ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0419.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Agricultural mechanization; Planting industry; Net carbon sink; Green total factor productivity
Online: 28 December 2021 (11:05:03 CET)
Agricultural mechanization is an important factor to improve the green total factor productivity of planting industry, which is the key way to realize the sustainable development and high-quality development of agriculture. Based on the panel data of 30 provinces in China from 2001 to 2019, this paper uses the stochastic frontier analysis method of output oriented distance function to measure the green total factor productivity of China’s planting industry based on net carbon sink, and empirically studies the impact of agricultural mechanization on the green total factor productivity in China’s planting industry. The empirical analysis finds that mechanization can significantly promote the planting green total factor productivity, and this basic conclusion is still robust after using instrumental variables, sub sample regression. Further research found that the path of mechanization on planting green total factor productivity is mainly reflected in technology progress and spatial spillover. The mechanism of operation scale expansion, factor allocation optimization and technical efficiency change is not significant. Given these findings, the paper adds considerable value to the empirical literature and also provides various policy- and practical implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1934.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Coastal Exclusion Policy; Governance; Scale; Function Shift
Online: 27 June 2023 (15:28:07 CEST)
The coastal zone, situated at the sensitive interface between land and sea, serves as a pivotal area of extensive human economic activities. As one of China's economic special zones, Xiamen exemplifies the comprehensive trajectory of coastal governance in China. This research adopts an interdisciplinary approach grounded in historical geography and political ecology, employing data collection methods encompassing historical literature, field surveys, and interviews. The research findings indicate that:(1) The year 1994 witnessed the pivotal role played by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) in connecting Jimei Peninsula from a local context to the international arena, thus signifying a momentous turning point in the process of scale reconstruction. However, the subsequent implementation of the Coastal Exclusion Policy in 2002 had detrimental consequences, leading to the disintegration of the local scale, the erosion of maritime culture, and the disregard for the livelihood security of displaced coastal populations.(2)The Coastal Exclusion Policy serves as an instrumental tool for implementing scale politics, while its functional realignment has had profound implications for the coastal zone, encompassing economic transformation, ecological degradation, and the marginalization of the socio-cultural fabric that intertwines humans and the coastal environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0192.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: spectral sensitivity optimization; filter selection; multispectral and hyperspectral imaging; absorption filters; imaging simulation; color reproduction; spectral reconstruction
Online: 29 November 2017 (15:03:07 CET)
Previous research has shown that the effectiveness of selecting filter set from a large set of commercial broadband filters by vector analyzing method based on maximum linear independence (MLI). However, the traditional MLI is suboptimal due to predefining the first filter of the selected filter set being the maximum ℓ2 norm among all those of the filters. An exhaustive imaging simulation is conducted to investigate the features of the most competent filter set. In the simulation, every filter in a subset of all the filters is selected serving as the first filter in turn. From the results of the simulation, we found there are remarkable characteristics for the most competent filter set. Besides smaller condition number, the geometric features of the best-performed filter set comprise the distinct peak of the transmittance of the first filter, the generally uniform distributing of the peaks of the transmittance curve of the filters, the substantial overlapping of the transmittance curves with those of the adjacent filer sets. Therefore, the best-performed filter sets can be decided intuitively by simple vector analyzing and just a few experimental verifications. This work would be useful for optimizing spectral sensitivity of broadband multispectral imaging sensors or SFA sensors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1700.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: visible light communication; heterogeneous networking; ACO-OFDM; communication blind area; horizontal-vertical collaborative handover
Online: 24 May 2023 (05:19:55 CEST)
