Working Paper Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

A New Theory on Redshift of Photons

Version 1 : Received: 20 September 2019 / Approved: 23 September 2019 / Online: 23 September 2019 (06:27:32 CEST)

How to cite: Hu, X. A New Theory on Redshift of Photons. Preprints 2019, 2019090262 Hu, X. A New Theory on Redshift of Photons. Preprints 2019, 2019090262


This article presents a new theory on redshift of light from celestial bodies. Lately it has been found that the Hubble constant calculated from different methods discord so much that calls arise for new physics to explain. Also, in addition to many unsolved puzzles like dark matter and source of expansion force, we shall show in this article that the current theory of redshift implies a few hidden, unreasonale assumptions. By assuming photon has temperature and its thermal energy is fully converted to wave energy, this article shows that photon can have a new redshift called Temperature Redshift, which not only is more significant for remote stars or galaxies, but also better fits the observational data, including those used in Hubble constant calculation. As such, if true, this new theory not only adds to our new understanding of photons, but may totally change our current understanding of the Universe, i.e., the Big Bang theory.


temperature; photon; spectrum line; redshift; Doppler redshift; Hubble’s Law; Universe Expansion; cosmologic redshift; Big Bang Theory


Physical Sciences, Astronomy and Astrophysics

Comments (0)

Comment 1
Received: 25 October 2019
Commenter: Masataka Shimojo
The commenter has declared there is no conflict of interests.
Comment: October 25th, 2019
Dear Dr. Xiaoping Hu

When based on Eq.(11) in your paper, Zc = Zd, the following might be suggested.

If the size of a(t:obsvr) is normalized to 1 (present size), then Eqs.(A) and (B) are given.
λ(obsvr)/λ(emit) = a(t:obsvr)/a(t:emit) = 1/a(t:emit) for Zc (A), where λ(obsvr)/λ(emit) = f(emit)/f(obsvr).
λ(obsvr)/λ(emit) = the square root of {(1 + v/c)/(1 - v/c)} for Zd (B), where λ(obsvr)/λ(emit) = f(emit)/f(obsvr).
Relating Eqs.(A) and (B) gives
1/a(t:emit) = the square root of {(1 + v/c)/(1 - v/c)}, namely,
a(t:emit) = the square root of {(1 - v/c)/(1 + v/c)} (C). Generalizing Eq.(C) gives
a(t) = the square root of {(1 - v/c)/(1 + v/c)} (D).
The right-hand side of Eq(D) gives an expansion curve in the following order:
singularity (v = c), early rapid expansion, decelerated expansion, inflection point (v = c/2), accelerated expansion,
and the present point (v = 0).

The above curve is a result of the special theory of relativity, not the result of the general theory of relativity that requires the existence of dark matter and dark energy, an important issue of investigation that attracts many people.
The problem is that which distance is chosen; the distance from the earth to the past position of the galaxy when it emitted the light, or the distance from the earth to the present position of that galaxy. The latter distance is longer than the former distance.

When I make a mistake, I must apologize to you.

Yours sincerely,
Masataka Shimojo
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