemed efficient consume comparable energy with communication. The duty cycle scheduling is perceived as contributing to achieving energy efficiency of sensing. Because of different research assumptions and objectives, various scheduling schemes have various emphases. This paper designed an adaptive sensing scheduling strategy. The objective function of the scheduling strategy includes minimizing average energy expenditure and maximizing sensing coverage (reducing event miss-rate), and it requires relatively loose assumptions. We determine the functional relationship between the variables of the objective function and the step-size parameters of the proposed strategy through the numerical fitting. We found that the objective function aggregated by the fitting functions is a bivariate multi-peak function that favors the Fibonacci tree optimization algorithm. Once the optimization of parameters is done, the strategy can be easily deployed and behaves consistently in the coming hours. We name the proposed strategy as “FTOS”. The experimental results show that the Fibonacci tree optimization algorithm gets a better optimistic effect than the comprehensive learning particle swarm optimization (CLPSO) algorithm and differential evolution (DE) algorithm. The FTOS strategy is superior to the fixed time scheduling strategy in achieving the scheduling objectives. It also outperforms other strategies with the same scheduling objectives such as LDAS, BS, DSS and PECAS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0252.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Water saving; Irrigation; Water productivity; Grain yield; Rice
Online: 11 September 2020 (09:22:02 CEST)
Tanzania with 945 million hectares of land area and annual rainfall of 300 mm on 67% of its territorial land is considered as a semi-dry region in the world. Rice production in Tanzania needs to be increased to feed a growing population, whereas water for irrigation is getting scarce. One way to decrease water consumption in paddy fields is to change the irrigation regime for rice production and to replace continuous flooding with alternate wetting and drying. In order to investigate the effect of different regimes of irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer on yield and water productivity of hybrid rice, two greenhouse pot experiments comprising soils from upland and lowland production ecologies were conducted at Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania during crop seasons of 2019. The experiment was arranged in split plots based on randomized completely block design with 3 replications. Water regimes were the main factor comparing continuous flooding (CF) and alternate wetting and drying (AWD) with nitrogen fertilizer levels as the sub-factor including absolute control , 0, 60, 90, 120 and 150 kg/ha. Alternate wetting and drying (AWD) improved water productivity in both upland and lowland production ecologies compared to CF. AWD increased yield under lowland production by 13.3% while in upland there was 18.5% decrease in yield. The average water use varied from 31.5 to 84 L pot-1 under upland trials, while in lowland trials it was 36 to 82.3 L. Higher yield and lower water application led to an increase in WP varying from 1.2 to 1.8 kg cm-3 under upland trials, and 0.6 to 1.5 kg cm-3 under lowland trials. The variation in water productivity among treatments was mainly due to the differences in the yield, water and nitrogen levels used in the production process. Both sets of trials recorded water saving up to 34.3% and 17.3% under lowland and upland trials, respectively. Under upland trials, the yield varied from 39.9 to 124.1 g pot-1 and in lowland trials yield ranged from 20.6 to 118.2 g pot-1 representing paddy rice. The measurements showed that less water can be used to produce more crops under alternative rice growing practices. The results are important for water-scarce areas, providing useful information to policy makers, farmers, agricultural departments, and water management boards in devising future climate-smart adaptation and mitigation strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0445.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Microeconomics And Decision Sciences Keywords: borrowing; economic growth; financial inclusion; saving; UAE; USA
Online: 24 July 2018 (06:13:38 CEST)
This paper highlights the impact of financial inclusion on individuals’ borrowing and saving decisions in the United States and the United Arab Emirates. It does so, using data from the 2014 Global Financial Inclusion database, and an empirical strategy consisting of first testing the significance of the joint bivariate model over its binary conterparts using the Lagrange multiplier test, followed by a contrast between the fully-parametric and semi-parametric specifications of the saving and borrowing equations. Based on model performance measures, the semi-parametric bivariate probit specification is identified as a better framework for describing the two processes of saving and borrowing, with a correlation coefficient of 12.3%. Although no significant difference exists between UAE and US residents in