REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0105.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: fibroblast growth factor; fibroblast growth factor receptor; targeted treatments; breast cancer
Online: 7 June 2018 (07:50:30 CEST)
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy and second only to lung cancer in terms of mortality in women. Despite the incredible progress made in this field, the metastatic breast cancer leaves a poor prognosis. In an era of personalized medicine, there is an urgent need for a better knowledge of the biology leading to the disease, which can lead to the design of always more accurate drugs against patients’ specific molecular aberrations. Among one of the actionable targets is the Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) pathway, triggered by specific ligands. The FGFRs/FGFs axis offers interesting molecular targets to be pursued in clinical development. This mini-review will focus on the current knowledge of the FGFRs mutations leading to tumour formation and summarizes the state-of-the-art of therapeutic strategies for targeted treatments against the FGFRs/FGFs axis in the context of BC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0327.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: cancer-associated-fibroblast; fibroblast activation protein; FAPi; Positron emission tomography; FAPi PET; theranostics
Online: 21 January 2022 (13:31:31 CET)
The tumor microenvironment (TME) surrounding tumor cells is a complex and highly dynamic system that promotes tumorigenesis. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are key elements in TME playing a pivotal role in cancer cells’ proliferation and metastatic spreading. Considering the high expression of the fibroblast activation protein (FAP) on cell membrane, CAFs emerged as appealing TME targets, namely for molecular imaging, leading to a pan-tumoral approach. Therefore, FAP inhibitors (FAPis) have been recently developed for PET imaging and radioligand therapy, exploring the clinical application in different tumor sub-types. The present review aimed to describe recent developments on radiolabeled FAP inhibitors and evaluate the possible translation of this pan-tumoral approach in clinical practice. At present, the application of FAPi-PET has been explored mainly in single-center studies, generally performed in small and heterogeneous cohorts of oncological patients. However, preliminary results were promising, in particular in low FDG-avid tumors such as primary liver and gastro-entero-pancreatic cancer, or in regions with unfavorable tumor-to-background ratio at FDG-PET/CT (i.e. brain), as well as in radiotherapy planning of head and neck tumors. Further promising results have been obtained in the detection of peritoneal carcinomatosis, especially in ovarian and gastric cancer. Data regarding the theranostics approach are still limited at presents, and definitive conclusion about its efficacy cannot be drawn at present. Nevertheless, the use of FAPi-based radio-ligand to treat the TME has been evaluated in first-in-human studies and appears feasible. Although the pan-tumoral approach in molecular imaging showed promising results, its real impact in day-to-day clinical practice has yet to be confirmed, and multi-center, prospective studies powered for efficacy are needed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0256.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; pathological cardiac hypertrophy; sarcomere; cardiac myocyte; cardiac fibroblast; cardiac fibrosis; myocyte-fibroblast interaction; extracellular matrix
Online: 12 July 2021 (12:13:53 CEST)
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common inherited cardiovascular disorder affecting 1 in 500 people in the general population. Although characterized by asymmetric left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte disarray and cardiac fibrosis, HCM is in fact a highly complex disease with heterogenous clinical presentation, onset and complications. While HCM is generally accepted as a disease of the sarcomere, variable penetrance in families with identical genetic mutations challenges the monogenic origin of HCM and instead implies a multifactorial cause. Furthermore, large scale genome sequencing studies revealed that many genes previously reported as causative of HCM in fact have little or no evidence of disease association. These findings thus call for a re-evaluation of the sarcomere-centered view of HCM pathogenesis. Here, we summarize our current understanding of sarcomere-independent mechanisms of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, highlight the role of extracellular signals in cardiac fibrosis, and propose an alternative but integrated model of HCM pathogenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0441.v1
Online: 17 March 2021 (13:19:38 CET)
