ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0469.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: cavernous sinus triangles; endoscopic transorbital; extended endoscopic endonasal; fronto-temporo-orbito-zygomatic; middle fossa.
Online: 7 July 2023 (07:30:31 CEST)
Background: The cavernous sinus (CS) is a highly vulnerable anatomical space, mainly for the neurovascular structures which it contains, therefore a detailed knowledge of its anatomy is mandatory for the surgical unlocking. To compare the anatomy of this region from different endoscopic and microsurgical operative corridors, also focusing on the corresponding anatomic landmarks met along these routes. Furthermore, we tried to define the safe entry zones to this venous space from these three different operative corridors and provide indications regarding the optimal approach according to the lesion location. Methods: Five embalmed and injected adult cadaveric specimens (10 sides) separately underwent dissection and exposure of the CS via superior eyelid endoscopic transorbital (SETOA), extended endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal-transethmoidal (EEEA) and microsurgical transcranial fronto-temporo-orbito-zygomatic (FTOZ) approaches. The anatomical landmarks and the content of this venous space have been described and compared from these surgical perspectives. Results: The SETOA allowed the exposure of the entire lateral wall of the CS without entering its neurovascular structures and part of the posterior wall; furthermore, thanks to its anteroposterior trajectory, it allowed to disclose in a minimally invasive fashion, also the posterior ascending segment of the cavernous ICA with the related sympathetic plexus through the Mullan’s triangle. Through the anterolateral triangle, the transorbital corridor allowed to expose the lateral 180 degrees of vidian nerve and artery in the homonymous canal, the anterolateral aspect of the lacerum segment of the ICA, at its the transition zone from the petrous horizontal to the ascending posterior cavernous segment, surrounded by the carotid sympathetic plexus, and the medial Meckel’s cave. Conclusion: Different regions of the cavernous sinus are better exposed by different surgical corridors. The relationship of tumor and cranial nerves in the lateral wall guides the selection of the approach to cavernous sinus lesions. The transorbital endoscopic approach can be considered a safe and minimally invasive complementary surgical corridor to the well-established transcranial and endoscopic endonasal routes in the exposure of the cavernous sinus. Nevertheless, peer knowledge of the anatomy and a surgical learning curve are required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0575.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Directed endoscopic necrosectomy; endoscopic step-up approach; endoscopic transluminal drainage; percutaneous drainage; walled-off pancreatic necrosis
Online: 31 January 2023 (06:25:40 CET)
Abstract: Background and objectives: Symptomatic walled-off pancreatic necrosis is a serious local complication of acute necrotising pancreatitis. The endoscopic step-up approach is the standard treatment for symptomatic walled-off pancreatic necrosis; however, adjunctive radiologic percu-taneous drainage for this condition is controversial. This study compared the clinical and radio-logic resolution of walled-off pancreatic necrosis achieved with the endoscopic step-up approach with or without radiology-guided percutaneous drainage. Material and Methods: This retrospective, single-center cohort study enrolled patients with symp-tomatic walled-off pancreatic necrosis who underwent endoscopic transmural drainage (ETD) followed by directed endoscopic necrosectomy (DEN) with or without radiology-guided drainage. A total of 34 patients (endoscopic approach, n=22; combined modality approach, n=12) underwent the endoscopic step-up approach (ETD followed by DEN). Baseline characteristics, clinical success, and resolution of necrosis were compared between groups. Results: All patients achieved symptom resolution from walled-off pancreatic necrosis. The mean patient age was 58.4 years, and 21 (61.8%) were men. After treatment with the endoscopic approach and combined modality approach, clinical success was achieved in 90.9% of patients within 11.5 days, and 66.7% of patients within 16.5 days, respectively. Both the total hospital stay (55 days vs 71 days; p=0.071) and time to complete radiologic resolution were shorter (93 days vs 124 days; p=0.23) in the endoscopic approach group. Conclusion: The endoscopic step-up approach resulted in the clinical resolution of symptomatic walled-off pancreatic necrosis comparable to that of the combined modality drainage. However, the endoscopic approach alone allows higher clinical success, early clinical and radiologic resolution, and a shorter hospital stay.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1896.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Severe Dementia; Nutritional status; Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy
