ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0255.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: vehicular ad hoc networks; conditional privacy; revocation
Online: 12 November 2018 (03:48:47 CET)
It is a challenging issue to provide a secure and conditional anonymous authentication scheme in vehicle ad hoc networks(VANETs) with low storage space and computational cost. In 2008, Lu et al.  proposed an conditional privacy preservation scheme called ECPP protocol. The ECPP protocol provides conditional privacy preservation to vehicles in VANETs, that is, on one hand vehicles can achieve anonymous authentication in the network, on the other hand allow to be traced and revoked if necessary. However, ECPP scheme suffers from large storage and high computational cost. In our scheme, an improved protocol based on the concept of ECPP protocol has been proposed, which uses minimal interaction steps, little storage space and less computation overhead to achieve more efficiency conditional privacy preservation(MECPP) scheme in VANETs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0604.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: atmospheric ducts; northwestern SCS; parabolic equation model; propagation loss
Online: 9 May 2023 (08:33:51 CEST)
The propagation of electromagnetic waves beyond the line of sight can be caused by atmospheric ducts, which are a significant concerns in the fields of radar and communication. This paper utilizes data from seven automatic stations and five radio-sounding stations to statistically analyze the characteristics of the atmospheric ducts in the northwest region of the South China Sea (SCS). After verifying the practicality of numerical analysis data from NCEP CFSv2 and ERA5 in studying atmospheric ducts using measured data, we analyzed the space-time distribution characteristics of the height of the regional evaporation duct and the bottom height of the elevated duct. Using the parabolic equation model, we simulated electromagnetic propagation loss under different frequencies and radiation elevation angles in both uniform and non-uniform duct environments within a typical atmospheric duct structure. The study found that the NCEP CFSv2 data accurately captures the evaporation duct height and duct occurrence rate in the study area, and the elevated duct bottom height obtained from the inversion of ERA5 and the measured data has a good consistency. The occurrence rate and height of evaporation duct in coastal stations in the northwest of the SCS vary significantly by month, demonstrating clear monthly distribution patterns. Conversely, changes in the Xisha station are minimal, indicating good temporal uniformity. For lower atmospheric ducts, the difference in occurrence rates between 00:00 and 12:00 (UTC) is negligible. The occurrence probability of elevated ducts in the Beibu Gulf area is relatively high, mainly concentrated from January to April, and the Xisha area is dominated by surface ducts without foundation layer, mainly concentrated from June to August. The monsoon plays a critical role in the generation and evolution of atmospheric ducts in the northwest of the SCS, with the height of the evaporation duct increasing and the bottom height of the elevated duct decreasing after the onset of the summer monsoon. Electromagnetic propagation simulations demonstrate that higher frequency and lower elevation angles of radiation sources in the trapping layer of the evaporation duct make it easier to be trapped. As the evaporation duct height decreases, the amplitude of the "sinusoidal fluctuation" of the propagation loss also decreases. Frequency changes of the radiation source in the surface duct environment have minimal impact on electromagnetic propagation loss, but the elevation angle of the radiation source is a critical factor. The frequency of the "sinusoidal fluctuation" in propagation loss is higher in a hybrid duct environment compared to a uniform surface duct. Additionally, the propagation loss increases faster with distance at the height of the evaporation duct, resulting in greater electromagnetic propagation loss.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1266.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: digitization; digital transformation; manufacturing export enterprises; enterprise performance
Online: 17 August 2023 (07:32:38 CEST)
At present, countries around the world adopt digital strategy, so that enterprises apply digital technology, digital supply chain, blockchain, and a series of digital measures to enhance their competitiveness. By analyzing the relationship between digital transformation of manufacturing export enterprises, and their business performance and export performance, this paper focused on the current situation and existing problems of digital transformation of manufacturing export enterprises in China. Based on the Resource Based View theory and Trade theory, the impact of digital transformation of enterprises performance, proposing hypotheses, and building regression models were explored. With the samples of 1007 listed companies in Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock markets from 2012 to 2019, the regression analysis, intermediate effect test, robustness test, stage lag, and heterogeneity analysis were conducted. The results shew that: (1) Listed manufacturing export enterprises carried out digital transformation, which had a significantly positive effect on enterprise performance; (2) It was found that digital transformation could improve enterprise performance by reducing costs, improving R&D intensity and improving human resources etc. (3) According to the fractal analysis, non-state-owned enterprises had more positive effects on enterprise performance, and digital transformation of manufacturing export enterprises in developed areas had a more significant impact on enterprise performance. Finally, according to the empirical results, relevant suggestions for digital transformation were provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0033.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Computer vision; 3D human pose estimation; Transformer
Online: 1 June 2023 (05:00:33 CEST)