Mandibular critical size defect (CSD) due to pathological conditions, trauma, and congenital disease can not heal spontaneously and predominantly filled with fibrous tissue. Therefore, a Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) combined with bone grafting can be performed. The researchers considered using Demineralized Dentin Material Membrane (DDMM) from bovine dentine as an alternative GBR. This study aimed to determine the amount of fibroblast and collagen density after DDMM and bone graft implantation on CSD. Thirty-six Rattus norvegicus rats were used as samples. Mandibular bone defect 5x5 mm was made, then filled with bone graft and covered with Bovine Pericardium Collagen Membrane (BPCM) in the control group and DDMM in the treatment group. Six samples were sacrificed on 7, 14, and 21 days post-surgical for histology examination. There were no significant differences in the amount of fibroblast and collagen density (p-value > 0,05). The amount of fibroblast is lower and the collagen density is higher in treatment group. DDMM has microporosity to prevent connective tissue ingrowth and dentine tubules to allow growth factors release. DDMM and bone graft implantation can reduce the amount of fibroblasts and increase collagen density of CSD which potentially being used as a CSD alternative treatment for bone regeneration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0013.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: bioactive peptides; hypertension; ciclooxygenase-2; fibroblast; functional food
Online: 2 November 2018 (04:48:42 CET)
Prostanoids modulate the pathogenesis of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, in which inflammation has an important role. It is well known that inducible Ciclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is responsible for prostanoid production associated with inflammation. Angiotensin II may be implicated through the expression of COX-2 in the vascular wall. The purpose of this study was to examine in angiotensin II-stimulated adventitial fibroblasts the anti-inflammatory activity of different food peptides by inhibiting COX-2 expression, and the production of pro-inflammatory prostanoids. Fibroblasts from aorta of Sprague-Dawley rats were incubated with different food derived peptides followed by incubation with Angiotensin II. COX-2 expression was determined by western blot, transcriptional activity by luciferase assays and prostaglandin E2 by enzyme immunoassay. COX-2 expression was inhibited in the presence of Val-Pro-Pro (bovine β-casein 84–86), Arg-Asp-Ile-Leu-Asn-Gln (ovalbumin 84–89) and Tyr-Arg-Gly-Gly-Leu-Glu-Pro-Ile-Asn-Phe (ovalbumin 125–134). Angiotensin II-induced prostaglandin E2 production was also reduced by all the above-mentioned sequences. The incubation with ovalbumin-derived peptides displayed a significant reduction of COX-2 promoter activity compared to the stimuli with Angiotensin II in transiently transfected cells. These three sequences could potentially be used as functional food ingredients to reduce inflammation related to cardiovascular diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0068.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: cold plasma; plasma activated liquid; cancer cell; melanoma; fibroblast
Online: 5 January 2021 (10:04:48 CET)
Plasma medicine is a new field focusing on biomedical and clinical applications of cold physical plasmas, including their anticancer effects. Cold plasmas can be applied directly or indirectly as plasma activated liquids (PAL). The effect of plasma activated cell growth medium (PAM) and plasma activated phosphate buffered saline (PAPBS) were tested using a plasma pen generating streamer corona discharge in ambient air, on different cancer cell lines (melanoma A375, glioblastoma LN229 and pancreatic cancer MiaPaCa-2) and normal cells (human dermal fibroblasts HDFa). The viability reduction and apoptosis induction were detected in all cancer cells after incubation in PAL. In melanoma cells we focused on detailed insights to the apoptotic pathways. The anticancer effects depend on the plasma treatment time or PAL concentration. The first 30 minutes of incubation in PAL were enough to start processes leading to the cell death. In fibroblasts, no apoptosis induction was observed, only PAPBS, activated for longer time, slightly decreased their viability. Anticancer effects of PAM and PAPBS on cancer cells showed selectivity compared to normal fibroblasts, depended on correctly chosen activation time and PAL concentration. This selectivity, supported by optimum ratio of hydrogen peroxide and nitrites in PAL, is very promising for potential clinical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0101.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: DNM1L; Drp1; mitochondrial disease; mitochondrial fission-fusion; Bezafibrate; fibroblast
Online: 8 August 2019 (11:01:59 CEST)
Mitochondria are involved in many cellular processes and their main role is cellular energy production. They constantly undergo fission and fusion, and these counteracting processes are under strict balance. The cytosolic dynamin-related protein 1, Drp1 or dynamin-1-like protein (DNM1L) mediates mitochondrial and peroxisomal division. Defects in the DNM1L gene results in a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with heterogeneous symptoms affecting multiple organ systems. Currently there is no curative treatment available for this condition. We have previously described a patient with a de novo heterozygous c.1084G>A (p.G362S) DNM1L mutation and studied the effects of a small molecule, Bezafibrate, on mitochondrial functions in this patient’s fibroblasts compared to controls. Bezafibrate normalized growth on glucose-free medium, ATP production, oxygen consumption and s improved mitochondrial morphology in patient’s fibroblasts, albeit concomitantly causing a mild increase ROS production. Further studies would be needed to show the consistency of the response to Bezafibrate, possibly using fibroblasts from patients with different mutations in DNM1L, and this treatment should be confirmed in clinical trials. However, taking into account the favorable effects in our study, we suggest that Bezafibrate could be a possible treatment option for patients with certain DNM1L mutations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0572.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: aging; collagen; extracellular matrix; fibroblast; skin; tenascin C; TGF-β
