ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0524.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: transgender; fertility preservation; decision making preferences
Online: 22 July 2021 (17:37:03 CEST)
Little is known about fertility preservation within the TGD community. Few receive adequate counseling placing them at risk for decision regret. The goal of this project was to develop, and pilot test the Transgender Fertility Preservation Knowledge Scale (TFPKS) to support the development and evaluation of health education resources. A community engaged; cross sectional retrospective design was used. Participants (n=189) provided information describing demographics, healthcare decision-making preferences, experiences/knowledge of fertility preservation, and treatment decision regret. The sample included 189 TGD adults. Most were white and aged 26-35 (33.3%) and not offered a consultation (73.0%). Many (41.2%) report they would have participated if offered. Knowledge regarding fertility preservation to support this desire was low. Most participants identified a patient-centered (69.4%) decision making preference. Much remains to address the healthcare inequities within the TGD population regarding fertility preservation. Overall participants had low levels of knowledge to support decision making. Further, healthcare system and individual barriers to fertility preservation remain prevalent. A foundational step towards addressing these disparities, is the identification of a valid and reliable instrument to measure TGD knowledge of fertility preservation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0642.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: colours; preferences; personality traits; agreeableness; extraversion
Online: 26 May 2021 (13:45:15 CEST)
Colours are important features in human and natural environments and are related to several psychological functions. However, a possible relation between colour preferences and personality traits is scarcely investigated. The aim of the present study was to find out whether differences in preferences for colours also reflected differences in Big Five personality traits. The sample consisted of 206 individuals voluntarily recruited from a student sample. The participants chose one of six primary colours (blue, green, red, yellow, black, white) from the Natural Colour System (NCS) as their favorite colour. Personality traits were measured with the Big Five Inventory-44 (BFI-44. Blue and yellow was the most and least preferred chromatic colour, respectively. There were no gender differences in preferences for the chromatic colours, but more women preferred white and men preferred black. Compared to the rest of the sample, the blue group had higher scores on agreeableness and extraversion, and the red group had lower scores on agreeableness. Pairwise comparisons showed that the blue group had higher scores on agreeableness and extraversion than the red group, and higher scores on agreeableness compared to the green group. There were no significant personality differences for the other chromatic and achromatic colour groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1731.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Probabilistic Preferences; CPP; Likert Scales; Empirical Distributions.
Online: 25 May 2023 (04:01:09 CEST)
Multicriteria decision aid requires a database as a decision matrix, in which two or more alternatives are evaluated according to two or more variables selected as decision criteria. Several problems of this nature use measures by Likert scales. Depending on the method, parameters from these data (e.g. means, modes or medians) are required for calculations. This parameterization of data in ordinal scales has fueled controversy for decades between authors who favor mathematical/statistical rigor and argue against the procedure, stating that ordinal scales should not be parameterized, and scientists from other areas who have shown gains from the process that compensate for this relaxation. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the advantages of the Composition of Probabilistic Preferences (CPP) method in multicriteria problems with data from Likert scales. The CPP is capable of allaying the protests raised and obtaining more accurate results than descriptive statistics or parametric models can bring. The proposed algorithm in R-code involves the use of CPP with empirical distributions and fitting histograms of data measured by Likert scales. Two case studies with simulated datasets having peculiar characteristics and a real case illustrate the advantages of the CPP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0111.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: consumer preferences; coffee market; coffee; research results
Online: 6 September 2018 (05:59:23 CEST)
The article addresses the issue of consumer preferences for types of coffee in Poland (ground coffee, instant coffee, coffee beans, instant coffee mixes and instant cappuccino). The main source of the study is the results of primary research conducted using a structured interview (CAPI—Computer Assisted Personal Interview) on a nationwide sample of 800 coffee consumers. The research was conducted by Grupa IQS Sp. z o.o. from Warsaw in January 2016 for the MOKATE Group based on the assumptions and guidelines developed by the authors of the article. The main purpose of the article is to present the identified coffee consumer preferences in Poland with regard to various kinds of coffee. The results of the research which have been included in the article indicate, among others, ongoing changes in the preferences of Polish consumers regarding their coffee choices. They prove that Polish consumers are drinking ground coffee more and more often. The consumption of instant coffee is decreasing.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0285.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: patient empowerment; home-administration; patient preferences; adherence; biologics
Online: 17 December 2021 (11:06:55 CET)
