ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0323.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Suicide; questionnaire; validity; reliability
Online: 18 November 2021 (11:17:37 CET)
Objective: Our goal is to develop an online questionnaire to survey the prevalence of suicidal behavior. Methods: We developed a questionnaire with 51 variables and proceeded with validations. Validations were performed using face validity, content validity, and construct validity. Reliability was performed by test-rest. Results: The face validity was 1.0 and the content validity was 0.91. The exploratory factor analysis got KMO = 0.86 and extracted one principal factor. The confirmatory factor analysis demonstrates RMSEA= 0.000 and CFI=1.000. The test-retest had an intraclass correlated coefficient of 0.98. Conclusion: The adequate development questionnaire was validated, and we have an instrument to survey suicide behaviors in the pandemic time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0190.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: listening comprehension; subskills; validity
Online: 22 August 2016 (11:35:11 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to examine the cognitive processes underlying the listening comprehension section of IELTS and to investigate if they vary in terms of difficulty. For this purpose, a checklist of possible cognitive operations was prepared based on the literature and the candidates’ feedback. The checklist consisted of six cognitive operations. A sample of IELTS listening test was given to 310 upper intermediate and advanced students of English. Linear logistic test model was employed to analyse the data. Findings showed that keeping up with the pace of the speaker and understanding reduced forms were the most difficult operations for the listeners. Altogether, the six operations explained 72% of the variance in item difficulty estimates. Implications of the study for the testing and teaching of listening comprehension are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0006.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: hypothetics; enothetics; reliability; validity; accuracy
Online: 1 November 2017 (04:56:55 CET)
The purpose of this article is to assess the reliability and accuracy (validity) of hypothetical binary tasting judgments in an enological framework. The heuristic model that is utilized allows for the control of a wide array of variables that would be exceedingly difficult to fully control in the typical enological investigation. It is shown that results that are judged to be enologically significant are uniformly judged to be statistically significant as well, whether the level of wine Taster agreement is set at 70% (Fair); 80% (Good), or 90% (Excellent), However, in a number of instances, results that were statistically significant were not enologically significant by standards that are widely accepted and utilized. This finding is consistent with the bio-statistical fact that given a sufficiently large sample size, even the most trivial of results will prove to be statistically significant. Consistent with expectations, multiple patterns of 80% (Good) and 90% (Excellent) agreement tended to be both statistically and enologically significant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0489.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Reliability; Strength of Faith; Invariance; Validity
Online: 18 March 2021 (16:50:18 CET)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric evidence of the original and brief version of the Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire (SCSRFQ) in Spanish in a sample of 245 Peruvian adolescents and adults (mean age = 21.04 years, SD = 3.07, 47.8% male and 52.2% female), selected by non-probabilistic convenience sampling. Additionally, the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale and the Satisfaction with Life Scale were applied. Confirmatory Factor Analysis, internal consistency reliability methods, hierarchical sequence of variance models and Graded Response Model were used. Results indicate that both versions of the SCSRFQ showed robust psychometric properties: adequate unidimensional structure, adequate difficulty and discrimination parameters, and significant relationships with the measures of fear of COVID-19 and satisfaction with life. The original version of the SCSRFQ showed evidence of strict measurement invariance by gender and age; whereas the short version showed strict invariance by gender and configural invariance by age. Both versions showed acceptable reliability indices. In conclusion, the original and brief versions of the SCSRFQ show evidence of psychometric indicators that support their use to assess the strength of religious faith
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0171.v1
Online: 7 December 2020 (15:13:05 CET)
The Mouse Grimace Scale (MGS) was developed 10 years ago to assess pain through characterisation of changes in five facial features or action units. The strength of the technique is that it is proposed to be a measure of spontaneous or non-evoked pain. A comprehensive scoping review of the academic literature was performed. The MGS has been employed mainly in evaluation of acute pain, particularly in the pain and neuroscience research fields. There has however been use of the technique in a wide range of fields, and based on limited study it does appear to have utility for pain assessment across a spectrum of animal models. Use of the method does allow detection of pain of a longer duration, up to a month post-initial insult. There has been less use of the technique using real-time methods and this is an area in need of further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0525.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: FCM; validity index; fuzzy energy; fuzzy entropy
Online: 23 September 2020 (03:31:13 CEST)