Online: 26 May 2023 (08:56:02 CEST)
Dementia is a rising public health concern. Feeding and nutritional problems increase as the disease progresses, affecting clinical course and caregiver burden. While some guidelines advise against percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) and tube feeding in advanced dementia, conflicting evidence exists. This study aims evaluating nutritional status and the influence of PEG-feeding on outcome and evolution of nutritional/progonosis markers of patients with severe dementia (PWSD) who underwent gastrostomy for nutritional support. We conducted a 16-year rectrospective study on 100 PEG-fed PWSD with strong familiar support. We evaluated survival PEG-feeding period, safety, and objective nutritional/progonosis data at the gastrostomy day and after 3 months: Body Mass Index (BMI), Mid Upper Arm Circumference, Tricipital Skinfold, Mid-Arm Muscle Circumference, albumin, transferrin, total cholesterol and hemoglobin. Most patients presented low values in these nutritional/progonosis parameters. No major life-threatening PEG complications were reported. The mean survival time after gastrostomy was 27.9 months (median of 17 months). Female sex, BMI recovery at 3 months, and higher baseline hemoglobin levels were associated with a reduced risk of death and increased survival time. The study concluded that, in carefully selected PWSD with strong familiar support, PEG feeding can improve nutritional status and have a positive impact on survival.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0063.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Endoscopic Ultrasound; Artificial Intelligence; Biopsy; Pathological Diagnosis.
Online: 2 May 2023 (06:05:02 CEST)
Background: Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS) is widely used for the diagnosis of bilio-pancreatic and gastrointestinal (GI) tract diseases, for the evaluation of subepithelial lesions, and for sampling of lymph nodes and solid masses lo-cated next to the GI tract. The role of Artificial Intelligence in healthcare in growing. This review aimed to provide an overview of the current state of AI in EUS from imaging to pathological diagnosis and training. Methods: AI algorithms can assist in lesion detection and characterization in EUS by analysing EUS images and identifying suspicious areas that may require further clinical evaluation or biopsy sampling. Deep learning tech-niques, such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs), have shown great potential for tumour identification and subepithelial lesion (SEL) evaluation by extracting important features from EUS images and using them to classify or segment the images. Results: AI models with new features can increase the accuracy of diagnoses, provide faster diagnoses, identify subtle differences in disease presentation that may be missed by human eyes, and provide more information and in-sights into disease pathology. Conclusions: The integration of AI in EUS images and biopsies has the potential to improve the diagnostic accura-cy, leading to better patient outcomes and to a reduction of repeated procedures in case of non-diagnostic biopsies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0733.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: endoscopic ultrasound; pancreatic tumor; pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms
Online: 30 November 2020 (14:38:16 CET)
Although pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PNENs) are relatively rare tumors, their number is increasing with advances in diagnostic imaging modalities. Even small lesions that are difficult to detect using computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging can be detected with endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). Contrast-enhanced EUS is useful, and not only diagnosis but also malignancy detection have become possible by evaluating the vascularity of tumors. Pathological diagnosis using EUS with fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is useful when diagnostic imaging is difficult. EUS-FNA can also evaluate the grade of malignancy. Pooling the data of the studies which compared the PNENs grading between EUS-FNA samples and surgical specimen, the concordance rate was 77.5% (κ-statistic: 0.65, 95% confidence interval = 0.59 - 0.71, P< 0.01). EUS is a particularly important modality for the treatment of PNENs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0214.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; elderly; adverse event; difficult cannulation
Online: 18 September 2019 (17:54:04 CEST)