Existing methods for 3D human pose estimation mainly divide the task into two stages. The first stage identifies the 2D coordinates of the human joints in the input image, namely the 2D human joint coordinates. The second stage uses the results from the first stage as input to recover the depth information of human joints from the 2D human joint coordinates to achieve 3D human pose estimation. However, the recognition accuracy of the two-stage method relies heavily on the results of the first stage and includes too many redundant processing steps, which reduces the inference efficiency of the network. To address these issues, we propose the EDD, a fully End-to-end 3D human pose estimation method based on transformer architecture with Dual Decoders. By learning multiple human poses, the model can directly infer all 3D human poses in the image using a pose decoder, and then further optimize the recognition result using a joint decoder based on the kinematic relations between joints. With the attention mechanism, this method can adaptively focus on the most relevant features to the target joint, effectively overcoming the feature misalignment problem in the human pose estimation task and greatly improving the model performance. Any complex post-processing step, such as non-maximum suppression, is eliminated, further improving the efficiency of the model. The results show that the method achieves an accuracy of 87.4% on the MuPoTS-3D dataset, significantly improving the accuracy of end-to-end 3D human pose estimation methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0197.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Desertification; Geographical Detector Model; Google Earth Engine; Driving factors; The Shiyang River Basin
Online: 11 April 2023 (05:15:47 CEST)
Desertification is a global environmental and socio-economical issue threatening humanity's survival and development. The Shiyang River Basin ecosystem is vulnerable and prone to desertification. In addition, establishing the quantitative analysis of desertification driving factors and understanding their relative contribution, separately or combined, is still an unresolved problem. The present study applied geographic information system (GIS) techniques and a geographic detector model to quantify desertification spatial extent and driving mechanisms. This research utilized Fractional Vegetation Cover (FVC) to elucidate desertification spatial heterogeneity. The 30 years Coefficient of Variation (CV) of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was a dependent variable and indicator of ecosystem terrestrial conditions; Elevation, near-surface air temperature, precipitation, wind velocity, land cover change, soil salinity, road buffers, waterway buffers, and soil types were independent variables. The results showed that 89.41% of the total area is under desertification risk, where 20.99% is extremely desertified, 34.45% is severely desertified, 12.05% is moderately, and 21.92% is slightly desertified. The results from the Geodetector model showed that Power Determinant (PD) values ranged between 0.004 and 0.270. Elevation and soil types had the highest contributing factors with PD values of 0.270 and 0.227, whereas precipitation, soil salinity, the buffer of the waterway, and wind velocity played a moderate role with PD values of 0.146, 0.117, 0.107, and 0.071. Near-surface air temperature, road buffer, and land cover dynamics exhibited lower impact with PD values of 0.028, 0.013, and 0.004. In most cases, investigating the interaction between driving factors resulted in a mutual or non-linear enhancement. There was an apparent linear and mutual enhancement between elevation and soil salinity, precipitation, and soil types with values of 0.3513, 0.3232, and 0.3204, respectively. In addition, there was a mutual enhancement between soil salinity and soil types with a value of 0.2962. On the other hand, a non-linear enhancement was observed between Elevation and near-surface air temperature (0.3116), Elevation and Land cover dynamics (0.2759), soil types and near-surface air temperature (0.2687), land cover dynamics and soil types (0.234), precipitation and near-surface air temperature (0.2248), precipitation and wind velocity (0.2248), and between land cover dynamics and precipitation (0.223). This research revealed irrefutable evidence that environmental factors might be the primary drivers of ecosystem disturbance, provided the basis for the environmental footprint of desertification mechanism, and might be a cornerstone for future policy on ecological restoration sustainability in the Shiyang River Basin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0202.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Circ-RNA; CLIP-Seq; RBP
Online: 17 November 2019 (11:01:25 CET)
Circular RNAs are a special type of RNAs which recently attracted a lot of research interest in studying its formation and function. RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that bind circRNAs are important in these processes but are relatively less studied. CLIP-Seq technology has been invented and applied to profile RBP-RNA interactions on the genome-wide scale. While mRNAs are usually the focus of CLIP-Seq experiments, RBP-circRNA interactions could also be identified through specialized analysis of CLIP-Seq datasets. However, many technical difficulties are involved in this process, such as the usually short read length of CLIP-Seq reads. In this study, we created a pipeline called Clirc specialized for profiling circRNAs in CLIP-Seq data and analyzing the characteristics of RBP- circRNAs interactions. In conclusion, this is one of the first few studies to investigate circRNAs and their binding partners through repurposing CLIP-Seq datasets to our knowledge, and we hope our work will become a valuable resource for future studies into the biogenesis and function of circRNAs. Clirc software is available at https://github.com/Minzhe/Clirc
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1650.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Tension cable-supported power transmission structure; Wind-induced vibration; Nonlinear finite element; Wind-induced fatigue damage
Online: 25 September 2023 (09:32:35 CEST)