Two well-known drawbacks in fuzzy clustering are the requirement of assign in advance the number of clusters and random initialization of cluster centers.; the quality of the final fuzzy clusters depends heavily on the initial choice of the number of clusters and the initialization of the clusters, then it is necessary to apply a validity index to measure the compactness and the separability of the final clusters and run the clustering algorithm several times. We propose a new fuzzy C-means algorithm in which a validity index based on the concepts of maximum fuzzy energy and minimum fuzzy entropy is applied to initialize the cluster centers and to find the optimal number of clusters and initial cluster centers in order to obtain a good clustering quality, without increasing time consumption. We test our algorithm on UCI machine learning classification datasets comparing the results with the ones obtained by using well-known validity indices and variations of FCM using optimization algorithms in the initialization phase. The comparison results show that our algorithm represents an optimal trade-off between the quality of clustering and the time consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0003.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Vitamin D, Knowledge, Attitude, Practice, Validity, Reliability
Online: 1 February 2017 (16:39:41 CET)
The aim of this study was to develop a valid and reliable questionnaire to assess vitamin D-related knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) in Iranian adults who may be at increased risk of vitamin D deficiency. This study was conducted on 527 subjects, aged ≥20 years from Public health care centers in Tehran, Iran. Based on results of literature review and in-depth interviews, the 38-item vitamin D-related KAP questionnaire with four subscale was developed: 1) general knowledge; 2) nutritional knowledge; 3) attitudes; 4) behaviors. Validity of the developed vitamin D-KAP questionnaire was assessed, utilizing face, content, and construct validity methods. Internal consistency was calculated to assess reliability of the current developed questionnaire. A total of 572 (54.1% female) adults, aged 30.2±7.9 years, participated in the study. All items were perceived as relevant and comprehendible by participants. Content validity was confirmed by the panel of experts. The internal consistency, as measured by Cronbach’s alpha coefficients, exceeded the minimum reliability standard of 0.60 for four subscales. The EFA suggested a four-factor construct and the results of the CFA indicated acceptable fit indices for the proposed model. No ceiling effects were observed except for general knowledge (1.2%). Floor effects detected were 0, 1.1, 2.4, and 8.7% for practice, attitude, general knowledge, and nutrition knowledge, respectively. General knowledge had the highest score (79.59±14.52) and nutrition knowledge, the lowest score (42.58±20.40) among the four sub-scales. Results confirm the initial validity and reliability of the vitamin D-related knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire. Further investigations in different urban and rural population are recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0611.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: validity; reliability; assessment; body image; self-evaluation; students
Online: 22 April 2021 (14:05:42 CEST)
Body-Esteem Scale is an assessment tool for adolescents and adults that evaluate three dimensions of self-evaluations of one’s body. Body-Esteem Scale has been translated and validated in some countries since America down to Europe. Lack of translation and reliability evidence in Portugal was detected. This study aimed to translate and test the validity and reliability of the Body Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults (BESAA) in students in the context of Portuguese higher educa-tion. A total of 173 students (60.7% are female) with a mean age of 19.7 (standard deviation = 2.2) years participated. Categorical Principal Component Analysis was used to assess the underlying dimensions of BESAA. Construct validity was evaluated through correlation with the Appearance Schemas Inventory – Revised and a three-factor model (“Appearance”, ‘‘Weight’’ and “Attribu-tion’’) was established. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to verify the construct validity of the instrument. Items that had factor weights (λ)<.40 were removed, as well as those that were considered redundant by the modification indices estimated by the Lagrange Multipliers (LM) method (LM>11, p<.001). We observed high correlations between theoretically similar factors, and low correlations between different factors. The Portuguese BESAA showed adequate validity and reliability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0457.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: resonance frequency analysis; implant stability quotient; reliability; validity
Online: 20 July 2020 (08:05:06 CEST)
Background: Actually, resonance frequency analysis (RFA) is the most extended method for measuring implant stability. The implant stability quotient (ISQ) is the measure obtained by the different RFA devices, however, inter- and intra- rater reliability and validity of some devices remains unknown. Methods: Thirty implants were placed in 3 different pig mandibles. ISQ was measured axial and parallel with Osstell® Beacon, Penguin® and MegaISQ® by 2 different operators and one operator performed a test-retest. Intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated to assess the intra- and inter-rater reliability. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the validity. Results: The higher inter- and intra- rater reliability was obtained by Penguin® when measuring axial. The highest ISQ values were obtained using Penguin® in an axial measurement; the lowest, using the MegaISQ® in an axial measurement. The highest correlation values with the other devices were obtained by MegaISQ® measuring axially. Conclusion: Penguin® had a good reliability for measuring ISQ both inter- and intra- rater. Osstell® had good validity for measuring ISQ both axial and parallel and MegaISQ® had the best validity for measuring ISQ axial.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0375.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: hope; mental health; reliability; validity; principal component analysis; schizophrenia
Online: 19 October 2020 (11:18:42 CEST)
