ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0074.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Islamic Education; Pesantren; Indonesia; madrasah; moderate Islam
Online: 4 July 2018 (14:36:35 CEST)
Muslim school is an important element of education in Indonesia. The school has been in place long time before Indonesia’s independence in 1945. The school educates Indonesian Muslim children to understand and practice religion, and simultaneously, promotes the sense of nationalism. Thanks to Muslim schools, Indonesian Muslims are recognized as being moderate (Hefner, 2000). In the last few years, however, the moderate nature of Indonesian Islam is challenged by the spirit of conservative Islam (Van Bruinessen, 2013). Issues such as Islam and democracy, Islam and modern state, Muslim and non-Muslim relation, and rights of citizen that have been resolved and agreed upon are being reinstated. As Hefner (2007) argues that there is a relationship between politics and education, especially religious education, it is important to see the relationship between schools and the changing society. The question is how the current conservative trend in Indonesian Islam is occurring at schools. This paper explores how the curriculum of (Islamic) religious education potentially contribute toward the development of Indonesian conservative Islam, and how religious education teachers view sensitive issues concerning conservative Islam. To answer the questions, analysis of religious education’s curricula and interviewing experts serve as the primary method of data collection. Four religious education teachers from different provinces of Indonesia were interviewed to reveal their opinions on various religion-related issues. This paper discusses how Islamic education in Indonesia has been designed to present moderate Islam, but at the same time faces a number of challenges that try to turn religious education into a conservative one.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0060.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: alcohol consumption; Alzheimer's disease; light to moderate wine consumption; neurodegeneration
Online: 6 November 2019 (10:54:00 CET)
Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most threatening neurodegenerative diseases, is characterized by the loss of memory and language function, an unbalanced perception of space and other cognitive and physical manifestations. Pathology of the AD is characterized by neuronal loss, and the extensive distribution of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). The role of environment and the diet in the AD is being studied actively, and nutrition is certainly one of the main factors playing a prominent role in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. In this context, the relationship between dementia and wine use/abuse has received increased research interest in recent times, with varying and often conflicting results. Scope and approach: This review aims to critically summarize the most recent studies conducted to clarify the relationship between wine drinking and AD, as well as whether effects are influenced by quantity and/or frequency of drinking. Key findings and Conclusion: Overall, based on the interpretation of various studies, it can be concluded that there is no indication that light to moderate alcohol drinking is detrimental to cognition and dementia, and it is not possible to define whether alcohol could be used as a means to reduce risk of developing AD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0244.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: motor competence; sedentary behavior; moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; primary schoolchildren; accelerometer
Online: 11 October 2018 (17:10:00 CEST)
Children’s motor competence (MC) has declined in the past decades, while sedentary behavior (SB) has increased. This study examined the association between MC and physical activity (PA) levels among primary schoolchildren. Demographics, body height and weight, MC (Athletic Skills Track) and PA levels (ActiGraph, GT3X+) were assessed among 595 children (291 boys, mean age = 9.2 years, SD = 1.1). MC was standardized into five categories: from very low to very high. PA levels were classified into sedentary behavior (SB), light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Mixed model analyses were conducted with PA levels as dependent variables and MC as the independent variable, while adjusting for age, gender, and BMI z-score on the individual level. Additional moderation analyses between covariates and MC and PA levels were also conducted. A negative association between MC and SB (β = -3.17) and a positive association between MC and MVPA (β =1.41) were found. The strength of both associations increased as children expressed lower or higher levels of MC. Increased age and being a girl were significant predictors of higher levels of SB and lower levels of MVPA. Non-overweight children spent significantly more minutes in MVPA compared with overweight children. No moderating effects of BMI, gender, and age were found on the association between MC and PA levels. MC is an important correlate of both SB and MVPA, particularly for children with very high or low MC. Developing and improving children’s MC may contribute to spending less time in SB and more time in MVPA, particularly for high-risk groups, i.e. children with low MC. Moreover, addressing MC development and PA promotion simultaneously might create positive feedback loops for both children’s MC and PA levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0208.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Middle East; Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer; Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; time series analysis; governmental policy