Severe asthma patients are at increased risk of major exacerbations and they need to be monitored regularly. The COVID-19 pandemic has impressively impacted on the health care resources. The telemedicine approach applied to the follow-up of asthmatic patients has been proved to be effective in monitoring their disease and adherence to the therapy. The aim of our study was to investigate the satisfaction of severe asthma patients, before the activation of a telemedicine management complemented by a standard of care. An ad hoc questionnaire was developed and sent by e-mail to 180 severe asthma patients. Most of subjects (82%) were confident with the idea of doing self-measurements and self-managing their disease; 77% of subjects favoured to carry out virtual visit and telemedicine. 93% of patients considered easy the self-injection therapy. 94% of subjects felt safe and 93% were not worried while self-administering. Only mild adverse events were reported in 22% subjects after self-administration. Our results showed an agreement between what is considered necessary and practicable by healthcare personnel and what is perceived by the severe asthma patients, in terms of treatment and monitoring of the disease with Telehealth. Biologics have a safety profile and can be easily self-administred at home
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0314.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: food preferences; early childhood; variety; longitudinal; fruit; vegetables
Online: 20 June 2018 (08:42:52 CEST)
While it is generally accepted that food habits established during infancy will track into later childhood, longitudinal analysis of children’s food preferences is rare. This paper examines whether maternal-reported child food preferences at five years of age are the same as that reported at two years; and identifies any patterns of change from two- to five- years. Mothers in the Australian NOURISH trial reported child food preferences at two and five years of age. A four point scale was utilised - ‘like’, ‘neither like or dislike’, ‘dislike’, ‘never tried’. The proportion of children having the same preference at the two time points was calculated (95%CI) for 48 foods (cereals, 4; vegetables, 20; fruit, 14; meat/alternatives, 6; dairy, 4). For foods where ≤50% children had consistent preferences, the pattern of food preference change was determined. For 40/48 foods, more than half of the children were reported to have the same preference at two years of age, and three years later, at age five. Foods for which ≤50% children had the same preference at both ages were high-sugar breakfast cereals, zucchini, mushrooms, eggplant, spinach, lettuce, cabbage and celery. Findings reinforce the importance of promoting a consistent message regarding early and frequent exposure to a variety of healthy foods, particularly during the first 2 years of life, as the preferences established in these early years are likely to be maintained over time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0094.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: cue-approach; decision making; behavioral change; preferences; emotion
Online: 23 October 2017 (03:42:21 CEST)
Recent findings show that preferences for food items can be modified without external-reinforcements using the cue-approach task. In the task, the mere association of food item images with a neutral auditory cue and a speeded button press, resulted in enhanced preferences for the associated stimuli. Here, in a series of 10 independent samples with a total of 255 participants, we show we can enhance preferences using this non-reinforced method for faces, fractals and affective images as well as snack foods, using auditory, visual and even aversive cues. This change was highly durable in follow-up sessions performed one to six months after training. Preferences were successfully enhanced for all conditions, except for negative valence items. These findings promote our understanding of non-reinforced change, suggest a boundary condition for the effect and lay the foundation for development of novel applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1004.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: COVID-19; tourist behavior; travel mode preferences; Bosnia and Herzegovina
Online: 27 April 2023 (02:21:14 CEST)
Building on the study by Abdullah et al. (2020), this study aims to analyze the perception of travel, especially in this context of the pandemic, when the measures are alleviated, as well as the citizens' intention and preferences for travel methods during the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of the study is to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on travel behavior and travel mode preferences in the example of the residents of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Five research questions were defined. A quantitative research approach was applied in this study. The data was collected through a questionnaire (online survey) distributed to respondents via e-mail and the social network Facebook. The convenience sample included 265 respondents. Descriptive analysis, as well as quantitative comparative analysis, were carried out on the collected data. The results show that the COVID-19 pandemic has influenced a change in travel behavior. The primary purpose of travel before and during the COVID-19 pandemic was social activities. The most significant change in the primary purpose of travel before and during the COVID-19 pandemic is reflected in a decrease in social activities and an increase in recreational sports activities. In contrast, other activities remained proportionally the same before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The average distance traveled for primary outdoor trips before the COVID-19 pandemic is greater than that for primary outdoor trips during the COVID-19 pandemic. This article allows for better organization and planning for the future in the event of another pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0328.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: green supply chain; manufacturer’s fairness preferences; leading retailer; Stackelberg Game
