ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0056.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: mindfulness; mindfulness awareness attention scale; construct validity; concurrent validity; reliability
Online: 1 September 2023 (10:08:45 CEST)
Mindfulness interventions have been implemented in many countries. This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of English and Thai-version of the 15-item mindfulness attention awareness scale (MAAS) across five samples. A descriptive correlation research was conducted in the Philippines and Thailand, and five data sets were generated using self-reported and online questionnaires. Exploratory factor analyses were used to explore the factorial structure of the MAAS. Confirmatory factor analyses were performed to test measurement invariance across samples. Concurrent validity was tested by examining relationships between the MAAS and psychological well-being (PWB). A unidimensional structure of the MAAS was documented across the five samples. The MAAS demonstrated measurement invariance across samples for both English and Thai versions. Concurrent validity was displayed through significant correlations with PWB. This study produced evidence to support the construct validity, concurrent validity, and reliability of the English and Thai versions of MAAS. This study was not registered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1172.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: genomic biomarkers; clinical utility; clinical validity; analytic validity; health technology assessment)
Online: 17 August 2023 (07:36:43 CEST)
Genome-based testing in oncology is a rapidly expanding area of health care which is the basis of the emerging area of precision medicine. Efficient and considered adoption of novel genomic medicine testing is hampered in Canada by the fragmented nature of health care oversight as well as by lack of clear and transparent processes to support rapid evaluation, assessment and implementation of genomic tests. This article provides an overview of some key barriers and proposes approaches to addressing these challenges as a potential pathway to developing a national approach to genomic medicine in oncology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0323.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Suicide; questionnaire; validity; reliability
Online: 18 November 2021 (11:17:37 CET)
Objective: Our goal is to develop an online questionnaire to survey the prevalence of suicidal behavior. Methods: We developed a questionnaire with 51 variables and proceeded with validations. Validations were performed using face validity, content validity, and construct validity. Reliability was performed by test-rest. Results: The face validity was 1.0 and the content validity was 0.91. The exploratory factor analysis got KMO = 0.86 and extracted one principal factor. The confirmatory factor analysis demonstrates RMSEA= 0.000 and CFI=1.000. The test-retest had an intraclass correlated coefficient of 0.98. Conclusion: The adequate development questionnaire was validated, and we have an instrument to survey suicide behaviors in the pandemic time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0190.v1
Online: 22 August 2016 (11:35:11 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to examine the cognitive processes underlying the listening comprehension section of IELTS and to investigate if they vary in terms of difficulty. For this purpose, a checklist of possible cognitive operations was prepared based on the literature and the candidates’ feedback. The checklist consisted of six cognitive operations. A sample of IELTS listening test was given to 310 upper intermediate and advanced students of English. Linear logistic test model was employed to analyse the data. Findings showed that keeping up with the pace of the speaker and understanding reduced forms were the most difficult operations for the listeners. Altogether, the six operations explained 72% of the variance in item difficulty estimates. Implications of the study for the testing and teaching of listening comprehension are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0006.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: hypothetics; enothetics; reliability; validity; accuracy
Online: 1 November 2017 (04:56:55 CET)
The purpose of this article is to assess the reliability and accuracy (validity) of hypothetical binary tasting judgments in an enological framework. The heuristic model that is utilized allows for the control of a wide array of variables that would be exceedingly difficult to fully control in the typical enological investigation. It is shown that results that are judged to be enologically significant are uniformly judged to be statistically significant as well, whether the level of wine Taster agreement is set at 70% (Fair); 80% (Good), or 90% (Excellent), However, in a number of instances, results that were statistically significant were not enologically significant by standards that are widely accepted and utilized. This finding is consistent with the bio-statistical fact that given a sufficiently large sample size, even the most trivial of results will prove to be statistically significant. Consistent with expectations, multiple patterns of 80% (Good) and 90% (Excellent) agreement tended to be both statistically and enologically significant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0489.v1
Online: 18 March 2021 (16:50:18 CET)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric evidence of the original and brief version of the Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire (SCSRFQ) in Spanish in a sample of 245 Peruvian adolescents and adults (mean age = 21.04 years, SD = 3.07, 47.8% male and 52.2% female), selected by non-probabilistic convenience sampling. Additionally, the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale and the Satisfaction with Life Scale were applied. Confirmatory Factor Analysis, internal consistency reliability methods, hierarchical sequence of variance models and Graded Response Model were used. Results indicate that both versions of the SCSRFQ showed robust psychometric properties: adequate unidimensional structure, adequate difficulty and discrimination parameters, and significant relationships with the measures of fear of COVID-19 and satisfaction with life. The original version of the SCSRFQ showed evidence of strict measurement invariance by gender and age; whereas the short version showed strict invariance by gender and configural invariance by age. Both versions showed acceptable reliability indices. In conclusion, the original and brief versions of the SCSRFQ show evidence of psychometric indicators that support their use to assess the strength of religious faith
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1882.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Greece; mood; measurement; exercise; physical activity; validity
Online: 30 October 2023 (09:44:48 CET)
The aim of the present study was to provide initial validity evidence of a Greek translation of the 24-item Brunel Mood Scale, referred to as the BRUMS-Greek, a measure of anger, confusion, depression, fatigue, tension, and vigour. Data were collected from 1,417 Greek adult exercise participants and 369 physically inactive adults, totaling 1,786 adults (male = 578, female = 1,208) aged 18–64 years (M = 34.73 ± 11.81 years). Given the large univariate and multivariate non-normality, confirmatory factor analyses treating responses as ordered categorical variables was conducted, which supported the hypothesised six correlated-factor measurement model. Internal consistency reliability of BRUMS-Greek subscales was supported via Cronbach alpha coefficients. Construct validity of scales was supported (a) via correlations in the hypothesised direction with trait positive and negative affect, (b) with more positive and less negative moods reported immediately after participation in a single exercise class compared to pre-exercise mood, and (c) with exercise participants reporting more positive and less negative mood states compared to physically inactive adults. Women reported higher tension and lower vigour scores than men. Tension scores were higher and confusion scores lower among younger participants (≤ 35 years) than older participants (≥ 36 years). Participants with obesity reported higher negative mood scores than those who were underweight or normal weight. In sum, the BRUMS-Greek demonstrated acceptable psychometric characteristics, and is proposed to be a suitable measure for use with exercise participants, physically inactive adults, and other Greek populations to explore research questions related to mood.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0171.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Mouse Grimace Scale; Pain; Validity; Methods; Reliability
Online: 7 December 2020 (15:13:05 CET)