Online: 28 October 2020 (08:49:54 CET)
Tenascin C (TNC) is an element of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of various tissues, including the skin, and is involved in modulating ECM integrity and cell physiology. Although skin aging is apparently associated with changes in the ECM, little is known about the role of TNC in skin aging. Here we found that Tnc mRNA level was significantly reduced in the skin tissues of aged mice compared with young mice, consistent with reduced TNC protein expression in aged human skin. TNC-large (TNC-L; 330-kDa) and -small (TNC-S; 240-kDa) polypeptides were observed in conditional media from primary dermal fibroblasts. Both recombinant TNC polypeptides, corresponding to TNC-L and TNC-S, increased the expression of type I collagen and reduced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 in fibroblasts. Treatment of fibroblasts with a recombinant TNC polypeptide, corresponding to TNC-L, induced phosphorylation of SMAD2 and SMAD3. TNC increased the level of TGF-β1 mRNA and upregulated the expression of type I collagen by activating the TGF-β signaling pathway. In addition, TNC also promoted the expression of type I collagen in fibroblasts embedded in a three-dimensional collagen matrix. Our findings suggest that TNC contributes to the integrity of ECM in young skin and to prevention of skin aging.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0382.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: metastatic breast cancer; targeted therapies; fibroblast growth factors receptors drugs
Online: 26 February 2020 (01:41:54 CET)
Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequent form of malignancy and the second only to lung cancer as common cause of cancer-causing deaths in women. Notwithstanding many progresses in the field, metastatic BC has a very poor prognosis. As therapies are becoming more personalized to meet patients‘ needs, a better knowledge of the molecular biology leading to the disease unfolds the possibility to project more precise compounds or antibodies targeting definite alteration at the molecular level expressed in cancer cells of patients or as antigens on the surface of cell membranes. Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) is a druggable target -which is activated by its own ligands -namely the Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs). This pathway provides a vast range of interesting molecular targets pursued at different levels of clinical investigation. Herein we provide an update on the knowledge on genetic alterations of the receptors in breast cancer, their role in tumorigenesis and the most recent drugs against this particular receptor to treat the disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0423.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: Aging; cellular senescence; fibroblast; osteoarthritis; remodeling-associated secretory phenotype (RASP); remodeling activation
Online: 27 July 2022 (13:38:36 CEST)
One of the most striking findings in biogerontology in the 2010s was the demonstration that elimination of senescent cells delays many late-life diseases and extends lifespan in mice. This implied that accumulation of senescent cells promotes late-life diseases, particularly through action of senescent cell secretions (the senescence-associated secretory phenotype or SASP). But what exactly is a senescent cell? Subsequent to the initial characterization of cellular senescence it became clear that, prior to aging, this phenomenon is in fact adaptive. It supports tissue remodeling functions in a variety of contexts, including embryogenesis, parturition and acute inflammatory processes that restore normal tissue architecture and function, such as wound healing, tissue repair after infection, and amphibian limb regeneration. In these contexts such cells are normal and healthy, and not in any way senescent in the true sense of the word, as originally meant by Hayflick. Thus, it is misleading to refer to them as “senescent”. Similarly, the common assertion that senescent cells accumulate with age due to stress and DNA damage is no longer safe, particularly given their role in inflammation - a process that becomes persistent in later life. We therefore suggest that it would be useful to update some terminology, to bring it into line with contemporary understanding, and to avoid future confusion. To open a discussion of this issue, we propose replacing the term cellular senescence with remodeling activation, and SASP with RASP (remodeling-associated secretory phenotype).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0601.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: bactericidal; biocompatibility; copper; human fibroblast; physical vapor deposition (PVD); silver; titanium; thin films
Online: 24 June 2021 (11:04:43 CEST)