Online: 14 July 2021 (12:14:03 CEST)
This study investigates optimal decisions in a green supply chain consisting of a manufacturer and a leading retailer considering the green marketing and fairness preferences of member firms. Four Stackelberg game decision models are constructed in which the manufacturer and the re-tailer engage in green marketing separately when the manufacturer has no and has fairness preferences. The impacts of fairness preferences and green marketing on the optimal decision in the green supply chain are comparatively analyzed. The study finds that member firms perform green marketing regardless of the presence or absence of fairness preferences and that such be-havior increases the wholesale price, retail price, and market demand of low-carbon products as well as the profits of member firms and the supply chain. A more interesting finding is that the profit growth of member firms and the supply chain due to the manufacturer’s green marketing is more pronounced than that due to the retailer’s green marketing. When the retailer and the manufacturer engage in conduct green marketing, the manufacturer's fairness preferences have different effects on the wholesale price, retail price, market demand, level of green marketing efforts, member enterprises and profits of supply chain. Therefore, firms should consider the impact of green marketing and fairness preferences to make pricing and performance decisions, so as to achieve efficient operation of the whole supply chain and avoid double marginal effects. Finally, the above conclusions are verified through numerical simulation, providing a reference for the decision-making of member firms in the green supply chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0696.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Help Seeking; Same-age Peer Tutoring; Revealed Preferences; Data analytics
Online: 29 June 2021 (11:36:26 CEST)
When in doubt, asking a peer can be very helpful. Students learn a lot of social strategies from peers. However, stated preference studies [Newman, 1993] have found that for elementary school students with math questions they prefer to ask the teacher. In this paper, we study revealed preferences instead of stated preferences. We analyze the behavior of fourth-grade students seeking face-to-face assistance while working on an online math platform. Students start by working independently on the platform before the teacher selects two or three tutors from among those who have answered 10 questions correctly. Each student is then able to choose between the teacher or one of these tutors when requesting assistance. We study the students’ preferences over 3 years, involving 88 fourth-grade classes, 2,700 students, 1,209 sessions with classmate tutors, and a total of 16,485 requests for help when there was an option to choose between a teacher or a classmate. We found that students prefer asking classmates for help 3 times more than asking their teachers when given the choice. Furthermore, this gap increases from the first to the second semester. We also found that students prefer to request help from classmates of the same sex and of higher academic performance. In this sense, students from the two highest tertiles sought help from classmates in the same two tertiles, and students from the medium tertile prefer to seek help from students of the highest tertile. However, students in the two lowest tertiles do not prefer asking for help from students from the top tertile more than from their own tertiles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0144.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: art education; 20th century art movements; preferences of arts; pupils
Online: 20 December 2017 (10:12:22 CET)
The research presented here aims to determine how art education influences pupils' preferences for 20th-century art movements. The research was conducted on a sample of 200 pupils (N = 200) of an early school age in grade schools in Split, Croatia. We conducted an educational experiment throughout an entire school year, which included three types of intervention: observing works of art from the 20th century, introducing works of art using a puppet, and the pupils' art activities/artwork based on the 20th-century art movements. The results show that the model of art education is an important factor in changing pupils' preferences for 20th-century art movements. The students reacted positively to each kind of education, in the sense of a wider acceptance of 20th-century art (abstract, fauvism, cubism, pop art, and surrealism). The type of education did not much influence preferences when it came to classical art and visual works without artistic value. We concluded that puppets and independent creative work should be used more often in art education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0338.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: animal personality; swimming activity; male mate choice; mating preferences; Poecilia reticulata
Online: 18 January 2021 (12:58:42 CET)
Mate choice that is based on behavioural traits is a common feature in the animal kingdom. Using the Trinidadian guppy, a species with mutual mate choice, we investigated whether males use female swimming activity – a behavioural trait known to differ consistently among individuals in many species – as a trait relevant for their mate choice. In a first experiment, we assessed male and female activity in an open field test alone (two repeated measures) and afterwards in heterosexual pairs (two repeated measures). In these pairs, we simultaneously assessed males’ mating efforts by counting number of sexual behaviours (courtship displays and copulation). Male and female guppies showed consistent individual differences in their swimming activity when tested both alone and in a pair, and these differences were maintained across both test situations. When controlling for male swimming behaviour and both male and female body size, males performed more courtship displays towards females with higher swimming activity. In a second experiment, we tested for a directional male preference for swimming activity by presenting males video animations of low and high active females in a dichotomous choice test. In congruence with experiment 1, we found males to spend significantly more time in association with the high active female stimulus. Both experiments thus point towards a directional male preference for higher activity levels in females. We discuss the adaptive significance of this preference as activity patterns might indicate individual female quality, health or reproductive state while, mechanistically, females that are more active might be more detectable to males as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0332.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: school meals; nutrition policies; food preferences; healthy meals; children; norway; qualitative methods