The Mouse Grimace Scale (MGS) was developed 10 years ago to assess pain through characterisation of changes in five facial features or action units. The strength of the technique is that it is proposed to be a measure of spontaneous or non-evoked pain. A comprehensive scoping review of the academic literature was performed. The MGS has been employed mainly in evaluation of acute pain, particularly in the pain and neuroscience research fields. There has however been use of the technique in a wide range of fields, and based on limited study it does appear to have utility for pain assessment across a spectrum of animal models. Use of the method does allow detection of pain of a longer duration, up to a month post-initial insult. There has been less use of the technique using real-time methods and this is an area in need of further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0525.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: FCM; validity index; fuzzy energy; fuzzy entropy
Online: 23 September 2020 (03:31:13 CEST)
Two well-known drawbacks in fuzzy clustering are the requirement of assign in advance the number of clusters and random initialization of cluster centers.; the quality of the final fuzzy clusters depends heavily on the initial choice of the number of clusters and the initialization of the clusters, then it is necessary to apply a validity index to measure the compactness and the separability of the final clusters and run the clustering algorithm several times. We propose a new fuzzy C-means algorithm in which a validity index based on the concepts of maximum fuzzy energy and minimum fuzzy entropy is applied to initialize the cluster centers and to find the optimal number of clusters and initial cluster centers in order to obtain a good clustering quality, without increasing time consumption. We test our algorithm on UCI machine learning classification datasets comparing the results with the ones obtained by using well-known validity indices and variations of FCM using optimization algorithms in the initialization phase. The comparison results show that our algorithm represents an optimal trade-off between the quality of clustering and the time consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0003.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Vitamin D, Knowledge, Attitude, Practice, Validity, Reliability
Online: 1 February 2017 (16:39:41 CET)
The aim of this study was to develop a valid and reliable questionnaire to assess vitamin D-related knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) in Iranian adults who may be at increased risk of vitamin D deficiency. This study was conducted on 527 subjects, aged ≥20 years from Public health care centers in Tehran, Iran. Based on results of literature review and in-depth interviews, the 38-item vitamin D-related KAP questionnaire with four subscale was developed: 1) general knowledge; 2) nutritional knowledge; 3) attitudes; 4) behaviors. Validity of the developed vitamin D-KAP questionnaire was assessed, utilizing face, content, and construct validity methods. Internal consistency was calculated to assess reliability of the current developed questionnaire. A total of 572 (54.1% female) adults, aged 30.2±7.9 years, participated in the study. All items were perceived as relevant and comprehendible by participants. Content validity was confirmed by the panel of experts. The internal consistency, as measured by Cronbach’s alpha coefficients, exceeded the minimum reliability standard of 0.60 for four subscales. The EFA suggested a four-factor construct and the results of the CFA indicated acceptable fit indices for the proposed model. No ceiling effects were observed except for general knowledge (1.2%). Floor effects detected were 0, 1.1, 2.4, and 8.7% for practice, attitude, general knowledge, and nutrition knowledge, respectively. General knowledge had the highest score (79.59±14.52) and nutrition knowledge, the lowest score (42.58±20.40) among the four sub-scales. Results confirm the initial validity and reliability of the vitamin D-related knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire. Further investigations in different urban and rural population are recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1133.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Eating competence; adolescents; reliability; validity; eating disorders; identity
Online: 18 September 2023 (08:42:18 CEST)
Eating competence can play a role in helping adolescents navigate their food choices and attitudes toward eating in a healthy and balanced way. In the present study, we investigated the psychometric properties of the Dutch translation of the Eating Competence Satter Inventory 2.0TM (ecSI 2.0TM), which was developed to assess eating attitudes and behaviors. A sample of 900 Flemish adolescents completed the ecSI 2.0TM DUTCH and two self-report measures on eating disorder symptoms and identity functioning (i.e., confusion and synthesis). Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the four-factor structure of the ecSI 2.0TM DUTCH, and the resulting four subscales (Eating Attitudes, Food Acceptance, Internal Regulation, and Contextual Skills) showed acceptable to excellent reliability (α ranging from .69 to .91). The ecSI 2.0TM also showed to be scalar invariant across sex and age (<17 years, ≥ 17 years). Boys reported significantly higher ecSI 2.0TM DUTCH scores than girls on the four subscales and the total scale. The two age groups did not differ significantly on the ecSI 2.0TM DUTCH scales. Finally, scores on the ecSI 2.0TM subscales showed no or small negative correlations with adolescents’ BMI, large negative correlations with eating disorder symptoms and identity confusion, and large positive associations with identity synthesis. The Dutch translation of the ecSI 2.0TM is a valid and reliable instrument to assess eating competence skills in male and female adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0759.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Delphi technique; Expert consensus; Validity; Experts judgment; psychometrics
Online: 9 August 2023 (10:34:43 CEST)
Background: The aim of this study was to design and analyze the content validity of an instrument to assess the risk of behaviors associated with the Chemsex phenomenon since there is currently no instrument with this objective. Method: Firstly, a bank of items identified from the literature was elaborated. Secondly, 50 experts with knowledge of the Chemsex phenomenon at the national level were contacted. A Delphi group was formed with them to carry out two rounds of item evaluation (comprehension and appropriateness) using a Likert scale of 1 to 5. To assess linguistic validity, the mean score of the item comprehension scores was used. The content validity index (CVI) and Aiken's V (VdA) were calculated for each item. A minimum value of CVI and VdA of 0.6 was established to include the items in the questionnaire. Results: In the first round of evaluation, 36 experts evaluated 114 items, of which 61 were selected. In a second round, 30 experts evaluated the 61 items selected, leaving the scale finally made up of 52 items. Conclusion: A questionnaire has been designed to assess the risk of behaviors associated with the Chemsex phenomenon. The items that make up the questionnaire have shown adequate content and linguistic validity, so this instrument can be considered valid. The Delphi method proved to be a useful technique for the proposed objective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1774.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: schema therapy; schema mode; psychometric properties; reliability; validity
Online: 26 July 2023 (07:30:14 CEST)
(1) Background: The study presents an assessment of the psychometric properties of the Polish version the Short Schema Mode Inventory (SMI) adaptation. (2) Methods: First, the original version of the scale was translated. Subsequently, a validity and reliability study was conducted on a sample of 240 patients and 400 non-patients. In particular: the factor structure of the inventory was checked, internal reliability and intercorrelations between subscales were tested, differences between the clinical and non-clinical groups in terms of the severity of each factor were examined, and construct validity was assessed by comparing the association of results with external variables. (3) Results: The results did not conclusively confirm the 14-factor structure postulated in the original scale. Nevertheless, relatively the best fit indices were obtained for such a model. Internal reliability for the 14 subscales was in the acceptable to excellent range. Correlations between subscales took moderate to high values. The existence of differences between the clinical and non-clinical groups and the construct validity were confirmed. (4) Conclusions: The psychometric evaluation performed is mostly similar to the results obtained for other adaptations, and the results entitle the inventory to be used for research and clinical purposes with the knowledge of its limitations.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0453.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: physical activity; GPAQ; validity; self-reports; chronic diseases
Online: 8 May 2023 (05:20:04 CEST)
