REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0502.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Trained immunity; innate immune memory; respiratory pathogens; BCG; next-generation vac-cines; COVID-19
Online: 30 August 2022 (03:55:12 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic exposed the vulnerability of current vaccine technologies characterized by a slow onset of action and antigen-specific immune response. Although parental vaccines offer long-term protection against homologous strains, they rely exclusively on adaptive immune memory to produce neutralizing antibodies that are ineffective against new vaccine variants. Moreover, growing evidence highlights the multifaceted functions of trained immunity to elicit a rapid and enhanced innate response against unrelated stimuli or pathogens to subsequent triggers. This review discusses the protective role of trained immunity against respiratory pathogens and the experimental models essential for evaluating novel inducers of trained immunity. We further elaborate on the potential of trained immunity to leverage protection against emerging pathogens via recognition of diverse antigens by pathogen recognition receptors (PPRs) on innate immune cells. We also propose integrating trained- with adaptive- immunity to shape next-generation vaccines by coupling each one's unique characteristics.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0398.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: rotavirus; coronavirus; vaccine; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; cross immunity; trained immunity; vaccinated breakthrough infections; COVID variants; long-Covid; post-viral syndrome; chronic fatigue; booster
Online: 23 August 2022 (10:50:57 CEST)
This proposal was prepared in the very first weeks of 2020 because of the outbreak of COVID-19.There is good reason to suppose that rotavirus vaccine can be used as protection tool to effectively and safely fight and mitigate SARS-CoV-2 infection and the impact caused by COVID-19 in adult humans, due to the development of cross and trained immunity following rotavirus vaccination. Up-to-date, some rotavirus vaccines are available and approved, two of them have a large experience in results and safety. Little experience has been achieved in the use of rotavirus vaccine in adults. However, it can be expected that it would be safe and effective in adults and in the elderly as well. This proposal explains the background.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0746.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: radio frequency interference detection; deep learning; transfer learning; pre-trained convolutional neural networks
Online: 31 July 2020 (12:06:33 CEST)
Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) detection and characterization play a critical role to in ensuring the security of all wireless communication networks. Advances in Machine Learning (ML) have led to the deployment of many robust techniques dealing with various types of RFI. To sidestep an unavoidable complicated feature extraction step in ML, this paper proposes an efficient end-to-end method using the latest advances in deep learning to extract the appropriate features of the RFI signal. Moreover, this study utilizes the benefits of transfer learning to determine both the type of received RFI signals and their modulation types. To this end, the scalogram of the received signals is used as the input of the pre-trained convolutional neural networks (CNN), followed by a fully-connected classifier. This study considers a digital video stream as the signal of interest (SoI), transmitted in a real-time satellite-to-ground communication using DVB-S2 standards. To create the RFI dataset, the SoI is combined with three well-known jammers namely, continuous-wave interference (CWI), multi- continuous-wave interference (MCWI), and chirp interference (CI). This study investigated four well-known pre-trained CNN architectures, namely, AlexNet, VGG-16, GoogleNet, and ResNet-18, for the feature extraction to recognize the visual RFI patterns directly from pixel images with minimal preprocessing. Moreover, the robustness of the proposed classifiers is evaluated by the data generated at different signal to noise ratios (SNR).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0009.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Computer Vision; Machine Learning; Colourimetric Test; Pre-trained Model; Point-of-Care System; Diagnosis
Online: 2 November 2020 (09:56:04 CET)
Purpose The gradual increase in geriatric issues and global imbalance of the ratio between patients and healthcare professionals has created a demand for intelligent systems with the least error-prone diagnosis results to be used by less medically trained persons and save clinical time. This paper aims at investigating the development of an image-based colourimetric analysis. The purpose of recognising such tests is to support wider users to begin a colourimetric test to be used at homecare settings, telepathology, etc. Design/methodology/approach The concept of an automatic colourimetric assay detection is delivered by utilising two cases. Training Deep Learning (DL) models on thousands of images of these tests using transfer learning, this paper i) classifies the type of the assay, and ii) classifies the colourimetric results. Findings This paper demonstrated that the assay type can be recognised using DL techniques with 100% accuracy within a fraction of a second. Some of the advantages of the pre-trained model over the calibration-based approach are robustness, readiness and suitability to deploy for similar applications within a shorter period of time. Originality/value To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to provide Colourimetric Assay Type Classification (CATC) using DL. Humans are capable to learn thousands of visual classifications in their life. Object recognition may be a trivial task for humans, due to photometric and geometric variabilities along with the high degree of intra-class variabilities it can be a challenging task for machines. However, transforming visual knowledge into machines, as proposed, can support non-experts to better manage their health and reduce some of the burdens on experts.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0549.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; Africa; SARS-CoV-2 virus spread; lower COVID-19 disease burden; African populations; demographic pyramid; trained immunity; government measures
Online: 24 May 2021 (09:56:05 CEST)
COVID-19 differential spread and impacts across regions is a major focus for researchers and policy makers. Africa has attracted tremendous attention due to predictions of catastrophic impacts that have not yet materialized. Early in the pandemic, the seemingly low African case count was largely attributed to low testing and case reporting. However, there is also reason to consider that many African countries got out ahead of the virus early on. Factors explaining low spread include early government mandated lockdowns, community-wide actions, population distribution, social contacts, and ecology of human habitation. While recent data from seroprevalence studies posit more extensive circulation of the virus, continuing low COVID-19 burden may be explained by the demographic pyramid, prevalence of pre-existing conditions, trained immunity, genetics, and broader sociocultural dynamics. Though all these prongs contribute to the observed profile of COVID-19 in Africa, some provide stronger evidence than others. This review is important to expand what is known about the differential impacts of pandemics enhancing scientific understanding and gearing appropriate public health responses. Also, highlighting potential lessons the world may draw from Africa for global health on assumptions regarding deadly viral pandemics given its long experience with infectious diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0139.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG); tuberculosis; Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM); nonspecific effects; Trained Immunity; Type 1 Diabetes; Multiple Sclerosis; Parkinson’s Disease; Alzheimer’s disease; Mycobacterium avium ss. paratuberculosis (MAP); molecular mimicry; Global Burden of Disease
Online: 12 September 2022 (09:36:16 CEST)
The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has been used for over one hundred years to protect against the most lethal infectious agent in human history, tuberculosis. Over four billion BCG doses have been given and, worldwide, most newborns receive BCG. A few countries, including the United States, did not adopt the WHO recommendation for routine use of BCG. Moreover, within the past several decades, most of Western Europe and Australia, having originally employed routine BCG, have discontinued its use. This review article articulates the impacts of those decisions. The associated consequences include increased tuberculosis, increased infections caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), increased autoimmune disease (autoimmune diabetes and multiple sclerosis) and increased neurodegenerative disease (Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease). This review also offers an emerged zoonotic pathogen, Mycobacterium avium ss. paratuberculosis (MAP) as a mostly unrecognized NTM that may have a causal role in some, if not all, of these diseases. Current clinical trials with BCG for varied infectious, autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases have brought this century-old vaccine to the fore due to its presumed immuno-modulating capacity. With its historic success and strong safety profile, the new and novel applications for BCG may lead to its universal use –putting the Western World back onto the road not taken.