ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0023.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: gelatin-oleic conjugate; self-assembled biodegradable nanoparticles; biomimetic shear stress; cell dynamic environment; cellular drug delivery; paclitaxel
Online: 4 April 2017 (10:59:02 CEST)
Fluid flow in human body is generally known to influence a variety of cellular behaviors. Different nanoparticle properties as well as cell type, interaction with other cells and cellular environments also show significant effect on nanoparticle uptake and drug efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of shear stress on cellular behaviors of biocompatible and biodegradable nanoparticles to cancer cells (A549 cell lines) in a biomimetic microfluidic system. We prepared a gelatin-oleic conjugate (GOC) as an amphiphilic biomaterial to prepare self-assembled gelatin-oleic nanoparticles (GON). Coumarin-6 and paclitaxel were used as the fluorescence marker and model drug, respectively, and were loaded into GONs by incubation (C-GONs; PTX-GONs). Additionally, we evaluated the cellular uptake of fluorescence labeled C-GONs and the drug efficacy of PTX-GONs. The cellular uptake of C-GONs by A549 cells in the absence of shear stress revealed that the mean fluorescence intensity was slightly decreased compared to that in the presence of shear stress. The results also indicated that negatively charged PTX-GONs had a lower cancer killing effect under dynamic conditions than that under static conditions. It also suggested that fluidic shear stress did not significantly affect drug uptake and efficiency in case of PTX-GONs. The cellular interactions between nanoparticles and cells in drug delivery should be carefully examined according to the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles such as the type of materials, size and mainly surface charge in a biomimetic microfluidic condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0175.v1
Online: 9 August 2018 (00:33:34 CEST)
Over the last few decades, ocean research and exploration have made underwater mechanical systems a necessity. Underwater vehicles provide a new kind of marine platforms that could represent a great necessity in many areas of oceanographic research. Until now, the underwater vehicles come in a verity of shapes, sizes and means of propulsion. Depending on these characteristics, the type and mission of the vehicle are also determined. The underwater robots are used for different inspection and intervention missions in e.g. the oil and gas industry, ocean science research. Due to multiple applications to which the vehicle can participate, it can be successfully used and to determine methods of re-use of marine energy. Environmental mapping provides accurate information about the main areas of interest of the energy, as well as the exploitation possibilities of that. Most of the time, biomimetic robots were inspired their senso structure, from different kind of animals, such as insects, fish and birds. Nowadays, the concept of a underwater robotic vehicles capable to move independently, autonomously or remotely, has a great potential and a large application. This is the reason that the last studies have been directed on biomimetic robots. The fish and other underwater animals have evolved superior swimming capabilities in many ways and represent a starting point to explain the fluid-mechanical principles. Furthermore, the underwater animals develop and achieve extraordinary propulsion efficiencies, acceleration and maneuverability. They can also achieve high speed under water. Implanting and creating a vehicle through a biomimetic approach reduces the energy used to maneuver the vehicle as it can automatically correct its position and displacement. The paper presents an examination of the state of biomimetic robotic fishes, underlining the reason why bio-inspiration can help us in the underwater locomotion technology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0480.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: transparent photovoltaics; semi-transparent photovoltaics; biomimetic
Online: 30 September 2022 (08:25:31 CEST)
There has been a surge in the interest for (semi)transparent photovoltaics (sTPVs) in recent years, since the more traditional, opaque, devices are not ideally suited for a variety of innovative appli-cations spanning from smart and self-powered windows for buildings to those for vehicle inte-gration. Additional requirements for these photovoltaic applications are a high conversion effi-ciency (despite the necessary compromise to achieve a degree of transparency) and an aesthetical-ly pleasing design. One potential realm to explore in the attempt to meet such challenges is the bio-logical world, where evolution has led to highly efficient and fascinating light-management structures. In this mini-review, we explore some of the biomimetic approaches that can be used to improve both transparent and semitransparent photovoltaic cells, such as moth-eye inspired structures for improved performance and stability or tuneable, coloured, and semi-transparent devices inspired by beetles’ cuticles. Lastly, we will briefly discuss possible future developments for bio-inspired and potentially bio-compatible sTPVs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1121.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: astroglia; endothelial cells; biomimetic systems; microfluidics; neurodegeneration
