ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0129.v1
Subject: Keywords: the violation imperative; responsible conduct of research (RCR); research misconduct; science; definition of falsification; philosophy; ethics
Online: 14 January 2019 (09:56:48 CET)
The purpose of this paper is to critique the definition of falsification as research misconduct according to the Public Health Service (PHS) in order to better understand what it entails. In support of this purpose, the approach decided upon for analysis was philosophical including framing the issue borrowing from both mereological and epistemological perspectives. Through the consideration given to parthood relations of mereology, we gained insight from a cognitive imperfection standpoint about similarities that exist between the epistemic constraints on knowledge and the nature of violations concerning research misconduct. Findings from the examination of a case study include the significance of accuracy in representation in falsification as misconduct and the core dimensions comprising an instance of falsification, which are Deliberateness, Alteration, and Inclusion. Given that either behavior or actions must occur that violate these three aspects in order to qualify as an instance of misconduct under falsification, the author proposes that, at a minimum, any revisions made to the definition of falsification stipulate what he refers to as the Violation Imperative.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0661.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: life definition; living being definition; robot definition; living viruses; extraterrestrial life
Online: 30 August 2020 (11:33:48 CEST)
What is life, what is the difference between something that is alive and something that is not, are viruses living beings, or what would life be like elsewhere in the universe, are questions that still do not have clear-cut answers fully accepted by the scientific community. Based on the fundamental attributes of all living things, I define life as a process that takes place in very ordered organic structures and is characterized by being automatic, interactive and evolutionary. I also define a living being as an organic, highly ordered, automatic, interacting and evolutionary system, and a robot as an ordered automatic and interacting system. Based on this definition and what we know about the biology of viruses, I maintain that they should be considered as living entities. Finally, I explain why if there were life elsewhere in the universe, it would be very similar to what we know on our planet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0338.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: spirit of science; definition; attribute; model; characteristics
Online: 18 August 2018 (12:15:05 CEST)
Spirit of science is one of the important components of science education theory. It not only directly affects the level of science education, but also indirectly affects the selection, education and evaluation of scientific researchers, and the development of science and technology in a country or region. Although more than a century ago, the researchers began to discuss the topic of spirit of science. However, to date, the research of the definition, attribute, structural model and its characteristics of the spirit of science has not yet made a breakthrough. Based on the detailed literature review, the related theoretical analysis and the research of the structural model of the spirit of science, this paper puts forward the new definition, the attribute and the establishment of the structural model of the spirit of science, and analyzes the match the situation from new structural model of the spirit of science and the scientific nature published by the American Society for the Advancement of Science. The results of this study are of great significance for raising the level of scientific education and cultivating future scientific researchers, enhancing their motivation and skills in innovation in scientific research and promoting the development of future scientific undertakings.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0017.v1
Online: 2 May 2020 (15:54:19 CEST)
Maximum entropy production principle (MEPP) has been formulated in the mid-twentieth century, and today it has acquired the status of an important principle of science, which is extremely effective in considering various non-equilibrium problems. In this study, for the first time, definition of life is based on an easily measurable physical quantity that is entropy production. Life and evolution are discussed from the point of view of MEPP and the Universe, but not a human
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0425.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: enterprise recruitment; problem definition; e-recruitment
Online: 21 September 2018 (03:47:52 CEST)
Internet-led labour market has become so competitive forcing many organisations from different sectors to embrace e-recruitment. However, realising the value of the e-recruitment from a Requirements Engineering (RE) analysis perspective is challenging. This research is motivated by the results of a failed e-recruitment project conducted in military domain which is used as a case study in this research. After reviewing the various challenges faced in that project through a number of related research domains, this research focuses on two major problems which are the (1) difficulty of scoping, representing, and systematically transforming recruitment problem knowledge towards e-recruitment solution specification; and (2) the difficulty of documenting e-recruitment best practices for reuse purposes in an enterprise recruitment environment. In this paper, a Problem-Oriented Conceptual Model (POCM) with a complementary Ontology for Recruitment Problem Definition (Onto-RPD) is proposed to contextualise the various recruitment problem viewpoints from an enterprise perspective and to elaborate those problem viewpoints towards a comprehensive recruitment problem definition. The POCM and Onto-RPD are developed incrementally using action-research conducted on three real case studies: (1) Secureland Army Enlistment, (2) British Army Regular Enlistment, and (3) UK Undergraduate Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS). They are later evaluated in a focus group study against a set of criteria. The study showed that the POCM and Onto-RPD provide a strong foundation for representing and understanding the e-recruitment problems from different perspectives.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0025.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Medication adherence, definition, disorder, perspective, healthcare professional, disorder