For the traditional indoor visible light communication heterogeneous network switching algorithm is only concerned with the research of vertical switching algorithm, however, the research of horizontal vertical collaborative switching combined with multi-carrier modulation technology is seldom mentioned, based on the above, this paper proposes a horizontal-vertical collaborative switching strategy based on the residency time of the communication blind area. Firstly, we use asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM (ACO-OFDM) for signal processing to reduce the bit error rate (BER) of the system by reducing the multipath interference generated during signal transmission.Secondly, the BER is used to determine the communication blind area and to calculate its dwell time. Finally, the threshold time is set as the channel interruption time in the communication blind zone, and the horizontal-vertical cooperative switching is performed by comparing with the dwell time. The simulation results show that the average network throughput is 195.28Mbps, and the average number of handovers is 1.35. Compared with instant vertical handover (IVHO) scheme and dwell vertical handover (DVHO) scheme, the average network throughput is improved by 37.21% and 28.45%, respectively, and the average switching times are reduced by 28.05% and 5.27%, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0237.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: esterases; phthalate esters; rational design of proteins; distal mutations; molecular dynamics simulation; toxicity; allostery
Online: 14 February 2023 (06:22:31 CET)
Phthalate esters (PAEs) are a ubiquitous kind of environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals, causing environmental and health issues. EstJ6 is an effective phthalate-degrading hydrolase, and its mutant with a combination of three non-conservative distal mutations has an improved activity against PAEs with unknown molecular mechanisms. Herein, we attempt to fill the significant gap between distal mutations and the activity of this enzyme using computational approaches. We find mutations result in a redistribution of enzyme’s preexisting conformational states and dynamics changes of key functional regions, especially the lid over the active site. The outward motion of the lid upon mutations should make it easier for substrates or products to enter or exit. Additionally, the stronger substrate binding affinity and conformational rearrangements of catalytic reaction-associated residues in mutant, accompanied by the strengthened communication within the protein, might contribute to the elevated catalytic efficiency. Finally, an attempt has been done to improve the thermostability of EstJ6 upon introducing a distal disulfide bond between residues A23 and A29, and the simulation results are as expected. Together, our work explored the allosteric effects caused by distal mutations, which could provide insights into the rational design of esterases for industrial applications in the future.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0296.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Autoimmune diabetes; PD-1 inhibitor; Sintilimab; Penile carcinoma
Online: 20 July 2022 (06:09:13 CEST)
Penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare disease. Treatment options for advanced penile cancer are often limited and prognosis remains poor. We reported a 52-year-old male recurrent and metastatic penile SCC patient with high PD-L1 expression(90%) and TMB(14.4 muts/Mb). He had undergone penectomy, bilateral inguinal lymph node dissection and excision of the abdominal wall mass during two surgeries. Despite cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy and sequential chemotherapy with docetaxel plus cisplatin were then carried out, the carcinoma still had progressed. The patient then obtained progression free survival exceeding 32 months with continuous sintilimab, although new onset of ICI-induced diabetes after 24 cycles of sintilimab and required sustained insulin treatment. He didn’t have positive type 1 diabetes associated autoantibodies, but had susceptible HLA genotype DR3-DQ2 haplotype. This is the first patient with radiation and multichemorefractory penile SCC obtained remarkable anti-tumor effect of partial regression exceeding 32 months during continuous sintilimab.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1287.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: inrush current; high-speed train; over voltage; traction power supply system; vehicle
Online: 19 June 2023 (04:41:59 CEST)
This article addresses the problem of contact voltage increase caused by the low frequency oscillation of the train-grid system in the phase-separation process of the EMU. The article establishes the EMU-contact line-traction substation model, reveals the mechanism of low-frequency oscillation, and obtains the relationship between the separation phase angle of the pantograph with line and low-frequency oscillations. Methods to suppress the over-voltage during the low-frequency oscillation are proposed. The study shows that when the power phase angle of the pantograph-line separation is within the range of 60°~90° and 240°~270°, the voltage amplitude in the neutral zone is larger, the maximum amplitude can reach 52.2kV, and low-frequency oscillation will occur in the neutral zone. When low frequency oscillation occurs, the contact line voltage in the neutral zone is mainly 1/3 power frequency (16.7Hz). After installing an RC suppression device in the neutral zone, when the EMU enters the neutral zone, the absolute value of the voltage peak drops to below 20 kV. Compared with the situation where the suppression device is not connected, the absolute value of the voltage peak is reduced by nearly 60%. The study provides a basis for the design of the neutral zone of the contact line and the selection of the high-voltage equipment of the EMU.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1264.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: colorectal cancer; individualized treatment; diffusion magnetic resonance imaging; intravoxel incoherent motion; liver
