Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: temperature; photon; spectrum line; redshift; Doppler redshift; Hubble’s Law; Universe Expansion; cosmologic redshift; Big Bang Theory
Online: 23 September 2019 (06:27:32 CEST)
This article presents a new theory on redshift of light from celestial bodies. Lately it has been found that the Hubble constant calculated from different methods discord so much that calls arise for new physics to explain. Also, in addition to many unsolved puzzles like dark matter and source of expansion force, we shall show in this article that the current theory of redshift implies a few hidden, unreasonale assumptions. By assuming photon has temperature and its thermal energy is fully converted to wave energy, this article shows that photon can have a new redshift called Temperature Redshift, which not only is more significant for remote stars or galaxies, but also better fits the observational data, including those used in Hubble constant calculation. As such, if true, this new theory not only adds to our new understanding of photons, but may totally change our current understanding of the Universe, i.e., the Big Bang theory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0237.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: gravitational redshift; gravitational waves; graviton
Online: 17 January 2022 (15:25:11 CET)
The article discusses the possibility of detecting of gravitons using recently created devices with cold atoms at picokelvin temperatures.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0198.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: gravitation; dark matter; redshift; big bang
Online: 9 July 2020 (17:25:47 CEST)
A close inspection of Zwicky's seminal papers on the dynamics of galaxy clusters reveals that the discrepancy discovered between the dynamical mass and the luminous mass of clusters has been widely overestimated in 1933 as a consequence of several factors, among which the excessive value of the Hubble constant $H_0$, then believed to be about seven times higher than today's average estimate. Taking account, in addition, of our present knowledge of classical dark matter inside galaxies, the contradiction can be reduced by a large factor. To explain the rather small remaining discrepancy of the order of 5, instead of appealing to a hypothetic exotic dark matter, the possibility of a inhomogeneous gravity is suggested. This is consistent with the ``cosmic tapestry" found in the eighties by De Lapparent and her co-authors, showing that the cosmos is highly inhomogeneous at large scale. A possible foundation for inhomogeneous gravitation is the universally discredited ancient theory of Fatio de Duillier and Lesage on pushing gravity, possibly revised to avoid the main criticisms which led to its oblivion. This model incidentally opens the window towards a completely non-standard representation of cosmos, and more basically calls to develop fundamental investigation to find the origin of the large scale inhomogeneity in the distribution of luminous matter
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0400.v1
Subject: Keywords: galaxies; distances and redshift; high redshift; stars; Gamma ray bursts; individual; supernovae; individual; cosmology; distance scale; observations
Online: 24 May 2020 (19:07:56 CEST)
Analyses of the Hubble diagrams are presented for SN1a supernovae and gamma ray bursts in the redshift ranges z = 0.01–1.3 and 0.034–8.1, respectively. Data are presented on the typical z/μ scale and also on the less common yet increasingly sensitive photon flight time t/(z+1) scale. The primary conclusion is that on the basis of the presently accessible data in the redshift range z = 0.01–8.1, the slope of the Hubble diagram is, or is extremely close to, exponential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0216.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Relativity of simultaneity; Accelerated observers; Gravitational redshift
Online: 24 March 2022 (07:26:43 CET)
In this paper, we examine the prediction of the theory of relativity for the desynchronization of accelerating clocks separated by a proper distance l. We adopt the approach of Larmor-Lorentz-Poincaré-Bell to relativity and derive clock desynchronization as a result of an acceleration procedure based on two basic assumptions. Such an approach exhausts the freedom of Einstein's approach that allows for different clock synchronizations. We show that contrary to expectations, as a result of acceleration, the rear clock actually shifted backwards with respect to the front clock according to an inertial observer. However, due to Einstein’s equivalence principle the accelerating observer feels a gravitational field and observes that the rear clock undergoes a gravitational redshift relative to the front clock. This gravitational time shift is larger than the time shift for the acceleration and the difference is exactly equal to the special relativistic time shift. Eventually, we arrive at the conclusion that Einstein’s equivalence principle and gravitational redshift is necessary to explain special relativistic clock desynchronization.
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Quantum mechanics; Wave-particle duality; Quantum entanglement; Cosmic redshift
Online: 17 December 2019 (09:54:34 CET)
Classical mechanics describes the laws of motion in the macroscopic material world, while quantum mechanics describes the laws of motion in the microscopic material world that classical mechanics cannot explain, and achieves a highly accurate mathematical representation of the laws of microscopic physical motion. But even with such a successful theory, there is confusion about the probability wave. Therefore, this paper attempts to improve the physical definition of the conceptual basis of quantum mechanics, thus solving the confusion of quantum mechanical probability waves, and finally surprisingly discovered another feasible interpretation of the principle of cosmic redshift and the invariance of the speed of light.