Online: 15 December 2020 (12:59:50 CET)
The spatiotemporal variability of vegetation in the Middle East was investigated for the period 2001–2019 using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 16-day/500 m composites of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI; MOD13A1). The results reveal a strong increase in the NDVI coverage in the Middle East during the study period (R = 0.75, p-value = 0.05). In Egypt, the annual coverage exhibits the strongest positive trend (R = 0.99, p-value = 0.05). In Turkey, both the vegetation coverage and density increased from 2001 to 2019, which can be attributed to the construction of some of the biggest dams in the Middle East, such as the Atatürk and Ilisu dams. Significant increases in the annual coverage and maximum and average NDVI in Saudi Arabia are due to farming in the northern part of the country for which groundwater and desalinated seawater are used. The results of this study suggest that the main factors affecting the vegetation coverage in the Middle East are governmental policies. These policies can have a positive effect on the vegetation coverage in some countries such as Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Kuwait, Iran, and Turkey.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0038.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Karenia brevis, harmful algal bloom (HAB), moderate resolution imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), prediction, chlorophyll, multivariate regression
Online: 3 September 2018 (13:52:41 CEST)
Over the past two decades, persistent occurrences of harmful algal blooms (HAB; Karenia brevis) have been reported in Charlotte County, southwestern Florida. We developed data-driven models that rely on spatiotemporal remote sensing and field data to identify factors controlling HAB propagation, provide a same-day distribution (nowcasting), and forecast their occurrences up to three days in advance. We constructed multivariate regression models using historical HAB occurrences (213 events reported from January 2010 to October 2017) compiled by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission and validated the models against a subset (20%) of the reported historical events. The models were designed to specifically capture the onset of the HABs instead of those that developed days earlier and continued thereafter. A prototype of an early warning system was developed through a threefold exercise. The first step involved the automatic downloading and processing of daily Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua products using SeaDAS ocean color processing software to extract temporal and spatial variations of remote sensing-based variables over the study area. The second step involved the development of a multivariate regression model for same-day mapping of HABs and similar subsequent models for forecasting HAB occurrences one, two, and three days in advance. Eleven remote sensing variables and two non-remote sensing variables were used as inputs for the generated models. In the third and final step, model outputs (same-day and forecasted distribution of HABs) were posted automatically on a web-based GIS (http://www.esrs.wmich.edu/webmap/bloom/). Our findings include the following: (1) the variables most indicative of the timing of bloom propagation are bathymetry, euphotic depth, wind direction, SST, chlorophyll-a [OC3M] and distance from the river mouth, and (2) the model predictions were 90% successful for same-day mapping and 65%, 72% and 71% for the one-, two- and three-day advance predictions, respectively. The adopted methodologies are reliable, dependent on readily available remote sensing data sets, and cost-effective and thus could potentially be used to map and forecast algal bloom occurrences in data-scarce regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0451.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: academic lessons; moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; MVPA; whole-school; physical activity; physically active learning; PAL
Online: 18 December 2020 (11:11:07 CET)
Background: A large majority of primary school pupils fail to achieve 30-minutes in-school moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The aim of this study was to investigate MVPA accumulation and subject frequency during academic lesson segments and the broader segmented school day. Methods: 122 children (42.6% boys; 9.9±0.3yrs) from six primary schools in North East England, wore uniaxial accelerometers for eight consecutive days. Subject frequency was assessed by teacher diaries. Multilevel models (children nested within schools) examined significant predictors of MVPA across each school-day segment (lesson one, break, lesson two, lunch, lesson three). Results: Pupils averaged 18.33±8.34 minutes of in-school MVPA and 90.2% failed to achieve the in-school 30-minute MVPA threshold. Across all school-day segments, MVPA accumulation was typically influenced at the individual level. Lesson one and two - dominated by Math and English - were less active than lesson three. Break and lunch were the most active segments. Conclusion: This study breaks new ground, revealing MVPA accumulation and subject frequency varies greatly during different academic lessons. Morning lessons were dominated by the inactive delivery of Math and English, whereas afternoon lessons involved a greater array of subject delivery that resulted in marginally higher levels of MVPA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0064.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: Moderate halophile; Carbonate minerals; Mg/Ca ratios; Different magnesium, Carbonic anhydrase; pH increase; Cell density; Growth mode