borrowing behavior, we find that US residents are 31.4% more likely to save than their UAE counterparts. In addition, and in line with the Permanent Income Hypothesis, the results reveal the absence of an income based saving or borrowing gradient in the two countries. Conversely, we found the prevalence of a gender based saving (12.4%) and borrowing (13.8%) inequality in favor of the male gender. Furthermore, access to a bank account and a debit card, companies policy of direct wage and salary transfer, and government transfer programs with direct deposit options are all financial inclusion strategies that are found to significantly raise the likelihood of saving and borrowing. As such, companies with payroll practices based on cash or physical paycheck issuing, especially in the US, should revise such policy to create more financial inclusion, and thereby more saving potential which in turn would contribute to further borrowing, investment and growth of the national economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0077.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: energy saving; PAT; Urban Hydraulic Network; numerical modeling
Online: 19 October 2016 (10:17:33 CEST)
Small and micro hydropower represents an attractive solution for electricity generation, with low cost and low environmental impact. The pump-as-turbine (PAT) approach has promise in this application owing to its low purchase and maintenance costs. In this paper, a new method to predict the inverse characteristic of industrial centrifugal pumps is presented. This method is based on results of simulations performed with commercial three-dimensional CFD software. Model results have been first validated in pumping mode using data supplied by pump manufacturers. Then, results have been compared to experimental data for a pump running in reverse condition. Experimentation has been performed on a dedicated test bench installed in the Department of Civil Construction and Environmental Engineering of the University of Naples Federico II. Three different pumps, with different specific speeds, have been analyzed. Using the model results, the inverse characteristic and the best efficiency point have been evaluated. Finally, results of this methodology have been compared to prediction methods available in the literature.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0302.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: digital twin; energy saving; simulation; solar energy; smart building
Online: 20 September 2022 (10:16:50 CEST)
Hospital Pulau Pinang is the general hospital in Malaysia which targeting energy savings of 10% within five years from 2015 and other sustainability targets such as 3-star Energy Management Gold Standard and Green Building Certification. The targets are beneficial for the hospital itself to establish the Smart Building Program to improve its energy efficiency concurrent with the green policy of the Ministry of Health Malaysia and Sustainable Development Goals by the United Nations. This paper reviews the background of Hospital Pulau Pinang energy data , energy consumption trending, energy-saving trending, and energy conservation measures taken for the hospital from 2015 to December 2021.The yearly energy consumption baseline taken in 2016 was 27,496,731.00 kWh. It reduced significantly to 21,356,063 kWh in 2021 due to energy conservation measures. As a result, Hospital Pulau Pinang has achieved energy-saving about 16% at approximately RM7.3 million reduction in operational expenditure. The main objective of this paper is to provide further potential energy savings by studying the energy reduction by implementing solar photovoltaics using the simulation method. The simulation method can predict that Hospital Pulau Pinang can achieve another 5,130,000 kWh energy savings annually. This type of simulation has never been done before at a public hospital, and it will give further enhancing strategies to the Smart Building Program itself. Furthermore, the potential of smart building can be maximized to the next level by simulation, which helps the hospital energy committee make the potential decision on the energy-saving investment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0229.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Solar energy; Refrigeration; Absorption-compression; Energy saving; Thermodynamic model
Online: 26 April 2022 (06:03:27 CEST)
Solar assisted hybrid cooling systems are promising for the energy saving of refrigeration systems. In most cases, the solar thermal gain is only able to power the heat-driven process of facilities in part of the working period. Therefore, the reduction of compressor power strongly depends upon the duration of heat-driven processes, which has not been addressed properly. Motivated by such knowledge gap, the thermodynamic understanding of solar assisted hybrid cooling systems is deepened through considering the duration in heat-driven processes. Three absorption-compression integrated cooling cycles were taken as examples. It is found that optimal parameters, e.g., inter-stage pressure and temperature, corresponding to various performance indicators trend to be identical, as the duration of heat-driven processes is taken into account. Furthermore, the optimal parameter for different working conditions was obtained. It is displayed that the dimensionless optimal intermediate temperature of layout with the cascade condensation process varies slightly, e.g., 4%, for different conditions. Moreover, the fall of compressor power in entire working periods is nearly independent upon the intermediate temperature. The paper is favorable for the efficient design and operation of solar assisted hybrid cooling systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0354.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: allergic rhinitis; subcutaneous immunotherapy; clinical benefit; cost-saving benefit