The tension cable-supported power transmission structure (TC-PTS) is a new type of power transmission structure suitable for mountainous terrain, which is sensitive to wind load. In this regard, a nonlinear finite element analysis model of wind-induced vibration is proposed for the TC-PTS, and the wind-induced vibration response of the structure is analyzed. Firstly, the tangent stiffness matrix of the three-dimensional truss element for the supporting suspension cable and transmission line, considering the geometric nonlinearity of structures, is derived through the relationship between the element elastic energy and its displacement. Subsequently, the element mass matrix and damping matrix of the supporting suspension cable and transmission line, as well as the element nodal load vector obtained from wind load equivalence are given. Then, based on the nonlinear finite element theory, the nonlinear dynamic equation of wind-induced vibration is established for the TC-PTS and solved by Newmark-β method combined with Newton-Raphson iterative method. Furthermore, the rain-flow counting method and Miner's linear fatigue cumulative damage theory were used for wind induced fatigue damage assessment. Finally, a two-span TC-PTS is selected as an example, and the wind-induced nonlinear vibration and fatigue damage assessment are analyzed through the proposed model. The results show that the proposed model has high computational accuracy and efficiency. With the increase of wind speed and wind direction angle, the maximum lateral displacement and tension of the supporting suspension cable and transmission line increase, and their degree of increase shows a nonlinear trend. In terms of the wind-induced fatigue analysis results of TC-PTS, the fatigue damage at the end of the supporting-conductor suspension cable is greater than the fatigue damage at its midpoint. Compared to the fatigue damage at the midpoint of the conductor, the fatigue damage at the end of the conductor is less affected by wind direction angle, and both are more significantly affected by the wind speed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0144.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: undersea project; measuring the two pipelines; rotating shaft; magnetic coupling; assisted rope winch
Online: 11 February 2020 (11:40:30 CET)
In order to solve the problem of measuring the distance and position between the flanges of two pipelines on the seabed, a measuring device for pulling rope in seawater was designed. Aiming at the sealing problem of the key equipment that is the rotating shaft of the rope winch, this paper used the principle of the magnetic coupling to transfer the driving moment, and adopted the method of converting the dynamic seal into the static seal structure to realize the reliable sealing of the motor. Through the experiment of measuring two pipelines with underwater rope pulling device, it was verified that the measuring accuracy of the device meets the design requirements, and the feasibility of the application of magnetic coupling technology in winch is also verified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2008.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: technological innovation; financial agglomeration; real economy growth; space spillover effect
Online: 28 September 2023 (11:21:52 CEST)
Amidst China's new economic normal, the real economy faces various domestic and global challenges. Technological innovation, with its capital intensity and uncertain returns, is crucial to rejuvenate emerging industries and revamp the industrial structure. Meanwhile, financial agglomeration plays a dual role: directly fostering real economic development and indirectly affecting it through technological innovation. This study analyzes data from 30 mainland Chinese provinces and cities between 2011 and 2018, utilizing fuzzy matter-element analysis and location entropy method. Relying on a spatial econometric model, we explore the impact of technological innovation and financial clustering on real economic growth, including spatial ripple effects. The conclusions are derived from Chinese evidence and offer valuable insights into the evolving innovation and financial dynamics within the participating nations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0156.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breathing exercises; pain; cancer survivors
Online: 10 March 2022 (15:17:07 CET)
Objective: To explore the efficacy and safety of breathing exercises for pain management in cancer survivors. Design: A systematic review. Data sources: Thirteen databases, including PubMed, EMBase, CENTRAL, Medline, CINAHL, JBI, Science Direct, Scopus, SocINDEX, Web of Science, PsycINFO, CNKI, and Wan Fang, were searched from inception to May 24, 2021. Review/analysis methods: Studies that focused on the efficacy of breathing exercises for pain management in cancer survivors were included. Cochrane tools were used for the quality appraisal of the included studies. Due to the heterogeneity of the studies, descriptive data analysis was used to summarize the results. Results: A total of 10 studies were included in this systematic review. Slow pursed lip breathing showed benefits for post-surgical pain. Contradictory findings were identified in the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery breathing exercise for post-surgical pain. Slow deep breathing and Hey-Hu regular breathing techniques were effective for pain management in pediatric cancer patients. The Active Cycle of Breathing Technique and five-minute mindful breathing did not have any statistically significant effects on pain relief. Quality of life was measured in three studies, with some improvement. Only one study addressed adverse events and reported that no adverse events associated with the breathing exercises occurred during the study. Conclusion: This review found some evidence of positive effects of breathing exercises for pain relief in cancer survivors. However, the unsatisfactory methodological quality of the studies prevents its generalizability. More large-scale studies are needed to assess the efficacy and safety of breathing exercises for pain relief in cancer survivors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0132.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: carbon emission intensity; gravity model; social network; driving effect; sustainable development; Construction industry
Online: 11 January 2022 (08:46:34 CET)