Online: 25 February 2022 (09:53:50 CET)
School meals can have a key function in promoting children’s health. However, simply providing a free school meal is not a guarantee that pupils will actually eat the food. The purpose of this study was to explore factors influencing pupils’ participation in free school meal schemes in Oslo The study has a qualitative research design, inspired by grounded theory. Data were collected through interviews with pupils, teachers and parents, and participant observations in two schools participating in a pilot project funded by Oslo Municipality. Line-by-line coding, memo writing and a constant comparative technique were used to analyse the data. One primary school and one lower-secondary school in different districts in Oslo that were implementing two different free school meal models. 39 pupils (5th–10th grade), 15 parents and 12 school employees were included. Four main factors related to pupils’ participation to free school meals emerged from the analysis: the popularity of the food served, the attraction to the nearby shopping centre, social aspects and predictability. To promote pupils’ participation in free school meal schemes, schools need to solve the challenges of balancing between healthy food and popular but often unhealthy food. Children and parents involvement, regularity of the meals provision, a good flow of information and the creation of a friendly eating environment are recommended
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0055.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Food reward; Liking; Wanting; Food preferences; Bariatric surgery; Eating behavior; Total Weight Loss
Online: 6 January 2022 (09:49:34 CET)
Changes in food preferences after bariatric surgery may alter its effectiveness as a treatment for obesity. We aimed to compare food reward for a comprehensive variety of food categories between patients who received a sleeve gastrectomy (SG) or a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and to explore whether food reward differs according to weight loss. In this cross-sectional exploratory study, food reward was assessed using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire (LFPQ). We assessed liking and wanting of eleven food categories. Comparisons were done regarding type of surgery and Total Weight Loss (TWL; based on tercile distribution). Fifty-six patients (30 SG and 26 RYGB) were included (women: 70%; age: 44.0 (11.1) y). Regarding the type of surgery, scores were not significantly different between SG and RYGB, except for ‘non-dairy products – without color’ explicit liking (p = 0.04). Regarding TWL outcomes, explicit liking, explicit wanting and implicit wanting, scores were significantly higher for Good responders than Low responders for ‘No meat – High fat’ (post-hoc corrected p-value: 0.04, 0.03 and 0.04, respectively). Together, our results failed to identify major differences in liking and wanting regarding the type of surgery and tended to indicate that higher weight loss might be related to a higher reward for high protein-content food. Rather to focus only on palatable foods, future studies should also consider a broader range of food items, including protein reward.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0287.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Transition decisions; Secondary School; School tracks; Revealed students’ preferences; Satisfaction; Quantitative method; Optimization
Online: 13 August 2021 (08:33:25 CEST)
This study aims to better understand students who attend the Basic Vocational Training Cycles (FPB) regarding the measures to ensure diversity. This quantitative research project approximates the perception of students concerning their passage through their previous studies and their satisfaction and goals after finishing the school year. The sample con-sists of 352 students from Cordoba (Spain). A questionnaire has been used which follows the CIPP model. After the exploratory factor analysis was completed with the different groups of items and their descriptive analysis, various tests were carried out to consider the hypotheses (Pearson's correlation (r), one-factor analysis of variance and repeated ANOVA measures). The results indicate that the educational interest of the students is ac-ademic and professional. Likewise, there is no relationship detected between the appear-ance of socio-professional goals and average academic levels and the attributions with re-spect to repetitions of previous courses, although these goals vary depending on the satis-faction shown by the students with respect to the cycles. We conclude that the course of the FPB influences the adoption of decisions regarding academic-professional projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0452.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Informal employment; social security; state effectiveness; Maghreb countries; individual preferences; discrete choice model
Online: 16 April 2021 (22:29:59 CEST)