Online: 3 June 2019 (14:11:22 CEST)
It is not new in medical history to propose a global concern to be classified as a disease. Defining a concern into disease allows to assign ethical responsibilities to develop powerful and effective interventions. It also allow to appropriate distribute the resources uniformly economically and morally. In 2003, World Health Organization report stated that 30-50 % of patients do not take their medications as prescribed associated with morbidity, mortality and health cost. It was considered a global concern, however, irrespective of decades of researches conducted on medication adherence, we are still unable to state that medication adherence issues are being resolved. In this review, we have described few apprehensions in current understandings of medication adherence that have limited its research. We have also proposed medication adherence as disorder and provided its’ definition and classification
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0202.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: zonal rainy season; agronomic onset definition; trend detection; ENSO- teleconnection
Online: 8 December 2020 (14:42:10 CET)
Owing to its unique position within multiple monsoon regimes, latitudinal extent, and complex topography, Vietnam is divided into seven agroclimatic zones, each with distinct rainy season characteristics. Variation in the dominant rainfall system across zones affects the rainfall climatology, the primary water resource for regional crops. This study explores the creation of an agronomic rainy season onset based on high-resolution rainfall data for each agroclimatic zone for applications in an agricultural context. Onset information has huge practical importance for both agriculture and the economy. The spatiotemporal characteristics of zonal onset date are analyzed using integrated approaches of spatial and interannual variability, temporal changes, and estimation of predictability using teleconnection with Niño 3.4 sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) for 1980 to 2010. Results suggest that northern and southern zones experience regional onset dates in May, while the central zones experience rainy season onset in late August. The regional variability of rainy season onset is lower in a single dominant monsoon regime (northern and southern zones) and higher in latitudinally extended zones on the border of monsoon regimes (central zones). The interannual variation in rainy season onset date is found to be approximately 2 weeks across all agroclimatic zones. The significant negative trend in rainy season onset date is found for Central Coast and South Central Coast zones, suggesting that the onset date shifted earlier for the entire period. In the decadal scale, the zonal mean onset date shifted later in the Northwest and earlier in the Central Highlands. Out of the seven climate zones, a significant positive correlation is only noticed in the Central Highlands and South zones between zonal mean onset date and Niño 3.4 SSTA for Dec-Jan-Feb, suggesting the potential of seasonal scale predictability of rainy season onset date with respect to preceding El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0569.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: young children; early childhood; digital; wellbeing; review; definition; measurement; contributor; intervention.
Online: 30 December 2022 (04:29:30 CET)
Digital wellbeing concerns the balance and health we may experience in digital use, and the existing studies have focused on adolescents and adults. However, young children are more vulnerable to digital overuse and addiction than adults; thus, their digital wellbeing deserves empirical exploration. This scoping review synthesized and evaluated 35 collected studies on young children’s digital use and their wellbeing that were published until October of 2022 to understand the definitions, measurements, contributors, and interventions. The synthesis of evidence revealed that: (1) there was no consensus about its definition; (2) there were no effective measurements of young children’s digital wellbeing; (3) both child factors (duration and place of digital use, child demographic characteristics) and parent factors (digital use, parental perception, and mediation) contribute to young children’s wellbeing; and (4) there were some effective applications and interventions. This review contributes to the theoretical development by mapping the existing work on young children's digital wellbeing, proposing a model, and identifying the research gaps for future studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0231.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Behavior-Based safety; Critical behavior checklist; Behavioral definition; Intervention; Safe behavior
Online: 18 February 2022 (09:53:30 CET)