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a routinely used therapeutic procedure for the biliary and pancreatic diseases. Population aging may increase the typical indications of ERCP and come with more complexity and difficulties, especially in cannulation. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence, causes, and management of difficult biliary cannulation during ERCP in super-aged patients and the role of difficult cannulation as a risk factor for adverse events. A total of 614 patients, underwent ERCP, were prospectively studied as a cohort and divided into two groups based on their age. There were 146 patients aged 80 years or older in group A and 468 patients aged less than 80 years in group B. The primary outcome measures were the difficulty grade of papilla cannulation, clinical outcomes, and ERCP-related complications in the two groups. The adverse events were analyzed using logistic regression for patient age, co-morbidities, indications, and cannulation difficulty grade variables. There was no difference in the incidence of difficult cannulation between the two groups (32.9% vs. 34.4%, p=0.765) though, as expected, super-aged Group A had a higher prevalence of periampullary diverticulum (29.5% vs. 16.7%, p=0.001). The technical cannulation success rate was (96.6% vs. 96.8%, p= 0.54). All used cannulation techniques in the elderly group were efficient and safe. Logistic regression showed that age ≥80 was not associated with increased adverse events; however, difficult cannulation (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=3.478; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.877, 6.442; p<0.001) and CCI ≥2 (AOR=1.824; 95% CI=0.993, 3.349; p=0.045) were more likely to have adverse events. Age ≤65 (AOR=3.460; 95% CI=1.511, 7.922; p=0.003), female gender (AOR=2.362; 95% CI=1.089, 5.124; p=0.030), difficult cannulation (AOR=4.527; 95% CI=2.078, 9.860; p<0.001), and patients with cholangitis (AOR=3.261; 95% CI=1.204, 8.832; p=0.020) were strongly associated with increasing Post-ERCP Pancreatitis (PEP). Advanced age has not proved to be a risk factor of difficult cannulation, and secondary cannulation techniques can be safely and efficaciously utilized for this group. CCI ≥2 and difficult cannulation are associated with increased overall adverse events rate while age ≥80 factor is not.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1954.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: endoscopic image enhancement; dual attention; higher-order curve function
Online: 1 December 2023 (03:06:55 CET)
Endoscopic medical images can suffer from uneven illumination, low contrast, and lack of texture information due to the use of point directional light sources and the presence of narrow tissue structures, posing diagnostic difficulties for physicians. In this paper, a deep learning-based su-pervised illumination enhancement network is designed for low-light endoscopic images, aiming to improve both global illumination and local details. Initially, a global illumination enhancement module is formulated utilizing a higher-order curve function to improve global illumination. Sec-ondly, a local feature extraction module incorporating dual attention is designed to capture local detailed features. Considering the significance of color fidelity in biomedical scenarios, the designed loss function prioritizes introducing color loss to alleviate image color distortion. Compared with seven state-of-the-art enhancement algorithms on Endo4IE endoscopic datasets, experimental re-sults show that the proposed method can better enhance low-light endoscopic images and avoid image color distortion. It provides an efficient method to enhance images captured by endoscopes which can effectively assist clinical diagnosis and treatment.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0459.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: endoscopic hemostasis; emergency endoscopy; gastrointestinal bleeding; self-assembling peptide
Online: 27 March 2023 (10:42:18 CEST)
Background and Objectives: A novel synthetic self-assembling peptide, PuraStat, has been introduced as a hemostatic agent. This case series aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of PuraStat for gastrointestinal bleeding during emergency endoscopy. Cases: Twenty-five patients with gastrointestinal bleeding who had undergone emergency endoscopy with PuraStat between August 2021 and December 2022 were retrospectively examined. Six patients were receiving antithrombotic agent, and ten patients with refractory gastrointestinal bleeding had undergone at least one endoscopic hemostatic procedure. The breakdown of bleeding was gastroduodenal ulcer/erosion in 12 cases, bleeding after gastroduodenal or colorectal endoscopic resection in 4 cases, rectal ulcer in 2 cases, postoperative anastomotic ulcer in 2 cases, and gastric cancer, diffuse antral vascular ectasia, small intestinal ulcer, colonic diverticular bleeding, and radiation proctitis in each case. The method of hemostasis was only PuraStat application in six cases, and hemostasis in combination with high-frequency hemostatic forceps, hemostatic clip, argon plasma coagulation, and hemostatic agents (i.e. thrombin) in the remaining cases. Rebleeding was observed in three cases. Hemostatic efficiency was observed in 23 cases (92%). Conclusions: PuraStat has the expected hemostatic effect on gastrointestinal bleeding during emergency endoscopy. The use of PuraStat should be considered in emergency endoscopic hemostasis of gastrointestinal bleeding.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0217.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Endoscopic Endonasal Transphenoid (EET); Blood Loss Measurement; Electrochemical Measurement