Mechanical robustness, biocompatibility, and antibacterial performances are key features for materials suitable to be used in tissue engineering applications. In this work, we investigated the link existing between structural and functional properties of TiCu(Ag) thin films deposited by physical vapor deposition magnetron sputtering on Si substrates. The thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nanoindentation, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The TiCu(Ag) thin films showed complete amorphous structure and improved mechanical properties in comparison with pure Ti films. However, for contents in excess of 20% Ag, we observed the appearance of nanometric Ag crystallite. The TiCu(Ag) thin films displayed excellent biocompatibility properties, allowing adhesion and proliferation of the human fibroblasts MRC-5 cell line. Moreover, all the investigated TiCu(Ag) alloy display bactericidal properties, preventing the growth of both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Results obtained from biological tests have been correlated to the surface structure and microstructure of films. The excellent biocompatibility and bactericidal properties of these multifunctional thin films opens to their use in tissue engineering applications.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0480.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: endothelial; infection; basement membrane; fibroblast; fibrosis; nsp7; hypothesis; pathogenesis; COVID-19; SARS-CoV2
Online: 31 May 2020 (16:28:19 CEST)
Severe COVID-19 is associated with viraemia and multiple organ disease. Similar clinicopathological features have been previously seen in SARS and MERS. Clinically, the severity of SARS, MERS and COVID-19 has been associated with the presence of SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV or SARS-CoV2 viraemia in affected patients. In vitro work has looked at the pattern of viral entry and release from polarised epithelial cells infected by coronaviruses. This work has demonstrated a correlation between the severity of a coronavirus infection and the ability of the virus to reach and infect the basal surface of host cells. It has been postulated that this ability helps the virus invade the bloodstream of the host, resulting in a systemic infection with multiple organ involvement. Here we propose that basal surface release and entry of COVID-19 into and out of cells at epithelial-endothelial interface plays a key pathogenic role in severe COVID-19 disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0028.v3
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Chenopodium formosanum; human dermal fibroblast; UV exposure; antioxidant activity; anti-aging; red djulis
Online: 13 November 2019 (11:02:35 CET)
Red djulis (Chenopodium formosanum) is a native cereal plant in Taiwan; it contains abundant polyphenols, betalian and dietary fiber. The appearance of red djulis is bright red. Therefore, it is also called the “ruby of cereals”. The antioxidative activity of red djulis extract is well-understood. However, the antiaging function still remains unclear. This study examined the potential of red djulis extract for enhancing collagen secretion and preventing cutaneous aging using red djulis extracts. The red djulis extracts are comprised of an abundant active component that can effectively enhance the ability of collagen secretion of dermal fibroblasts, prevent the glycation of collagen and resist the damage of ultraviolet light exposure. After fibroblast treatment with red djulis extracts, TGM1, KRT1, KRT10 and SOD2 genes were up-regulated significantly by 2.3, 4.3, 4.4 and 27.3 times, respectively, compared to those of the control group. Additionally, it can increase COL1A2 gene expression by 43% and decrease MMP9 gene expression 33%. Therefore, it was demonstrated that red djulis extracts affect gene expressions related to the skin barrier, antioxidation and collagen. Moreover, we found positive effects on skin barrier integrity, endogenous antioxidant activity and skin collagen-preservation. The preparation of the red djulis extracts is environmental friendly and can promote the economic value of Chenopodium formosanum; thus, the proposed extract is suitable for applications in the development of food products, especially beverages, skin care and cosmetic products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0304.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D; vitamin D receptor; vitamin D receptor; fibroblast growth factor receptor; signal transduction; differentiation
Online: 21 October 2021 (10:52:39 CEST)
(1) Background: Many malignancies are driven by mutations which affect the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 1. Previously we have documented that signal transduction from FOP2–FGFR1 fusion protein in KG1 cells downregulated the expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene. In this paper we investigated if also other FGFRs were responsible for the regulation of the VDR expression. (2) Methods: We used human myeloid leukemia cells U937, and bone cancer cell line U2OS, and cell transfection methods in order to address the above questions. (3) Results: In myeloid leukemia cells overexpression of FGFR 1-4 caused shift to granulocytic differentiation, upregulated expression of VDR, and sensitized these cells to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D)-induced monocytic differentiation, while in bone cells, signal transduction activated by FGF1 was not responsible for regulation of VDR expression and activity. (4) Conclusions: Since the overexpression of FGFRs occurs in many neoplasms, it may be reasonable to use 1,25D analogs in these cancers, in which overexpression of FGFRs leads to VDR upregulation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0206.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Collagen triple helix repeat containing 1; CTHRC1; rheumatoid arthritis; biomarker; bone erosion; cartilage destruction; fibroblast-like synoviocytes; Wnt signaling