Online: 16 June 2023 (03:39:04 CEST)
With the approval of the FDA Modernization Act 2.0, the pharmaceutical industry is poised to expand its research components with a plethora of alternative models, including organ-on-microfluidic chips in pharma and biotechnology, resulting in a personalized approach. Microfluidics opens new possibilities for the study of cell biology, especially for a better understanding of cell-cell interactions and the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases in vitro and use these models to assess the efficacy of novel therapies. These thumb-sized organ-on-a-chip systems have the potential to reduce animal testing and replace simple 2D culture systems. Restoring critical aspects of endothelial-brain immune cell communication in a biomimetic system using microfluidics may accelerate the process of central nervous system (CNS) drug discovery and improve our understanding of the mechanisms of multiple neurodegenerative diseases. These organ-on-chip technologies can be used to optimize drug targets and assess drug efficacy and toxicity in real-time, which can significantly help minimize animal testing requirements, as authorized by the recent FDA Act. Recent advances in modeling cell-to-cell communication in the CNS are described in this review. This Review initially summarizes the fundamental advantages of microfluidic systems in creating a compartmentalized cell culture for the complex three-dimensional architectures of neural tissue cells such as neurons, glial cells, and endothelial cells, and their recapitulation of spatiotemporal biophysicochemical gradients and mechanical microenvironments. Brain endothelial cell-astroglia-on-a-chip models with a focus on neurodegenerative diseases such Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is introduced. Then, the current limitations of these microfluidic devices and strategies to overcome them are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0541.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: 3D printing; biomimetic; poly (lactic acid); spheroids; bone repair; 3D printed scaffold; bone morphogenetic protein 2; biomimetic apatite.
Online: 21 December 2020 (16:48:39 CET)
This study aimed to assess the response of 3D printed PLA scaffolds biomimetically coated with apatite on human primary osteoblast spheroids and evaluate the biological response to its association with Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (rhBMP-2) in rat calvaria. PLA scaffolds were produced via 3D printing, soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution, and characterized by physical-chemical, morphological, and mechanical properties. The in vitro biological response was assessed with human primary osteoblast (HOb) spheroids. The in vivo analysis was conducted through the implantation of 3D printed PLA scaffolds either alone, covered by apatite (PLA-CaP) or PLA-CaP loaded with rhBMP-2 (PLA-CaP+rhBMP-2) on critical-sized defects (8 mm) of rat calvaria. Increased cell adhesion and in vitro release of growth factors (PDGF, bFGF, VEGF) was observed for PLA-CaP scaffolds when pre-treated with FBS. PLA-CaP+BMP2 presented higher values of newly formed bone (NFB) than other groups at all experimental periods (p<0.05), attaining 44.85% of NFB after 6 months. These findings indicate that functionalization of PLA scaffolds with biomimetic apatite can improve its biological properties in the presence of complex biological media. Its association with BMP2 may enhance bone repair, suggesting this strategy as a promising candidate for bone tissue engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0388.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Biomimetic hydrogels; hybrid nanocomposites; anomalous sorption; Tissue engineering
Online: 15 March 2021 (13:44:37 CET)
Innovative tissue engineering biomimetic hydrogels based on hydrophilic polymers have been investigated for their physical and mechanical properties. 5% to 25% by volume loading PHEMA-nanosilica glassy hybrid samples were equilibrated at 37°C in aqueous physiological isotonic and hypotonic saline solutions (0.15 and 0.05 M NaCl) simulating two limiting possible compositions of physiological extracellular fluids. The glassy and hydrated hybrid materials were characterized both for dynamo-mechanical properties and equilibrium absorptions in the two physiological-like aqueous solutions. Mechanical and the morphological modifications occurring in the samples have been described. The 5% volume nanosilica loading hybrid nanocomposite composition showed mechanical characteristics in the dry and hydrated states that were comparable to those of cortical bone and articular cartilage, respectively, and then chosen for further sorption kinetics characterization. Sorption and swelling kinetics were monitored up to equilibrium. Changes in water activities and osmotic pressures in the water-hybrid systems equilibrated at the two limiting solute molarities of the physiological solutions have been related to the observed anomalous sorption modes using the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter approach. The bulk modulus of the dry and glassy PHEMA-5% nanosilica hybrid at 37°C has been observed to be comparable with the values of the osmotic pressures generated from the sorption of isotonic and hypotonic solutions. The anomalous sorption modes and swelling rates are coherent with the difference between osmotic swelling pressures and hybrid glassy nano-composite bulk modulus: the lower the differences the higher the swelling rate and equilibrium solution uptakes. Bone tissue engineering benefits of use of tuneable biomimetic scaffold biomaterials that can be “designed” to act as biocompatible and biomechanically active hybrid interfaces are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1989.