Online: 9 July 2021 (11:11:51 CEST)
Surgeries that take place in medicine and dentistry or during any form of childbirth results in a significant amount of blood loss. The prevalent measurement methods that surgeons and anesthesiologists utilize as the “gold - standard” has several drawbacks. There are numerous other methods to measure blood loss, which, however, due to their impracticality and limitations, are not ideal either. This paper focuses on minimally invasive neurosurgery in particular, by taking into account a surgical technique known as Endoscopic Endonasal Transphenoidal surgery (EETS), which is used to treat pituitary tumors and adenomas. Along with the review of the existing literature pertaining to blood loss management, this paper proposes a modified electrode probe method along with the concept of usage, computer interface, and the system of integration. The probe is intended to measure the hematocrit count from the collected blood under all circumstances, such that the medical practitioner is assisted to improve the blood loss management technique for better patient recovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0076.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; periampullary diverticulum; difficult cannulation; biliary cannulation; cannulation techniques; adverse events
Online: 17 January 2020 (04:12:23 CET)
Aim: This study aimed to investigate the association between periampullary diverticulum (PAD) and difficult biliary cannulation, as well as to evaluate the impact of different types of PAD on the cannulation success rate and adverse events. Methods: A total of 636 patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) during the study period were prospectively studied and divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of PAD. In group A, 126 patients had PAD compared with 510 patients in group B without PAD. The primary outcome measurements were ERCP procedures time, selective cannulation techniques, and cannulation difficulty in addition to cannulation success rate and ERCP-related adverse events. The difficult cannulation was analyzed using logistic regression considering age, co-morbidities, the presence of PAD types, and indications as independent factors. Results: The average cohort age was 65.30±16.67 years, and 52.7% were male. Significant higher rates of choledocholithiasis, cholangitis, and biliary pancreatitis were reported in the group of PAD (p<0.05). Successful selective cannulation was achieved in 97.6% in group A and 95.3% in group B (p>0.05). The cannulation time was significantly longer in the presence of PAD (5.1 min, vs. 4.09 min, p<0.05). There was no significant difference in the rate of overall adverse events and post ERCP pancreatic PEP. Conclusion: The presence of PAD did not affect the duration or success of the ERCP procedure. Furthermore, it was associated with longer cannulation time and increase in the cannulation difficulty, especially with PAD type 1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1700.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: early-stage cancer; precancerous lesion; endoscopic submucosal dissection; liver cirrhosis
Online: 24 August 2023 (03:46:04 CEST)
(1) Background: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has been widely accepted as the standard method for treating early-stage cancer or precancerous lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract, however it may be difficult in patients with liver cirrhosis due to coagulation dysfunction or presence of gastroesophageal varices. We aimed to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of ESD in these population. (2) Methods: We retrospectively collected the clinical data and analyzed. Patients inclusion criteria: 1) patients with liver cirrhosis; 2) patients who underwent ESD; 3) patients diagnosed of early-stage cancer or precancerous lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract. (3) Results: Eight patients were enrolled from April 2019 to April 2023, of whom 3 were male and 5 female, with age ranging from 43 to 70 years old. Seven lesions were located in the stomach, and the other one lesion in the esophagus. ESD was performed successfully in all patients, and the resected lesion size ranged from 2 to 6 cm. Only one patient encountered postoperative complication, chest pain and fever. No recurrence of noticed during a follow-up of 6 to 36 months. (4) Conclusions: ESD is safe and effective for treating upper gastrointestinal early-stage cancer or precancerous lesions in patients with liver cirrhosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0898.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: D-dimer; Deep-vein thrombosis; Endoscopic submucosal dissection; Gastrointestinal tumor; Sedative