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: quantum mechanics; wave-particle duality; quantum entanglement; cosmic redshift
Online: 21 June 2019 (08:53:40 CEST)
In the past 100 years, quantum theory has achieved remarkable achievements and formed a relatively mature system, but at the same time there are still some incomplete places. For example: What is the origin of quantum? What is the origin of quantum entanglement? What is the origin of quantum mechanical wave-particle duality? This is still a problem that the existing quantum theory has not solved. Therefore, this paper attempts to seek a classic interpretation of quantum mechanics to make up for the shortcomings of existing quantum theory. In the latest research, this paper finds a classic interpretation of blackbody radiation, which can explain the discontinuity of light energy from the perspective of classical mechanics. Based on this discovery, this paper successfully explains the origin of quantum, quantum entanglement and wave-particle duality, and eliminates the confusion of quantum mechanical probability waves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0170.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: universe expansion; Hubble constant; cavity finesse; cosmological redshift; strain
Online: 27 February 2018 (03:41:54 CET)
We describe the effect of the expansion of space on the wavelength of the light beam in a Fabry-Pérot interferometer. For an instrument such as the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), which has high sensitivity and a long period of light storage, the wavelength of laser photons are redshifted due to the expansion of space in each cavity by an amount given by , where is the Hubble constant and is the light storage time for the cavity. Since is based on the cavity finesse which depends on the laser beam full width at half maximum (FWHM) of each cavity, we show that a difference in finesses between the LIGO arm cavities produces a signal at the anti-symmetric output port given by where and are the beam FWHM at time t, respectively, for the X and Y arm cavities and is a beam proportionality constant to be determined expermentally. Assuming , then for cavity beams FWHM of the output signal has the range , which is detectable by advanced LIGO.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0039.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: relativistic astrophysics; theoretical and observational cosmology; redshift; Hubble parameter; quasar
Online: 2 December 2021 (12:54:08 CET)
Here we use the flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker metric describing a spatially homogeneous and isotropic universe to derive the cosmological redshift distance in a way which differs from that which can be found in the astrophysical literature. We use the co-moving coordinate re (the subscript e indicates emission) for the place of a galaxy which is emitting photons and ra (the subscript a indicates absorption) for the place of an observer within a different galaxy on which the photons - which were traveling thru the universe - are absorbed. Therefore the real physical distance - the way of light - is calculated by D = a(t0) ra - a(te) re. Here means a(t0) the today’s (t0) scale parameter and a(te) the scale parameter at the time of emission (te) of the photons. Nobody can doubt this real travel way of light: The photons are emitted on the co-moving coordinate place re and are than traveling to the co-moving coordinate place ra. During this traveling the time is moving from te to t0 (te ≤ t0) and therefore the scale parameter is changing in the meantime from a(te) to a(t0). Using this right way of light we calculate some relevant classical cosmological equations (effects) and compare these theoretical results with some measurements of astrophysics. As one result we get e.g. the today’s Hubble parameter H0a ≈ 62.34 km/(s Mpc). This value is smaller than the Hubble parameter H0,Planck ≈ 67.66 km/(s Mpc) resulting from Planck 2018 data  which is discussed in the literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0064.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Astroparticle physics; astrometric anomaly; supernovae redshift; cosmology theory; variable physical constants; VSL
Online: 5 April 2019 (12:07:58 CEST)
We have developed a cosmological model by allowing the speed of light c, gravitational constant G and cosmological constant Λ in the Einstein filed equation to vary in time, and solved them for Robertson-Walker metric. Assuming the universe is flat and matter dominant at present, we obtain a simple model that can fit the supernovae 1a data with a single parameter almost as well as the standard ΛCDM model with two parameters, and has the predictive capability superior to the latter. The model, together with the null results for the variation of G from the analysis of lunar laser ranging data determines that at the current time G and c both increase as dG/dt = 5.4GH0 and dc/dt = 1.8cH0 with H0 as the Hubble constant, and Λ decreases as dΛ/dt = -1.2ΛH0. This variation of G and c is all what is needed to account for the Pioneer anomaly, the anomalous secular increase of the Moon eccentricity, and the anomalous secular increase of the astronomical unit. We also show that the Planck’s constant ħ increases as dħ/dt = 1.8ħH0 and the ratio D of any Hubble unit to the corresponding Planck units increases as dD/dt = 1.5DH0. We have shown that it is essential to consider the variation of all the physical constants that may be involved directly or indirectly in a measurement rather than only the one whose variation is being considered.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: cosmic microwave background; cosmological parameters; cosmology: observations; cosmology: redshift; cosmology: theory; large-scale structure
Online: 14 June 2020 (16:16:26 CEST)