To explore the spatial network structure characteristics and driving effects of carbon emission intensity in China's construction industry, the investigation combined the modified gravity model and social network analysis method to deeply analyze the spatially associated network structure characteristics and driving effects of carbon emission intensity in China's construction industry, based on the measurement of carbon emission data of China's construction industry from 2006 to 2017. The results show that the regional differences of carbon emission of construction industry are significant, and the carbon emission intensity of construction industry show a fluctuation trend. The overall network of carbon emission intensity shows an obvious “core-edge” state, the hierarchical network structure is gradually broken. Economically developed provinces generally play a leading role in the network, and play an intermediary role to guide other provinces to develop together with them. Among the network blocks, most of the blocks play the role of “brokers”. The block with the leading economic development has a strong influence on the other blocks. The increase of network density, the decrease of network hierarchy and network efficiency will reduce the construction carbon emission intensity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0691.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Huanglian Decoction (Coptidis Rhizoma, Zingiberis Rhizoma, Folium Artemisiae Argyi, Mume Fructus); Hepatocellular carcinoma; TCGA; GEO
Online: 27 November 2020 (13:14:24 CET)
Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most prevalent cancers in human populations worldwide. Conversely, Huanglian Decoction is one of the most important Chinese medicine formulas, with the potential to treat cancer. Methods: To identify differentially expressed genes (DEG), we herein downloaded gene expression profile data from the TCGA (TCGA-LIHC) and GEO (GSE45436) databases. We obtained phytochemicals of the four constituent herbs of Huanglian Decoction from the traditional Chinese medicine systems pharmacology database and analysis platform (TCMSP). We also established a regulatory network of DEG and their drug target genes and subsequently analyzed key genes using bioinformatic approaches. Furthermore, we explored the effect of Huanglian Decoction by conducting in vitro experiments so as to verify the prediction. In particular, the CCNB1 gene was knockdown to verify the primary target of this Decoction. Results: Based on the results of network pharmacological analysis, we revealed that there are 5 bioactive compounds in Huanglian Decoction acting on HCC. In addition, our findings confirmed that CCNB1 was the primary key gene, which can be highly expressed in tumors and was significantly associated with a worse prognosis (P = 0.002) according to PPI network analysis of the target genes of these five compounds, as well as expression and prognosis analyses in tumors. We also noted that CCNB1 can be used as an independent prognostic indicator of HCC (P < 0.01). Moreover, in vitro experimental results demonstrate that Huanglian Decoction can significantly inhibit the growth, migration, and invasion of HCC cells. Finally, further analysis showed that this Decoction may inhibit the growth of HCC cells by down-regulating the expression level of CCNB1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0173.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: Al-Zn-Mg alloy; Retrogression re-aging treatment; Corrosion; Electrochemistry
Online: 9 July 2020 (07:34:27 CEST)
The effect of retrogression re-aging treatment (RRA) on corrosion behavior of 7055 Al-Zn-Mg alloy were studied. Results provides the corrosion resistance could be greatly improved by RRA. After the RRA treatment, the isolated precipitates occurred on grain boundaries (GBs) and the low angle grain boundaries (LAGBs) presented a larger fraction compared to the single-stage peaking aging. The samples after RRA treatment also show better corrosion resistance than the single-stage peak aging. The results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) show that impedance spectrum is consisted of semi-infinite layer diffusion impedance and stagnant Weber impedance. The semi-infinite layer diffusion impedance corresponded a limited retention layer on the electrode surface. In corrosion process, Weber impedance corresponded to stagnant layer of corrosion products generated by the anode branches. The RRA sample has the high Rf and low Cf, Cp values, and the corrosion current density of the RRA samples is ten times less than the single-stage peak aging samples with the 10% hardness losing.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0102.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Breast cancer; self-management; non-pharmacological interventions; clinical practice guidelines; content analysis
Online: 7 March 2022 (14:21:21 CET)
Background: A growing number of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) with regards to non-pharmacological interventions for breast cancer survivors are available. However, given the limitations in guideline development methodologies and inconsistency of recommendations, it remains uncertain how best to design and implement such non-pharmacological strategies to tailor interventions for breast cancer survivors with varied health conditions, healthcare needs, and preferences. Aim: To critically appraise and summarise available non-pharmacological interventions for symptom management and health promotion that can be self-managed by breast cancer survivors based on the recommendations of the CPGs. Methods: Clinical practice guidelines which were published between January 2016 and September 2021 and described non-pharmacological interventions for breast cancer survivors were systematically searched in six electronic databases, nine relevant guideline databases, and five cancer care society websites. The quality of the included CPGs was assessed by four evaluators using the Appraisal of Guidelines for REsearch and Evaluation, second edition tool. Content analysis was conducted to synthesise the characteristics of the non-pharmacological interventions that were recommended by the included CPGs, such as the intervention’s form, duration and frequency, level of evidence, grade of recommendation, and source of evidence. Results: Fourteen CPGs were identified and analysed. Of the 14 CPGs appraised, only five were rated as high quality. The domain with the highest standardised percentage was “scope and purpose” (84.61%), while the “applicability” domain had the lowest standardised percentage (51.04%). Five guidelines were assessed as “recommended”, seven were rated as “recommended with modifications”, and the remaining two were considered “not recommended”. Regarding the content analysis, physical activity/exercise, meditation, hypnosis, yoga, music therapy, stress management, relaxation, massage, and acupressure were the common self-managed non-pharmacological interventions recommended by the 14 CPGs. Physical activity/exercise was the only self-managed non-pharmacological intervention that was mostly recommended for psychological and physical symptom management by the included CPGs. However, there were significant disparities in terms of level of evidence and grade of recommendation in the included CPGs. Conclusion: The recommendations for the self-managed non-pharmacological interventions were varied and limited among the 14 CPGs, and some were based on medium- and low-quality evidence. More rigorous methods are required to develop high-quality CPGs in order to guide clinicians in offering high-quality and tailored breast cancer survivorship care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0092.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Heavy metals; Risk assessment; Source analysis; Surface sediment; Qinjiang River