There is a need for a modified Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) to estimate physical activity levels more accurately in populations. We aimed to develop a modified GPAQ and examine its construct validity among adults in Kerala state, India. We incorporated locality-specific, metabolic equivalent task (MET)-based activities into the original GPAQ and administered this modified GPAQ among randomly selected 451 individuals (age ≥20 years) residing in the Trivandrum district of Kerala. Construct validity was assessed using Generalized Linear Models by examining the association of total moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) MET-minutes per week estimated by the modified GPAQ with clinical measures. The mean age of participants was 45.4 (SD: 14.1) years and 52.6% were female. Increasing total MVPA MET-minutes per week was associated with decreasing weight (β=-0.011 kg, 95% CI: -0.020, -0.002), waist circumference (β=-0.013 cm, 95% CI: -0.023, -0.004), and systolic blood pressure (β=-0.009 mmHg, 95% CI: -0.015, -0.002), independent of age, sex, education, occupation, current smoking, current alcohol use, and fruit and vegetable intake. The validity coefficients and associations between total MVPA MET-minutes per week and theoretical constructs of physical activity were in agreement with those predicted, providing evidence of construct validity for the modified GPAQ.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0611.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: validity; reliability; assessment; body image; self-evaluation; students
Online: 22 April 2021 (14:05:42 CEST)
Body-Esteem Scale is an assessment tool for adolescents and adults that evaluate three dimensions of self-evaluations of one’s body. Body-Esteem Scale has been translated and validated in some countries since America down to Europe. Lack of translation and reliability evidence in Portugal was detected. This study aimed to translate and test the validity and reliability of the Body Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults (BESAA) in students in the context of Portuguese higher educa-tion. A total of 173 students (60.7% are female) with a mean age of 19.7 (standard deviation = 2.2) years participated. Categorical Principal Component Analysis was used to assess the underlying dimensions of BESAA. Construct validity was evaluated through correlation with the Appearance Schemas Inventory – Revised and a three-factor model (“Appearance”, ‘‘Weight’’ and “Attribu-tion’’) was established. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to verify the construct validity of the instrument. Items that had factor weights (λ)<.40 were removed, as well as those that were considered redundant by the modification indices estimated by the Lagrange Multipliers (LM) method (LM>11, p<.001). We observed high correlations between theoretically similar factors, and low correlations between different factors. The Portuguese BESAA showed adequate validity and reliability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0457.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: resonance frequency analysis; implant stability quotient; reliability; validity
Online: 20 July 2020 (08:05:06 CEST)
Background: Actually, resonance frequency analysis (RFA) is the most extended method for measuring implant stability. The implant stability quotient (ISQ) is the measure obtained by the different RFA devices, however, inter- and intra- rater reliability and validity of some devices remains unknown. Methods: Thirty implants were placed in 3 different pig mandibles. ISQ was measured axial and parallel with Osstell® Beacon, Penguin® and MegaISQ® by 2 different operators and one operator performed a test-retest. Intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated to assess the intra- and inter-rater reliability. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the validity. Results: The higher inter- and intra- rater reliability was obtained by Penguin® when measuring axial. The highest ISQ values were obtained using Penguin® in an axial measurement; the lowest, using the MegaISQ® in an axial measurement. The highest correlation values with the other devices were obtained by MegaISQ® measuring axially. Conclusion: Penguin® had a good reliability for measuring ISQ both inter- and intra- rater. Osstell® had good validity for measuring ISQ both axial and parallel and MegaISQ® had the best validity for measuring ISQ axial.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0393.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Virtual assistants; Gynecologic; Oncology; Siri; Alexa; Google; Cortana; Validity
Online: 6 May 2023 (08:42:27 CEST)
1) Background: This study focused on the validity of audible replies to voice queries in gyneco-logic oncology by Siri, Alexa, Google, and Cortana virtual assistants (VAs).; (2) Methods: 21 evaluators analyzed VA audible answers to voice queries related to gynecologic oncology. A 3-tier template was utilized for each voice query: “X?” (A), “What is X?” (B), and “Define X?” (C) in a 24-question panel, allowing questions to be posed in different formats to assess the VAs at a greater depth. Responses were scored using a rubric designed to assess the validity and quality of each answer; (3) Results: For general queries, Google provided the most correct audible replies (ncorrect = 20; 83.3% correct), followed by Alexa (ncorrect = 16; 66.7% correct), Siri (ncorrect = 11; 45.8% correct), and Cortana (ncorrect = 5; 20.8% correct.; For Gynecologic Oncology related queries, Google also provided the most correct audible replies (ncorrect=222; 18.14%), followed by Alexa (ncorrect=75; 6.51%), Siri (ncorrect=55; 5.46%), and Cortana (ncorrect=23; 2.28%). (4) Conclusions: The audible replies to oral queries on gynecologic oncology topics varied between Siri, Alexa, Google, and Cortana. Google’s audible reply accuracy was superior to audible replies by Siri, Alexa, and Cortana. Since there is room for considerable improvement in VA performance, the authors advise caution when using VAs for medical queries in gynecologic oncology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0168.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Central venous pressure; intensive care units; questionnaire; reliability; validity
Online: 10 April 2023 (10:27:04 CEST)
Although, central venous pressure (CVP) is among the most frequent estimated hemodynamic parameters in the critically ill setting, extremely little is known on how intensive care unit (ICU) nurses use this index in their decision-making process. The purpose of the study was to develop a new questionnaire for accessing how ICU nurses use CVP measurements to address patients’ he-modynamics investigating its validity and reliability. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 120 ICU nurses from four ICUs of Greece. Based on a comprehensive literature review and the evaluation of a five-experts panel a new questionnaire, named “CVP-Score”, was created having 8 items. The construct validity and the reliability of the questionnaire were examined. The half of the study participants’ (51.7%) was working at a specialized ICU, and they had a mean [±Standard Deviation (SD)] ICU experience of 13(±7.1) years. The estimated construct validity of the new-developed tool was acceptable, while the internal consistency reliability as measured by Cronbach alpha was excellent (0.901). CVP Score had acceptable test-retest reliability (r=0.996, p<0.001) and split-half reliability (0.855). CVP Score is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring how critical care nurses use CVP measurements in their decision-making process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0375.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: hope; mental health; reliability; validity; principal component analysis; schizophrenia
Online: 19 October 2020 (11:18:42 CEST)
Hope is important in the rehabilitation of persons with schizophrenia, through scales to measure hope are not appropriate for this population. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to identify the psychometric properties of the Schizophrenia Hope Scale-9 (SHS-9) using data from 83 people with schizophrenia in four mental health centers and 762 healthy persons from two universities in South Korea. The mean (standard deviation) SHS-9 score of the participants with schizophrenia and healthy participants was 11.24 (4.90) and 14.83 (3.10), respectively. Lower scores indicate a lower level of hope. The internal consistency alpha coefficient was 0.92 with a 4-week test-retest reliability of 0.89. Criterion-related construct validity was established by examining the correlation between the SHS-9 and the State-Trait Hope Inventory scores. Divergent validity was identified through a negative relationship of SHS-9 with the Beck Hopelessness Scale. The construct validity of the SHS-9 was confirmed through principal component analysis with extraction methods, which resulted in a one-factor solution, accounting for 49–60% of the total item variance.. This study provided evidence for the validity and reliability of the SHS-9; therefore, it could be used to measure hope in people with schizophrenia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0574.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: self-report; device-based measured; physical activity; reliability; validity; stability