Hope is important in the rehabilitation of persons with schizophrenia, through scales to measure hope are not appropriate for this population. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to identify the psychometric properties of the Schizophrenia Hope Scale-9 (SHS-9) using data from 83 people with schizophrenia in four mental health centers and 762 healthy persons from two universities in South Korea. The mean (standard deviation) SHS-9 score of the participants with schizophrenia and healthy participants was 11.24 (4.90) and 14.83 (3.10), respectively. Lower scores indicate a lower level of hope. The internal consistency alpha coefficient was 0.92 with a 4-week test-retest reliability of 0.89. Criterion-related construct validity was established by examining the correlation between the SHS-9 and the State-Trait Hope Inventory scores. Divergent validity was identified through a negative relationship of SHS-9 with the Beck Hopelessness Scale. The construct validity of the SHS-9 was confirmed through principal component analysis with extraction methods, which resulted in a one-factor solution, accounting for 49–60% of the total item variance.. This study provided evidence for the validity and reliability of the SHS-9; therefore, it could be used to measure hope in people with schizophrenia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0574.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: self-report; device-based measured; physical activity; reliability; validity; stability
Online: 25 February 2021 (10:27:24 CET)
Quantification of physical activity (PA) depends on the type of measurement and analysis method making it difficult to compare adherence to PA guidelines. Therefore, test-retest reliability, criterion validity, and stability for self-reported (i.e. questionnaire and diary) and device-based measured (i.e. accelerometry with 10/60 second epochs) PA was compared in 32 adults and 32 children from the SMARTFAMILY study to examine if differences in these measurement tools are systematic. PA was collected during two separate measurement weeks and the relationship for each quality criteria was analyzed using Spearman correlation. Results showed the highest PA values for questionnaires followed by 10-second and 60-second epochs measured by accelerometers. Levels of PA were lowest when measured by diary. Only accelerometry demonstrated reliable, valid, and stable results for the two measurement weeks, the questionnaire yielded mixed results and the diary showed only few significant correlations. Overall, higher correlations for the quality criteria were found for moderate than for vigorous PA and the results differed between children and adults. Since the differences were not found to be systematic, the choice of measurement tools should be carefully considered by anyone working with PA outcomes, especially if vigorous PA is the parameter of interest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0008.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: JCQ; job crafting; construct validity; leisure sports instructor; valid scale
Online: 1 May 2018 (11:36:48 CEST)
In previous researches, Job Crafting questionnaire to develop is consists of 3 factors which are Task Crafting, Cognitive Crafting, and Relationship Crafting with 12 to 17 items. The purpose of study is to develop JCQ for leisure sports instructor of Korean. 274 valid samples are used for analysis. Data collecting is purposeful sampling. At result, for Korean Sports Instructor Job Crafting Scale is constructed 3 factors with 12 items is constructed by 3 step procedure. KSIJCQ is confirmed on convergent discriminant validity evidence. In conclusion, KSIJCQ is a valid scale of the measuring and distributes Job Crafting of generalization in sports.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0027.v2
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Zoo animal welfare; Five Domains; Validity; Animal-based; Resource-based; Scoring
Online: 22 December 2021 (11:59:32 CET)
Zoos are increasingly putting in place formalized animal welfare assessment programs to allow monitoring of welfare over time, as well as to aid in resource prioritization. These programs tend to rely on assessment tools that incorporate resource-based and observational animal- focused measures since it is rarely feasible to obtain measures of physiology in zoo-housed animals. A range of assessment tools are available which commonly have a basis in the Five Domains framework. A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted to bring together recent studies examining welfare assessment methods in zoo animals. A summary of these methods is provided with advantages and limitations of the approach es presented. We then highlight practical considerations with respect to implementation of these tools into practice, for example scoring schemes, weighting of criteria, and innate animal factors for consideration. It is concluded that would be value in standardizing guidelines for development of welfare assessment tools since zoo accreditation bodies rarely prescribe these. There is also a need to develop taxon or species- specific assessment tools to inform welfare management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0230.v1
Subject: Keywords: COVID-19; Patient isolation; Self-quarantine; Reliability and validity; Psychosocial assessment
Online: 15 October 2021 (14:46:23 CEST)
Background: The cumulative number of patients during the COVID-19 pandemic led to a significant shortage of hospital beds. Many patients may not require hospitalization and can be clinically observed in home settings. However, some psychosocial factors are correlated with unsuccessful home isolation (HI), which might negatively affect the transmission control in the community. Therefore, we developed a new psychosocial screening tool (CCPHIET) for assessing HI suitability and examined its validity and reliability.Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study included COVID-19 patients who were deemed to be medically safe for 14 days of HI. The CCPHIET is comprised of 8 clinical domains pertinent to HI behavioral compliance and risk. We explored its statistical validity and reliability and discussed the potential utility of this tool. Results: A total of 65 COVID-19 patients participated in this study. Most patients (58.5%) were evaluated as good candidates for HI. The CCPHIET has an acceptable content validity (IOC index > 0.5), moderate internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.611) and substantial to excellent inter-rater reliability (Intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.944, Cohen’s kappa= 0.627).Conclusions: To compromise between strict and costly absolute institutional quarantine and the potentially unsuccessful absolute HI, the CCPHIET may help to identify good candidates for HI in mild and asymptomatic COVID-19 patients. This psychosocial information would support the physicians in matching each patient to the most suitable setting. Therefore, safe medical care is provided, unnecessary use of medical resources is spared, and local transmission is contained.
