ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2147.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Contactless; head movement; health monitoring; WiFi CSI; internet of things
Online: 30 May 2023 (13:05:29 CEST)
Detecting human head movement during sleep is important as it can help doctor to access some physical or mental health problems like infantile eczema, calcium deficiency, insomnia, anxiety disorder and even Parkinson’s disease, and provide useful clues for scientific diagnosing. To obtain the information of sleep head movement, current solutions either use the camera or require the user to wear intrusive sensors to collect the image or motion data. However, the vision-based schemes depend on the environmental light conditions and also bring privacy concerns. Some people including the elderly and infant may be reluctant to wear wearable devices during sleep. In this paper, we propose a novel system called Wi-Senser to address the issues mentioned above. Our Wi-Senser directly reuses the existing WiFi infrastructure and exploits the fine-grained channel state information (CSI) of WiFi signals to capture the minute human head movement during sleep without attaching any sensors to the human body. We design and implement our system with just one commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) router and one laptop equipped with Intel 5300 network interface card (NIC). We evaluate the performance of Wi-Senser with 6 volunteers (4 adults and 2 children). Extensive experiments demonstrate that Wi-Senser can achieve a 98.5% accuracy for head movement detection during sleep. Wi-Senser provides a new solution for achieving noninvasive, continuous and accurate human minute movement detection without any additional cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0196.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: kinetic model; dual-wavelength; photopolymerization; spatial confirmation; additive manufacturing; 3d printing
Online: 17 October 2019 (12:33:03 CEST)
The kinetics and modeling of dual-wavelength controlled photopolymerization confinement (PC) are presented and measured data are analyzed by analytic formulas and numerical data. The UV-light initiated inhibition effect is strongly monomer-dependent and different monomers have different C=C bond rate constants and conversion efficacy. Without the UV-light, for a given blue-light intensity, higher initiator concentration (C10) and rate constant (k’) lead to higher conversion, as also predicted by analytic formulas, in which the total conversion rate (RT) is an increasing function of k’R, which is proportional to k[gB1C1]0.5. However, the coupling factor b1 plays a different role that higher b1 leads to higher conversion only in the transient regime; whereas higher b1 leads lower steady-state conversion. For a fixed initiator concentration C10, higher inhibitor concentration (C20) leads to lower conversion due to stronger inhibition effect. However, same conversion reduction was found for the same H-factor of H0 = [b1C10 - b2C20]. Conversion of blue-only are much higher than that of UV-only and UV-blue combined, in which high C20 results a strong reduction of blue-only-conversion, such that the UV-light serves as the turn-off (trigger) mechanism for the purpose of spatial confirmation within the overlap area of UV and blue light. For example, UV-light controlled methacrylate conversion of a glycidyl dimethacrylate resin formulated with a tertiary amine co-initiator, and butyl nitrite, subject to a continuous exposure of a blue light, but an on-off exposure of a UV-light. Finally, we developed a theoretical new finding for the criterion of a good material/candidate governed by a double ratio of light-intensity and concentration, [I20C20.]/[I10C10].
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0396.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: polymerization modeling; kinetic; photoinitiator; optimal efficacy; crosslinking.