Online: 6 July 2022 (08:57:28 CEST)
Heavy metals are toxic, persistent and non-degradable. After sedimentation and adsorption, they accumulate in water sediments. The aim of this study was to understand the heavy metal pollution of Qinjiang River sediments on the ecological environment and apportioning sources. The mean total concentrations of Mn, Zn, Cr, Cu, and Pb are 3.14, 2.33, 1.39, 5.79, and 1.33 times higher than the background values, respectively, except for the Co, Ni, and Cd, which are lower than the background values; Fe, Co, Ni, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb are all primarily in the residual state, while Mn and Zn are primarily in the acid-soluble and oxidizable states, respectively. Igeo, RI, SQGs and RAC together indicate that the pollution status and ecological risk of heavy metals in Qinjiang River sediments are generally moderate; among them, Fe, Co, Ni, Cd, Cr, and Pb are not harmful to the ecological environment of the Qinjiang River. Cu is not readily released because of its higher residual composition, depicting that Cu is less harmful to the ecological environment. Mn and Zn, as the primary pollution factors of the Qinjiang River, are harmful to the ecological environment. This heavy metal pollution in surface sediments of the Qinjiang River primarily comes from manganese and zinc ore mining. Manganese carbonate and its weathered secondary manganese oxide are frequently associated with a significant amount of residual copper and Cd, as a higher pH is suitable for the deposition and enrichment of these heavy metals. Lead-zinc ore and its weathering products form organic compounds with residual Fe, Co, Cr, and Ni, and their content is related to salinity. The risk assessment results of heavy metals in sediments provide an important theoretical basis for the prevention and control of heavy metal pollution in Qinjiang River.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0416.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: kidney disease; hemodialysis; immunosuppression; pulmonary infections; computed tomography
Online: 24 August 2022 (08:30:16 CEST)
Patients under immunosuppressive therapy for kidney diseases or on maintenance hemodialysis are more susceptible to infection than the general population since loss of renal function per se was an immunocompromised condition. Of relevance, CT imaging plays a crucial role in the detection and management of pulmonary infectious diseases. We hence presented diverse CT findings of pulmonary infections in the above said patients collected during our arduous work against a wide range of pathogens including klebsiella pneumoniae, staphylococcus aureus, candida parapsilosis, aspergillus, cryptococcus, mucor, pneumocystis carinii, cytomegalovirus, mycobacterium and nocardia. Notably, the pulmonary pathological changes were either primary pneumonia or secondary to the catheter-associated bloodstream infection. For a descriptive purpose, pulmonary manifestations of Wegener’s granuloma, lung cancer and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage/infection in vasculitis were also examined. As such, we retrospectively elaborated most likely CT features of each individual pathogen and briefly covered the differential diagnosis as well. Arguably, combination of pattern recognition with knowledge of the clinical setting could make a presumptive diagnosis and early treatment even more convenient. From the experience of first-line nephrologists, our work could make a substantial contribution to the expeditious and efficacious management of pulmonary infections in the pertinent patient population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0384.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: pulmonary organoids; induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs); anterior foregut endoderm; mesoderm; alveoli epithelial cells; SARS-Cov2; iPSC disease modelling
Online: 17 April 2023 (03:33:39 CEST)
Differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells to a range of useful, mature target cell types is ubiquitous in monolayer culture. To further improve the phenotype of the cells produced, 3D organoid culture is becoming increasingly prevalent. Mature organoids typically require the involvement of cells from multiple germ layers. The aim of this study was to produce pulmonary organoids from defined endodermal and mesodermal progenitors. Endodermal and mesodermal progenitors were differentiated from iPSCs then combined in 3D Matrigel hydrogels and differentiated for a further 14 days to produce pulmonary organoids. The organoids expressed a range of pulmonary cell markers such as SPA, SPB, SPC, AQP5 and T1α. Furthermore, organoids expressed ACE2 capable of binding SARS-Cov2 spike protein demonstrating the physiological relevance of the organoids produced. This study demonstrates the rapid production of pulmonary organoids using a multi-germ layer approach that could be used for studying novel respiratory disease interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0127.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: electrospinning; porous carbon nanofibers; oxygen reduction reaction; oxygen evolution reaction
Online: 10 January 2022 (15:23:04 CET)