Online: 25 February 2021 (10:27:24 CET)
Quantification of physical activity (PA) depends on the type of measurement and analysis method making it difficult to compare adherence to PA guidelines. Therefore, test-retest reliability, criterion validity, and stability for self-reported (i.e. questionnaire and diary) and device-based measured (i.e. accelerometry with 10/60 second epochs) PA was compared in 32 adults and 32 children from the SMARTFAMILY study to examine if differences in these measurement tools are systematic. PA was collected during two separate measurement weeks and the relationship for each quality criteria was analyzed using Spearman correlation. Results showed the highest PA values for questionnaires followed by 10-second and 60-second epochs measured by accelerometers. Levels of PA were lowest when measured by diary. Only accelerometry demonstrated reliable, valid, and stable results for the two measurement weeks, the questionnaire yielded mixed results and the diary showed only few significant correlations. Overall, higher correlations for the quality criteria were found for moderate than for vigorous PA and the results differed between children and adults. Since the differences were not found to be systematic, the choice of measurement tools should be carefully considered by anyone working with PA outcomes, especially if vigorous PA is the parameter of interest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0008.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: JCQ; job crafting; construct validity; leisure sports instructor; valid scale
Online: 1 May 2018 (11:36:48 CEST)
In previous researches, Job Crafting questionnaire to develop is consists of 3 factors which are Task Crafting, Cognitive Crafting, and Relationship Crafting with 12 to 17 items. The purpose of study is to develop JCQ for leisure sports instructor of Korean. 274 valid samples are used for analysis. Data collecting is purposeful sampling. At result, for Korean Sports Instructor Job Crafting Scale is constructed 3 factors with 12 items is constructed by 3 step procedure. KSIJCQ is confirmed on convergent discriminant validity evidence. In conclusion, KSIJCQ is a valid scale of the measuring and distributes Job Crafting of generalization in sports.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0861.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Child-Friendly City; Cross-sectoral Collaboration; Confirmatory Factor Analysis; Validity; Reliability
Online: 14 November 2023 (09:05:02 CET)
There is currently no set of instruments or procedures to evaluate the effectiveness of cross-sectoral collaboration in the current CFC program. This study aimed to develop a tool for evaluating the cross-sectoral contributions to the CFC program. A paper-based questionnaire was developed by the research team after a preliminary qualitative procedure, and it was subsequently employed to collect data. This process resulted in 17 indicators (41 items) of cross-sectoral collaboration in the development of the CFC in Makassar. These indicators were categorized into five dimensions: governance, administration, autonomy, mutuality, and norms. There were 32 items remaining after several items that were determined not to correspond with the model were eliminated prior to the CFA analysis. According to the CFA results, the five-domain model corresponded to the data with standardized loading factor (SLF)<0.5, indicating that the convergent validity of SLF was acceptable. In addition, these results suggested that the items employed in the tool were really significant in reflecting these five domains. The developed and validated tool was expected to be beneficial in evaluating cross-sectoral collaboration in the CFC program developed in Makassar City. The findings of this study would serve as a benchmark indicator, enabling the assessment process to gauge the significance with which a city is developing with cross-sectoral restriction measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2093.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: 3-Meter Backward Walk Test, stroke, psychometric properties, construct validity, reliability
Online: 1 November 2023 (03:40:57 CET)
In the context of evaluating physical function in individuals with stroke, the 3-meter backward walk test (3MBWT) emerges as a potential tool of interest. The purpose of this study was to assess the test-retest reliability and construct validity of the 3MBWT and its correlation with falling incidents. Conducted in a neurological rehabilitation center, 35 ambulatory individuals with stroke were enrolled within a month post-stroke onset. These participants, with a Functional Ambulation Category score of ≥4, underwent the 3MBWT, Functional Gait Assessment (FGA), 10-Meter Walk Test (10MWT), and 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) three times by different physiotherapists. Results indicated the 3MBWT displayed high reliability (r=0.97-0.98) and showed significant construct validity with other established walking tests like the 6MWT (r=-0.78) and 10MWT (r=0.71), with a moderate correlation to the FGA (r=-0.54). No marked differences in test outcomes were observed between participants based on their fall history. Conclusively, the 3MBWT proves to be highly reliable and validates well with existing walking function assessments for stroke patients, suggesting its potential as a time-efficient alternative.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0027.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Zoo animal welfare; Five Domains; Validity; Animal-based; Resource-based; Scoring
Online: 22 December 2021 (11:59:32 CET)
Zoos are increasingly putting in place formalized animal welfare assessment programs to allow monitoring of welfare over time, as well as to aid in resource prioritization. These programs tend to rely on assessment tools that incorporate resource-based and observational animal- focused measures since it is rarely feasible to obtain measures of physiology in zoo-housed animals. A range of assessment tools are available which commonly have a basis in the Five Domains framework. A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted to bring together recent studies examining welfare assessment methods in zoo animals. A summary of these methods is provided with advantages and limitations of the approach es presented. We then highlight practical considerations with respect to implementation of these tools into practice, for example scoring schemes, weighting of criteria, and innate animal factors for consideration. It is concluded that would be value in standardizing guidelines for development of welfare assessment tools since zoo accreditation bodies rarely prescribe these. There is also a need to develop taxon or species- specific assessment tools to inform welfare management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0230.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; Patient isolation; Self-quarantine; Reliability and validity; Psychosocial assessment
Online: 15 October 2021 (14:46:23 CEST)
Background: The cumulative number of patients during the COVID-19 pandemic led to a significant shortage of hospital beds. Many patients may not require hospitalization and can be clinically observed in home settings. However, some psychosocial factors are correlated with unsuccessful home isolation (HI), which might negatively affect the transmission control in the community. Therefore, we developed a new psychosocial screening tool (CCPHIET) for assessing HI suitability and examined its validity and reliability.Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study included COVID-19 patients who were deemed to be medically safe for 14 days of HI. The CCPHIET is comprised of 8 clinical domains pertinent to HI behavioral compliance and risk. We explored its statistical validity and reliability and discussed the potential utility of this tool. Results: A total of 65 COVID-19 patients participated in this study. Most patients (58.5%) were evaluated as good candidates for HI. The CCPHIET has an acceptable content validity (IOC index > 0.5), moderate internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.611) and substantial to excellent inter-rater reliability (Intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.944, Cohen’s kappa= 0.627).Conclusions: To compromise between strict and costly absolute institutional quarantine and the potentially unsuccessful absolute HI, the CCPHIET may help to identify good candidates for HI in mild and asymptomatic COVID-19 patients. This psychosocial information would support the physicians in matching each patient to the most suitable setting. Therefore, safe medical care is provided, unnecessary use of medical resources is spared, and local transmission is contained.