Online: 16 November 2018 (10:26:26 CET)
Optimal conditions for maximum efficacy of photoinitiated polymerization are theoretically presented. Analytic formulas are shown for the crosslink time, crosslink depth and efficacy function. The roles of photoinitiator (PI) concentration, diffusion depth and light intensity on the polymerization spatial and temporal profiles, for both uniform and non-uniform cases, are presented. For optimal efficacy, a strategy via controlled PI concentration is proposed, where re-supply of PI in high light intensity may achieve a combined-efficacy similar to low light intensity, but has a much faster procedure. A new criterion of efficacy based on the polymerization (crosslink) [strength] and [depth] is introduced. Experimental data are analyzed for the role of PI concentration and light intensity on the gelation time and efficacy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0472.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: polymerization; modeling; kinetic; singlet oxygen; polymerization efficacy; crosslinking
Online: 30 October 2018 (07:18:35 CET)
The kinetics and efficacy profiles of photoinitiated polymerization are theoretically presented. For the same dose, lower light intensity achieves a higher steady-state-efficacy (SSE) in type-I; in contrast, type-II has an equal SSE. Higher light intensity has a faster rising efficacy, due to faster depletion of photoinitiator (PS) concentration. However, type-II process is also affected by the available oxygen. Higher light intensity produces more efficient singlet oxygen, resulting a higher transient efficacy, in which all intensities reach the same SSE when oxygen is completely depleted. With external oxygen, type-II efficacy increases with time, otherwise, it is governed only by the light dose, i.e., same dose achieves same efficacy. Moreover, type-II has an efficacy follows Bunsen Roscoe law (BRL), whereas type-I follows non-BRL. The measured type-I efficacy and gelation profile are analyzed by our analytic formulas. Schematics of the photocrosslinking stage defined by the availability of oxygen is developed, where both type-I and –II coexist until the oxygen is depleted. The overall efficacy may be enhanced by resupply of PS or oxygen during the light exposure. The roles of light dose and PS concentration on the efficacy of photoinitiated polymerization should be are governed a new concept of a volume efficacy (Ve), defined by the product of the crosslink (or gelation) depth (CD) and local [efficacy].
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: virus infection; mechanobiology; cytoskeleton; mechanosensors; shear stress; tensile or compressive forces; topography; organ-on-a-chip
Online: 14 May 2021 (14:48:03 CEST)
Pandemics caused by viruses have threatened lives of thousands of people. Viral infection is a complex and diverse process, and substantial studies have been complemented in understanding the biochemical and molecular interactions between viruses and hosts. However, the physical microenvironment where infections implement is often less carefully considered, and the role of mechanobiology in viral infection remains elusive. Mechanobiology focuses on sensation, transduction and response to intracellular and extracellular physical factors by tissues, cells and extracellular matrix. The intracellular cytoskeleton and mechanosensors have been proved to be extensively involved in virus life cycle. Furthermore, innovative methods in vivo and in vitro are being utilized to elucidate how extracellular factors including stiffness, forces and topography in regulating viral infection. Our current review covers how physical factors from different sources coordinate virus infection. We further discuss how this knowledge can be harnessed in future research on cross-fields of mechanobiology and virology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0017.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Next Generation Wireless Networks; Cognitive Radios; Collaborative Intelligent Radio Networks; Spectrum Sharing; Coexistence; Experimental Evaluation
Online: 15 October 2018 (12:15:23 CEST)
The explosive emergence of wireless technologies and standards, covering licensed and unlicensed spectrum bands has triggered the appearance of a huge amount of wireless technologies, with many of them coexisting in the same band. Unfortunately, the wireless spectrum is a scarce resource, and the available frequency bands will not scale with the foreseen demand for new capacity. Certain parts of the spectrum, in particular the license-free ISM bands, are overcrowded, while other parts, mostly licensed bands, may be significantly underutilized. As such, there is a need to introduce more advanced techniques to access and share the wireless medium, either to improve the coordination within a given band, or to explore the possibilities of intelligently using unused spectrum in underutilized (e.g., licensed) bands. Therefore, in this paper, we present an open source SDR-based framework that can be employed to devise disruptive techniques to optimize the sub-optimal use of radio spectrum that exists today. Additionally, we describe three use cases where the proposed framework can be employed along with intelligent algorithms to achieve improved spectrum utilization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0032.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: kinetic model; 3-wavelength; photopolymerization; spatial confirmation; additive manufacturing; 3D printing