Recently, electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs) as well as oxygen evolution reactions (OERs) hinged on electrospun nanofiber composites have attracted wide research attention. Transition metal elements and heteroatomic doping are important methods used to enhance their catalytic performances. Lately, the construction of electrocatalysts based on metal-organic framework (MOF) electrospun nanofibers has become a research hotspot. In this work, bimetallic NixCoy-ZIF nanocrystals were synthesized in an aqueous solution, followed by NixCoy-ZIF/PAN electrospun nanofiber precursors, which were prepared by a simple electrospinning method. Bimetal (Ni-Co) porous carbon nanofiber catalysts doped with nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur elements were obtained at high-temperature carbonization treatment in different atmospheres (Ar, Air, and H2S), respectively. The morphological properties, structures, and composition were characterized by SEM, TEM, SAED, XRD, and XPS. Also, the specific surface area of materials and their pore size distribution was characterized by BET. Linear sweep voltammetry curves investigated catalyst performances towards oxygen reduction and evolution reactions. Importantly, Ni1Co2-ZIFs/PAN-Ar yielded the best ORR activity, whereas Ni1Co1-ZIFs/PAN-Air exhibited the best OER performance. This work provides significant guidance for the preparation and characterization of multi-doped porous carbon nanofibers carbonized in different atmospheres.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0004.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: m1A; Tumor microenvironment; PD-1/PD-L1; CTLA-4; Tumor Mutation Burden; Bioinformatics Analysis
Online: 1 November 2021 (10:39:51 CET)
Background: Recent researches have investigated the biological importance of RNA N1-methyladenosine (m1A) modifications in oncogenesis and progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, whether m1A modifications also have latent effect in tumor microenvironment (TME) generation and immune regulation in HNSCC is unknown. Methods: We evaluated the m1A modification patterns and related to these modification patterns with TME cell infiltration features in 1041 HNSCC samples by bioinformatics approach. Results: The m1A score is an independent prognostic indicator. HNSCC patients with low m1A score group with poor overall survival (OS) was mainly characterized by stroma activation, lack of sufficient immune infiltration, and exhibited an immune- desert TME phenotype. Low m1A scores were also correlated with increased tumor mutation burden (TMB), and HNSCC patients with high TMB and low m1A scores had the worst OS. In addition, anti-CTLA-4 combined with anti-PD1 treatment was more effective in the high m1A score subgroup than in the low m1A score subgroup. Conclusions: This study revealed that m1A modifications play a non-negligible role in developing the TME versatility and complexity of HNSCC. Assessing m1A modification patterns in HNSCC helps improve our comprehension of its TME infiltration profile and guides more effective immunotherapeutic approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0306.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Parkinson´s disease; proteomics; cerebral cortex; palmitoylation; interactome.; fibrinogen; cytoskeleton
Online: 20 October 2022 (11:14:12 CEST)
The relationship between Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease, and palmitoylation, a post-translational lipid modification, is not well understood. In this study, we have analyzed the differential palmitome present in the cerebral cortex of PD patients compared to controls (n=4 per group) to better understand the role of protein palmitoylation in PD and the pathways altered in this disease. Data-mining of the cortical palmitome from PD patients and controls has allowed to: i) detect a set of 150 proteins with altered palmitoylation in PD subjects in comparison with controls, ii) describe the biological pathways and targets predicted to be altered by these palmitoylation changes, and iii) depict the overlap between the differential palmitome identified in our study with protein interactomes of the PD-linked proteins α-synuclein, LRRK2, DJ-1, PINK1, GBA and UCHL1. In summary, we have partially characterized the altered palmitome in the cortex of PD patients which is predicted to impact cytoskeleton, mitochondrial and fibrinogen functions, as well as cell survival. Our study points out that protein palmitoylation could have a role in the pathophysiology of PD, and that comprehensive palmitoyl-proteomics offers a powerful approach for elucidating novel cellular pathways modulated in this neurodegenerative disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1443.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: cold spraying; FeAl; coating; microstructure; microhardness; annealing treatment
Online: 20 June 2023 (12:39:13 CEST)
In the present study, a nanostructured FeAl coating was prepared by cold spraying of ball milled powder. Annealing treatment was applied to the coating to investigate its effect on the microstructure, phase structure and microhardness of the cold-sprayed nanostructured FeAl coating. The results showed that the FeAl phase was kept unchangeable when the coating annealed at the temperature above 500oC. Annealing temperature significantly influenced the microstructure and microhardness of cold-sprayed FeAl coating. With raising annealing temperature, the lamellar structure in the as-sprayed coating disappeared and a dense coating microstructure with fully bonding of deposited particles at their interfaces was achieved after annealing at 950oC. Nanograin growth of the FeAl phase occurred at an annealing temperature higher than 800oC. The microhardness of cold-sprayed FeAl coating remained about 400 Hv0.1 at the annealing temperature below 800oC and decreased to 300 Hv0.1 at 1100oC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0041.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; high fat-sucrose diet; metabolomics; HPLC-QTOF-MS; quercetin
Online: 4 January 2019 (14:04:13 CET)
As metabolomics is widely used in the study of disease mechanisms, more and more studies have found that metabolites play an important role in the occurrence of diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects and mechanisms of quercetin in high-fat-sucrose diet (HFD)-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development using nontargeted metabolomics. A rat model of NAFLD was established by feeding with a HFD for 30 and 50 days. Results indicated quercetin exhibited hepatoprotective activity in HFD-induced NAFLD rats in 30 days by regulating fatty acids related metabolites (adrenic acid, etc.), inflammation related metabolites (arachidonic acid, etc.), oxidative stress related metabolites (2-hydroxybutyric acid) and other differential metabolites (citric acid, etc.). However, quercetin couldn’t improve NAFLD in 50 days maybe it couldn’t reverse the inflammation condition induced by long-term high-fat diet. These data indicate that dietary quercetin may be beneficial to NAFLD at early stages. Furthermore, combining metabolomics and experimental approaches opens up avenues of effects and mechanisms of drugs for complex diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1410.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: Post-fracture production prediction; Production segmentation; well logging; Pipelines; GridSearchCV; Machine learning