Online: 14 June 2021 (11:42:37 CEST)
Background. Until now, cost of allergy treatment in insured public health care system and non-insured self-financing private health care system in Indonesia has not been well documented and published, as well as the cost of allergy treatment with subcutaneous immunotherapy. Objective. To evaluate the clinical and cost benefits of allergic rhinitis treatment in children with subcutaneous immunotherapy in non-insured self-financing private health care system. Methods. A retrospective cohort study conducted from 2015 until 2020, compared clinical improvement and health care costs over 18 months in newly diagnosed AR children who received SCIT versus matched AR control subjects who did not receive SCIT, with each group consisting of 1,098 subjects Results. Decrease of sp-HDM-IgE level (kU/ml) from 20.5 + 8.75 kU/ml to 12.1 + 3.07 kU/ml had been observed in the SCIT group. To reduce the symptom score of allergic rhinitis by 1.0 with SCIT it costs IDR 21,753,062.7 per child, for non SCIT it costs IDR 104,147,878.0 per child. Meanwhile, to reduce the medication score (MS) by 1.0 with SCIT it costs Rp. 17,024,138.8 while with non SCIT it costs Rp. 104,147,878.0. Meanwhile, to lower combination symptoms and medication score (CSMS) by 1.0, with SCIT it costs IDR 9,550,126.6, while with non SCIT it costs IDR 52,073,938.9. Conclusion. In conclusion, this first Indonesia-based study demonstrates substantial health care cost savings associated with SCIT for children with AR in an uninsured private health care system and provides strong evidence for the clinical benefits and cost-savings benefits of AR treatment in children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0261.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: energy saving; lighting control; smart lighting; green buildings; building automation
Online: 18 March 2022 (04:19:49 CET)
Global temperature rise due to hydrocarbon gases emission that are produced by generating the electrical power has a great attention by the researchers to reduce it till zero emission is successfully achieved. Sustainable energy source such as solar energy, wind, hydro-energy and sea wave energy are focal areas to replace the fossil fuel by clean energy. In this article, daylight is used to minimize the power consumption that required for indoor lighting using electric roller blind. Smart controller is designed to adjust the position of the roller blind stepper motor, and hence, adjust the roller blind opening, based on the preset light intensity, to achieve precise utilization of daylight inside the room. If the desired Lux is not achieved for any reason, the smart controller adjusts the LED circuit current to boost the light intensity to achieve precisely the desired Lux. Comprehensive test cases using MATLAB-Simulink is carried out to verify the performance of the proposed smart controller. Techno-economic analysis is introduced to evaluate the benefits of installing the controller. Summary and recommendation are given at the end.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0251.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: smart light control; microcontroller; light sensor; motion sensor; energy saving
Online: 12 July 2021 (11:50:31 CEST)
In this work, an energy-saving smart light controlling system has been proposed that can main-tain the desired intensity of light in a room automatically. Unlike the conventional light control system, the proposed system splits a large room into several zones and analyzes the light inten-sity of each zone; hence, the controlling unit adjusts the light intensity to the desired level. The main controlling unit consists of a light sensor, a motion sensor, a relay with a driver unit, an LCD display, etc. for controlling light efficiently to reduce the power waste. The sensors meas-ure the intensity of light, based on the standard light intensity data chart the controller units make a decision how many light bulbs are needed to be switched ON/OFF in a particular zone. Moreover, the system automatically switched-OFF all light bulbs when there is nobody in the room. Proteus design suite 8.0 is used to design and simulation of the proposed system. Moreo-ver, the PCB layout is designed using ExpressPCB version 7.5.0. The proposed system is capable of minimizing the power loss by up to 44% in comparison to the conventional light manage-ment system.