Online: 4 November 2019 (03:16:16 CET)
Detailed kinetics for a 3-wavelength photopolymerization confinement (PC) system is presented for both numerical solutions and analytic formulas. The dynamic profiles are simulated for oxygen, free radical, and conversion for various situations of: blue-light only, 2-light (red and UV), and 3-light (red, blue, UV). An effective PC requires two conditions: (i) a strong N-inhibition for uncured regime with a low conversion (triggered by the UV-light); and (ii) a weak S-inhibition (oxygen-induced) for high conversion under the blue-light or blue and red-light initiation. Good PC candidates are governed by collective factors of: (i) the double ratio of light-intensity and initiator-concentration, (ii) monomers rate-constant; and (iii) effective absorption constants at specific wavelength and initiators. A new reverse feature for the role of N-inhibition on the blue-conversion is found. Higher oxygen concentration leads to a lower conversion, which could be enhanced by reducing the S-inhibition via a red or blue-light pre-irradiation, having a pre-irradiation time TP=200 s for red-light only, and reduced to 150 s, when both red and blue-light. System under UV-only leads a conversion lower than that of blue-only. However, conversion could be improved by the dual-light (blue and UV), and further enhanced by the pre-irradiation of red-light. The two competing factors, N-inhibition and S-inhibition, could be independently and selectively tailored to achieve: (a) high conversion of blue-light (without UV-light), enhanced by red-light pre-irradiation for minimal S-inhibition; and (b) efficient PC initiated by UV-light produced N-inhibition for reduced confinement thickness and for high print speed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0447.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: intelligent radio networks; spectrum sharing; coexistence; experimental evaluation
Online: 27 August 2018 (10:17:38 CEST)
The explosive emergence of wireless technologies and standards, covering licensed and unlicensed spectrum bands has triggered the appearance of a huge amount of wireless technologies, with many of them coexisting in the same band. Unfortunately, the wireless spectrum is a scarce resource, and the available frequency bands will not scale with the foreseen demand for new capacity. Certain parts of the spectrum, in particular the license-free ISM bands, are overcrowded, while other parts, mostly licensed bands, may be significantly underutilized. As such, there is a need to introduce more advanced techniques to access and share the wireless medium, either to improve the coordination within a given band, or to explore the possibilities of intelligently using unused spectrum in underutilized (licensed) bands. Therefore, in this paper, we present a SDR based framework that can be employed to devise disruptive techniques to optimize the sub-optimal use of radio spectrum that exists today. Additionally, we describe two use cases for the proposed framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0416.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: galatic cosmic rays; nearby source; cosmic ray anisotropy; cosmic ray spectra
Online: 7 November 2023 (08:28:00 CET)
The latest experimental measurements of cosmic rays (CRs) have discovered a series of anomalies, including the hardening of the nuclear spectra at R ∼200 GV followed by softening at R ∼10 TV and complicated energy dependence of anisotropy from GeV to PeV. Recent works have demonstrated nearby sources are crucial for these anomalies of spectra and anisotropy. In this work, we analyze the contributions of ﬁve nearby sources within 1 kpc around solar system to the spectra and anisotropy, ﬁnally ﬁnd out which source is the best candidate source. In the calculation process, we also introduce the anisotropic diffusion of CRs induced by the local interstellar magnetic ﬁeld (LIMF) nearby the solar system based on spatial-dependent propagation (SDP) model. As a result, we ﬁnd Geminga SNR source can simultaneously account for CR spectra and anisotropy, whereas the other sources can not . Measurements of CR anisotropy and spectra by experiments such as LHAASO and HAWC are expected to test this scenario in the near future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0520.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Strong coupling; plasmonic-photonic coupling system; surface lattice resonance; Fabry-Pérot resonance
Online: 31 December 2021 (12:42:38 CET)
We report the strong coupling between plasmonic surface lattice resonances (SLRs) and photonic Fabry-Pérot (F-P) resonances in a microcavity embedded with two-dimensional periodic array of metal-insulator-metal nanopillars. For such a plasmonic-photonic system, we show that the SLR can be strongly coupled to the F-P resonances of both the odd- and even orders, and that the splitting energy reaches as high as 138 meV in the visible regime. We expect that this work will provide a new scheme for strong coupling between plasmonic and photonic modes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1358.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Landslide Susceptibility; Information Value; Logistic regression; Machine learning; Deep learning; GIS