Background: It is necessary to apply a behavior-based safety (BBS) program to prevent at-risk behavior. An effective BBS program requires the implementation of not only behavioral definitions and a customized critical behavior checklist (CBC) but also observations of behavior, coupled with customized interventions at power plants. Method: In this study, a customized CBC and behavioral definition were developed through a review of five different sites that previously used a CBC. The rules of observation, flow, and target were established to initiate the observations. Customized interventions were selected to increase safe behaviors. CBC scoring was used to evaluate observed safe behaviors for three years. Recognized safe behaviors were evaluated with a questionnaire that included four items each for conformity and participation behaviors and were then analyzed through a factor analysis and a t-test. The questionnaires were conducted three months before and after the implementation of the BBS program. Results: The customized CBC, behavioral definition, and interventions were effective, such that observed safe behaviors and the levels of workers’ recognized safe behaviors increased. Conclusion: The application of the BBS program was found to increase the observed and recognized safe behaviors. Therefore, the program applied to this site can help increase safe behaviors at other identical or similar sites, as well as prevent an accident, which also corresponds with the results of prior studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0067.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Connected & Automated Vehicles; Navigation; High Definition (HD Map); Map Representation
Online: 5 September 2022 (13:46:43 CEST)
Many studies in the field of robot navigation have focused on environment representation and localization. The goal of map representation is to summarize spatial information in topological and geometrical abstracts. By providing strong priors, maps improve the performance and reliability of automated robots. Due to the transition to fully automated driving in recent years, there has been a constant effort to design methods and technologies to improve the precision of road participants and the environment's information. Among these efforts is the High Definition (HD) Map concept. Making HD maps requires accuracy, completeness, verifiability, and extensibility. Because of the complexity of HD mapping, it is currently expensive and difficult to implement, particularly in an urban environment. In an urban traffic system, the road model is at least a map with sets of roads, lanes, and lane markers. While more research is being dedicated to mapping and localization, a comprehensive review of the various types of map representation is still required. This paper presents a brief overview of map representation, followed by a detailed literature review of HD Map for automated vehicles. The current state of AV mapping is encouraging, the field has matured to a point where detailed maps of complex environments are built in real-time and have been proved useful. Many existing techniques are robust to noise and can cope with a large range of environments. Nevertheless, there are still open problems for future research. AV mapping will continue to be a highly active research area essential to the goal of achieving full autonomy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0354.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Definition of life; self-replicators; paralife; Utility-Product paralife; abiotic life; mechanical life; complexity
Online: 18 November 2022 (10:06:48 CET)
Here I describe an overlooked form of non-biological paralife (i.e., near-life) that has been evolving on Earth for millions of years, and is currently in the final stages of transitioning into a new form of life. Any consideration of non-biological life or paralife is complicated by the fact that there is no consensus among biologists for the definition of life. This ambiguity has caused disagreement about whether subcellular reproduction systems like viruses are a form of life, despite having genomes, mutations, heritable phenotypes and system-improving evolution. To resolve this problem, I develop a definition of life that is entirely functional and independent of any of the structural idiosyncrasies of biological life on Earth: an order-generating system controlled by internally-encoded information that perpetuates itself by functioning to counteract its entropic decay. Using this definition, subcellular transposons, plasmids, and viruses are paralife because they match the definition of life in all ways except that they induce their order-generating functioning by a living host rather through their own self-sustaining production system. Using this functional definition of life, I show that utility- products (UPs) like fabricated hand tools are part of induced-reproduction systems that have features equivalent to biological genomes, mutations, heritable phenotypes, and a process of system-improving evolution. The perceived benefit of utility-products causes them to induce their reproduction by a biological life-form (humans). For these reasons, human utility products are functionally just as close to being a form of life as subcellular transposons, plasmids, and viruses, i.e., they are Utility-Product paralife (UP-parlife). I also show that some forms of UP-paralife are currently evolving into mechanical life that is capable of both self- sustaining reproduction and system-improving evolution without outside assistance. This transition requires the development of a high level of factory and/or UP automation and artificial intelligence (AI) that is capable of complex reasoning, imagination and creativity. Finally, I consider the influence of UP-life and UP-paralife on the development of the level of structural complexity in the universe, and I briefly speculate about how these non-biological forms of life and paralife will influence the expansion of scientific knowledge about the universe.