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: bioactive materials; bone grafts; remineralization; coatings; bone tissue engineering; demineralized bone matrix; biomimetic scaffolds; calcium phosphate-albumin composite; bone marrow biomimetic
Online: 28 September 2023 (11:17:19 CEST)
In the present study, the efficiency of a biomimetic approach by coating demineralized bone matrix (DBM) amorphous calcium phosphate (DBM+CaP), including its combination with serum albumin (DBM+CaP+BSA), was investigated. The intact structure of DBM promotes the transformation of amorphous calcium phosphate (CaP) into DPCD with a characteristic plate shape and particle size of 5–35 µm. The inclusion of BSA in the coating resulted in a better and more uniform distribution of CaP on the surface of DBM trabeculae. MG63 cells showed that both the obtained forms of CaP and its complex with BSA did not exhibit cytotoxicity up to a concentration of 10 mg/ml in vitro. Ectopic (subcutaneous) implantation in rats revealed pronounced biocompatibility, as well as strong osteoconductive, osteoinductive, and osteogenic effects for both DBM+CaP and DBM+CaP+BSA, but more pronounced effects for DBM+CaP+BSA. In addition, for the DBM+CaP+BSA samples, a pronounced full physiological intrafibrillar biomineralization and proangiogenic effect with the formation of bone-morrow-like niches, accompanied by pronounced processes of intramedullary hematopoiesis, indicating a powerful osteogenic effect of this composite have been achieved.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0667.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: Suzuki-Miyaura reaction; biomimetic thioesters; polyketide synthases; enzymes; cyclases
Online: 9 May 2023 (14:32:34 CEST)
Biomimetic N-acetylcysteamine thioesters are essential for the study of polyketide synthases, non-ribosomal peptide synthetases and fatty acid synthases. The chemistry for their preparation is however limited by their specific functionalization and their susceptibility to undesired side reactions. This is especially detrimental to transition metal-catalyzed reactions. Here we report a method for the rapid preparation of N-acetylcysteamine (SNAC) 7-hydroxy-2-enethioates, which are suitable for the study of various enzymatic domains of megasynthase enzymes, particularly oxygen heterocycle-forming cyclase domains. The method is based on a one-pot sequence of hy-droboration and Suzuki-Miyaura reaction. Optimization of the reaction conditions made it possi-ble to suppress potential side reactions and to introduce the highly functionalized SNAC meth-acrylate unit in high yield. The versatility of the sequence was demonstrated on a dienal precur-sor, which was subjected to Brown crotylation followed by the hydroboration-Suzuki-Miyaura reaction sequence and deprotection, finally giving a complex polyketide SNAC thioester. Back-bone extension by six carbons and a terminal SNAC enethioate was achieved, introducing an E-configured double bond and two adjacent stereocenters in a highly selective manner. The pre-sented method allows for the synthesis of the target motif in significantly fewer steps and with higher overall yield than previously described approaches, while maintaining higher flexibility and control over the stereogenic elements. It is also the first reported example of a transition met-al-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction in the presence of an SNAC thioester.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0698.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: neuroblastoma; extracellular vesicles; iron oxide nanoparticles; biomimetic models; precision medicine
Online: 10 November 2023 (11:36:59 CET)
Keywords: neuroblastoma, extracellular vesicles, iron oxide nanoparticles, biomimetic models, precision medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0388.v2
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: biomimetic innovation; additive manufacturing; shape memory alloys; resource efficiency; sustainability
Online: 23 February 2023 (09:47:23 CET)