Online: 2 November 2018 (14:23:37 CET)
Carbonate precipitation induced by microorganism has become a hot spot in the field of carbonate sedimentology, while the effect of different magnesium on biominerals has rarely been studied. Therefore, magnesium sulfate and magnesium chloride were used to investigate the significant role played on carbonate minerals. In this study, Staphylococcus epidermidis Y2 was isolated and identified by 16S rDNA homology comparison. The ammonia, pH, carbonic anhydrase, carbonate and bicarbonate ions were investigated. The mineral phase, morphology and elemental composition were analyzed by XRD and SEM-EDS. The ultrathin slices of bacteria were analyzed by HRTEM-SAED and STEM. The result showed that this bacterium could release ammonia and carbonic anhydrase to increase pH, and elevate the supersaturation via a large number of carbonate and bicarbonate ions released through carbon dioxide hydration catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase. The crystal cell density of monohydrocalcite was lower in magnesium chloride medium than that in magnesium sulfate medium. The crystal grew in a mode of spiral staircas in magnesium sulfate medium, while in a concentric circular pattern in magnesium chloride medium. There was no obvious intracellular biomineralization. This study may be helpful to further understand the biomineralization mechanism, may also provide some references for the reconstruction of paleogeological environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0062.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: optimization of planting structure; biannual cropping pattern; arid oasis irrigation area; moderate scale; benefit of unilateral water use
Online: 5 June 2018 (11:08:42 CEST)
Light and heat resources are ample in Xinjiang plain oasis region. Planting structure is single in irrigation area, which leads to severe seasonal water shortages due to high concentration of water utilization. Therefore, how to make full use of light and heat resources to develop oasis agriculture without expanding planting scale has become the focus of research. The biannual cropping patterns are possible solutions to the problem. Manas River Irrigation area, which is located on the northern slope of Tianshan Mountain in Xinjiang in China is regarded as a typical case study to analyze the suitable planting structure and planting scale for biannual cropping pattern. The effects of optimizing planting patterns on alleviating the contradiction between water supply and water need，and the efficiency of water resources utilization was also studied. The results of the study show that：(1) the suitable planting scales of Manas River irrigation area in wet year (P = 25%), normal year (P = 50%), and low flow year (P = 75%) are about 72.66%, 78.73% and 83.91% of the current planting scale. (2) After the planting structure was optimized, the water use process in the irrigation area extends from May to August at present to April to November. The water use ratio at the peak period of water use decreased from 0.847 to 0.601, and the water use peak was significantly dispersed. (3) Economic benefits per cubic metre of water of the biannual cropping patterns increased from 8.65 yuan·m−3 at present to 9.45 yuan·m−3, 10.31 yuan·m−3 and 11.43 yuan·m−3 in wet year (P = 25%), in normal year (P = 50%) and low flow year (P = 75%) respectively, which proved that replanting crops could improve the efficiency of water resources utilization in irrigated areas. Therefore, the optimal planting pattern can be implemented to improve the utilization efficiency of soil and water resources in irrigation area in the arid oasis with single planting pattern with excessive concentration of water use peak and serious water shortage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0017.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: childhood malnutrition; community-based management of acute malnutrition–CMAM; moderate acute malnutrition–MAM; supplementary feeding programs–SFP; Zambia
Online: 1 June 2018 (12:04:50 CEST)
Background: Evaluation of nutrition programs is essential to guarantee the effectiveness of community-based management of acute malnutrition (CMAM). Methods: The Rainbow Project Supplementary Feeding Programs (SFPs) in Zambia were evaluated between years 2015-17, following implementation of new recommendations based on previous evaluations (years 2012-14). Outcomes of the program were compared with International Standards and with those of 2012-14. Cox proportional risk regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of mortality and defaulting. Results: Data for 900 under age 5 years malnourished children (48.8% male; mean age 19.7months ±9.9) were analyzed. Rainbow 2015-17 program outcomes met International Standards, for general malnutrition or stratified moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) and severe acute malnutrition (SAM). When comparing with 2012-14 outcomes, better performance was noted: mortality rates were reduced by half (5.6% vs 3.1%, p = 0.01; for SAM: 12.4% vs 6.7%, p = 0.006), with significant improvement in average weight gain and mean length of stay (p<0.001), and increased awareness of HIV status (+30%; p < 0.001). HIV infection (5.5; 1.9–15.9), WAZ < −3 at baseline (4.6; 1.3–16.1) and kwashiorkor (3.5; 1.2–9.5) remained the major predictors of mortality. Conclusion: The effectiveness of the Rainbow SFPs for child malnutrition treatment and prevention in Zambia has significantly improved after evaluation and implementation activities, with impressive outcomes which resulted in a 50% reduction in mortality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0291.