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: definition of agritourism; comparative studies; rural development; sustainable tourism; mountain development; alpine regions, Chinese mountains
Online: 30 April 2019 (11:25:21 CEST)
After World War II, the economic recovery of Western Europe implied a swift economic transition for all regions, including the area of the Alps, although affecting various parts at different pace and stages. The resulting out-migration led to population decline in some mountain valleys and regions already since the 1950s. A similar out-migration movement began in China after its rural reform started in the 1970s. The effect was in some cases even more significant than in the Alps, with the first village being deserted in the 1980s. Current estimations report of about 380,000 abandoned rural villages in China between 2000 and 2016, particularly in its mountain regions. While lower population densities might alleviate the pressures on ecology and contribute to environmental benefits, these movements aggravate a spiraling-down process of local economies and culture. In the Alps many regions facing challenges of out-migration and economic changes elaborated agritourism schemes that provided both economic incentives and stability to involved mountain farmers, and continuation of local land management systems. In contrast, in China hardly any comparable trends of rural tourism developed. However, in recent years China's interest for tourism-oriented farm diversification increased and a range of rural tourism and agricultural tourism initiatives emerged. This paper focuses on the analysis of successful initiatives, problems and development prospects in the Alps and China's rural areas, redefining agritourism as a systematic integrated activity. Agritourism might therefore be assessed as a core element of the future sustainable development of the Alps and the Chinese countryside.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0101.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: chronic dialysis; administrative data; hospital discharge records; ambulatory specialty visits; case definition; algorithm
Online: 6 May 2020 (15:26:06 CEST)
Background: Administrative healthcare databases are widespread and are often standardized with regard to their content and data coding, thus they can be used also as data sources for surveillance and epidemiological research. Chronic dialysis requires patients to frequently access hospital and clinic services, causing a heavy burden to healthcare providers. This also means that these patients are routinely tracked on administrative databases, yet very few case definitions for their identification are currently available. The aim of this study was to develop two algorithms derived from administrative data for identifying incident chronic dialysis patients and test their validity compared to the reference standard of the regional dialysis registry. Methods: The algorithms are based on data retrieved from hospital discharge records (HDR) and ambulatory specialty visits (ASV) to identify incident chronic dialysis patients in an Italian region. Subjects are included if they have at least one event in the HDR or ASV databases based on the ICD9-CM dialysis-related diagnosis or procedure codes in the study period. Exclusion criteria comprise non-residents, prevalent cases, or patients undergoing temporary dialysis, and are evaluated only on ASV data by the first algorithm, on both ASV and HDR data by the second algorithm. We validated the algorithms against the Emilia-Romagna regional dialysis registry by searching for incident patients in 2014. Results: Algorithm 1 identified 680 patients and algorithm 2 identified 676 initiating dialysis in 2014, compared to 625 patients included in the regional dialysis registry. Sensitivity for the two algorithms was respectively 90.8% and 88.4%, positive predictive value 84.0% and 82.0%, and percentage agreement was 77.4% and 74.1%. Conclusions: These results suggest that administrative data have high sensitivity and positive predictive value for the identification of incident chronic dialysis patients. Algorithm 1, which showed the higher accuracy and has a simpler case definition, can be used in place of regional dialysis registries when they are not present or sufficiently developed in a region, or to improve the accuracy and timeliness of existing registries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0213.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: cities; definition; megalopolis; large urban regions; functional urban regions; urban agglomerations; world; statistical delineation; comparative urban research
Online: 12 March 2020 (13:55:54 CET)
Cities’ delineation remains a hot topic of debate in a time where comparisons between cities are becoming increasingly based on different issues that address various scales of interventions and thus different concepts of cities. Aiming to compare cities and their insertion into globalization, we suggest that the “urban field of influence” is the best way to approach cities for this specific perspective. However, after reviewing the different existing possible concepts, we replace this concept with four different approaches proposed by Pumain et al. (1992): political entities, morphological agglomerations, functional urban areas and conurbations/Mega city regions. We discuss the top-down and bottom-up existing initiatives launched at the world scale and then use a mixed top-down and bottom-up approach to propose a new delineation of a large urban region (LUR), denoting a concept close to the conurbation or Mega city-region concept. The compositions of these LURs are published as an initial incomplete framework, suggesting the need for further critical comments and contributions to improve them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0361.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Accident; Accident connotation; Accident science; New definition of safety; Conceptual model of accident science; Discipline basic construction