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: positive-negative relationship quality; reliability; validity; confirmatory factor analysis (CFA); bifactor
Online: 16 September 2019 (16:33:17 CEST)
The present study investigates the reliability and validity of the Positive-Negative Relationship Quality (PN-RQ) scale in Turkey. In order to determine the validity and reliability of the scale, two studies were performed. The first was carried out with emerging adults (university students) who were in a romantic relationship (148 females, 43 males, and 2 unkown) and had the main purpose to examine the structure validity of the measurement tool in the Turkish sample with an exploratory analysis. Study 2 was performed online with 513 married adults (359 females, 149 males, and 5 unknown); confirmatory findings and criterion validity studies were added. Exploratory factor analyses revealed that relationship quality had a two-factor structure and that there was also a negative relationship between the factors. Confirmatory factor analyses on the married sample showed that the bi-factor model provided evidence for the multidimensional nature of the scale. Both studies demonstrated high internal consistency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0042.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: free software; human motion; Kinovea; low cost; reliability; validity; video analysis
Online: 9 October 2017 (05:07:57 CEST)
Clinical rehabilitation and sports performance analysis both require the objectification of movement. Kinovea© is a free 2D motion analysis software that enables the establishment of kinematics parameters. This low-cost technology has been used in sports sciences, as well as clinical field and research work. Although it has been validated as a tool with which to assess time-related variables, this is not yet the case regarding angular and distance variables. The main objective of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the Kinovea software in obtaining angular and distance data at different perspectives of 90°, 75°, 60° and 45°. For this purpose, a figure with 29 points was designed (in AutoCAD) and 24 frames analysed. Each frame was examined by three observers who each made two attempts. For each export data item, 20 angles and 20 distance variables were calculated, with intra- and inter-observer reliability also analysed. To evaluate Kinovea reliability and validity a multiple approach was applied involving the following analysis: -systematic error with a two-way ANOVA 2x4; -relative reliability with ICC and CV (95% confidence interval); -absolute reliability with Standard Error. The results thus obtained indicate that the Kinovea software is a valid and reliable tool that is able to measure accurately at distances up to 5 m from the object and at an angle range of 90°–45°. Nevertheless, for optimum results an angle of 90° is suggested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0455.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: canine; health-related quality of life; human-canine bond; validity; reliability; outcomes
Online: 4 August 2023 (14:36:30 CEST)
Background: Valid questionnaires to assess dogs’ health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in veterinary practice can improve canine health outcomes and communications between veterinarians and dog caretakers. The Canine HRQoL Questionnaire (HRQoL-Q) and the Human-Canine Bond Questionnaire (HCBQ) were developed and validated to fulfill this need. Methods: A literature review, interviews with veterinarians, and focus groups with caretakers were conducted to generate questionnaire items to develop draft questionnaires, piloted with caretakers to establish content validity. Measurement properties were evaluated using data from a prospective survey study (N = 327). Results: Draft Canine HRQoL-Q and HCBQ measures were developed, including a domain structure, items, recall period, and scale/response options. Refinements were made via iterative cognitive interviews with caretakers. When no additional revisions were indicated and content validity established, the questionnaires were psychometrically tested. Ceiling effects were observed for all items, and factor analyses indicated that pre-specified domains are appropriate. Internal consistency was demonstrated for the HCBQ (α = 0.79–0.86) and all but the canine HRQoL-Q social functioning domain (α = 0.60)). Test-retest reliability for the canine HRQoL-Q was generally moderate-to-good (intraclass correlation coefficients [ICCs] > 0.79). Test-retest reliability for the HCBQ was moderate (ICCs: 0.70–0.79), except the trust domain (ICC: 0.58). Known-groups validity was demonstrated by significant differences (p < 0.05) in scores by health/bonding groups. Convergent validity was supported (r > 0.40) between all domains and the total score for both questionnaires. Conclusions: The Canine HRQoL-Q and the HCBQ are valid, reliable measures of canine HRQoL for use in veterinary clinics and appear to measure related but distinct concepts that contribute to canine health and wellness.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0320.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: RT-qPCR; assay validity; standard curve; quality assurance; quality control; wastewater surveillance
Online: 11 June 2021 (14:10:51 CEST)
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to wastewater surveillance becoming an important tool for monitoring the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) within communities. As a result, molecular methods, in particular reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), have been employed to generate large data sets aimed at the detection and quantification of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater. Although RT-qPCR is rapid and sensitive, there is no standard method that fits all use cases, there are no certified quantification standards and experiments are carried out using numerous different assays, reagents, instruments, and data analysis protocols. These variations can lead to the reporting of erroneous quantitative data resulting in potentially misleading interpretations and conclusions. We have reviewed the SARS-CoV-2 wastewater surveillance literature focusing on the variability of RT-qPCR data as revealed by inconsistent standard curves and associated parameters. We find that variation in these parameters and deviations from best practices as described in The Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE) guidelines suggest a lack of reproducibility and reliability in quantitative measurements of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in wastewater.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0173.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: validity; reliability; European Union; measurement properties; language version; IPAQ; GPAQ; EHIS-PAQ.
Online: 7 August 2020 (06:00:23 CEST)
This review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020138845) critically evaluates test-retest reliability, concurrent validity and criterion validity of different physical activity (PA) levels of three most-common used international PA questionnaires (PAQs) in national language versions of EU-28: IPAQ-SF, GPAQ, and EHIS-PAQ. In total, 4969 abstracts were read, 287 full-text articles were identified as relvant to the study objectives, and 19 studies were included in the final meta-analysis. The studies’ results and quality were evaluated using the Quality Assessment of Physical Activity Questionnaires (QAPAQ) checklist. Results indicate that only five EU-28 countries validated national language versions of selected PAQs. Meta analysis revealed that assessment of moderate-to-vigourus PA (MVPA) is the most relevant PA level outcome, since no publication bias in any of measurement properties was detected while test-retest reliability was the moderately-high (rw=0.74), and moderate for both criterion (rw=0.41) and concurrent validity (rw=0.72). Reporting of methods and results of the studies was poor with overall moderate risk of bias with total score of 0.43. In conclusion, where only self-reporting is feasible, assessment of MVPA with selected PAQs in EU-28 adult population is recommended for policymaking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0014.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Coronavirus disease 2019/COVID-19; Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21/DASS-21; DASS-8; shortened version*; shorter version* of the DASS-21; psychiatric disorders; factorial structure/psychometric properties/structural validity/validation; measurement invariance/multigroup analysis; psychological distress; discriminant validity; item coverage; good predictive validity
Online: 1 September 2021 (12:15:27 CEST)