Online: 19 May 2023 (02:28:10 CEST)
Shallow landslides pose serious threats to human existence and economic development, especially in the Himalayan areas. Landslide susceptibility mapping (LSM) is a proven way for minimizing the hazard and risk of landslides. Modeling as an essential step, various algorithms have been applied to LSM. In this study, information value (IV) and logistic regression (LR) were selected as representatives of the conventional algorithms, categorical boosting (CatBoost) and conventional neural networks (CNN) as the advanced algorithms, for LSM in Yadong county, and their performance was compared. To begin with, 496 historical landslide events were compiled into a landslide inventory map, followed by a list of 11 conditioning factors, forming a data set. Secondly, the data set was randomly divided into two parts, 80% of which was used for modeling and 20% for validation. Finally, the area under the curve (AUC) and statistical metrics were applied to validate and compare the performance of the models. The results showed that the CNN model performed the best (AUC 0.974 and accuracy=93.3%), while the LR model performed the worst (AUC 0.974 and accuracy=93.3%) and CatBoost model performed better (AUC 0.974 and accuracy=93.3%). Besides, the LSM constructed by the CNN model did a more reasonable prediction of the distribution of susceptible areas. As for feature selection, did a more detailed analysis of conditioning factors but the results were uncertain. The result analyzed by GI may be more reliable but fluctuates with the amount of data. The conclusion reveals that the accuracy of LSM can be further improved with the advancement of algorithms, by determining more representative features, which serve as a more effective guide for land use planning in the study area or other highlands where landslides are frequent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0102.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Content-Based Remote Sensing Image Retrieval; Change Information Detection; Information Management; Remote Sensing Data Service
Online: 29 August 2017 (16:18:20 CEST)
With the rapid development of satellite remote sensing technology, the volume of image datasets in many application areas is growing exponentially and the demand for Land-Cover and Land-Use change remote sensing data is growing rapidly. It is thus becoming hard to efficiently and intelligently retrieve the change information that users need from massive image databases. In this paper, content-based image retrieval is successfully applied to change detection and a content-based remote sensing image change information retrieval model is introduced. First, the construction of a new model framework for change information retrieval in a remote sensing database is described. Then, as the target content cannot be expressed by one kind of feature alone, a multiple-feature integrated retrieval model is proposed. Thirdly, an experimental prototype system that was set up to demonstrate the validity and practicability of the model is described. The proposed model is a new method of acquiring change detection information from remote sensing imagery and so can reduce the need for image pre-processing, deal with problems related toseasonal changes as well as other problems encountered in the field of change detection. Meanwhile, the new model has important implications for improving remote sensing image management and autonomous information retrieval.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0097.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: nursing student; disaster preparedness; China; the modified Delphi
Online: 5 April 2021 (11:10:24 CEST)
Abstract: This study aims to set up a system to evaluate nursing competencies in disaster preparedness for undergraduates and influencing factors in China. The evaluation system was established by using the modified Delphi. There were 3 phases in this study: 1) an environmental scan; 2) setting framework; 3) adjusting indicators based on the modified Delphi. The questionnaire for these undergraduates lied in their basic information and assessment of nursing competencies in disaster preparedness. Based on the survey, the average score of nursing competencies in disaster preparedness for undergraduate nursing students surveyed was 3.10 (out of 5). In addition, gender, grade, inhabitation, and disaster drills of the students were four factors affecting nursing competencies of undergraduates. This study indicates that the present nursing competencies in disaster preparedness for undergraduates are weak, and it is essential to strengthen nursing education in disaster preparedness for undergraduates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1514.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Faba bean; ornamental; flower; finite inflorescence; dual purpose as ornament and food
Online: 21 June 2023 (09:45:05 CEST)