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: porous feldspar; activation; compressive strength; substitute material; energy saving concrete
Online: 27 October 2019 (16:07:52 CET)
In this study, to reduce the use of cement and sand, porous feldspar with excellent economic efficiency was used as a substitute in heat storage concrete layer. When cement was replaced with porous feldspar, the compressive strength was approximately 16%–63% higher compared with when cement was replaced with silicate minerals. To compensate for the reduction in strength owing to the decreased cement content, mechanical and chemical activation methods were employed. When the specific surface area of porous feldspar was increased, the unit weight was reduced by approximately 30% and the compressive strength was increased by up to 90%. When chemical activation was applied using a solidifying agent, the strength was increased by approximately 30% even though 70% of the cement content was replaced with porous feldspar. When cement and sand were replaced with porous feldspar, the compressive strength was approximately two times that of ordinary cement mortar. When the heat storage concrete layer material was replaced with porous feldspar in a pilot scale experiment, the thermal conductivity and heat storage characteristics were better than those of ordinary cement mortar, and an energy-saving effect of approximately 57% was observed, confirming the excellent applicability of porous feldspar as a building material.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0088.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Face milling; Cost saving; Power consumption; Surface quality; Tool wear
Online: 6 December 2018 (14:09:34 CET)
Face milling is a well known commercial process highly used in heavy industries that consumes high amount of power. Besides power issue, modern manufacturing industries are aiming for per part cost reduction keeping the product quality unimpaired. Unexpectedly if the part is rejected in any stage of manufacturing, the cost of manufacturing dramatically increases. Major cause of part rejection is excessive tool wear that imparts poor surface profile or catastrophic tool failure that causes adherence of broken tool debris onto machined surface. Furthermore, the tool wear is associated with sliding distance (frictional distance) and the tool life quantifies the cost of tools. As such, from the perspective of manufacturing industries it is imperative to optimize the surface quality parameter, cost of part, power consumption, and material removal – this is exactly what is accomplished here. By this work, it is possible to conserve power consumption, produce parts with lower cost, manufacture with uncompromising surface quality and enhanced material removal rate. Moreover, as intermediate factors of interest, the influences of sliding distance, tool life and tool flank wear on the overall machining performance are evaluated. The multi-objective optimization by Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) revealed that for improved product performance and fast manufacturing (case 1) optimum results are: feed per tooth fz = 0.25 mm/tooth, cutting speed vc = 392.6 m/min and cutting length l = 0.5 mm; for resource conservation (case 2) the optimum results are: feed per tooth fz = 0.125 mm/tooth, cutting speed vc = 392.6 m/min, cutting length l = 0.5 mm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0146.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: air cap; roller module; energy saving; performance evaluation; building envelope
Online: 9 July 2018 (13:44:24 CEST)
While previous research has shown the use of attachable air-caps on windows to efficiently reduce a building’s energy consumption, the air-caps considered had to be attached to the entire window’s surface, thus limiting the occupants’ view and creating the inconvenience of needing to detach and attach the air-caps. In this study, a window-mounted air-cap roller module using Velcro tape that may be easily attached, detached, and rolled up or down was developed and performance tested in a full-scale test bed. It was found that as the area of the air-caps attached on a window increased, the required indoor lighting energy increased. However, the window insulation improved, thus reducing the cooling and heating energy needed. Attaching the air-caps to the entire window surface effectively reduced the building’s energy consumption, but views through the window may be disturbed. Thus, the developed window-mounted air-caps enable an occupant to reduce the building energy consumption and maintain their view according to their need. The findings of this study may contribute to a reduction in building energy consumption without sacrificing a pleasant indoor environment. Further studies may be needed to verify their efficacy under varying indoor and outdoor conditions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0214.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: data center; green data center; sustainability; energy efficiency; energy saving; ICT.