Despite extensive investigations of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21) since its development in 1995, its factor structure and other psychometric properties still need to be firmly established, with several calls for revising its item structure. Employing confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), this study examined the factor structure of the DASS-21 and five shortened versions of the DASS-21 among psychiatric patients (N = 168) and the general public (N = 992) during the COVID-19 confinement period in Saudi Arabia. Multigroup CFA, Mann Whitney W test, Spearman’s correlation, and coefficient alpha were used to examine the shortened versions of the DASS-21 (DASS-13, DASS-12, DASS-9 (two versions), and DASS-8) for invariance across age and gender groups, discriminant validity, predictive validity, item coverage, and internal consistency, respectively. Compared with the DASS-21, all three-factor structures of the shortened versions expressed good fit, with the DASS-8 demonstrating the best fit and highest item loadings on the corresponding factors in both samples (χ2(16, 15) = 16.5, 67.0; p = 0.420, 0.000; CFI= 1.000, 0.998; TLI = 0.999, 0.997; RMSEA = 0.013, 0.059, SRMR = 0.0186, 0.0203). It expressed configural, metric, and scalar invariance across age and gender groups. Its internal consistency was comparable to other versions (α = 0.94). Strong positive correlations of the DASS-8 and its subscales with the DASS-21 and its subscales (r = 0.97 to 0.81) suggest adequate item coverage and good predictive validity of this version. The DASS-8 and its subscales distinguished the clinical sample from the general public at the same level of significance expressed by the DASS-21 and other shortened versions, supporting its discriminant validity. Neither the DASS-21 nor the shortened versions distinguished patients diagnosed with depression and anxiety from other conditions. The DASS-8 represents a valid short version of the DASS-21, which may be useful in research and clinical practice for quick identification of individuals with potential psychopathologies. Diagnosing depression/anxiety disorders may be further confirmed in a next step by clinician-facilitated examinations. Brevity of the DASS-21 would save time and effort used for filling the questionnaire and support comprehensive assessments by allowing the inclusion of more measures on test batteries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0585.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Shape Alignment; Driver Drowsiness; Face Detection Validity; Machine Learning; Hardware Acceleration; Vitis HLS
Online: 8 June 2023 (04:21:58 CEST)
A high performance Driver State Monitoring (DSM) application for the detection of driver drowsiness is presented in this paper. It relies on the usage of an Ensemble of Regression Trees (ERTs) machine learning method that aligns 68 facial landmarks. Special focus is given on the acceleration of the frame processing using reconfigurable hardware. Reducing the frame processing latency saves time that can be used to apply frame-to-frame facial shape coherency rules. False face detection and false shape estimations can be ignored for higher robustness and accuracy in the operation of the DSM application without reducing the frame processing rate that can reach 65 frames per second. The sensitivity and precision in yawning recognition can reach 93% and 97%, respectively. The implementation of the employed DSM algorithm in reconfigurable hardware is challenging since the kernel arguments require large data transfers and the degree of data reuse in the computational kernel is low. Due to this, unconventional hardware acceleration techniques have been employed that can also be useful for the acceleration of several other applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0391.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: scale design; reliability; validity; first responders; mental health; workplace; occupational stress; humiliation; betrayal
Online: 23 August 2022 (03:50:00 CEST)
First responders, such as police officers, paramedics, and fire-fighters are at an increased risk of experiencing negative mental health outcomes compared to the general population. This predisposition can partially be attributed to common occupational stressors, such as poor workplace culture and mistreatment from leadership, which may provoke strong feelings of betrayal and humiliation. The Workplace Assessment Scale (WAS) was developed as there is currently no appropriate measure to assess such feelings in the first responder population. The scale consists of the Betrayal Subscale and the Humiliation Subscale, each comprised of 5 Likert scale questions which ask participants to report the frequency at which they experience specific feelings associated with their workplace. This pilot validation study was conducted to assess preliminary reliability and validity of the WAS, using data which was originally collected as part of a larger first responder-based observational study. Based on 21/22 (95%) participant responses, the internal consistency appeared to be strong for both sub-scales as well as the overall questionnaire. However, item 9 will likely require modification or deletion from the scale. The validity analysis found no significant correlations between WAS and other psychiatric scales. Additional research is needed for further analysis and validation of the WAS.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Huntington's disease; quality of life; family caregiving; reliability and validity; factor analysis; Poland
Online: 27 May 2019 (11:53:51 CEST)
Huntington's disease (HD) is a rare genetic neurodegenerative disorder that causes motor disorders, neuropsychiatric symptoms and a progressing deterioration of cognitive functions. Complex issues resulting from the hereditary nature of HD, the complexity of symptoms and the concealed onset of the disease have a great impact on the quality of life of family carers. The caregivers are called as “forgotten people” in HD family, also in genetic counseling. This study aims to explore the reliability and validity of the Huntington’s Disease Quality of Life Battery for carers (HDQoL-C) within a Polish population. 90 carers recruited from the Enroll-HD study in Polish research centres of the European Huntington`s Disease Network completed a polish translation of the HDQoL-C. Data was subjected to Principle Components Analysis and reliability measures. The Polish version of the shortened versions of the HDQoL–C is similarly valid compared to the original English version and suitable for use within this population. The HDQoL-C has previously demonstrated a wide range of benefits for practitioners in capturing and understanding carer experience and these benefits can now be extended to Polish speaking populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0703.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: influencing factors on purchase; purchase of dairy products; exploratory factors; mixed research; structural validity
Online: 10 November 2023 (12:06:13 CET)
This study aimed to identify and categorize the influencing factors on the purchase of dairy products among customers of dairy companies in Mashhad city. This study is a mixed research (qualitative and quantitative), conducted with the aim of identifying and categorizing the influencing factors on consumers’ purchase. Therefore, the theoretical foundations were examined in the initial step, after which the customers and their needs and demands were addressed in terms of the company and its products. In the qualitative part, interviews were conducted in the focus group (23 people in 5 groups) to identify and extract these factors using the theme analysis technique. The reliability of the interviews was confirmed by retesting and the reliability between two encoders. Sixty themes (factors) that affected the purchase of dairy products were collected. In quantitative part, 517 questionnaires were collected from 13 regions of Mashhad city to perform statistic tests. A questionnaire was designed using the extracted themes in the previous (qualitative) stage to assess customers’ feedback. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by content and structure validity (exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis), and its reliability was checked by Cronbach’s alpha. Fourteen components were obtained by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, after which the variables were labeled as intrinsic, psychological, and personality factors, the identity of the company, production power of the company, competitive power of the company, competitive prices, social awareness, and store capabilities. The construct validity was confirmed using confirmatory factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0550.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: stigma; cancer patients; Malaysia; Malay version of the Shame and Stigma Scale; reliability; validity
Online: 31 August 2022 (15:49:35 CEST)
Assessment of stigma among cancer patients is of utmost importance as stigma may lead to various psychological sequelae and lower quality of life. This study aimed to translate the English version of the Shame and Stigma Scale (SSS) into Malay and validate the Malay version of the SSS (SSS-M) among cancer patients in Malaysia. Initially, concurrent translation and back translation of the SSS-M was performed, and face and content validity were assessed. Then, the SSS-M was administered to a total of 234 patients of mixed types of cancer to assess its reliability (internal consistency and test-retest reliability), construct validity (convergent and discriminant validity), exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The SSS-M total score registered good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α of 0.886) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.846, p < 0.001). EFA and CFA confirmed that the SSS-M consisted of 20 items in 5 domains. Its convergent and discriminant validity were achieved. Hence, the SSS-M demonstrated good psychometric properties and is available for use to assess stigma among cancer patients in Malaysia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0081.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: dietary assessment; food record; FFQ; biomarker; doubly labeled water; energy intake; validity; athletes; sports nutrition
Online: 12 October 2017 (09:43:35 CEST)