Online: 13 July 2023 (08:09:30 CEST)
Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is almost always performed with a sedative because of the longer procedure times involved. The risk of post-ESD deep vein thrombosis (DVT) has been reported as relatively high, and D-dimer levels are sometimes elevated after ESD. This retrospective study evaluated factors affecting changes in D-dimer levels from before to after ESD to identify causes of elevated D-dimer levels after ESD. This retrospective analysis included 117 patients with gastrointestinal tumors resected using ESD. After excluding 8 patients with pre-ESD levels of D-dimer >1.5 μg/mL, factors correlating with changes in D-dimer from before to after ESD were analyzed using logistic regression analysis in 109 patients. Sedation was accomplished primarily using midazolam, but because the sedative effect of midazolam shows marked inter-individual variability, a “corrected midazolam dose” was determined by dividing the total midazolam dose by the initial dose to correct for inter-individual differences in the sedative effect of midazolam. This value was used as one potential explanatory variable in subgroup analysis of the 103 patients who received midazolam. In subgroup analysis using the corrected midazolam dose as an explanatory variable, only corrected midazolam dose correlated with a change in D-dimer ≥ 1.0 μg/mL in multivariate analysis (odds ratio [OR]=1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.43–0.95; P=0.030). Corrected midazolam dose correlated with increases in post-ESD D-dimer levels. This potential relationship indicates that patients undergoing ESD and requiring extended sedation may be at increased risk of DVT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0189.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Endoscopic ultrasound; lumen apposing metal stents; cholecystitis; cholelithiasis; malignant biliary obstruction
Online: 11 April 2023 (04:14:14 CEST)
Endoscopic ultrasound-guided gallbladder drainage (EUS-GBD) is an alternative to surgery for acute cholecystitis (AC) in poor operative candidates. However, the role of EUS-GBD in non-cholecystitis (NC) indications has not been well studied. We compared clinical outcomes of EUS-GBD for AC and NC indications. Consecutive patients undergoing EUS-GBD for all indications at a single center were retrospectively analyzed. Fifty-one patients underwent EUS-GBD during the study period. Thirty-nine (76%) patients had AC while 12 (24%) had NC indications. NC indications included malignant biliary obstruction (n = 8), symptomatic cholelithiasis (n = 1), gallstone pancreatitis (n = 1), choledocholithiasis (n = 1), and Mirizzi’s syndrome (n = 1). Technical success was noted in 92% (36/39) for AC and 92% (11/12) for NC (p > 0.99). Clinical success rate was 94% and 100%, respectively (p > 0.99). There were 4 adverse events in the AC group and 3 in the NC group (p = 0.62). Procedure duration (median 43 vs 45 minutes, p = 0.37), post-procedure length of stay (median 3 vs 3 days, p = 0.97), and total gallbladder related procedures (median 2 vs 2, p = 0.59) were similar. EUS-GBD for NC indications is similarly safe and effective as EUS-GBD in AC.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0005.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: skull base; high-flow bypass; sustentacular cell; endoscopic sinus surgery; internal carotid artery
Online: 4 May 2022 (12:22:23 CEST)
In the diagnosis of olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB), the presence of S-100–positive sustentacular cells surrounding the tumor is important; however, these are also present in normal nasal sinus epithelium. Although ONB often has a different final diagnosis, complete resection of the tumor has a good prognosis and minimally affects the patient's treatment plan. When the tumor extends around the internal carotid artery (ICA), complete resection is difficult due to the high risk of vascular injury; revascularization using a high-flow bypass can avoid this complication. In the present case, the tumor was located in the left sphenoid sinus and extended around the ICA. Preoperative biopsy tissue was positive for neuroendocrine markers and slightly positive for S-100 protein, leading to a diagnosis of ectopic ONB. High-flow bypass revascularization with trapping of the ICA allowed complete tumor resection. The postoperative histopathological diagnosis was neuroendocrine carcinoma, showing no S-100 protein–positive cells. There was no sign of recurrence two and a half years after surgery without additional treatment. This case demonstrates that the presence of S-100 protein–positive cells in ONB may be misleading. Although misdiagnosis of ectopic ONB should be anticipated, a complete resection of the tumor is an effective treatment strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1796.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: telecytology; ROSE, telepathology; EBUS; lung cytology; endoscopic diagnostics; whole-slide imaging; diagnostic accuracy; cytopathology