Online: 19 September 2023 (11:53:35 CEST)
Colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) patients combined with hepatic lymph node metastases was a negative prognostic factor associated with outcomes. Up to now, there was still lack of a reliable method to identify the status of hepatic lymph nodes. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive ability of mono-exponential, bi-exponential, and stretched-exponential diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) models to distinguish between benign and malignant hepatic lymph nodes in CRLM patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to surgery. In total, 97 CRLM patients with pathologically proved hepatic lymph node status were included. Various quantitative parameters, including the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) from mono-exponential model, D, D*, and f derived from intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model, as well as DDC and α from stretched-exponential model (SEM), were measured. Multivariate analysis revealed that the pre- treatment DDC value and the short diameter of the largest lymph node after treatment were independent predictors of metastatic hepatic lymph nodes. A nomogram combining these two factors demonstrated excellent performance in distinguishing between benign and malignant lymph nodes in CRLM patients, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.873. Therefore, the nomogram can serve as a preoperative assessment tool for determining the status of hepatic lymph nodes and aiding in the decision-making process for surgical treatment in CRLM patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1581.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: toxoplasma gondii; caracal (Caracal caracal); virulence; ToxoDB#5; transmission
Online: 25 September 2023 (06:10:25 CEST)
Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread protozoan parasite that infects most warm-blooded animals, and felids can serve as intermediate and definitive hosts. Pathological diagnosis and serological and etiological investigations were conducted on a captive caracal (Caracal caracal) carcass collected from China in 2022. Pathological diagnosis revealed that cardiac insufficiency, pulmonary edema, hepatic failure, and renal insufficiency were the causes of the caracal’s death. A modified agglutination test (cut-off: 1:25) revealed that IgG antibodies against T. gondii were present in the myocardium juice, hydroperitoneum, and hydropericardium (≥1:800). A viable T. gondii (TgCaracalCHn2) strain was isolated from the tissue samples (heart, brain, spleen, and skeletal muscle) of this caracal using a mouse bioassay. The genotype of TgCaracalCHn2 was ToxoDB#5 (Type II variant), as determined by RFLP-PCR. The strain was avirulent in Swiss mice and matched the prediction of ROP18 and ROP5 gene alleles of TgCaracalCHn2 (2/2). Many tissue cysts (203 ± 265) were observed in mice brains after inoculation with TgCaracalCHn2 tachyzoites. ToxoDB#5 is the dominant genotype in North American wildlife, and this is the first documented isolation of T. gondii ToxoDB#5 from China. This indicates that caracals can accelerate the transmission of T. gondii genotypes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0218.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Illumina MiSeq sequencing; gut microflora; Lactobacilli; immunostimulant; anticancer
Online: 17 February 2022 (17:31:15 CET)
We demonstrated the role of natural probiotics 3L, 3 Lactobacilli, in the establishment of a strong and sustainable beneficial healthy gut flora, after chemotherapy through experimental results through in vivo model. Using rat CTX model (immunosuppression induced by cyclophosphamide), we suggested some new adjuvant to chemotherapy as drugs + lactobacillus treament. Further, we proposed a new probiotic formulation (L. acidophilus + L. casei + L. plantarum) to be explored in the prevention of health condition loss by alteration of the general immune system, in numerous studies that reported the use of probiotics involving Lactobacillus in the post-chemo or post-surgical procedures. Here, in our study, Illumina MiSeq sequencing was used to generate sequencing data from microbial genomic DNA libraries, which is appreciable to check for the effects of 3L on bacteria. Microbiome analysis, phylogenetic and classification reports, community data have supported the experiments and the results where 3L had strong beneficial effects on the microbiome. Further, the influence on specific metabolic pathways are assisted in deriving the conclusion of the study (use of 3L for cancer therapy) to the mode of action, mechanistically by correcting microbiota composition and enhancing specific gut metabolic functions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0093.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: myasthenia gravis; thymic stromal lymphopoietin; regulatory T cells; TGF- β; IL-10
Online: 7 June 2020 (15:00:37 CEST)