Nature provides plenty of good examples for simple and very efficient joint assemblies. One example is the enormously flexible cervical spine of American barn owls, which consists of 14 cervical vertebrae. Each pair of vertebrae produces a comparatively small individual movement in order to provide a large overall movement of the entire cervical spine. The biomimetic replication of such joints is difficult due to the delicate and geometric unrestricted joint shapes as well as the muscles that have to be mimicked. Using X-ray as well as micro computed tomography images and with the utilisation of additive manufacturing, it is possible to produce the owl neck vertebrae in scaled-up form, to analyse them and then to transfer them into technically usable joint assemblies. The muscle substitution of these joints is realised by smart materials actuators in the form of shape memory alloy wire actuators. This actuator technology is outstanding for its muscle-like movement and for its enormous energy density [1,2]. The disadvantage of this wire actuator technology is the low rate of contraction, which means that a large length of wire has to be installed to generate adequate movement. For this reason, the actuator wires are integrated into additively manufactured carrier components to mimic the biological joints. This results in joint designs that compensate for the disadvantages of the small contraction of the actuators by intelligently installing large wire lengths on comparatively small installation spaces, while also providing a sufficient force output. With the help of a test rig, the developed technical joint variants are examined and evaluated. This demonstrates the technical applicability of this bionic joints.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0061.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: reverse micelles, biomimetic, confinement, water dynamics, nanoparticles, nano(bio) sensors
Online: 2 November 2018 (13:25:22 CET)
This paper presents an overview of the principal structural and dynamics characteristics of reverse micelles (RMs) in order to highlight their structural flexibility and versatility, along with the possibility to modulate their parameters in a controlled-manner. The multifunctionality in a large range of different scientific fields is exemplified in two distinct directions: a theoretical model for mimicry of biological microenvironment and practical application in the field of nanotechnology and nano-based sensors. RMs represents a convenient experimental approach that limits the drawbacks of the conventionally biological studies in vitro, while the particular structure confers them the status of simplified mimics of cells by reproducing a complex supramolecular organization in an artificial system. The biological relevance of RMs is discussed in some particular cases referring to the confinement and crowding environment, molecular dynamics of water and cell membrane structure. The use of RMs in different range of applications seems to be more promising due to their structural and compositional flexibility, a high efficiency and selectivity being achieved. The advance in nanotechnology is based on developing new methods of nanomaterials synthesis and deposition. This review highlighting the advantages of using RMs in synthesis of nanoparticles with specific properties and in nano (bio)sensors design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0205.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Franz-Bampa; BCS drugs; biomimetic membrane; Franz cell; passive drug transport
Online: 9 September 2020 (10:25:54 CEST)
A major parameter controlling the extent and rate of oral drug absorption is permeability through the lipid bilayer of intestinal epithelial cells. Here, a biomimetic artificial membrane permeability assay (Franz-Bampa) was validated using Franz cells apparatus. Both high and low permeability drugs (metoprolol and mannitol, respectively) were used as external standards. Biomimetic properties of Franz-Bampa were also characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR). Moreover, the permeation profile for the 14 BCS class I-IV drugs cited in the FDA guidance (including other drugs as acyclovir, cimetidine, diclofenac, ibuprofen, piroxicam, and trimethoprim) were measured across Franz-Bampa. Apparent permeability (Papp) was compared to literature fraction dose absorbed in humans (Fa%). Papp in Caco-2 cells and Corti artificial membrane were likewise compared to Fa% to assess Franz-Bampa performance. Mannitol and metoprolol Papp values across Franz-Bampa were lower (3.20 x 10-7 and 1.61 x 10-5 cm/s, respectively) than those obtained across non-impregnated membrane (2.27 x 10-5 and 2.55 x 10-5 cm/s, respectively), confirming lipidic barrier resistivity. Performance of the Franz cell permeation apparatus using an artificial membrane showed similar log linear correlation (R2 = 0.664) with Fa%, as seen for Papp in Caco-2 cells (R2 = 0.805). Data support the validation of the Franz-Bampa method for use during drug discovery process.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1912.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: biomimetic; bioinspired; nanodiscs; liposomes; virus-like particles; albumin; ferritin; polysaccharides; extracellular vesicles
Online: 28 September 2023 (03:21:20 CEST)