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: positive-negative relationship quality; reliability; validity; confirmatory factor analysis (CFA); bifactor
Online: 16 September 2019 (16:33:17 CEST)
The present study investigates the reliability and validity of the Positive-Negative Relationship Quality (PN-RQ) scale in Turkey. In order to determine the validity and reliability of the scale, two studies were performed. The first was carried out with emerging adults (university students) who were in a romantic relationship (148 females, 43 males, and 2 unkown) and had the main purpose to examine the structure validity of the measurement tool in the Turkish sample with an exploratory analysis. Study 2 was performed online with 513 married adults (359 females, 149 males, and 5 unknown); confirmatory findings and criterion validity studies were added. Exploratory factor analyses revealed that relationship quality had a two-factor structure and that there was also a negative relationship between the factors. Confirmatory factor analyses on the married sample showed that the bi-factor model provided evidence for the multidimensional nature of the scale. Both studies demonstrated high internal consistency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0042.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: free software; human motion; Kinovea; low cost; reliability; validity; video analysis
Online: 9 October 2017 (05:07:57 CEST)
Clinical rehabilitation and sports performance analysis both require the objectification of movement. Kinovea© is a free 2D motion analysis software that enables the establishment of kinematics parameters. This low-cost technology has been used in sports sciences, as well as clinical field and research work. Although it has been validated as a tool with which to assess time-related variables, this is not yet the case regarding angular and distance variables. The main objective of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the Kinovea software in obtaining angular and distance data at different perspectives of 90°, 75°, 60° and 45°. For this purpose, a figure with 29 points was designed (in AutoCAD) and 24 frames analysed. Each frame was examined by three observers who each made two attempts. For each export data item, 20 angles and 20 distance variables were calculated, with intra- and inter-observer reliability also analysed. To evaluate Kinovea reliability and validity a multiple approach was applied involving the following analysis: -systematic error with a two-way ANOVA 2x4; -relative reliability with ICC and CV (95% confidence interval); -absolute reliability with Standard Error. The results thus obtained indicate that the Kinovea software is a valid and reliable tool that is able to measure accurately at distances up to 5 m from the object and at an angle range of 90°–45°. Nevertheless, for optimum results an angle of 90° is suggested.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0320.v1
Subject: Keywords: RT-qPCR; assay validity; standard curve; quality assurance; quality control; wastewater surveillance
Online: 11 June 2021 (14:10:51 CEST)
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to wastewater surveillance becoming an important tool for monitoring the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) within communities. As a result, molecular methods, in particular reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), have been employed to generate large data sets aimed at the detection and quantification of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater. Although RT-qPCR is rapid and sensitive, there is no standard method that fits all use cases, there are no certified quantification standards and experiments are carried out using numerous different assays, reagents, instruments, and data analysis protocols. These variations can lead to the reporting of erroneous quantitative data resulting in potentially misleading interpretations and conclusions. We have reviewed the SARS-CoV-2 wastewater surveillance literature focusing on the variability of RT-qPCR data as revealed by inconsistent standard curves and associated parameters. We find that variation in these parameters and deviations from best practices as described in The Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE) guidelines suggest a lack of reproducibility and reliability in quantitative measurements of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in wastewater.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0173.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: validity; reliability; European Union; measurement properties; language version; IPAQ; GPAQ; EHIS-PAQ.