State legitimacy and effectiveness could be seen by the way to deliver welfare to citizens to mitigate social grievances, that could eventually lead to conflicts (Kivimäki, 2021). Social security systems in Maghreb countries are quite similar in their architecture and aims to provide social insurance to all the workers in the labor market. However, they suffer from the same main problem: the low rate of enrollment of workers. Many workers (employees and self-employed) work informally without any social security coverage. The issue of whether informal jobs are chosen voluntarily by workers or as a strategy of last resort is controversial. Many authors recognize that the informal sector is heterogeneous and it is made up of workers who voluntary choose it and others who are pushed inside because of entry barriers to the formal sector (Günther & Launov, 2012). Using the SAHWA survey and discrete choice models, this article confirms the heterogeneity of the informal labor market in three Maghreb countries: Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia. Furthermore, this article highlights the profiles of workers who voluntarily choose informality, which is missing from previous studies. Finally, this article proposes policy recommendations in order to extend social security to informal workers and to include them in the formal labour market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0065.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: nicotine products; tobacco harm reduction; people living with mental illness; qualitative research; consumer preferences
Online: 17 October 2016 (10:49:07 CEST)
Aims and Background: People living with mental disorders experience a disproportionately higher burden of tobacco-related disease than the general population. Long-term substitution with less harmful nicotine products could reduce the tobacco-related harm among this population. This study investigated the views and preferences of people with mental health disorders about different nicotine products and their use as long-term substitutes for cigarettes. Methods: Semi-structured focus group discussion followed by a brief questionnaire. The discussion transcripts were analysed for content and themes and quantitative data summarised with descriptive statistics. Results: Twenty-nine participants took part in four focus groups. Vaping devices were the most acceptable nicotine products discussed, however preferences for nicotine products were idiosyncratic and varied along aesthetic, pragmatic, sensory and symbolic dimensions. The concept of tobacco harm reduction was unfamiliar to participants, however they generally agreed with the logic of replacing cigarettes with less harmful nicotine products. Barriers to activating tobacco harm reduction included the symbolism of smoking and quitting; the importance placed on health; the consumer appeal of alternatives; and cost implications. Discussion and Conclusion: Engaging this population in tobacco harm reduction options will require communication that challenges black and white thinking (a conceptual framework in which smoking cigarettes or quitting all nicotine are the only legitimate options) as in practice this serves to support the continuance of smoking. Consumers should be encouraged to trial a range of nicotine products to find the most acceptable alternative to smoking that reduces health harms. Providing incentives to switch to nicotine products could help overcome barriers to using less harmful nicotine products among mental health consumers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0370.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: consumer preferences; red meat; food consumption; discrete choice experiment (DCE); willingness to pay (WTP); random utility model
Online: 19 January 2021 (10:52:41 CET)
Food consumption in Europe is changing. Red meat consumption has been steadily decreasing in the past decades. The rising interest of consumers for healthier and more sustainable meat products provide red meat producers with the opportunity to differentiate their offers by ecolabels, origin and health claims. This international study analyses the European consumer preferences for red meat (beef, lamb and goat) in seven countries: Finland, France, Greece, Italy, Spain, Turkey and the United Kingdom. Through a choice experiment, 2.900 responses were collected. Mixed multinomial logit models were estimated to identify heterogeneous preferences among consumers at the country level. Results indicate substantial differences between the most relevant attributes for the average consumers, as well as their willingness to pay for them in each country. Nevertheless, national origin and organic labels were highly valued in most countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0186.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: proactive policies; land protection; inter-generational solidarity; land sustainability; economic valuation; imputed preferences; imputed expenses; gis; cost-benefit analysis, social discount rate
Online: 31 October 2017 (02:47:04 CET)
Although floods, as well as other natural disasters, can be considered relevant causes of intra-generational inequalities, the frequent catastrophes and the resulting damages to territory reflect the generalized indifference about inter-generational justice. Societal concerns, such as land protection, typically involve the administrative system performing proactive policies in the perspective of inter-generational solidarity, but subsidiarity has made more and more independent the local communities. As a consequence, the attention toward the long run effects – typically concerning the territorial system, as a whole, at the geographical scale – has been dispersed, and the proactive policies coming from the central government has became more ineffective. Regarding the case of the flood happened in 2009 in the Fiumedinisi-Capo Peloro hydraulic basin, in the northeastern part of Sicily, Italy, we propose an economic valuation – carried out by performing the method of the imputed preferences – in order to compare the expenses incurred by the public authorities responsible for protecting the territory to the costs of the rehabilitation of the damaged areas. Some considerations about the economic significance of the proactive policies for the arrangement of territory are addressed according to the role played by the social discount rate in the inter-temporal economic calculation.