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a cytokine and is closely related to Interleukin (IL) - 7, and hTSLP can activation through the human thymus dendritic cell in thymic to indirectly promote the differentiation of natural Regulatory T cells (Tregs) of the thymus. In this study, we focused on recombinant TSLP to determine its effects on the differentiation of CD4+CD25-T cells separated from the thymus of myasthenia gravis (MG) patients. Our results demonstrated that exogenous TSLP could increase CD4+CD25+T/CD4+T cells ratio, up-regulate the expression of Foxp3 mRNA and protein expression in CD4+CD25+Treg cells. Furthermore, we found that CD4+CD25+ Treg cells induced by exogenous TSLP could secrete IL - 10, Transforming growth factor (TGF) - β and the ability to inhibit CD4+T cell proliferation improved. These results indicate that TSLP may promote the differentiation of thymic CD4+CD25-T cells of MG patient to CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and enhance the function of immune suppression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1332.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: EMI shielding; sandwich structure; aramid nanofibers; environmental suitability
Online: 22 November 2023 (07:28:39 CET)
The recent advancements in communication technology have facilitated the widespread deployment of electronic communication equipment globally, resulting in the pervasive presence of electromagnetic pollution. Consequently, there is an urgent necessity to develop a thin, lightweight, efficient, and durable electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding material, capable of withstanding severe environmental conditions, and possessing a scalable production method. In this paper, we proposed an innovative and scalable method for preparing EMI shielding films with a tunable sandwich-structure. The film possesses a nylon mesh (NM) backbone, with AgNWs serving as the shielding coating and aramid nanofibers (ANFs) acting as the cladding layer. The prepared film was thin and flexible, with a thickness of only 0.13 mm. AgNWs could easily form a conductive network structure with excellent performance, and the film had a high EMI shielding efficiency, up to 50.6 dB with 1.0mg/cm2. Due to the outstanding thermal resistance, acid and alkali resistance properties of aramid fibers, the NAAANF film demonstrates remarkable robustness in the face of complex usage environments. Such a thin, efficient and environmentally resistant EMI shielding film provided new ideas for the broad EMI shielding market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0232.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Brassica yellows virus (BrYV); Myzus persicae; transgenic plants with BrYV full length genome; frozen BrYV infected plants; acquisition and transmission
Online: 10 August 2020 (03:34:00 CEST)
Brassica yellows virus (BrYV) is a tentative species of the genus Polerovirus, which occurs widely and mostly damage Brassicaceae plants in East Asia. Since BrYV could not be transmitted mechanically, an insect transmission method is required for further virus research. Here, a reliable and unrestricted method was described, in which non-viruliferous aphids (Myzus persicae) acquired BrYV from transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants with virus full length genome germinated from seeds and frozen infected leaves were used to transmit the virus to healthy plants, and there was no significant difference in acquisition rate though transmission rate from frozen infected leaves was somehow lower compared to fresh infected leaves. This novel simple method could be applied to preservation of virus inocula, evaluation of variety resistance to BrYV, biological research on interaction among BrYV, aphid and host, which also provide a new idea on establishing a basic method using virus genomic transgenic plants or frozen infected leaves for other poleroviruses research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0059.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: cation exchange chromatography; minor milk protein; response surface modeling; simulation; steric mass action (SMA); optimization
Online: 12 January 2017 (09:59:40 CET)
Lactoperoxidase (LP), which is a high-value minor whey protein, has recently drawn extensive attention from research scientists and industry due to its multi-function and potential therapeutic applications. In this study, the separation and optimization of two similar-sized proteins, LP and lactoferrin (LF) were investigated using strong cation exchange column chromatography. Optimization was started with central composite design based experiments to characterize the importance of different decision variables. The three variables used in the optimization were flow rate, length of gradient and final salt concentration in the linear elution gradient step. The obtained empiric functional model represented the effect of the significant factors on the yield as the objective function. Afterwards, the calibrated mechanistic model was employed to predict accurate optimal set of variables. The optimal operating points were found and the results were compared with validation experiments. Predictions respecting yield confirmed a very good agreement with experimental results while keeping purity, a product quality characteristic, equal or above to a predefined value.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2207.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Bovine; Bioinformatics; Phospholipase D family member 6; Testes; Spermatogonial stem cells
Online: 30 June 2023 (14:45:51 CEST)
Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are the only primitive spermatogonial cells in males that can naturally transmit genetic information to their offspring and replicate throughout their lives. Phospholipase D family member 6 (PLD6) has recently been found to be a surface marker for SSCs in mice and boars; however, it has not been validated in cattle. The results of RT-PCR and qRT-PCR found that the relative expression of PLD6 gene in the testicular tissues of 2-year-old Simmental calves was significantly higher than that of 6-month-old calves. Immunofluorescent staining further verified the expression of PLD6 protein in bovine spermatogenic cells like germ cell marker VASA. Based on multiple bioinformatic databases, PLD6 is a conservative protein which has high homology with mouse Q5SWZ9 protein. It is closely involved in the normal functioning of the reproductive system. Molecular dynamics simulation analyzed the binding of PLD6 as a phospholipase to cardiolipin (CL), and PLD6-CL complex showed high stability. The protein interaction network analysis showed that there is a significant relationship between PLD6 and piRNA binding protein. PLD6 acts as an endonuclease and participates in piRNA production. In addition, PLD6 in bovine and mouse testes has a similar expression pattern with the spermatogonium-related genes VASA and PIWIL2. In conclusion, these analyses imply that PLD6 has a relatively high expression in bovine testes and could be used as a biomarker for spermatogenic cells including SSCs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0664.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: ammonium/nitrate ratio; Arnebia euchroma; shikonin; hairy root; ammonium toxicity
Online: 21 April 2023 (03:30:29 CEST)
Nitrogen (N) strongly affects plant growth and metabolism. For shikonin biosynthesis, although the ammonium toxicity phenomenon has been reported, the effects of nitrogen on the shikonin synthesis remains obscure. In this study, we carried out four different concentrations of NH4+ treatments on Arnebia euchroma hairy roots (AEHR) to clarify the influence of NH4+ on the growth and shikonin accumulation in A. euchroma and the possible mechanism. The results showed that compared with the 0% NH4+ treatment (only nitrate as nitrogen source), 10% NH4+ treatment increased the fresh weight and the dry weight of AEHR, and promoted the synthesis of shikonins; 20% NH4+ treatment started to show the inhibition effects on growth and shikonin accumulation of AEHR and 30% NH4+ treatment exhibited the strongest inhibition effects. With increased percentage of NH4+, AEHRs became shorter and thicker with more branches. To further elucidate the mechanism, we analyzed the time-course of nitrogen assimilation, gene expression level of key enzymes involved in the shikonin biosynthesis pathway, and contents of various endogenous hormones under NH4+ toxicity condition. Results indicated that auxin and cytokinin might regulate the growth and architecture of AEHR under NH4+ toxicity, and jasmonate level was reduced along with the inhibition of shikonin biosynthesis. This first comprehensive investigation into the effects of ammonium/nitrate ratio on shikonin biosynthesis not only provided valuable data for optimizing the in vitro culture and shikonin production in A. euchroma, but also suggested potential fertilizer strategies for its cultivation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0071.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: phased array radar; embedded computing; serial RapidIO, MPAR
Online: 23 July 2016 (10:43:50 CEST)
This paper investigates the feasibility of a backend design for real-time, multiple-channel processing digital phased array system, particularly for high-performance embedded computing platforms constructed of using general purpose digital signal processors. Frist, we obtained the lab-scale backend performance benchmark from simulating beamforming, pulse compression, and Doppler filtering based on MicroTCA chassis using Serial RapidIO protocol in backplane communication. Next, a field-scale demonstrator of a multifunctional phased array radar is emulated by using the similar configuration. Interestingly, the performance of a barebone design is compared to that of emerging tools that systematically take advantage of parallelism and multicore capabilities, including Open Computing Language.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0037.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii; Phage therapy
Online: 2 September 2022 (09:51:24 CEST)
Acinetobacter baumannii is a multidrug-resistant and invasive pathogen associated with the etiopathology of both an increasing number of nosocomial infections and of relevance to poultry production systems. Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii has been reported in connection to severe challenges to clinical treatment, mostly due to an increase rate of resistance to carbapenems. Amid the possible strategies aiming to reduce the insurgence of antimicrobial resistance, phage therapy has gained particular importance for the treatment of bacterial infections. This review summarises the different phage-therapy approaches currently in use for multiple-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, including single phage therapy, phage cocktails, phage -antibiotic combination therapy, phage coding Acinetobacter baumannii and the novel phage enzyme treatment. Although phage therapy represents a potential treatment solution for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, further research is needed to unravel some unanswered questions especially in regard to its in vivo applications, before possible routine clinical use.