Biomimetic delivery systems (BDSs), inspired by the intricate designs of biological systems, have emerged as a groundbreaking paradigm in nanomedicine, offering unparalleled advantages in therapeutic delivery. These systems, encompassing platforms such as liposomes, protein-based nanoparticles, extracellular vesicles, and polysaccharides, are lauded for their targeted delivery, minimized side effects, and enhanced therapeutic outcomes. However, the translation of BDSs from research settings to clinical applications is fraught with challenges, including reproducibility concerns, physiological stability, and rigorous efficacy and safety evaluations. Furthermore, the innovative nature of BDSs demands a reevaluation and evolution of existing regulatory and ethical frameworks. This review provides an overview of BDSs, delve into the multifaceted translational challenges and present emerging solutions, underscored by real-world case studies. Emphasizing the potential of BDSs to redefine healthcare, we advocate for sustained interdisciplinary collaboration and research. As our understanding of biological systems deepens, the future of BDSs in clinical translation appears promising, with a focus on personalized medicine and refined patient-specific delivery systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0103.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Resveratrol; antioxidant metabolism; scavengome; biomimetic oxidation; bioactivity-guided isolation; NMR spectroscopy; xanthine oxidase
Online: 4 August 2022 (05:33:52 CEST)
Resveratrol is a well-known natural polyphenol with a plethora of pharmacological activities. As a potent antioxidant, resveratrol is highly oxidizable, and readily reacts with reactive oxygen species (ROS). Such a reaction not only leads to a decrease in ROS levels in a biological environ-ment but may also generate a wide range of metabolites with altered bioactivities. Inspired by this notion, in the current study, our aim was to take a diversity-oriented chemical approach to study the chemical space of oxidized resveratrol metabolites. Chemical oxidation of resveratrol and a bioactivity-guided isolation strategy using xanthine oxidase (XO) and radical scavenging activities led to the isolation of a diverse group of compounds, including a chlorine-substituted compound (2), two iodine-substituted compounds (3 and 4), two viniferins (5 and 6), an eth-oxy-substituted compound (7) two ethoxy-substituted dimers (8 and 9). Compounds 4, 7, 8 and 9 are reported here for the first time. All compounds without ethoxy-substitution exerted stronger XO inhibition than their parent compound, resveratrol. By enzyme kinetic and in silico docking studies compounds 2, 3 and 4 were identified as potent competitive inhibitors of the enzyme while the viniferins acted as mixed-type inhibitors. Further, compounds 2 and 9 had better DPPH scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbing capacity than resveratrol. Our results suggest that the antioxidant activity of resveratrol is modulated by the effect of a cascade of chemically stable oxidized metabolites, several of which have significantly altered target specificity as compared to their parent compound.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0295.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: dendritic polymers; ceramic compounds; biomimetic; nanomaterials; dendrimers; hyperbranched polymers; silica composites; hybrid materials
Online: 10 November 2020 (09:22:43 CET)
As the field of nanoscience is rapidly evolving, interest for novel, upgraded nanomaterials with combinatory features is also inevitably increasing. Hybrid composites, offer simple, budget-conscious and environmental-friendly solutions that can cater multiple needs at the same time and be applicable in many nanotechnology-related and interdisciplinary studies. The physicochemical idiocrasies of dendritic polymers have inspired their implementation as sorbents, active ingredient carriers and templates for complex composites. Ceramics are distinguished for their mechanical superiority and absorption potential that render them ideal substrates for separation and catalysis technologies. The integration of dendritic compounds to these inorganic hosts can be achieved through chemical attachment of the organic moiety onto functionalized surfaces, impregnation and absorption inside the pores, conventional sol-gel reactions or via biomimetic mediation of dendritic matrices, inducing the formation of usually spherical hybrid nanoparticles. Alternatively, dendritic polymers can propagate from ceramic scaffolds. All these variants are covered in detail. Optimization techniques as well as established and prospected applications are also presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0055.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Inorganic And Nuclear Chemistry Keywords: amidophosphoric acid; diamidophosphate; prebiotic phosphoryl compound; phosphonitrogen glass; enthalpy; Gibbs Free energy; biomimetic nitrogen fixation
Online: 7 February 2018 (05:12:33 CET)
Diamidophosphate has been identified as a possible prebiotic compound used in the precursor membranes of the first ‘life’. Compounds such as these will be helpful in developing novel biomimetic approaches in synthetic chemistry. Thermochemical data for this type of compounds are not available. Hess’ law and estimates from calorimetric measurements used by Wakefield in the 1970s for other amido phosphates have been used to estimate the thermochemical values for the diamido and monoamido-phosphoric acid. Enthalpy of formation at 298.15 oC is calculated as – 821.9 kJ/mol and the free energy of formation calculated as -813.5 kJ/mol for the diamidophosphoric acid. The calculated enthalpy of formation of monoamidic phosphoric acid is -1117.1 kJ/mol and its free energy of formation is - -1105 kJ/mol.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0509.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: antimicrobial peptide; cell penetrating peptide; silica forming peptide; biomimetic silica deposition; drug delivery; drug device combination