Cross-field innovation in faba bean breeding has added significant value to the traditional faba bean planting industry by allowing for the selection of faba bean varieties with a dual purpose as ornaments and food. In order to improve the selection efficiency, we determined 17 phenotypes related to ‘dual purpose’ faba beans and evaluated 37 new breeding lines, which were bred for 10 years by our team, and two traditional faba bean varieties by means of an Analytic Hierarchy Process. The lines and varieties were evaluated and sorted into five grades, from which two breeding lines with excellent comprehensive phenotypes and dual ornamental and food functions were selected. The new line GS5 passed the identification of Crop Identification Committee of Chongqing Seed Industry Association on November 25, 2021 and was renamed "Doumei 1 hao" with the identification number of " 202111". The results confirmed that the comprehensive evaluation system constructed in this study can be used for the effective selection of dual-purpose faba bean lines, providing an empirical approach for strategic decision-making by breeders.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: laser powder bed fusion; substructure; model; growth direction; crystallographic orientation; cell; cell-like dendrite
Online: 6 December 2019 (11:33:12 CET)
Cellular substructure has been widely observed in the sample fabricated by laser powder bed fusion, while its growth direction and the crystallographic orientation have seldom been studied. This research tries to build a general model to construct the substructure from its two-dimensional morphology. All the three Bunge Euler angles to specify a unique growth direction are determined, and the crystallographic orientation corresponding to the growth direction is also obtained. Based on the crystallographic orientation, the substructure in the single track of austenitic stainless steel 316L is distinguished between the cell-like dendrite and the cell. It is found that, with the increase of scanning velocity, the substructure transits from cell-like dendrite to cell. When the power is 200 W, the critical growth rate of the transition in the single track can be around 0.31 ms^-1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1960.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mining And Mineral Processing Keywords: natural gas storage; bedded salt rock; multi-stage horizontal cavity leaching; nitrogen cushion
Online: 31 October 2023 (02:58:34 CET)
Based on the similarity theory, a large-size salt rock horizontal well cavity-leaching test platform was built, and horizontal-well cavity leaching tests with nitrogen cushion were carried out, and based on the cavity-leaching parameters, the extension characteristics of cavity morphology and the influence law of the cavity-leaching parameters were analysed; and through the establishment of numerical models reflecting the actual horizontal-well cavities morphology and characteristics, a long-term stability analysis of the horizontal well cavities was carried out, and in combination with the cavity morphology and characteristics, the distribution characteristics of the horizontal well cavity displacements and the plastic zones in the long-term operation were analysed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0304.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: glioblastoma; GBM; glioma; STAT3; STAT5A; hsa-miR-181d; microRNA
Online: 29 August 2019 (05:22:29 CEST)
Background: Glioblastoma (GBM), a malignant grade IV tumor, is the most malignant brain tumor due to its hyper-proliferative and apoptosis-evading characteristics. The signal transducer and activators of transcription (STAT) family genes, including STAT3 and STAT5A, have been indicated to play important roles in GBM progression. Increasing number of reports suggest that Garcinol, a polyisoprenylated benzophenone and major bioactive component of Garcinia indica contains potent anti-cancer activities. Material & Methods: The present study investigated the anti-GBM effects of garcinol, focusing on the STAT3/STAT5A activation, using a combination of bioinformatics, in vitro, and ex vivo assays. Results: Our bioinformatics analysis of TCGA - GBM cohort (n=173) showed that STAT3 and STAT5A are preferentially elevated in primary and recurrent GBM, compared to non-tumor brain tissues, and is significantly correlated with reduced overall survival. In support, our immunohistochemical staining of a GBM cohort (n=30) showed an estimated 5.3-fold (p<0.001) elevation in STAT3 and STAT5A protein expression in primary and recurrent GBM versus the non-tumor group. In vitro, garcinol treatment significantly suppressed the proliferative, invasive, and migratory potential of U87MG or GBM8401 cells, dose-dependently. In addition, garcinol anticancer effect significantly attenuated the GBM stem cell-like phenotypes, as reflected by diminished ability of U87MG or GBM8401 to form colonies and tumorspheres and suppressed expression of OCT4 and SOX2. Furthermore, analysis on GBM transcriptome revealed an inverse correlation between the level of STAT3/5A and hsa-miR-181d. Garcinol-mediated anti-GBM effects were associated with an increased hsa-miR-181d/STAT3 and hsa-miR-181d/5A ratio. Conclusion: We present evidence of anti-GBM efficacy of garcinol mediated by enhancing the hsa-miR-181d/STAT3 and hsa-miR-181d/5A ratios in GBM cells. Our findings suggest a potential new therapeutic agent for combating aggressive GBM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0374.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Keywords: Tumor microenvironment (TME), glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), GBM- associated macrophages (GAMs), exosomes, oncomiR-21, STAT3 inhibitor.