Online: 14 April 2021 (12:59:53 CEST)
Information and communication technologies (ICT) are increasingly permeating our daily life and we ever more commit our data to the cloud. Events like the COVID-19 pandemic put an exceptional burden upon ICT infrastructures. This involves increasing implementation and use of data centers, which increased energy use and environmental impact. The scope of this work is to take stock on data center impact, opportunities, and assessment. First, we estimate impact entity. Then, we review strategies for efficiency and energy conservation in data centers. Energy use pertain to power distribution, IT-equipment, and non-IT equipment (e.g. cooling): Existing and prospected strategies and initiatives in these sectors are identified. Among key elements are innovative cooling techniques, natural resources, automation, low-power electronics, and equipment with extended thermal limits. Research perspectives are identified and estimates of improvement opportunities are presented. Finally, we present an overview on existing metrics, regulatory framework, and bodies concerned.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0319.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Energy efficiency; single-phase active energy; kWh; electricity saving; Fan Affinity Law
Online: 19 December 2022 (04:02:27 CET)
This paper proposes how to reduce the consumption of active electrical energy (kwh) by 90.3% while maintaining the same mechanical work speed (RPM) at variable torque loads (fans or air-fluid blowers, centrifugal pumps are not included). of water and similar fluids), by using the “Fan Law” in an innovative way in PMSM-type synchronous motors (a comparative study never before carried out on the Fan Law). The work is carried out comparatively between brushless a-synchronous motors with starting loop (or motor with a short-circuited loop) versus brushed a-synchronous motors and PMSM-type synchronous motors without the need to use VDF (variable frequency drives), simplifying technology (electronics) and saving costs in an innovative way (R+D+i). The case study was developed on a design applied to a centrifugal air extractor/blower with PMSM/IPM type synchronous motor. Applying one of the fan affinity laws –with the impeller diameter 10.5 (mm) constant- the electrical power absorbed by the blower motor is proportional to the cube of the shaft speed: . Being “P” power (Watts) and “N” speed (RPM). Carrying out a comparative study between power (watts), active energy consumption (kwh) and rotational speed (RPM). This has a direct impact on the costs of residential and commercial single-phase active electrical energy consumption, measured in kilowatt-hours (kwh). Carrying out a comparative study between three (3) types of alternating current (AC) electrical machines, according to the NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association); AC motors fall into three (3) categories. One (1), synchronous motors (Syncrhonous Motor) of three types: (1a) excitation by DC (DC Excited Motor), (1b) permanent magnet (Permanent Magnet Motor) and (1c) reluctance motor (Reluctance Motor) or motor Step by Step. Two (2), asynchronous induction motors of two types: (2a) Squirrel-Cage Induction Motor and (2b) Wound-Rotor Induction Motor. Three (3) series-wound motor (Series-Wound Motor) also called universal motor (they have carbons).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0177.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Sustainable wireless connectivity; Energy saving; UAV; Communication system; 5G; Positioning; Reinforcement learning
Online: 9 September 2021 (11:28:38 CEST)
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)-based communication system is a promising solution to meet coverage and capacity requirements of future wireless networks. However, UAV-enabled communications is constrained with its coverage, energy consumption, and flying regulations, and the number of works focusing on the sustainability aspect of UAV-assisted networking has been limited in the literature so far. In this paper, we propose a solution to this limitation; particularly, we design a $Q$-learning-based UAV positioning scheme for sustainable wireless connectivity considering key constraints, that are, altitude regulations, non-flight zones, and transmit power. The objective is to find the optimal position of the UAV base station (BS) and minimize the energy consumption while maximizing the number of users covered. Moreover, a weighting mechanism is developed, where the energy consumption and number of users covered can be prioritized according to network/battery conditions. The proposed Q-learning-based solution is compared to the baseline k-means clustering method, where the UAV BS is positioned at the centroid location that minimizes the cumulative distance between the UAV BS and the users. The results demonstrate that the proposed solution outperforms the baseline k-means clustering-based method in terms of the number of users covered while achieving the desired minimization of the energy consumption.