Online: 11 October 2023 (10:07:40 CEST)
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have emerged as a promising solution to tackle bacterial infections and combat antibiotic resistance. However, their clinical application has been hindered by their vulnerability to protease degradation and toxicity towards mammalian cells. To overcome these challenges, our study aims to develop a method to enhance the stability and safety of AMPs, applicable to effective drug-device combination products. KR12 antimicrobial peptide was chosen and in order to further enhance its delivery and efficacy, HIV TAT protein-derived cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) was fused to form CPP-KR12. A new product, CPP-KR12@Si, was developed by forming silica nanoparticles with self-entrapped CPP-KR12 peptide using the biomimetic silica precipitability due to its cationic nature. Peptide delivery from CPP-KR12@Si to bacteria and cells was delivered at a slightly delayed rate with improved stability against trypsin treatment and a reduction in cytotoxicity over CPP-KR12. Finally, the antimicrobial potential of CPP-KR12@Si/bone graft substitute (BGS) combination product was demonstrated, which is coated with CPP-KR12 in the form of nanoparticles on the surface of BGS. Self-entrapped AMP in silica nanoparticles is a safe and effective AMP delivery method that will be useful for developing a drug/device combination product for tissue regeneration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1211.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Uranyl Cations; Dendritic Polymers; Silica Xerogels; Composites; Nanoparticles; water purification; radioactive wastewater; Uranium removal; Dendrimers; Biomimetic
Online: 29 April 2023 (04:48:19 CEST)
Two different silica conformations (Xerogels and Nanoparticles) both formed by the mediation of dendritic poly (ethylene imine) were tested at low pHs on the problematic uranyl cation sorption. The effect of crucial factors i.e., temperature, electrostatic forces, adsorbent composition, accessibility of the pollutant to the dendritic cavities and MW of the organic matrix was investigated to conclude the optimum formulation for water purification under these conditions. This was attained with the aid of UV-Visible and FTIR spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), ζ-potential; Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) porosimetry, Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TG) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Results highlighted that both adsorbents have extraordinary sorp-tion capacity. Xerogels are cost-effective since they approximate the performance of na-noparticles with much lesser organic content. Furthermore, they are more practicable materials since they may penetrate the pores of a metal or ceramic solid substrate in the form of a precursor, gel-forming solution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0283.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: fish-like movement; underwater robotics; undulating propulsion; Biomimetic Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (BUUV); energy efficiency; Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI)
Online: 20 October 2021 (09:17:07 CEST)
This paper describes research on a unique propulsion system design for a low-speed Biomimetic Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (BUUV). It is biomimetic in the sense that it mimics the movement of aquatic organisms. The undulating propulsion system has numerous advantages over the rotary impeller and is becoming more popular in underwater robotics. The analysis of an artificial seal’s propulsion system with two tail fins is described here. The contrast between the previous undulating propulsion system and the new one is detailed using mathematical analysis and experimental data. The experimental comparison was carried out on a laboratory test stand equipped with specialist sensor equipment to determine the energy efficiency of various types of propulsion systems. Due to a patent procedure, the innovative propulsion system presented in this work has never been published previously. The fins have extra joints, which is the subject of patent claims. The extra joint is intended to improve energy efficiency and reduce fatigue wear on the fins.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0190.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; biomimetic nanocarriers; blood-brain barrier; dementia; drug targeting; lipid cubic phases; nanoemulsion; SR-BI; scavenger receptors
Online: 28 February 2018 (07:49:13 CET)
Over past decades, a frequent co-morbidity of cerebrovascular pathology and Alzheimer's disease pathology has been observed. Numerous published studies indicate that preservation of healthy cerebrovascular endothelium can be an important therapeutic target. By incorporating appropriate drug(s) into biomimetic (lipid cubic-phase) nanocarriers, one obtains a multitasking combination therapeutic which targets certain cell-surface scavenger receptors, mainly class B type 1 (i.e., SR-BI), and crosses the blood-brain barrier. This targeting allows for various Alzheimer’s-related cell types to be simultaneously searched out for localized drug treatment in vivo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0535.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: biomimicry; biomimetic engineering; energy absorption; lattice structure; additive manufacturing; powder bed fusion; X-ray tomography; microCT; non-destructive testing; 3D image analysis