Dietary assessment methods recognized as appropriate for the general population are usually applied in a similar manner to athletes, despite knowledge that sport-specific factors can complicate assessment and impact accuracy in unique ways. As dietary assessment methods are used extensively within the field of sports nutrition, there is concern the validity of methodologies have not undergone more rigorous evaluation in this unique population sub-group. The purpose was to systematically review studies comparing two or more methods of dietary assessment, including dietary intake measured against biomarkers or reference measures of energy expenditure, in athletes. Six electronic databases were searched for English-language, full-text articles published from January 1980 until June 2016. The search strategy combined the following keywords: diet, nutrition assessment, athlete and validity; where the following outcomes are reported but not limited to: energy intake, macro and/or micronutrient intake, food intake, nutritional adequacy, diet quality, or nutritional status. Meta-analysis was performed on studies with sufficient methodological similarity, with between-group standardized mean differences (or effect size) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) calculated. Of the 1624 studies identified, 18 were eligible for inclusion. Studies comparing self-reported energy intake (EI) to energy expenditure assessed via doubly labelled water were grouped for comparison (n=11) and demonstrated mean EI was under-estimated by 19 % (- 2793 ± 1134 kJ/d). Meta-analysis revealed a large pooled effect size of - 1.006 (95% CI: -1.3 to -0.7; p<0.001). The remaining studies (n=7) compared a new dietary tool or instrument to a reference method(s) (e.g. food record, 24-h dietary recall, biomarker) as part of a validation study. This systematic review revealed there are limited robust studies evaluating dietary assessment methods in athletes. Existing literature demonstrates substantial variability between methods, with under and misreporting of intake frequently observed. There is a clear need for careful validation of dietary assessment methods, including emerging technical innovations, among athlete populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0065.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: DAPTQ; adaptive personality; psychometric properties; HEXACO; psychopathic personality traits; confirmatory factor analysis; test-retest validity
Online: 14 June 2017 (07:47:55 CEST)
Multiple studies reported a negative relationship between the Honesty-Humility factor of the HEXACO model and psychopathy. The Durand Adaptive Psychopathic Traits Questionnaire (DAPTQ), which was developed to assess adaptive traits known to be related to psychopathic traits, has previously demonstrate positive relationships with all factors of the Big Five Model, at the exception of a negative relationship with neuroticism. The current study aims to validate the previously reported association between the DAPTQ and the five major components of the personality, while also examining its relationship with the Honesty-Humility factor as defined by the HEXACO model. The results (N = 171) support the good internal consistency, two weeks test-retest validity and inter-correlation of the DAPTQ. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis further supports the nine-factor model of the DAPTQ. When compared to the HEXACO, the DAPTQ did not display any relationship with the Honesty-Humility factor, nor the Agreeableness and Openness factors, but kept its similar association to Emotionality, Extroversion, and Conscientiousness as initially reported in its development phase. Overall, the results support the discriminant validity of the DAPTQ to assess adaptive traits related to the psychopathic personality without overlapping with psychopathic personality traits. Results are discussed in terms of implications and further improvements to validate the DAPTQ.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0197.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: public health; occupational; Covid; SARS-CoV-2; work; job exposure matrix; JEM; compensation; predictivity; validity; accuracy
Online: 16 February 2022 (09:47:18 CET)
Background. We aimed to assess the validity of the Mat-O-Covid Job Exposure Matrix (JEM) on SARS-CoV2 using compensation data from the French National Health Insurance compensation system for occupational-related COVID-19. Methods. Deidentified compensation data for occupational COVID-19 in France were obtained between August 2020 and August 2021. The acceptance was considered as the reference. Mat-O-Covid is an expert based French JEM on workplace exposure to SARS-CoV2. Bivariate and multivariate models were used to study the association between the exposure assessed by Mat-O-Covid and the reference, as well as the Area Under Curves (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios. Results. In the 1140 cases included, there was a close association between the Mat-O-Covid index and the reference (p<0.0001). The overall predictivity was good, with an AUC of 0.78 and an optimal threshold at 13 per thousand. Using Youden’s J statistic resulted in 0.67 sensitivity and 0.87 specificity. Both positive and negative likelihood ratios were significant: respectively 4.9 [2.4-6.4] and 0.4 [0.3-0.4]. Discussion. It was possible to assess Mat-O-Covid’s validity using data from the national compensation system for occupational COVID-19. Though further studies are needed, Mat-O-Covid exposure assessment appears to be accurate enough to be used in research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0418.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: academic stress; psychological and physical well-being; adolescence; secondary education; validity; reliability; gender and age differences
Online: 23 August 2018 (15:32:43 CEST)
This study presents the validation process of the Questionnaire on Academic Stress in Secondary Education –QASSE-, designed to assess the wide variety of school sources and situations related to academic stress in adolescence, and their relationship with students’ physical and psychological well-being. Participants were 860 Spanish high school students (52.9% girls) with an average age of 14.62 years (SD = 1.8). Through a cross-validation process, EFA and CFA supported QASSE multifactorial structure with four first-order factors -academic overload, interaction with classmates, family pressure, and future-oriented perspective- and a second-order factor of academic stress, showing a significant and intense relationship with adolescents’ psychological and physical well-being. Results also highlight the effects of the gender*educational level interaction on the students’ stress, with girls showing higher levels of stress in the transition courses between educational phases (sophomore and junior years). The QASSE demonstrates good validity and reliability, showing potential for both research and educational application. The results show the high impact of the QASSE dimensions on psychological and physical well-being in adolescence, highlighting its special usefulness for designing and adjusting educational prevention and intervention actions in this area to the students’ specific characteristics and needs
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0379.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: AI for education; ChatGPT; educational technologies; LLMs; data science education; psychological impact of AI; generative AI; validity
Online: 6 December 2023 (10:34:59 CET)
The integration of AI in education, particularly through Large Language Models (LLMs), is accelerating, reshaping pedagogical approaches and student interactions with new learning tools. This study assesses the impact of generative AI on the educational experiences of data science students at the Center for Informatics, University of Paraíba (CI/UFPB), Brazil. Through the validation of five psychometric scales, we analyze the students' acceptance of LLMs, their associated burnout levels, technology anxiety and the prevalence of metacognitive and dysfunctional learning strategies. Results indicate a significant adoption of AI-driven technologies, with a low incidence of technology anxiety, such as fear of job displacement due to AI. However, a significant correlation between burnout and dysfunctional learning strategies was observed, which could likely be attributed to the rigorous academic environment. Additionally, the employment of metacognitive strategies in conjunction with LLMs reflects an advanced learning approach, yet challenges with functional learning strategies persist. This study contributes to the discourse on AI in education, highlighting the need for educational frameworks that support effective AI adoption while addressing the psychological demands on students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0704.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Instrument; questionnaire; survey; measurement validity evidence; AERA/APA standards; occupational risks; zoonotic diseases; Social Ecological Model; prevention
Online: 11 July 2023 (09:55:17 CEST)