Online: 19 October 2020 (09:25:37 CEST)
In order to establish a new discipline specializing in accident science from the perspective of safety science. Under the guidance of the current research theories and methods of safety science, combined with the research paradigm of humanities and social medicine, this paper puts forward new viewpoints, new theories and new models about accident research. First of all, through literature retrieval, this paper analyzes the relevant research results of accidents at home and abroad, and expounds the existing problems and the basic trend of accident science research. Secondly, it puts forward eight kinds of attribute relations of the accident, and makes clear the characteristics and connotation of the accident. In the study of accident types, a hierarchical classification model based on accident cognition is created for the first time. It also points out the logical relevance of five levels of accident science research and the realistic relevance of three levels. At the same time, according to the thought of science of science, this paper puts forward a new definition of safety under the thinking of accident science and other basic concepts related to safety science, and explains the connotation. In addition, it creates and constructs the basic concept of accident science, establishes the conceptual model of accident science, and points out the “3-4-5” model of accident science research and its connotation. Thirdly, draw lessons from the interdisciplinary paradigm to study the relevant theoretical basis and discipline classification relationship of accident science, and construct the tree of accident science. Finally, the research contents of three main aspects of accident science are summarized. The results show that the research results in this paper not only play a fundamental role in the basic construction of accident science, but also further enrich and perfect the discipline system of safety science, which has a certain theoretical significance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0204.v1
Subject: Keywords: Legendre-Gould Hopper based Sheffer polynomials; Generating relations; Operational method; Monomiality principle; Determinantal definition
Online: 9 October 2020 (13:04:41 CEST)
In this article, the Legendre-Gould Hopper polynomials are combined with Sheffer sequences to introduce certain mixed type special polynomials. Generating functions, differential equations and certain other properties of Legendre-Gould Hopper based Sheffer polynomials are derived. Further, operational and integral representations providing connections between these polynomials and known special polynomials are established. Certain identities and results for some members of these new mixed polynomials are also obtained. Finally, the determinantal definitions of Legendre-Gould Hopper based Sheffer polynomials are also given.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0234.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Theory of Life; Definition of Life; Origin of Life; Electron Bifurcation; Hydrothermal Vents; Biophysics; Biological Physics
Online: 16 June 2021 (11:30:35 CEST)
The definition, origin and recreation of life remain elusive. As others have suggested, only once we put life into reductionist physical terms will we be able to solve those questions. To that end, this work proposes the phenomenon of life to be the product of two dissipative mechanisms. From them, one reinterprets extant biological life and deduces a testable scenario for its origin. The proposed theory of life allows its replication, reinterprets ecological evolution, creates new constraints on the search for life and lays the foundations for groundbreaking technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0173.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: third definition of fractal; fractal or living geometry; wholeness; head/tail breaks (ht-index); scaling law
Online: 17 January 2019 (03:30:08 CET)
As noted in the introductory quotation, an ideal map was long ago seen as the map of the map, the map of the map, of the map, and so on endlessly. This recursive perspective on maps, however, has received little attention in cartography. Cartography, as a scientific discipline, is essentially founded on Euclidean geometry and Gaussian statistics, which deal with respectively regular shapes, and more or less similar things. It is commonly accepted that geographic features – such as rivers, cities, streets and building – are not regular and that the Earth’s surface is full of fractal or scaling or living phenomena with far more small things than large ones at different levels of scale. This paper argues for a new paradigm in mapping, based on fractal or living geometry and Paretian statistics, and – more critically – on the new conception of space, conceived and developed by Christopher Alexander, that space is neither lifeless nor neutral, but a living structure capable of being more living or less living. The fractal geometry is not limited to Benoit Mandelbrot’s framework, but is extended towards Christopher Alexander’s living geometry and based upon the third definition of fractal: A set or pattern is fractal if the scaling of far more small things than large ones recurs multiple times. Paretian statistics deals with far more small things than large ones, so it differs fundamentally from Gaussian statistics, which deals with more or less similar things. Under the new paradigm, I make several claims about maps and mapping: (1) Topology of geometrically coherent things – in addition to that of geometric primitives – enables us to see a scaling or fractal or living structure; (2) Under the third definition, all geographic features are fractal or living, given the right perspective and scope; (3) Exactitude is not truth – to paraphrase Henri Matisse – but the living structure is; and (4) Töpfer’s law is not universal, but scaling law is. All these assertions are supported by evidence, drawn from a series of previous studies. This paper demands a monumental shift in perspective and thinking from what we are used to on the legacy of cartography and GIS.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0204.v1