Subject: Keywords: water saving; resistance to change; perceived risk; intentions; Sustainable Development Goal 12
Online: 19 April 2021 (14:25:22 CEST)
Both academic literature and global organizations have emphasized the need for responsible water consumption, as stated in the Sustainable Development Goal 12. However, individuals’ water-saving behaviors in their current state are not enough. This situation entails a resistance to change (RC) in consumer habits and a lack of perceived risk of scarcity. The novelty of this study lies in examining the influence of RC (through its emotional, cognitive, and confidence components) and perceived risk on water-saving intention. Interviews (n = 384) were conducted in the southeast Mediterranean area of Spain by interviewers using a paper-and-pencil questionnaire. The results of the structural equation modeling show that the perceived risk and the components of cognitive rigidity and negative emotions exert a direct influence on water-saving habits and an indirect influence on water-saving intention. None of the components of RC directly influence intention, and a lack of confidence in the outcomes of water saving does not influence water-saving habits or water-saving intention. In addition to the results obtained, the novelty of the work lies in the idea that in order to influence the perception of the risk of water scarcity through awareness campaigns, it is better to use an emotional message rather than showing facts or information, because this does not drive water saving behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0122.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: renewables; energy saving and generation; built environments; solar windows; advanced glazings; photovoltaics
Online: 11 August 2019 (02:40:57 CEST)
We report on the field testing datasets and performance evaluation results obtained from a commercial property-based visually-clear solar window installation site in Perth-Australia. This installation was fitted into a refurbished shopping centre entrance porch, and showcases the potential of glass curtain wall-based solar energy harvesting in built environments. In particular, we focus on photovoltaic (PV) performance characteristics such as the electric power output, specific yield, day-to-day consistency of peak output power, and the amounts of energy generated and stored daily. The dependencies of the generated electric power and stored energy on multiple environmental and geometric parameters are also studied. An overview of the current and future application potential of high-transparency, visually-clear solar window-based curtain wall installations suitable for practical building integration is provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0226.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: microgrids; phase load balancing; consumers’ selection criterion; switching devices; unbalance factor; energy-saving.
Online: 9 December 2020 (12:26:52 CET)
In the last years, the Distribution Grid Operators (DGOs) assumed transition strategies of the distribution grids towards an active area associated with the "Smart Grids" concept. They are considering the use of Artificial Intelligence techniques, combined with advanced technologies and real-time remote communication solutions of the enormous data amounts, to develop smart solutions into the small size distribution grids, also called microgrids (μGs). These solutions will provide support for the DGOs to ensure an optimal operation of the technical infrastructure of the μGs. In this context, a bi-level methodology for solving the phase load balancing problem in the μGs with complex topologies and a high number of single-phase consumers, considering a clustering-based selection criterion of the consumers for placement of the switching devices, was proposed in the paper. A real μG from a rural area, with 114 consumers integrated into the Smart Metering System (SMS), belonging to the DGO from Romania, was considered in testing the proposed methodology. An implementation degree of 17.5%, corresponding to the phase load balancing equipment installed to only 20 consumers from the μG, led to a faster computational time with 43% and reducing the number of switching operations by 92% than in the case of a full implementation degree (100%). The performance indicators related to the unbalance factor and energy-saving used in the evaluation of the technical benefits highlighted the efficiency of the proposed methodology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0306.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: road,; energy-saving constructions; temperature regime; deformation of the roadbed; water migration; compaction coefficient
Online: 20 January 2022 (13:36:57 CET)
Currently, the design and construction of embankments of roads, railroads and hydraulic structures are based on regulatory documents developed 25-30 years ago. For the construction of granite massifs it is necessary to use sandy soils, the distribution of which in the Arctic zone of Siberia in the areas of construction is not more than 1.5%. In this case, the range of transport of sand in the alluvial area is 35 kilometers, in the rest of the area - an average of 60 kilometers. Large volumes of soil massifs require large amounts of transportation units, fuel consumption and are accompanied by large emissions of hydrocarbons into the atmosphere. Over the past 15 years, the authors have developed designs and technologies that significantly reduce the energy consumption during the construction of soil embankments. Combined structures are cages made of geosynthetic materials filled with unsuitable melted and frozen overmoistened clay and peaty soils. This allowed the use of soils within the construction sites and thereby reduce the range of transportation from 0.2 to 2.0 kilometers. As an example, when reducing the range of transportation from 25 km to 1 km, the energy consumption is reduced by a factor of 21. The use of geosynthetics made it possible to set the initial parameters of the water-heat regime control process, which increased the life cycle of the embankment from 2 to 5 times in comparison with traditional soil massifs and reduced the consumption of energy for repair and maintenance of linear transport structures. This article gives a theoretical substantiation of water-heat regime management, based on which new designs and technologies have been proposed and tested in Siberia in 2008-2013. The results of the tests confirm the theoretical research. Thus, the use of combined constructions of geosynthetics and inapplicable soils not only reduces the distance of transportation, but also reduces the volume of earthworks. It reduces the consumption of energy by 1.5-2 times.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0441.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Green Information Technology; Energy saving-font; Ink toner consumption; Hollow embedded font; Sustainable printing.