Online: 18 October 2023 (04:23:27 CEST)
Background: This prospective study assesses the use of Rapid Remote Online Cytological Evaluation analysis for diagnosing endoscopical achieved biopsies. It focuses on its effectiveness in identifying benign and malignant conditions using digital image processing. Methods: The study was conducted between April 2021 and September 2022 and involved a total of 314 Rapid Remote Online Cytological Evaluations (17 brush, 143 fine needle aspirations and 154 imprint cytologies) analyses performed on 239 patients at the LungenClinic Grosshansdorf. During on-site evaluation via telecytology, the time requirement was determined and the findings were compared with the cyto-/histological and final diagnoses. Results: By means of Rapid Remote Online Evaluation, 86 cytological benign and 190 malignant and 38 findings of unclear diagnosis were recorded (Ø assessment time 100 sec., range 11 - 370sec.). In 27 of the 38 cases with unclear diagnosis, the final findings were malignant tumours and only 6 were benign changes. The diagnosis of another five of these 38 cases remained unclear. Excluding these 38 findings, the Rapid Remote online cytology achieved a sensitivity of 78.6% with a specificity of 99.5% and a correct classification rate of 93.1% with regard to the final diagnosis of all cases. As expected, an increase in the sensitivity rate for the cytological detection of malignant tumours (76.1% vs. 92.5%) was found especially in fine-needle aspirations. Conclusions: Rapid remote online analysis allows fast quantitative and qualitative evaluation of clinically obtained cytological specimens. With a correct classification rate of more than 93%, sampling deficiencies can be corrected promptly and diagnostic and therapeutic approaches can be derived.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1058.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: neuroendocrine tumors; NETs; pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors; P-NETs; endoscopic ultrasonography; EUS-FNA; EUS-FNB
Online: 18 September 2023 (13:31:36 CEST)
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (P-NET) is a rare neoplasm originating in the neuroendocrine system. Carcinoid syndrome occurs in approximately 19% of patients with functional P-NETs, typically when liver metastases occur. NETs diagnosis is frequently late, along with symptoms related to hormone hypersecretion. We described the case of a patient with a low-grade non-functional P-NET, but with a typical clinical presentation of a carcinoid syndrome; moreover, we reviewed the literature regarding this topic. An 81-year-old male was admitted to our Department of Internal Medicine at Cannizzaro Hospital (Catania, Italy) because of the onset of abdominal pain with nausea, loose stools and episodic flushing. Firstly, an abdominal contrast-enhanced CT scan showed a small pancreatic hypervascular mass; then a gallium-68 DOTATOC integrated PET/CT revealed an elevated expression of SSTR receptors. Serum Chromogranin A and urinary 5-HIAA measurements resulted negative. Given the small size of the lesion (8 mm), we preferred to perform an endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) with fine-needle biopsy (EUS-FNB), allowing the diagnosis of low-grade (G1) non-functional P-NET (NF-P-NET). Surgery was waived, while a follow-up strategy was chosen. Early recognition of P-NETs, although rare, is necessary to improve patient’s survival. EUS-FNB should be the protocol of choice for an early characterization of these tumors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1574.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: acute pancreatitis; idiopathic acute pancreatitis; echoendoscopy; endosonography; endoscopic ultrasound; microlithiasis; biliary pancreatitis; bile duct stones
Online: 22 August 2023 (11:59:36 CEST)