Online: 31 May 2019 (08:18:33 CEST)
Background: Tumor microenvironment (TME) plays a crucial role in virtually every aspect of tumorigenesis of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The dysfunctional TME promotes drug resistance, disease recurrence and distant metastasis. Recent evidence indicates that exosomes released by stromal cells within TME may promote oncogenic phenotypes via transferring signaling molecules such as cytokines, proteins and microRNAs. Results: In this study, clinical GBM samples were collected and analyzed. We found that GBM-associated macrophages (GAMs) secreted exosomes which were enriched with oncomiR-21. Co-culture of GAMs (and GAM derived exosomes) and GBM cell lines resulted in the increased GBM cells’ resistance against temozolomide (TMZ) by upregulating pro-survival gene, PDCD4 and stemness markers Sox2, STAT3, Nestin and miR-21-5p and increased M2 cytokines, IL-6 and TGF-β1 secreted by GBM cells, promoting the M2 polarization of GAMs. Subsequently, pacritinib treatment suppressed GBM tumorigenesis and stemness; more importantly, pacritinib-treated GBM cells showed markedly reduced ability to secret M2 cytokines and reduced miR-21 enriched exosomes secreted by GAMs. Pacritinib-mediated effects were accompanied by a reduction of oncomiR miR-21-5p, by which tumor suppressor PDCD4 was targeted. We subsequently established a patient-derived xenograft models where mice bore patient GBM and GAMs. The treatment of pacritinib, and the combination of pacritinib/TMZ appeared to significantly reduce tumorigenesis of GBM/GAM PDX mice, overcome TMZ-resistance, and M2 polarization of GAMs. Conclusion: In summation, we showed that potential of pacritinib alone or in combination with TMZ for suppressing GBM tumorigenesis via modulating STAT3/miR-21/PDCD4 signaling. Further investigations are warranted for adopting pacritinib for the treatment of TMZ-resistant GBM in the clinical settings.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: chronic intermittent hypoxia; autophagy; apoptosis; cardiomyocyte damage; calcineurin
Online: 24 June 2021 (14:58:22 CEST)
Calcineurin plays a key role in cardiovascular pathogenesis by exerting pro-apoptotic effects in cardiomyocytes; however, its involvement in the regulation of cardiomyocyte autophagy under chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) remains largely unknown. Here we showed that CIH induced calcineurin activity in H9C2 cells, resulting in the attenuation of adenosine monophos-phate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and inhibition of H9C2 cell autophagy. Au-tophagy, LC3-II levels, and AMPK phosphorylation were significantly elevated in response to CIH in H9C2 cells by day 3; however, these effects were reversed, and calcineurin activity and apoptosis were significantly increased by day 5. The calcineurin inhibitor, FK506, restored AMPK activation and LC3 protein levels, and reduced CIH-induced H9C2 cell apoptosis, while calcineurin overexpression significantly attenuated the increase in LC3 levels and enhanced H9C2 cell apop-tosis. Calcineurin inhibition failed to induce autophagy or alleviate apoptosis in H9C2 cells ex-pressing a dominant negative K45R AMPK mutant. Autophagy downregulation abrogated the protective effects of FK506-mediated calcineurin inhibition. These results indicated that calcineurin suppressed adaptive autophagy during CIH by downregulating AMPK activation. Our findings showed the underlying mechanisms of calcineurin and autophagy regulation during H9C2 cell survival in response to CIH, and suggested a new strategy for preventing CIH-induced cardiomyocyte damage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0149.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: Alloy 625; aging sensitization treatment; intergranular corrosion; ASTM G28A methods
Online: 29 September 2017 (04:13:44 CEST)