Online: 19 February 2021 (14:19:47 CET)
The utilization of eco-fonts for office printing is a sustainable, “green” printing concept, which has obvious economic benefits. As a result, it has a significant effect on environmental sustainability. This practice's fundamental problem is the decreased quality of text printed using eco-fonts compared to those printed with regular fonts. The aim of this research is eco-font efficiency estimation, i.e. determination of toner usage reduction level of inkjet-printed documents typed with this font type, as well as estimation of the extent humans perceive differences between text printed with eco-font and the one printed by its “non-eco“ equivalent. Combining the instrumental measuring method and digital image analysis, it was found that this simple principle (eco-font utilization) enables substantial toner usage reduction for an inkjet printing system. At the same time, a visual test showed that the visual experience of text printed using eco-font was sufficient. In addition, awareness of the benefits that eco-font utilization brings, change users’ attitude towards eco-font quality. The concept of removing the black pixel from this commonly used Thai font has a great potential for the sustainability printing process, and this simple solution could be applied to other languages as part of the GIT campaign.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0064.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Greenhouse , microclimate , Modelling , fuzzy controller , Optimization , Solar Energy , Energy saving , Climate Model ,Greenhouse effect , Temperature
Online: 21 July 2016 (09:44:16 CEST)
Agricultural greenhouse is largely answered in the agricultural sphere, despite the shortcomings it has, including overheating during the day and night cooling which sometimes results in the thermal inversion mainly due to its low inertia. The glasshouse dressed chapel is relatively more efficient than the conventional tunnel greenhouse. Its proliferation on the ground is more or less timid because of its relatively high cost[14-22]. Agricultural greenhouse aims to create a favorable microclimate to the requirements of growth and development of culture, from the surrounding weather conditions, produce according to the cropping calendars fruits, vegetables and flower species out of season and widely available along the year. It is defined by its structural and functional architecture, the quality thermal, mechanical and optical of its wall, with its sealing level and the technical and technological accompanying[12-13]. The greenhouse is a very confined environment, where multiple components are exchanged between key stakeholders and them factors are light, temperature and relative humidity. This state of thermal evolution is the level sealing of the cover of its physical characteristics to be transparent to solar, absorbent and reflective of infrared radiation emitted by the enclosure where the solar radiation trapping effect otherwise called "greenhouse effect" and its technical and technological means of air that accompany. The socio-economic analysis of populations in the world leaves appear especially the last two decades of rapid and profound transformations These changes are accompanied by changes in eating habits, mainly characterized by rising consumption spread along the year. To effectively meet this demand, greenhouse-systems have evolved, particularly towards greater control of production conditions (climate, irrigation, ventilation techniques, CO2 supply, etc ...). Technological progress has allowed the development of greenhouses so that they become increasingly sophisticated and of an industrial nature (heating, air conditioning, control, computer, regulation, etc ...). New climate driving techniques have emerged, including the use of control devices from the classic to the use of artificial intelligence[10-11] such as neural networks and / or fuzzy logic, etc... As a result, the greenhouse growers prefer these new technologies while optimizing the investment in the field to effectively meet the supply and demand of these fresh products cheaply and widely available throughout the year.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0165.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: renewables; energy saving and generation; built environments; transparent concentrators; luminescent concentrators; solar windows; advanced glazings; photovoltaics
Online: 18 February 2019 (16:52:35 CET)
We present a review of the current state of the field for a rapidly evolving group of technologies related to solar energy harvesting in built environments. In particular, we focus on recent achievements in enabling the widespread distributed generation of electric energy assisted by energy capture in semi-transparent or even optically clear glazing systems and building wall areas. Whilst concentrating on the cutting-edge recent results achieved in the integration of traditional photovoltaic device types into novel concentrator-type windows and glazings, we compare the main performance characteristics reported with these achievable using more conventional (opaque or semi-transparent) solar cell technologies. A critical overview of the current status and future application potential of multiple existing and emergent energy harvesting technologies for building integration is provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0103.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: high-performance buildings; energy-saving technology; primary energy consumption; CO2 emission; Korean climate; EnergyPlus; reference building