Online: 10 July 2020 (07:51:23 CEST)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease, causing inflammation of joints, cartilage destruction and bone erosion. Biomarkers and new drug targets are actively sought and progressed to improve available options for patient treatment. The Collagen Triple Helix Repeat Containing 1 protein (CTHRC1) may have an important role as a biomarker for rheumatoid arthritis, as CTHRC1 protein concentration is significantly elevated in the peripheral blood of rheumatoid arthritis patients, compared to osteoarthritis (OA) patients and healthy individuals. CTHRC1 is a secreted glycoprotein that promotes cell migration and has been implicated in arterial tissue-repair processes. Furthermore, high CTHRC1 expression is observed in many types of cancer and this is associated with cancer metastasis to the bone and poor prognosis. However, the function of CTHRC1 in RA is still largely undefined. The aim of this review is to summarize recent findings on the role of CTHRC1 as a potential biomarker and pathogenic driver of RA progression that may be linked to the pathogenic behavior of fibroblast-like synoviocytes, cartilage destruction, and bone erosion.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0171.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4; Fibroblast growth factor; Gastrointestinal peptide; Glucagon-like peptide 1; Glucagon receptor; Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor; Sodium glucose cotransporter
Online: 16 January 2020 (11:44:49 CET)
Liver related diseases are the 3rd leading causes (9.3%) of mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Japan. T2DM is closely associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) which is the most prevalent chronic liver disease worldwide. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a severe form of NAFLD, can lead to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and hepatic failure. There are no established pharmacotherapies for NASH patients with T2DM. Though vitamin E is established as a 1st line agent in NASH without T2DM, its efficacy was recently denied in NASH with T2DM. The effects of pioglitazone on NASH histology with T2DM have extensively been established, but several concerns exist such as body weight gain, fluid retention, cancer incidence, and bone fracture. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are expected to ameliorate NASH (LEAN study, LEAD trial, and E-LIFT study). Among a variety of SGLT2 inhibitors, dapagliflozin have already entered phase 3 trials (DEAN study). A key clinical question is what kinds of anti-diabetic drugs are the most appropriate for the treatment of NASH to prevent progression of hepatic fibrosis resulting in HCC/liver-related mortality without increasing risk at cardiovascular or renal events. The combination therapies such as glucagon receptor agonist/GLP-1 or gastrointestinal peptide /GLP-1 will be under development. This review focuses on antidiabetic agents and future perspectives on the view of the treatment of NAFLD with T2DM.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0249.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: X-linked hypophosphatemia; fibroblast growth factor 23; osteomalacia; enthesopathy; secondary hyperparathyroidism; tertiary hyperparathyroidism; chronic kidney disease; oral disease; quality of life; burosumab
Online: 19 May 2022 (04:03:47 CEST)
Adult X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) patients present with specific symptoms, including enthesopathies (e.g., ossification of the longitudinal ligament (OPLL), osteophytes around the large joint, and enthesopathy in the Achilles tendon), the development of severe secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT/THPT) and the subsequent progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In addition, these patients exhibit the typical phenotypes of osteomalacia, such as pseudofracture and fracture in weight-bearing bones, odontitis, and tooth abscess. The mechanism underlying enthesopathy development is unknown; however, a common underlying mechanism among XLH and autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets, ARHR1.2, due to mutations in PHEX, DMP1, and ENPP1, is assumed. Clarification of the pathogenesis and drug discovery for this complication is an urgent issue to address, as many adult XLH patients suffer subsequent debilitating nervus symptoms or impingement syndrome, and existing treatments are ineffective. Severe SHPT and THPT are associated with conventional therapy, including active vitamin D and phosphate supplementation, and complicated and careful adjustment of the dosage by experienced clinicians is required to avoid SHPT/THPT. Burosumab is a very effective therapy without risk for the development of SHPT/THPT. However, the indication of this drug should be carefully considered along with the cost-effectiveness, guidelines or recommendations and health care system of each country.