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; Multidimensional Analysis; HCA; Hierarchical cluster analysis; regression analysis; mild; moderate; severe; Age; Score index of the chest X-ray; percentage and quantity of neutrophils; Albumin; C reactive protein; ratio of Lymphocytes
Online: 20 September 2022 (04:50:36 CEST)
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the study was to determine (a) the overall preclinical character; (b) the cumulative cutoff values and the risk ratio, and (c) the factors associated with severity by a unidimensional and multidimensional analysis on 2173 Sars-Cov2 patients. METHODS: The machine learning study population consisted of 2173 patients (1587 mild and non symptoms patients, 377 moderate patients, 209 severe patients). The status of the patients was recorded from September 2021 to March 2022. RESULTS: The Covid19 Severity directly links with a significant correlation to Age, Score index of the chest X-ray, percentage and quantity of neutrophils, Albumin, C reactive protein, and ratio of Lymphocytes. Their important cut off values (from regression analysis) respectively are: 77.56 years old (the mild-moderate group), 5.53 (the mild-moderate group) and 10.51 (the moderate-severe group), 84.80% (the mild-moderate group) and 87.74%(the moderate-severe group), 11.77G/L (the moderate-severe group), 29.73g/L (the moderate-severe group), 7.46mg/dL (the mild-moderate group), 6.32% (the moderate-severe group). Their significant (p<0.0001) R score correlation with the severity of Covid19, are: 0.44, 0.52 and 0.52, 0.33 and 0.44, 0.42, -0.43, 0.40, -0.41. Their significant risk ratio (p<0.00001) from the meta-analysis, respectively are: 4.19 [3.58-4.95], 3.29 [2.76-3.92] and 3.03 [2.4023;3.8314], 3.18 [2.73-3.70] and 3.32 [2.6480;4.1529], 3.15 [2.6153;3.8025], 3.4[2.91-3.97], 0.46 [0.3650;0.5752] (p<0.00001), 0.34 [0.2743;0.4210]. The pair ALT – Leucocytes and Transferrin – Anion Chloride get the most important correlation shift. ALT – Leucocytes show the important negative link (R=-1, p<0.00001) in the mild group to the significant positive correlation in the moderate group (R=1, p<0.00001). Transferrin–anion Chloride has an important positive association (R=1, p<0.00001) in the mild group with a significant negative correlation in the moderate group (R=-0.59, p<0.00001). The network map and HCA show that in the mild-moderate group, the closest neighbors with the Covid19 severity are ferritins, Age. Then there is C-reactive protein, SI of X-ray, Albumin, and Lactate dehydrogenase, which are the next close neighbors of these three factors. In the moderate-severe group, the closest neighbors with the Covid19 severity are Ferritin, Fibrinogen, Albumin, the quantity of Lymphocytes, SI of X-ray, white blood cells count, Lactate dehydrogenase, and quantity of neutrophils. CONCLUSIONS: Complete multidimensional study in 2173 Covid19 patients in Vietnam shows the whole picture of all the preclinical factors, which may become the clinical reference marker for surveillance and diagnostic management
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0102.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: acute malnutrition; combined protocol; community-based management of acute malnutrition; ef-fectiveness; Mali; mid-upper-arm circumference; moderate acute malnutrition; ready-to-use ther-apeutic food; treatment; severe acute malnutrition; simplified protocol; wasting
Online: 7 September 2022 (05:21:16 CEST)
The simplified, combined protocol admits children with a mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) of <125 mm or edema to malnutrition treatment with ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) prescribing 2 daily RUTF sachets to children with MUAC <115 mm or edema and 1 daily sachet to those with MUAC ≥115 mm but <125 mm. This treatment has previously been shown to result in non-inferior programmatic outcomes compared to standard treatment. We aimed at observing its effectiveness in a routine setting at scale, including via delivery by community health workers (CHW). A total of 27 601 children were admitted to the simplified, combined treatment. Treatment resulted in 96% overall recovery with a mean LOS of 40 days and a mean RUTF consumption of 63 sachets per child treated. Among children admitted with MUAC <115 mm or edema 94% recovered with a mean LOS of 55 days and consuming an average of 97 RUTF sachets. Recovery in all sub-groups studied exceeded 90%.Treatment by CHWs resulted in similar (96%) recovery as treatment by formal health care workers (96%). The simplified, combined protocol results in high recovery and low RUTF consumption per child treated, and can safely be adopted by CHWs to provide treatment in the community-level.