Online: 7 August 2020 (06:00:23 CEST)
This review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020138845) critically evaluates test-retest reliability, concurrent validity and criterion validity of different physical activity (PA) levels of three most-common used international PA questionnaires (PAQs) in national language versions of EU-28: IPAQ-SF, GPAQ, and EHIS-PAQ. In total, 4969 abstracts were read, 287 full-text articles were identified as relvant to the study objectives, and 19 studies were included in the final meta-analysis. The studies’ results and quality were evaluated using the Quality Assessment of Physical Activity Questionnaires (QAPAQ) checklist. Results indicate that only five EU-28 countries validated national language versions of selected PAQs. Meta analysis revealed that assessment of moderate-to-vigourus PA (MVPA) is the most relevant PA level outcome, since no publication bias in any of measurement properties was detected while test-retest reliability was the moderately-high (rw=0.74), and moderate for both criterion (rw=0.41) and concurrent validity (rw=0.72). Reporting of methods and results of the studies was poor with overall moderate risk of bias with total score of 0.43. In conclusion, where only self-reporting is feasible, assessment of MVPA with selected PAQs in EU-28 adult population is recommended for policymaking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0014.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: Coronavirus disease 2019/COVID-19; Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21/DASS-21; DASS-8; shortened version*; shorter version* of the DASS-21; psychiatric disorders; factorial structure/psychometric properties/structural validity/validation; measurement invariance/multigroup analysis; psychological distress; discriminant validity; item coverage; good predictive validity
Online: 1 September 2021 (12:15:27 CEST)
Despite extensive investigations of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21) since its development in 1995, its factor structure and other psychometric properties still need to be firmly established, with several calls for revising its item structure. Employing confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), this study examined the factor structure of the DASS-21 and five shortened versions of the DASS-21 among psychiatric patients (N = 168) and the general public (N = 992) during the COVID-19 confinement period in Saudi Arabia. Multigroup CFA, Mann Whitney W test, Spearman’s correlation, and coefficient alpha were used to examine the shortened versions of the DASS-21 (DASS-13, DASS-12, DASS-9 (two versions), and DASS-8) for invariance across age and gender groups, discriminant validity, predictive validity, item coverage, and internal consistency, respectively. Compared with the DASS-21, all three-factor structures of the shortened versions expressed good fit, with the DASS-8 demonstrating the best fit and highest item loadings on the corresponding factors in both samples (χ2(16, 15) = 16.5, 67.0; p = 0.420, 0.000; CFI= 1.000, 0.998; TLI = 0.999, 0.997; RMSEA = 0.013, 0.059, SRMR = 0.0186, 0.0203). It expressed configural, metric, and scalar invariance across age and gender groups. Its internal consistency was comparable to other versions (α = 0.94). Strong positive correlations of the DASS-8 and its subscales with the DASS-21 and its subscales (r = 0.97 to 0.81) suggest adequate item coverage and good predictive validity of this version. The DASS-8 and its subscales distinguished the clinical sample from the general public at the same level of significance expressed by the DASS-21 and other shortened versions, supporting its discriminant validity. Neither the DASS-21 nor the shortened versions distinguished patients diagnosed with depression and anxiety from other conditions. The DASS-8 represents a valid short version of the DASS-21, which may be useful in research and clinical practice for quick identification of individuals with potential psychopathologies. Diagnosing depression/anxiety disorders may be further confirmed in a next step by clinician-facilitated examinations. Brevity of the DASS-21 would save time and effort used for filling the questionnaire and support comprehensive assessments by allowing the inclusion of more measures on test batteries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0391.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: scale design; reliability; validity; first responders; mental health; workplace; occupational stress; humiliation; betrayal
Online: 23 August 2022 (03:50:00 CEST)
First responders, such as police officers, paramedics, and fire-fighters are at an increased risk of experiencing negative mental health outcomes compared to the general population. This predisposition can partially be attributed to common occupational stressors, such as poor workplace culture and mistreatment from leadership, which may provoke strong feelings of betrayal and humiliation. The Workplace Assessment Scale (WAS) was developed as there is currently no appropriate measure to assess such feelings in the first responder population. The scale consists of the Betrayal Subscale and the Humiliation Subscale, each comprised of 5 Likert scale questions which ask participants to report the frequency at which they experience specific feelings associated with their workplace. This pilot validation study was conducted to assess preliminary reliability and validity of the WAS, using data which was originally collected as part of a larger first responder-based observational study. Based on 21/22 (95%) participant responses, the internal consistency appeared to be strong for both sub-scales as well as the overall questionnaire. However, item 9 will likely require modification or deletion from the scale. The validity analysis found no significant correlations between WAS and other psychiatric scales. Additional research is needed for further analysis and validation of the WAS.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Huntington's disease; quality of life; family caregiving; reliability and validity; factor analysis; Poland