Online: 23 October 2023 (08:08:27 CEST)
As the oil industry increasingly turns to unconventional low-permeability and low-porosity reservoirs, precise post-fracture production prediction is a pivotal instrument in investment de-cision-making, formulation of energy policies, and promotion of environmental assessments. Nevertheless, despite extensive research spanning decades, the precise post-fracture production prediction based on logging parameters remains an intricate task. In this study, we gathered ex-tensive logging data and segmented the post-frac gas production during well testing on the first day to enrich the dataset. Nine pipelines were then architected using various techniques of data preprocessing, feature extraction, and advanced machine learning models. Hyperparameter op-timization was executed via the GridsearchCV. To assess the efficacy of diverse models, metrics including the coefficient of determination (R2), standard deviation (SD), and root mean square error (RMSE) were invoked. Among the several pipelines explored, the PS-NN exhibited excellent predictive capability in specific reservoir contexts (an R2 value of 0.94 and an RMSE of 48.15). In essence, integrating machine learning with logging parameters effectively assesses reservoir productivity at multi-meter formation scales. This strategy not only mitigates uncertainties en-demic to reservoir exploration but also equips petroleum engineers with monitoring on reservoir dynamics, thereby facilitating reservoir development. Additionally, this approach provides res-ervoir engineers with an efficient way of reservoir performance oversight.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0727.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: antimicrobial peptide; dermaseptin; molecular cloning; analogue design
Online: 9 August 2023 (10:45:09 CEST)
The emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria has severely increased the burden on the global health system, and such pathogen infections are considered a great threat to human well-being. Antimicrobial peptides, due to their potent antimicrobial activity and low possibility of inducing resistance, are increasingly becoming the focus of much interest. Herein, a novel dermaseptin peptide, named Dermaseptin-SS1 (SS1), was identified from a skin secretion-derived cDNA library of the South/Central American tarsier leaf frog, Phyllomedusa tarsius, using a ‘shotgun’ cloning strategy. Chemically-synthesised peptide SS1 was found to be broadly effective against Gram-negative bacteria with low haemolytic activity in vitro. A designed synthetic analogue of SS1, named peptide 14V5K, showed a lower salt sensitivity with more rapid bacteria-killing compared to SS1. Both peptides employed the membrane-targeting mechanism to kill Escherichia coli. The antiproliferative activity of SS1 and its analogues, against lung cancer cell lines, was found to be significant.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: chronic intermittent hypoxia; autophagy; apoptosis; cardiomyocyte damage; calcineurin
Online: 24 June 2021 (14:58:22 CEST)
Calcineurin plays a key role in cardiovascular pathogenesis by exerting pro-apoptotic effects in cardiomyocytes; however, its involvement in the regulation of cardiomyocyte autophagy under chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) remains largely unknown. Here we showed that CIH induced calcineurin activity in H9C2 cells, resulting in the attenuation of adenosine monophos-phate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and inhibition of H9C2 cell autophagy. Au-tophagy, LC3-II levels, and AMPK phosphorylation were significantly elevated in response to CIH in H9C2 cells by day 3; however, these effects were reversed, and calcineurin activity and apoptosis were significantly increased by day 5. The calcineurin inhibitor, FK506, restored AMPK activation and LC3 protein levels, and reduced CIH-induced H9C2 cell apoptosis, while calcineurin overexpression significantly attenuated the increase in LC3 levels and enhanced H9C2 cell apop-tosis. Calcineurin inhibition failed to induce autophagy or alleviate apoptosis in H9C2 cells ex-pressing a dominant negative K45R AMPK mutant. Autophagy downregulation abrogated the protective effects of FK506-mediated calcineurin inhibition. These results indicated that calcineurin suppressed adaptive autophagy during CIH by downregulating AMPK activation. Our findings showed the underlying mechanisms of calcineurin and autophagy regulation during H9C2 cell survival in response to CIH, and suggested a new strategy for preventing CIH-induced cardiomyocyte damage.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0522.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: Fischer-Tropsch synthesis; Fe-carbide; Mechanism; Synthesis gas; Fe carburization
Online: 7 June 2023 (08:58:31 CEST)
With an increase in energy consumption globally, Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis is a good alternative for producing fuels and chemicals from coal, natural gas or biomass. Among them, coal to liquids has been put into production in countries that have large coal reserves. In this process, Fe-based catalysts are commonly used due to their earth abundance, comparatively wide operation range and ready availability to handle low H2/CO ratio from coal. Despite their extensive applications, the kinetic and mechanistic understandings of Fe carburization and FT reaction on Fe-carbides are relatively limited due to the complexity of phase composition of the applied catalysts. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of FT synthesis on Fe-carbide with an emphasis on underlying mechanism. Specifically, the employment of model catalyst, such as Raney-Fe, could provide a convenient way to furnish kinetic information regarding Fe carburization and subsequent FT reaction. A major challenge for further understanding catalytic reactions occurring at the Fe-carbide surface is correlating FT activity and selectivity to specific active site. To address this issue, the advancements of both DFT calculations and surface science techniques are highly demanded.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0167.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: 2019-nCoV; Immune; B cell; T cell; COVID-19