Online: 14 March 2018 (10:05:02 CET)
This study aims to suggest a basis for the selection of technologies for developing high-performance buildings to reduce energy consumptions and greenhouse gas emissions. Energy-saving technologies comprising of 15 cases were categorized into passive, active, and renewable energy systems. EnergyPlus v8.8 was used to analyze the contribution of each technology in reducing the primary energy consumptions and CO2 emissions in the Korean climate. The primary energy consumptions of the base model were 464.1 and 485.1 kWh/m²a in the Incheon and Jeju, respectively, and the CO2 emissions were 83.4 and 87.4 kgCO2/m²a, respectively. Each technology (cases 1–15) provided different energy-saving contributions in the Korean climate depending on their characteristics. The heating, cooling, and other energy-saving contributions of each technology indicate that their saving rates can be used when selecting suitable technologies during the cooling and heating seasons. Case 15 (active chilled beam with dedicated outdoor air system + ground source heat pump) showed the highest energy saving rate. In case 15, the Incheon and Jeju models were reduced by 189.4 (59.2%) and 206.2 kWh/m²a (57.4%) compared to the base case, respectively, and the CO2 emissions were reduced by up to 32.7 (60.8%) and 35.6 kgCO2/m²a (59.3%), respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0395.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: decarb-efficiency; decarbonisation; industrial energy saving; cost effectiveness; strategic decision-making; climate neutrality; net-zero; drivers; motivators; resilience
Online: 30 November 2022 (03:36:29 CET)
Already more than 140 countries consider or have pledged to reach net-zero emission targets by 2050 or earlier and the share of global emissions falling into an emission pricing scheme has steeply increased over the past three years. Even where there are no direct implications for industry (yet), there is a series of subtle pressure points driving an increasing number of companies across the globe to work towards climate neutrality and pledging ambitious emission reduction goals. This article sheds light on the pressure points, the subtle triggers, the underlying considerations as well as the hoped-for benefits for industrial companies from achieving net-zero emissions. The observations and ideas presented in this paper are derived from quantitative data obtained via the Energy Efficiency Index of German Industry (EEI) and qualitative data. Not only societal, work force, supply chain and investor expectations play a large role, but also many strategic considerations which have the potential to make the company more resilient and profitable, particularly in time of crisis. Those companies that do not move towards decarbonisation, on the other hand, may face a costly late-mover disadvantage. This piece uncovers subtle interconnections, helping stakeholders from industry and beyond to grasp opportunities and challenges ahead.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0135.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: decarbonisation; climate neutrality; industrial energy saving; strategic decision making; net-zero; roadmapping; energy efficiency; ideal mix; energy efficiency index
Online: 9 February 2022 (10:52:06 CET)
Considering increasingly ambitious pledges by countries, pressure from society, investors, and clients further up the supply chain, the question for companies is not so much whether to take decarbonisation action, but what action and by when. However, determining an ideal mix of measures to apply ‘decarbonisation efficiency’ requires more than knowledge of technically feasible measures and how to combine them to achieve the most economic outcome: In this paper, the author describes seven aspects which heavily influence the composition of an ‘ideal mix’ that executive leadership needs to take a (strategic) position on. These aspects consider underlying motivations and span across (socio-)economic, technical, regulatory, strategic, corporate culture and environmental factors and further underline the necessity of clarity of definitions. How these decisions influence the determination of the decarbonisation-efficient ideal mix of measures, both in principle but also in terms of specific impact is further explored by providing examples. What choices are taken by German manufacturers in several of the aspects is disclosed by insights from about 850 responses to the ‘Energy Efficiency Index of German Industry’. Knowledge of the status quo, and clarity in definitions, objectives, time frames and scope are key.