Online: 27 May 2019 (11:53:51 CEST)
Huntington's disease (HD) is a rare genetic neurodegenerative disorder that causes motor disorders, neuropsychiatric symptoms and a progressing deterioration of cognitive functions. Complex issues resulting from the hereditary nature of HD, the complexity of symptoms and the concealed onset of the disease have a great impact on the quality of life of family carers. The caregivers are called as “forgotten people” in HD family, also in genetic counseling. This study aims to explore the reliability and validity of the Huntington’s Disease Quality of Life Battery for carers (HDQoL-C) within a Polish population. 90 carers recruited from the Enroll-HD study in Polish research centres of the European Huntington`s Disease Network completed a polish translation of the HDQoL-C. Data was subjected to Principle Components Analysis and reliability measures. The Polish version of the shortened versions of the HDQoL–C is similarly valid compared to the original English version and suitable for use within this population. The HDQoL-C has previously demonstrated a wide range of benefits for practitioners in capturing and understanding carer experience and these benefits can now be extended to Polish speaking populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0550.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: stigma; cancer patients; Malaysia; Malay version of the Shame and Stigma Scale; reliability; validity
Online: 31 August 2022 (15:49:35 CEST)
Assessment of stigma among cancer patients is of utmost importance as stigma may lead to various psychological sequelae and lower quality of life. This study aimed to translate the English version of the Shame and Stigma Scale (SSS) into Malay and validate the Malay version of the SSS (SSS-M) among cancer patients in Malaysia. Initially, concurrent translation and back translation of the SSS-M was performed, and face and content validity were assessed. Then, the SSS-M was administered to a total of 234 patients of mixed types of cancer to assess its reliability (internal consistency and test-retest reliability), construct validity (convergent and discriminant validity), exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The SSS-M total score registered good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α of 0.886) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.846, p < 0.001). EFA and CFA confirmed that the SSS-M consisted of 20 items in 5 domains. Its convergent and discriminant validity were achieved. Hence, the SSS-M demonstrated good psychometric properties and is available for use to assess stigma among cancer patients in Malaysia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0081.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: dietary assessment; food record; FFQ; biomarker; doubly labeled water; energy intake; validity; athletes; sports nutrition
Online: 12 October 2017 (09:43:35 CEST)
Dietary assessment methods recognized as appropriate for the general population are usually applied in a similar manner to athletes, despite knowledge that sport-specific factors can complicate assessment and impact accuracy in unique ways. As dietary assessment methods are used extensively within the field of sports nutrition, there is concern the validity of methodologies have not undergone more rigorous evaluation in this unique population sub-group. The purpose was to systematically review studies comparing two or more methods of dietary assessment, including dietary intake measured against biomarkers or reference measures of energy expenditure, in athletes. Six electronic databases were searched for English-language, full-text articles published from January 1980 until June 2016. The search strategy combined the following keywords: diet, nutrition assessment, athlete and validity; where the following outcomes are reported but not limited to: energy intake, macro and/or micronutrient intake, food intake, nutritional adequacy, diet quality, or nutritional status. Meta-analysis was performed on studies with sufficient methodological similarity, with between-group standardized mean differences (or effect size) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) calculated. Of the 1624 studies identified, 18 were eligible for inclusion. Studies comparing self-reported energy intake (EI) to energy expenditure assessed via doubly labelled water were grouped for comparison (n=11) and demonstrated mean EI was under-estimated by 19 % (- 2793 ± 1134 kJ/d). Meta-analysis revealed a large pooled effect size of - 1.006 (95% CI: -1.3 to -0.7; p<0.001). The remaining studies (n=7) compared a new dietary tool or instrument to a reference method(s) (e.g. food record, 24-h dietary recall, biomarker) as part of a validation study. This systematic review revealed there are limited robust studies evaluating dietary assessment methods in athletes. Existing literature demonstrates substantial variability between methods, with under and misreporting of intake frequently observed. There is a clear need for careful validation of dietary assessment methods, including emerging technical innovations, among athlete populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0065.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: DAPTQ; adaptive personality; psychometric properties; HEXACO; psychopathic personality traits; confirmatory factor analysis; test-retest validity
Online: 14 June 2017 (07:47:55 CEST)