This paper investigates the evolution of microstructures and precipitations of an ultra-low iron alloy 625 subjected to long term aging treatment by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction(XRD). Use ASTM G28A acid Fe3(SO4)2 erosion to represent intergranular corrosion weightlessness and corrosive morphology. The result shows that alloy at 750C by aging treatment for 40h, precipitated γ'' phase in the grain boundary. In high density area of γ'' phase, occurs γ'' phase to δ phase degeneration transformation by aging treatment for 200h and the needle-like δ phase becomes more with time prolonged. And γ'' phase degenerated to δ phase completely until treated for 1000h. The sample which has aging treatment tends to have intergranular corrosion and mainly because alloy element spreading leads to dilution area and grain boundary precipitated phase, plus interlaced δ phase’s dissolving, which makes sample grain particle fall off and this results in apparent weightlessness. The weightlessness rate(WLR) is related with precipitated volume score. With aging sensitization time change, can be described by Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation, i.e.:
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1976.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); CD4+ T cells; next generation sequencing (NGS); long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs); microRNAs (miRNAs)
Online: 29 May 2023 (05:23:24 CEST)
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers and the main cause of cancer-related death globally. Immune dysregulation of CD4+ T cells has been identified as a role in the development of HCC. Nevertheless, the underlying molecular pathways of CD4+ T cells in HCC are not completely known. Thus, a better understanding of the dysregulation of lncRNA-miRNA/mRNA network might yield novel insights into the etiology or progression of HCC. In this study, circulating CD4+ T cells were isolated from the whole blood of 10 healthy controls and 10 HCC patients for next-generation sequencing of the expression of lncRNAs, miRNAs, and mRNAs. Our data showed that there was different expression of 34 transcripts (two lncRNAs, XIST and MIR222HG, 29 mRNA, and 3 other types of RNA) and 13 miRNAs in the circulating CD4+ T cells of HCC patients. The expression of the lncRNA XIST-related miRNAs and their target mRNAs was confirmed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on samples from 100 healthy controls and 60 HCC patients. The lncRNA–miRNA/mRNA regulation network was created using interaction data generated from ENCORI and revealed there are positive correlations in the infiltration of total CD4+ T cells and negative correlations in the infiltration of Th1 CD4+ T cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0043.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: deep learning; lumbarnet; lumbar spine; spondylolisthesis; u-net
Online: 3 June 2022 (10:15:57 CEST)
A common spinal condition, spondylolisthesis is the presence of a relative back or forth displacement between the upper and lower vertebra due to one vertebra being oriented away from the smooth curvature of a normal spine. Aging-related illnesses such as degenerative spondylolisthesis are especially burdensome on social welfare and health-care systems in an aging society, especially radiologists and clinical physicians. Therefore, we proposed a computer aided diagnosis algorithm, named LumbarNet, for vertebral slippage detection on clinical X-ray images. Collaborating with i) a P-grade, ii) a piecewise slope detection scheme, and iii) a dynamic shift detection routine, LumbarNet was thus specialized for analyzing complex structural patterns in lumbar spine X-ray images and outcompeted other U-Net based methods. Extensive experiments on lumbar spine X-ray images in standard clinical practices showed that LumbarNet achieved a mean intersection over union value of 0.88 in vertebral region detection and an accuracy of 88.83% in vertebral slippage detection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0094.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: host-parasite interactions; systems biology; giardiasis; gut-liver axis; integrated multiomics; metabolic pathways
Online: 6 December 2022 (07:39:57 CET)