Online: 23 October 2018 (10:10:15 CEST)
Biomimicry in additive manufacturing often refers to topology optimization and the use of lattice structures, due to the organic shape of the topology-optimized designs, and the lattices often looking similar to many light-weight structures found in nature such as trabecular bone, wood, sponges, coral, to name a few. Real biomimetic design however involves the use of design principles taken in some way from natural systems. In this work we use a methodology whereby high resolution 3D analysis of a natural material with desirable properties is “reverse-engineered” and the design tested for the purpose. This allows more accurate replication of the desired properties, and adaption of the design parameters to the material used for production (which usually differs from the biological material). One such example is the impact-protective natural design of the glyptodont body armour. In this paper we report on the production of body armour models in metal (Ti4Al4V) and analyze the resulting mechanical properties, assessing their potential for impact protective applications. This is the first biomimetic study using metal additive manufacturing to date.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0141.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Regenerative dentistry; 3D printing; biomimetic; bioinspired materials; MSC; cell colonization; Tissue engineering; Regenerative medicine; Oral Bone; Tissue Regeneration; biocolonization; CDHA, MTT; LDH; SEM; FDM
Online: 8 November 2022 (03:03:17 CET)
This paper presents a proof-of-concept study on the biocolonization of 3D-printed hydroxyapatite scaffolds with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Three-dimensional (3D) printed biomimetic bone structure made of Calcium Deficient HydroxyApatite (CDHA) intended as future bone graft was made from newly developed composite material for FDM printing. The biopolymer polyvinyl alcohol serves in this material as a thermoplastic binder for 3D molding of the printed object with a passive function and is completely removed during sintering. The study presents the material, the process of fused deposition modeling (FDM) of CDHA scaffolds and its post-processing at three temperatures (1200, 1300, 1400 °C), as well it evaluates the cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of scaffolds with MTT and LDH release assays after 14 days. The study also includes a morphological evaluation of the cellular colonization with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in two different filament orientations (rectilinear and gyroid). The results of the MTT assay showed that the tested material was not toxic, and cells were preserved in both orientations, with most cells present on the material fired at 1300°C. Results of the LDH release assay showed a slight increase in LDH leakage from all samples. Visual evaluation of SEM confirmed the ideal post-processing temperature of the 3D-printed FDM framework for samples fired at 1300°C and 1400°C, with a porosity of 0.3 mm between filaments. In conclusion, the presented fabrication and colonization of CDHA scaffolds have great potential to be used in the tissue engineering of bones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0480.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: camptothecin; drug distribution; drug-membrane interaction; biophysical profiling; biomimetic models; partition coefficient; ADMET/PK prediction; small and wide-angle X-ray diffraction; fluorescence spectroscopy; human serum albumin (HSA)
Online: 20 May 2021 (10:52:33 CEST)
Camptothecin (CPT) is a potent anticancer drug, and its putative oral administration is envisioned although difficult due to physiological barriers that must be overcome. A comprehensive biophysical analysis of CPT interaction with biointerface models can be used to predict some pharmacokinetic issues after oral administration of this or other drugs. To that end, different models were used to mimic the phospholipid composition of normal, cancer, and blood-brain barrier endothelial cell membranes. The logD values obtained indicate that the drug is well distributed across membranes. CPT-membrane interaction studies also confirm the drug’s location at the membrane cooperative and interfacial regions. The drug can also permeate membranes at more ordered phases by altering phospholipid packing. The similar logD values obtained in membrane models mimicking cancer or normal cells imply that CPT has limited selectivity to its target. Furthermore, CPT binds strongly to serum albumin, leaving only 8.05% of free drug available to be distributed to the tissues. The strong interaction with plasma proteins, allied to the large distribution (VDSS=5.75 ± 0.932 L·Kg-1) and tendency to bioaccumulate in off-target tissues, were predicted to be pharmacokinetic issues of CPT, implying the need to develop drug delivery systems to improve its biodistribution.