Multiple studies reported a negative relationship between the Honesty-Humility factor of the HEXACO model and psychopathy. The Durand Adaptive Psychopathic Traits Questionnaire (DAPTQ), which was developed to assess adaptive traits known to be related to psychopathic traits, has previously demonstrate positive relationships with all factors of the Big Five Model, at the exception of a negative relationship with neuroticism. The current study aims to validate the previously reported association between the DAPTQ and the five major components of the personality, while also examining its relationship with the Honesty-Humility factor as defined by the HEXACO model. The results (N = 171) support the good internal consistency, two weeks test-retest validity and inter-correlation of the DAPTQ. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis further supports the nine-factor model of the DAPTQ. When compared to the HEXACO, the DAPTQ did not display any relationship with the Honesty-Humility factor, nor the Agreeableness and Openness factors, but kept its similar association to Emotionality, Extroversion, and Conscientiousness as initially reported in its development phase. Overall, the results support the discriminant validity of the DAPTQ to assess adaptive traits related to the psychopathic personality without overlapping with psychopathic personality traits. Results are discussed in terms of implications and further improvements to validate the DAPTQ.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0197.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: public health; occupational; Covid; SARS-CoV-2; work; job exposure matrix; JEM; compensation; predictivity; validity; accuracy
Online: 16 February 2022 (09:47:18 CET)
Background. We aimed to assess the validity of the Mat-O-Covid Job Exposure Matrix (JEM) on SARS-CoV2 using compensation data from the French National Health Insurance compensation system for occupational-related COVID-19. Methods. Deidentified compensation data for occupational COVID-19 in France were obtained between August 2020 and August 2021. The acceptance was considered as the reference. Mat-O-Covid is an expert based French JEM on workplace exposure to SARS-CoV2. Bivariate and multivariate models were used to study the association between the exposure assessed by Mat-O-Covid and the reference, as well as the Area Under Curves (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios. Results. In the 1140 cases included, there was a close association between the Mat-O-Covid index and the reference (p<0.0001). The overall predictivity was good, with an AUC of 0.78 and an optimal threshold at 13 per thousand. Using Youden’s J statistic resulted in 0.67 sensitivity and 0.87 specificity. Both positive and negative likelihood ratios were significant: respectively 4.9 [2.4-6.4] and 0.4 [0.3-0.4]. Discussion. It was possible to assess Mat-O-Covid’s validity using data from the national compensation system for occupational COVID-19. Though further studies are needed, Mat-O-Covid exposure assessment appears to be accurate enough to be used in research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0418.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: academic stress; psychological and physical well-being; adolescence; secondary education; validity; reliability; gender and age differences
Online: 23 August 2018 (15:32:43 CEST)
This study presents the validation process of the Questionnaire on Academic Stress in Secondary Education –QASSE-, designed to assess the wide variety of school sources and situations related to academic stress in adolescence, and their relationship with students’ physical and psychological well-being. Participants were 860 Spanish high school students (52.9% girls) with an average age of 14.62 years (SD = 1.8). Through a cross-validation process, EFA and CFA supported QASSE multifactorial structure with four first-order factors -academic overload, interaction with classmates, family pressure, and future-oriented perspective- and a second-order factor of academic stress, showing a significant and intense relationship with adolescents’ psychological and physical well-being. Results also highlight the effects of the gender*educational level interaction on the students’ stress, with girls showing higher levels of stress in the transition courses between educational phases (sophomore and junior years). The QASSE demonstrates good validity and reliability, showing potential for both research and educational application. The results show the high impact of the QASSE dimensions on psychological and physical well-being in adolescence, highlighting its special usefulness for designing and adjusting educational prevention and intervention actions in this area to the students’ specific characteristics and needs
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0055.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: Coronavirus disease 2019/COVID-19; Internet Gaming Disorder Scale9—Short form (IGDS9-SF); university students; factorial structure/psychometric properties/structural validity/validation; cultur*/collectivisti*/individualis*; invariance; gender; game type
Online: 21 March 2022 (11:04:57 CET)
The prevalence of internet gaming disorders (IGD) is considerably high among youth, especially with social isolation imposed by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. IGD adversely affects mental health, quality of life, and academic performance. The Internet Gaming Disorder Scale (IGDS9-SF) is designed to detect IGD according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. However, inconsistent results are reported on its capacity to diagnose IGD evenly across different cultures. To ensure the suitability of the IGDS9-SF as a global measure of IGD, this study examined the psychometric properties of the IGDS9-SF in a sample of Sri Lankan university students (N = 322, mean age =17.2 ± 0.6, range = 16-18 years, 56.5% males) and evaluated its measurement invariance across samples from Sri Lanka, Turkey, Australia, and the USA. Among Sri Lankan students, a