Idiopathic acute pancreatitis (IAP) presents a diagnostic challenge and refers to cases where the cause of acute pancreatitis remains uncertain despite a comprehensive diagnostic evalua-tion. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has emerged as a valuable tool in the diagnostic workup of IAP. This review explores the pivotal role of EUS in detecting the actual cause of IAP, as-sessing its accuracy, timing, safety, and future technological improvement. Following PRISMA guidelines, 60 pertinent studies were selected and analysed. EUS emerges as a cru-cial diagnostic tool, particularly when conventional imaging fails. It can offer intricate visu-alization of the pancreas, biliary system, and adjacent structures. High accuracy of EUS is evident in detecting the actual causes of IAP such as microlithiasis, small bile duct stones, pancreas divisum, and small pancreatic tumors. Optimal timing for EUS is post-resolution of the acute phase of the disease. EUS, when conducted by experienced endoscopists, it boasts minimal safety concerns, and is crucial to prevent complications. EUS-guided interventions, including fine-needle aspiration, collection drainage, and biopsies, aid in cytological analy-sis. With high diagnostic accuracy, safety, and therapeutic potential, EUS is able to improve patient outcomes when managing IAP. Further refinement of EUS techniques and cost-effectiveness assessment of EUS-guided approaches need to be explored in multicenter prospective studies. This review underscores EUS as a transformative tool in unraveling IAP's enigma and advancing diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0143.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Rectal cancer Rectal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), transanal endoscopic surgery (TES), rectal ultrasound (EUS), intraoperative rigid rectoscopy (IRR),
Online: 2 August 2023 (07:51:41 CEST)
Background. Rectal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a key test in advanced rectal cancer and in the preoperative staging of a lesion suitable for transanal endoscopic surgery (TES). MRI is not operator-dependent, but its results when determining anatomical landmarks are variable. Method. Observational study of inter-observer concordance regarding four diagnostic tests used to establish the anatomical characteristics of rectal lesions: colonoscopy, rectal ultrasound (EUS), rectal MRI, and intraoperative rigid rectoscopy (IRR) in patients scheduled for transanal endoscopic surgery (TES) with curative intent. This inter-observational study assessed the concordance between four expert radiologists regarding the topographic evaluation by means of rectal MRI of lesions under consideration for TES. Results. Fifty-five consecutive rectal tumors were studied. For most of the items, the correlation between IRR and colonoscopy or EUS was generally very good (intraclass correlation coefficient -ICC-)>0.75), although the correlation between MRI and IRR in relation to size by quadrants (ICC=0.092) and location by quadrants (ICC=0.292) was weak. The ICC for the other items obtained excellent correlations: Kappa index >0.80 for all items except for the distance from the peritoneal reflection to the anal verge, where it was merely good (IK=0.606). Conclusions. The anatomical description of rectal lesions that are candidates for TES provided by means of IRR, EUS, colonoscopy and MRI is reliable. The MRI is less reliable, but in the hands of expert radiologists, the anatomical study of rectal lesions is accurate and reproducible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1209.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: stomach; early gastric cancer; gastric adenoma; metachronous cancer; cumulative incidence; en-doscopic resection; endoscopic submucosal dissection; Helicobacter pylori; spontaneous eradica-tion; intestinal metaplasia
Online: 19 October 2023 (10:45:59 CEST)
Background: Although endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) can provide a high rate of curative resection, remaining gastric mucosa after ESD is at risk of metachronous recurrence. We investigated risk factors for metachronous superficial gastric epithelial neoplasms (MSGENs) following ESD. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study including 369 patients with 382 lesions that underwent ESD for adenoma/early gastric cancer. The primary endpoint was to identify clinicopathological risk factors for the occurrence of MSGENs. The secondary endpoint was to evaluate the association of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) eradication with the MSGENs. Results: Twenty-seven MSGENs were occurred. The subjects were divided into MSGEN and not-MSGEN groups. There was a significantly higher frequency of histological intestinal metaplasia (HIM) and initial neoplasm location in upper or middle part (INUM) in the MSGEN group. The HIM group and INUM group had significantly higher cumulative incidence of MSGENs. We compared the 27 patients of MSGEN group and 27 patients of matched not-MSGEN (Mnot-MSGEN) group that was matched to the MSGEN group for variables including HIM and INUM. There was a significantly higher frequency of Hp spontaneous eradication in the MSGEN group. Conclusion: HIM, INUM and Hp spontaneous eradication may be clinicopathological risk factors for developing MSGENs after ESD.