The notion that dust might have formed the cosmic microwave background (CMB) has been strongly refuted on the strength of four decades of observation and analysis, in favour of recombination at a redshift z ~ 1080. But tension with the data is growing in several other areas, including measurements of the Hubble constant H(z) and the BAO scale, which directly or indirectly impact the physics at the surface of last scattering (LSS). The R_h=ct universe resolves at least some of this tension. We show in this paper that---if the BAO scale is in fact equal to the acoustic horizon---the redshift of the LSS in this cosmology is z_cmb ~ 16, placing it within the era of Pop III star formation, prior to the epoch of reionization at 15 > z > 6. Quite remarkably, the measured values of z_cmb and H_0 = H(0) in this model are sufficient to argue that the CMB temperature today ought to be ~ 3 K, so H_0 and the baryon to photon ratio are not independent free parameters. This scenario might have resulted from rethermalization of the CMB photons by dust, presumably supplied to the interstellar medium by the ejecta of Pop III stars. Dust rethermalization may therefore yet resurface as a relevant ingredient in the R_h=ct universe. Upcoming high sensitivity instruments should be able to readily distinguish between the recombination and dust scenarios by either (i) detecting recombination lines at z ~ 1080, or (ii) establishing a robust frequency-dependent variation of the CMB power spectrum at the level of ~ 2-4% across the sampled frequency range.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0238.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: relativistic astrophysics; theoretical and observational cosmology; redshift; Hubble parameter; quasar; black hole; SNIa; galaxy; M87
Online: 17 January 2022 (15:28:25 CET)
In this part of the two-part series of essays, we first derive some equations for further physical redshift distances. We then analyze a catalog with 132,975 quasars, for which both the apparent magnitude m and the redshift z are given, in order to find the today’s value of the parameter β0 of the theory presented. We then use this value to determine the today’s value of the radius R0a of the Friedmann sphere using a magnitude redshift diagram of 19 SNIa. With the help of the known values of R0a and β0, statements about astrophysical data from the black hole in the galaxy M87 can be made. In addition, the today’s Hubble parameter H0 results from both parameters. Furthermore, we calculate the values of the further physical redshift distances for the black hole in M87 and all 19 SNIa. The resulting parameter values are: β0 ≈ 0.731, R0a ≈ 2,712.48 Mpc and H0 ≈ 65.638 km / (s ∙ Mpc). The today’s mass density of the Friedmann sphere is ρ0 ≈ 4.843 x 10-27 g / cm 3. For the mass of the Friedmann sphere we find MFK ≈ 1.206 x 1056 g. Annotation: Knowledge of the first part  of the series of articles is a prerequisite for understanding this article.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0407.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Planck scale; Mach’s relation; quantum cosmology; critical density; ordinary matter; dark matter; thermal redshift; expansion velocity; rotational kinetic energy; dark energy; Hubble’s law
Online: 2 November 2018 (02:30:57 CET)
With reference to Planck scale, Mach's relation and by introducing two new parameters Gamma and Beta, right from the beginning of Planck scale, we make an attempt to estimate ordinary matter density ratio, dark matter density ratio, mass, radius, temperature, age and expansion velocity (from and about the Planck mass in all directions). In analogy with currently believed cosmic acceleration, with a decreasing trend of total matter density ratio, cosmic expansion velocity can be shown to be increasing. By considering km/sec/Mpc, estimated current cosmic mass, radius, total matter density, expansion velocity, temperature and age are: and respectively. Point to be noted is that, with reference to Planck scale, cosmic temperature seems to be redshifted by a factor where represent Planck scale and time dependent Hubble parameters respectively. As a peculiar case, considering the equality of current Hubble parameter and current angular velocity, current cosmic rotational kinetic energy can be estimated to be 0.667 times the current critical energy. It needs further study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0413.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: gravity; general relativity; gravitational lensing; Birkhoff theorem; gravitational lens gedankenexperiment; light gravity analogy; rotation curve; cosmic expansion; redshift; gravitationally lensed gravitation; GLG
Online: 18 February 2021 (11:18:38 CET)
The intention of this paper is to point out a remarkable hitherto unknown effect of General Relativity. Starting from fundamental physical principles and phenomena arising from General Relativity, it is demonstrated by a simple Gedankenexperiment that a gravitational lens enhances not only the light intensity of a background object but also its gravitational field strength by the same factor. Thus, multiple images generated by a gravitational lens are not just optical illusions, they also have a gravitational effect at the location of the observer! The "Gravitationally Lensed Gravitation" (GLG) may help to better understand the rotation curves of galaxies since it leads to an enhancement of the gravitational interactions of the stars. Furthermore, it is revealed that besides a redshift of the light of far distant objects, the cosmic expansion also causes a corresponding weakening of their gravitational effects. The explanations are presented entirely without metric representation and tensor formalism. Instead, the behavior of light is used to indicate the effect of spacetime curvature. The gravitation is described by the field strength which is identical to the free fall acceleration. The new results thus obtained provide a reference for future numerical calculations based on the Einstein field equations.