unidimensional structure expressed good fit, invariance across different groups (e.g., gender, ethnicity, and income), adequate criterion validity (strong correlation with motives of internet gaming, daily gaming duration, and sleep quality), and good reliability (alpha = 0.81). Males and online multiplayers expressed higher IGD levels, greater time spent gaming, and more endorsement of gaming motives (e.g., Social and Coping) than females and offline players. Across countries, the IGDS9-SF was invariant at the configural, metric, and scalar levels, albeit strict invariance was not maintained. The lowest and highest IGD levels were reported among Turkish and American respondents, respectively. In conclusion, the IGDS9-SF can be reliably used to measure IGD among Sri Lankan youth. Because the scale holds scalar invariance across countries, its scores can be used to compare IGD levels in the studied countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0067.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: category; topos; presheaf; probability; validity; truth; conditional expectation; measurement; quantum mechanics; information; entropy; reduction; collapse; projection; logic; algebra; Wiener; Bayes; Boole; Heyting; Brownian motion; filter; crible; capacity; reservation; context
Online: 6 December 2021 (12:13:38 CET)
Research for a theory of quantum gravity has recently led to the use of presheaf topos. Quantum uncertainty is linked to the truth values of intuitionistic logic. This paper proposes transposing this model into a classic probability context, that of conditional mathematical expectations. A simulation of Brownian motion is offered for illustrative purposes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0448.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R)/post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); cutoff point/cutoff score; psychiatric patients/the general public/healthy adults; psychometric evaluation/criterion validity; Coronavirus Disease-19/COVID-19; Arabic version/Arab/Saudi Arabia
Online: 25 January 2023 (05:02:13 CET)
The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) is the most popular measure of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which has been recently validated in Arabic. This instrumental study aimed to determine optimal cutoff scores of the IES-R and its subscales in Arab samples of psychiatric patients (N = 168, 70.8% females) and healthy adults (N = 992, 62.7% females) from Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic as an ongoing collective traumatic event. Based on a cutoff score of 14 of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 8-items (DASS-8), receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis revealed two optimal points of 39.5 and 30.5 for the IES-R in the samples (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.86 & 0.91, p values = 0.001, 95% CI: 0.80-0.92 & 0.87 to 0.94, sensitivity = 0.85 & 0.87, specificity = 0.73 & 0.83, Youden index = 0.58 & 0.70, respectively). Different cutoffs were detected for the six subscales of the IES-R, with numbing and avoidance expressing the lowest predictivity for distress. Meanwhile, hyperarousal followed by the irritability expressed stronger predictive capacity for distress than all subscales in both samples. In path analysis, pandemic-related irritability resulted from direct and indirect effects of key PTSD symptoms (intrusion, hyperarousal, and numbing). Irritability contributed to traumatic symptoms of sleep disturbance in both samples while the opposite was not true. The findings suggest usefulness of the IES-R at a score of 30.5 for detecting adults prone to trauma related distress, with higher scores needed for screening in psychiatric patients. Various PTSD symptoms may induce dysphoric mood, which represents a considerable burden that may induce circadian misalignment and more noxious psychiatric problems/ co-morbidities (sleep disturbance) in both healthy and diseased groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0176.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: psychological distress/anxiety/depression; dementia; Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21; Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 8-items; factor structure; psychometric properties; structural validity; validation; measurement invariance; old age/elders/elderly; informal; family caregivers; spouse; adult children
Online: 9 August 2022 (08:44:11 CEST)
Dementia patients express a set of problematic and deteriorating symptoms, along self-care dependency. Overtime, the mental health of family caregivers of persons with dementia may suffer, putting them at a high risk for psychopathology, which may be associated with endangered wellbeing of demented people. This cross-sectional study examined the psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 8-items (DASS-8), DASS-12, DASS-21 in a convenient sample of 571 caregivers from northern Italy and southern Switzerland (Mean age = 53, SD = 12, range = 24–89 years). A bifactor structure of the three measures had the best fit; some items of the DASS-12/DASS-21 failed to load on their domain-specific factors. The three-factor structure was invariant across various groups (e.g., gender, education, etc.), expressed adequate reliability and convergent validity, and had strong positive correlation with the 3-item UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLALS3). Dementia type had no effect on distress scores, which were higher among females, adult children caregivers, those caring for dependent patients, and those who received help with care. For 54.9 and 38.8% of the latter, care was provided by relatives and health professionals, respectively. Since the DASS-8 expresses adequate psychometrics comparable with the DASS-21, it may be used as a brief measure of distress in this population.