Online: 13 February 2020 (10:53:40 CET)
The outbreak of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has rapidly spread from Wuhan, China to multiple countries, causing staggering number of infections and deaths. A systematic profiling of the immune vulnerability landscape of 2019-nCoV is lacking, which can bring critical insights into the immune clearance mechanism, peptide vaccine development, and antiviral antibody development. In this study, we predicted the potential of all the 2019-nCoV viral proteins to induce class I and II MHC presentation and form linear antibody epitopes. We showed that the enrichment for T cell and B cell epitopes is not uniform on the viral genome, with several focused regions that generate abundant epitopes and may be more targetable. We showed that genetic variations in 2019-nCoV, though fewer for the moment, already follow the pattern of mutations in related coronaviruses, and could alter the immune vulnerability landscape of this virus, which should be considered in the development of therapies. We create an online database to broadly share our research outcome. Overall, we present an immunological resource for 2019-nCoV that could significantly promote both therapeutic development and mechanistic research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0301.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: land surface temperature; WVS-based LST method; ZY1-02E IRS
Online: 6 December 2023 (03:21:10 CET)
The role of land surface temperature (LST) is of utmost importance in multiple academic disciplines such as climatology, hydrology, ecology, and meteorology. Until to now, many methods have been proposed to estimate LST from satellite thermal infrared data. The Thermal Infrared Sensor (IRS) on the Chinese ZY1-02E satellite is a pivotal instrument employed for gathering thermal infrared (TIR) data of land surfaces. The objective of this research is to evaluate the feasibility of a single-channel approach based on water vapor scaling (WVS) for deriving LST from ZY1-02E IRS data because of its wide spectrum range, i.e., 7~12μm, affected strongly by both atmospheric water vapor and ozone. Three study areas, namely Baotou, Heihe River Basin, and Yantai-sea sites, were selected as validation sites to evaluate the LST inversion accuracy. This evaluation was also conducted by cross-comparison between the retrieved LST and MODIS LST product. The results revealed that the WVS-based method exhibited an average bias of 0.63K and an RMSE of 1.62K compared to the in-situ LSTs. The WVS-based method demonstrated reasonable accuracy through cross-validation with the MODIS LST product, with an average bias of 0.77K and RMSE of 2.0K. These findings provide that the WVS-based method is effective to estimate LST from ZY1-02E IRS data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0297.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Rhizobium; species complex; bacterial taxonomy; core genes; housekeeping genes; average nucleotide identity; speciation; genospecies
Online: 12 December 2020 (11:51:22 CET)
Bacteria currently included in Rhizobium leguminosarum are too diverse to be considered a single species, so we can refer to this as a species complex (the Rlc). We have found 429 publicly available genome sequences that fall within the Rlc and these show that the Rlc is a distinct entity, well separated from other species in the genus. Its sister taxon is R. anhuiense. We constructed a phylogeny based on concatenated sequences of 120 universal (core) genes, and calculated pairwise average nucleotide identity (ANI) between all genomes. From these analyses, we concluded that the Rlc includes 18 distinct genospecies, plus 7 unique strains that are not placed in these genospecies. Each genospecies is separated by a distinct gap in ANI values, usually at around 96% ANI, implying that it is a 'natural' unit. Five of the genospecies include the type strains of named species: R. laguerreae, R. sophorae, R. ruizarguesonis, "R. indicum" and R. leguminosarum itself. The 16S ribosomal RNA sequence is remarkably diverse within the Rlc, but does not distinguish the genospecies. Partial sequences of housekeeping genes, which have frequently been used to characterise isolate collections, can mostly be assigned unambiguously to a genospecies, but alleles within a genospecies do not always form a clade, so single genes are not a reliable guide to the true phylogeny of the strains. We conclude that access to a large number of genome sequences is a powerful tool for characterising the diversity of bacteria, and that taxonomic conclusions should be based on all available genome sequences, not just those of type strains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0129.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: TWAS; non-European; blood cell traits
Online: 4 June 2021 (09:56:45 CEST)
Background: Thousands of genetic variants have been associated with hematological traits, though target genes remain unknown at most loci. Also, limited analyses have been conducted in African ancestry and Hispanic/Latino populations; hematological trait associated variants more common in these populations have likely been missed. Methods: To derive gene expression prediction models, we used ancestry-stratified datasets from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA, including N=229 African American and N=381 Hispanic/Latino participants, monocytes) and the Depression Genes and Networks study (DGN, N = 922 European ancestry participants, whole blood). We then performed a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) for platelet count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and white blood cell count in African (N = 27,955) and Hispanic/Latino (N = 28,324) ancestry participants. Results: Our results revealed 24 suggestive signals (p < 1×10^(-4)) that were conditionally distinct from known GWAS identified variants and successfully replicated these signals in European ancestry subjects from UK Biobank. We found modestly improved correlation of predicted and measured gene expression in an independent African American cohort (the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) study (N=802), lymphoblastoid cell lines) using the larger DGN reference panel; however, some genes were well predicted using MESA but not DGN. Conclusions: These analyses demonstrate the importance of performing TWAS and other genetic analyses across diverse populations and of balancing sample size and ancestry background matching when selecting a TWAS reference panel.