This article presents the development and validation of a new instrument measuring social, cultural, and behavioral factors influencing exposure to occupational zoonoses in agricultural settings. The Social Ecological Model (SEM) and the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing were used as guiding frameworks to ensure the instrument's validity. The instrument's content was compiled by combining the results of a scoping literature review and an expert qualitative study. The instrument items were drafted, organized, and underwent a meticulous process of revision and adjustment. It was translated into Spanish and tested in one-to-one cognitive interviews with five volunteer agricultural workers. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted for construct discrimination, and bivariate regression analyses were conducted to explore the association with exposure indicators. Evidence of validity was obtained from four out of five sources of validity evidence according to the AERA/APA’s Standards of Educational and Psychological Testing. The Social Ecology of Occupational Zoonoses (SEOZ) was successfully used to determine social and behavioral factors associated with a higher risk of exposure to occupational zoonoses. Further use of the SEOZ can provide valuable insights into developing effective interventions to improve the health and well-being of agricultural workers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1370.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation And Radiography Keywords: adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; pose estimation; posture parameters; mobile devices; deep learning; clinical photography; mobile applications; MoveNet, convolutional neural network; kinematics; posture; reliability; validity
Online: 19 June 2023 (14:27:12 CEST)
Background. Pose estimation based on deep learning has been expected to be a breakthrough method to increase the accuracy of clinical photographic evaluation and to decrease interobserver errors. The purpose is to quantify pose estimation from photography of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) using open-source software packages and determine correlations between parameters obtained by radiography and photography. Methods. We included 12 consecutive patients with AIS treated with spinal correction surgery. Photographs were taken preoperatively using a tripod-mounted camera (iPhone 13Pro) on an X-ray tube head. To assess photographic parameters obtained by photography, we defined 17 points to analyze posture and define parameters. Results. In the sagittal plane, there was a significant correlation between the radiographic trunk tilt angle and the photographic sagittal trunk tilt angle of the shoulder–hip and ear–hip. In the coronal plane, there was a significant correlation between the radiographic clavicle angle and the photographic shoulder height angle, and the radiographic C7–CSVL and the photographic coronal trunk tilt angle. Conclusions. Posture analysis by photography using popular mobile devices has clinical utility for improving and promoting the screening and early detection of AIS because it is simple, without patient exposure to X-ray radiation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0055.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Coronavirus disease 2019/COVID-19; Internet Gaming Disorder Scale9—Short form (IGDS9-SF); university students; factorial structure/psychometric properties/structural validity/validation; cultur*/collectivisti*/individualis*; invariance; gender; game type
Online: 21 March 2022 (11:04:57 CET)
The prevalence of internet gaming disorders (IGD) is considerably high among youth, especially with social isolation imposed by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. IGD adversely affects mental health, quality of life, and academic performance. The Internet Gaming Disorder Scale (IGDS9-SF) is designed to detect IGD according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. However, inconsistent results are reported on its capacity to diagnose IGD evenly across different cultures. To ensure the suitability of the IGDS9-SF as a global measure of IGD, this study examined the psychometric properties of the IGDS9-SF in a sample of Sri Lankan university students (N = 322, mean age =17.2 ± 0.6, range = 16-18 years, 56.5% males) and evaluated its measurement invariance across samples from Sri Lanka, Turkey, Australia, and the USA. Among Sri Lankan students, a unidimensional structure expressed good fit, invariance across different groups (e.g., gender, ethnicity, and income), adequate criterion validity (strong correlation with motives of internet gaming, daily gaming duration, and sleep quality), and good reliability (alpha = 0.81). Males and online multiplayers expressed higher IGD levels, greater time spent gaming, and more endorsement of gaming motives (e.g., Social and Coping) than females and offline players. Across countries, the IGDS9-SF was invariant at the configural, metric, and scalar levels, albeit strict invariance was not maintained. The lowest and highest IGD levels were reported among Turkish and American respondents, respectively. In conclusion, the IGDS9-SF can be reliably used to measure IGD among Sri Lankan youth. Because the scale holds scalar invariance across countries, its scores can be used to compare IGD levels in the studied countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0067.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: category; topos; presheaf; probability; validity; truth; conditional expectation; measurement; quantum mechanics; information; entropy; reduction; collapse; projection; logic; algebra; Wiener; Bayes; Boole; Heyting; Brownian motion; filter; crible; capacity; reservation; context
Online: 6 December 2021 (12:13:38 CET)
Research for a theory of quantum gravity has recently led to the use of presheaf topos. Quantum uncertainty is linked to the truth values of intuitionistic logic. This paper proposes transposing this model into a classic probability context, that of conditional mathematical expectations. A simulation of Brownian motion is offered for illustrative purposes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0448.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R)/post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); cutoff point/cutoff score; psychiatric patients/the general public/healthy adults; psychometric evaluation/criterion validity; Coronavirus Disease-19/COVID-19; Arabic version/Arab/Saudi Arabia
Online: 25 January 2023 (05:02:13 CET)
The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) is the most popular measure of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which has been recently validated in Arabic. This instrumental study aimed to determine optimal cutoff scores of the IES-R and its subscales in Arab samples of psychiatric patients (N = 168, 70.8% females) and healthy adults (N = 992, 62.7% females) from Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic as an ongoing collective traumatic event. Based on a cutoff score of 14 of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 8-items (DASS-8), receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis revealed two optimal points of 39.5 and 30.5 for the IES-R in the samples (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.86 & 0.91, p values = 0.001, 95% CI: 0.80-0.92 & 0.87 to 0.94, sensitivity = 0.85 & 0.87, specificity = 0.73 & 0.83, Youden index = 0.58 & 0.70, respectively). Different cutoffs were detected for the six subscales of the IES-R, with numbing and avoidance expressing the lowest predictivity for distress. Meanwhile, hyperarousal followed by the irritability expressed stronger predictive capacity for distress than all subscales in both samples. In path analysis, pandemic-related irritability resulted from direct and indirect effects of key PTSD symptoms (intrusion, hyperarousal, and numbing). Irritability contributed to traumatic symptoms of sleep disturbance in both samples while the opposite was not true. The findings suggest usefulness of the IES-R at a score of 30.5 for detecting adults prone to trauma related distress, with higher scores needed for screening in psychiatric patients. Various PTSD symptoms may induce dysphoric mood, which represents a considerable burden that may induce circadian misalignment and more noxious psychiatric problems/ co-morbidities (sleep disturbance) in both healthy and diseased groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0176.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: psychological distress/anxiety/depression; dementia; Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21; Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 8-items; factor structure; psychometric properties; structural validity; validation; measurement invariance; old age/elders/elderly; informal; family caregivers; spouse; adult children
Online: 9 August 2022 (08:44:11 CEST)
Dementia patients express a set of problematic and deteriorating symptoms, along self-care dependency. Overtime, the mental health of family caregivers of persons with dementia may suffer, putting them at a high risk for psychopathology, which may be associated with endangered wellbeing of demented people. This cross-sectional study examined the psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 8-items (DASS-8), DASS-12, DASS-21 in a convenient sample of 571 caregivers from northern Italy and southern Switzerland (Mean age = 53, SD = 12, range = 24–89 years). A bifactor structure of the three measures had the best fit; some items of the DASS-12/DASS-21 failed to load on their domain-specific factors. The three-factor structure was invariant across various groups (e.g., gender, education, etc.), expressed adequate reliability and convergent validity, and had strong positive correlation with the 3-item UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLALS3). Dementia type had no effect on distress scores, which were higher among females, adult children caregivers, those caring for dependent patients, and those who received help with care. For 54.9 and 38.8% of the latter, care was provided by relatives and health professionals, respectively. Since the DASS-8 expresses adequate psychometrics comparable with the DASS-21, it may be used as a brief measure of distress in this population.