Subject: Keywords: adaptive radiation; sympatric speciation; pollination by sexual swindle; plant insect coevolution; asymmetric coevolution; chemical ecology; Ophrys orchids; unifying species definition; pseudocopulation; key innovation
Online: 17 October 2019 (15:12:38 CEST)
Adaptive radiations occur mostly in response to environmental variation through the evolution of key eco-morphological innovations that allow emerging species to occupy new ecological niches. However, rapid phenotypic evolution and the evolution of key novelties are likely to also occur when a couple or few species are engaged into narrow ecological interactions. To demonstrate coevolution is a difficult task; only elusive evidences confirm that coevolution is a driver of speciation and diversiﬁcation. Here we propose that the adaptive radiation of the Mediterranean orchid genus Ophrys, which gave rise to ca. 350 species since the apparition of the genus is due to the particular co-evolutionary dynamics between these plants and their pollinators. We suggest that the pollination by sexual swindle used by Ophrys orchids is the main driver of this coevolution. Flowers of each Ophrys species mimic sexually receptive females of one particular insect species, mainly bees. Male bees are attracted by pseudo-pheromones emitted by Ophrys flowers that are similar to the sexual pheromones of their females. Males lured by the flower shape, color and hairiness attempt to copulate with the flower, which glues pollen on their bodies. Pollen is eventually transferred to the stigma of another flower of the same Ophrys species during similar copulation attempts. Three observations led us to propose the scenario of an asymmetric co-evolutionary relationship between Ophrys and their pollinators. Firstly, there is a strong intra-specific competition among Ophrys individuals for the attraction of their species-specific pollinators, which is due to the high learning and memorization abilities of bees that record the pheromone signatures of kin or of previously courted partner to avoid (further) copulation attempts. Mnemonic pollinators induce thus a strong selective pressure for variation in the pseudo-pheromones emitted by individual flowers, which will potentially generate shifts in pollinator species, and hence Ophrys speciation. These pollinator shifts are adaptive for new Ophrys species because they may benefit from a competitor-free space. Secondly, such shifts in pollinator species are due to the random crossing of peaks in the olfactory landscape of the pollinator guild that is syntopic to each particular Ophrys population. This selective process on individual, random variation in pseudo-pheromone bouquets is followed by directional selection on flower phenotypes that will reinforce the attraction of the new pollinator. Thirdly, pollinators use the pseudo-pheromones emitted by Ophrys to locate suitable habitats from a distance within complex landscapes. Pollinators stay fixed for a while in these habitats by the local diversity of pseudo-pheromones, which increases their probability of encounter with a receptive female and hence the reproduction probability of both sexes. Conversely, pollinators disperse out of small suitable habitats once they have memorized the local diversity of sexual pseudo-pheromone bouquet or if fecundated Ophrys flowers repel pollinators, which decreases the probability of geitonogamy (plant advantage) but limit pollinator mating with locally emergent insect females, thus limiting inbreeding and favoring gene flow (pollinator advantage). Finally, we propose several research avenues that emerged according to this scenario of adaptive radiation by assymetric coevolution between Ophrys species and their pollinators.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0156.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: new definition of cosmic red shift; Planck mass; quantum model of cosmology; light speed expansion; galactic dark matter; flat rotation speed; cosmic rotation; galactic acceleration
Online: 12 July 2021 (13:48:52 CEST)
By modifying the basic definition of cosmic red shift, considering ‘speed of light’ as an absolute cosmic expansion rate and adopting ‘Planck mass’ as the basic seed of the observed large scale universe, it is certainly possible to review and revise the basic picture of ‘standard cosmology’ and in near future, a perfect model of ‘white hole cosmology’ can be developed. In this context we have developed five assumptions. First three assumptions are based on ‘time reversed’ black holes and seem to be well connected with General theory of relativity as well as Quantum mechanics. 4th and 5th assumptions are helpful in understanding current galactic dark matter and flat rotation speeds. It may be noted that, considering our first three assumptions and considering the Planck Legacy 2018 data’s enhanced lensing amplitude in cosmic microwave background power spectra - conceptually, a closed universe having a positive curvature seems to be a best fit for the observed universe. With reference to our recent publication , for clarity on the subject, in this short communication, we make an attempt to review and explain our proposed assumptions at fundamental level. Our aim is to see that, professional and non-professional cosmologists must understand the basics of workable quantum cosmology.