Apicomplexan infections, such as giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis, negatively impact a considerable proportion of human and commercial livestock populations. Despite this, the molecular mecha-nisms of disease, particularly the effect on the body beyond the gastrointestinal tract, are still poorly understood. To highlight host-parasite-microbiome biochemical interactions, we utilised integrated metabolomics-16S rRNA genomics and metabolomics-proteomics approaches in a C57BL/6J mouse model of giardiasis and compared these to Cryptosporidium and uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) infections. Comprehensive samples (faeces, blood, liver, and luminal contents from duo-denum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon) were collected 10 days post infection and subjected to proteome and metabolome analysis by liquid and gas chromatographic mass-spectrometry, re-spectively. Microbial populations in faeces and luminal washes were examined using 16S rRNA metagenomics. Proteome-metabolome analyses indicated that 12 and 16 key pathways were sig-nificantly altered in the gut and liver, respectively, during giardiasis with respect to other infections. Energy pathways including glycolysis and supporting pathways of glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, and redox pathway of glutathione metabolism, were upregulated in small intestinal luminal contents and the liver during giardiasis. Metabolomics-16S rRNA genetics integration in-dicated that populations of three bacterial families –Autopobiaceae (Up), Desulfovibrionaceae (Up) and Akkermanasiaceae (Down) – were most significantly affected across the gut during giardiasis, causing upregulated glycolysis and short-chained fatty acid (SCFA) metabolism. In particular, the perturbed Akkermanasiaceae population seemed to cause oxidative stress responses along the gut-liver axis. Overall, the systems biology approach applied in this study highlighted that the effects of host-parasite-microbiome biochemical interactions extended beyond the gut ecosystem to the gut-liver axis. These findings form the first steps in a comprehensive comparison to ascertain the major molecular and biochemical contributors of host-parasite interactions and contribute towards the development of biomarker discovery and precision health solutions for apicomplexan infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0528.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Interactomics; host-parasite-microbiome relationships; extra-intestinal effects; D-amino ac-id/SCFA-induced modulation; Yeast ubiquinone salvation.
Online: 20 April 2021 (11:12:14 CEST)
Cryptosporidiosis is a major human health concern globally. Despite well-established methods, misdiagnosis remains common. Our understanding of the cryptosporidiosis biochemical mechanism remains limited, compounding the difficulty of clinical diagnosis. Here, we used a systems biology approach to investigate the underlying biochemical interactions in C57BL/6J mice infected with Cryptosporidium parvum. Faecal samples were collected daily following infection. Blood, liver tissues and luminal contents were collected 10 days post infection (dpi). High-resolution liquid chromatography and low-resolution gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry were used to analyse the proteomes and metabolomes of these samples. Faeces and luminal contents were additionally subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Univariate and multivariate statistical analysis of the acquired data illustrated altered host and microbial energy pathways during infection. Glycolysis/citrate cycle metabolites were depleted, while short-chain fatty acids and D-amino acids accumulated. An increased abundance of bacteria associated with a stressed gut environment was seen. Host proteins involved in energy pathways and Lactobacillus glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were upregulated during cryptosporidiosis. Liver oxalate also increased during infection. Microbiome-parasite relationships were observed to be more influential than the host-parasite association in mediating major biochemical changes in the mouse gut during cryptosporidiosis. Defining this parasite-microbiome interaction is the first step towards building a comprehensive cryptosporidiosis model towards biomarker discovery, and rapid and accurate diagnostics.