ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0463.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Kuroshio; Current energy harvester; Orcaflex; Nozzle-diffuser duct
Online: 20 July 2021 (16:07:34 CEST)
In response to the increasing energy demand in Taiwan and the global trend of renewable energy development, Kuroshio energy is a potential energy source. How to extract this invaluable natural resource has then become an intriguing and important question in engineering practices. This study conducted a study for a nozzle-diffuser duct (NDD) as the Kuroshio currents energy harvester. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software ANSYS Fluent was employed to calculate the drag and added mass coefficients of the duct anchored to the seabed. Those coefficients were further imported into Orcaflex to simulate the motion of the duct under normal and storm wave conditions. Results showed that the duct was stable 25 m below the sea surface under normal wave condition. When the wave condition changed to storm waves, the duct needed to dive into at least 90 m below the sea surface to regain its stability and obtain high power take-off (PTO). An optimal design nozzle-diffuser-duct was reported and a PTO peak of 15 kW was expectable in the Kuroshio currents. Once a suitable offshore platform can be developed with sixty-six NDDs, a Megawatt Kuroshio ocean current power generation system is feasible in the near future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0421.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: onboard calibration; partial aperture factor; solar diffuser; absolute radiometric calibration, remote sensors
Online: 27 December 2021 (10:42:31 CET)
A partial aperture onboard calibration method can solve the onboard calibration problems of some large aperture remote sensors, which is of great significance for the development trend of increasingly large apertures in optical remote sensors. In this paper, the solar diffuser reflectance degradation monitor (SDRDM) in the onboard calibration assembly (CA) of the FengYun-4 (FY-4) advanced geostationary radiance imager (AGRI) is used as the reference radiometer for measuring the partial aperture factor (PAF) for the AGRI onboard calibration. First, the linear response count variation relationship between the two is established under the same radiance source input. Then, according to the known bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF) of the solar diffuser (SD) in the CA, the relative reflectance ratio coefficient between the AGRI observation direction and the SDRDM observation direction is calculated. On this basis, the response count value of the AGRI and the SDRDM is used to realize the high-precision measurement of the PAF of the AGRI B1 ~ B3 bands by simulating the AGRI onboard calibration measurement under the illumination of a solar simulator in the laboratory. According to the determination process of the relevant parameters of the PAF, the measurement uncertainty of the PAF is analyzed; this uncertainty is better than 2.04% and provides an important reference for the evaluation of the onboard absolute radiometric calibration uncertainty after launch.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0204.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids & Plasmas Keywords: De Laval nozzle; femtosecond laser micromachining; ultrafast laser sources.
Online: 14 January 2022 (11:24:56 CET)
We report on the study of ultrafast laser-induced plasma expansion dynamics in a gas microjet. To this purpose, we focused femtosecond laser pulses on a nitrogen jet produced through a homemade De Laval micronozzle. The laser excitation leads to plasma excitation with a characteristic spectral line emission at 391 nm. By following the emitted signal with a detection system based on an Intensified Charge-Coupled Device (ICCD) we captured the two-dimensional spatial evolution of the photo-excited nitrogen ions with a temporal resolution on the nanosecond time scale. We fabricated the micronozzle on fused silica substrate by femtosecond laser micromachining. This technique enables high accuracy and three-dimensional capabilities, thus providing an ideal platform for developing glass-based microfluidic structures for application to plasma physics and ultrafast spectroscopy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0275.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: alumina; Additive Manufacturing (AM); CerAMfacturing; vat photopolymerization (VPP); digi-tal light processing (DLP); Lithography-based Ceramic Manufacturing (LCM); cold-gas nozzle; aerospike nozzle
Online: 21 March 2022 (07:31:31 CET)
Advanced ceramics are recognized as key enabling materials possessing combinations of properties not achievable in other material classes. They are characterized by very high thermal, chemical and mechanical resistance and also usually have a lower density than metals. These properties predestine ceramics for many different applications, especially space applications.In the aerospace sector aerospike nozzles promise performance and application advantages compared to classic bell nozzles but are also inherently more complex to manufacture due to their shape. AM methods drastically simplify or even enable the fabrication of those complex structures while minimising the number of individual parts. The applicability of ceramic AM (“CerAMfacturing”) on rocket engines and especially nozzles is consequently investigated in the frame of the “MACARONIS” project, a cooperation of the Institute of Aerospace Engineering at Technische Universität Dresden and the Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems (IKTS) in Dresden. The goal is to develop novel large size aerospike thrust nozzles including areas of highest resolution and fineness. Finding a suitable AM process that enables the realisation of both aspects is extremely challenging. One possibility could be the hybridization of shaping methods, in that case CerAM VPP (ceramic additive manufacturing via vat photopolymerization) and CerAM FFF (ceramic additive manufacturing via fused filament fabrication) in combination with sinter joining. This contribution focuses on the high resolution CerAM VPP process, in particular the development, characterization and testing of a new photoreactive Al2O3 suspension validated by AM of novel aerospike nozzles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0274.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: welding thin sheets; constricted nozzle; TIG welding; EBSD; blowhole; heat input
Online: 24 October 2019 (05:55:00 CEST)
A study about influence of heat input on welding defects in vertical upward welding position for dissimilar material and thickness using a new variation of TIG welding torch is done with support of advanced inspection methods SEM and EBSD. With vertical upward welding position, control heat input plays an important role to keep the weld stabilization without defects. On the other hand, TIG welding process using a conventional TIG torch (conventional TIG welding process) has low efficiency and it is difficult to control heat input with high accuracy. So, it is considered that using conventional TIG torch is still a challenge for welding thin plates. In this case, a new variation of TIG torch has been developed. This torch used a constricted nozzle to improve plasma arc characteristics. As a result, it can control efficiently the heat input to prevent the excessive or insufficiency for joining thin sheets. For evaluation of welding quality, advanced examination methods SEM and EBSD were applied to directly observe the welding defects. From the results, the formation mechanism of blowhole inside weld zone in case of welding dissimilar material and thickness was discussed. It is pointed out that when sufficient welding current, the change from weld zone to base metal is uniform, no welding defects such as blowhole was seen. However, in case of low welding current, the thinner base metal is insufficient fusion and the change between weld zone and base metal is not uniform. The blowhole was observed at SS400 material side.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0217.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: swirling flow; lobed nozzle; stream-wise vortex; mixing efficiency; total pressure loss
Online: 19 November 2019 (03:03:48 CET)
Influence of core flow inlet swirl angle on aerodynamic performances of an exhaust nozzle with scarfed lobed mixer was studied by the validated computational approach. The computational simulation was conducted by resolving the steady form of discretized three-dimensional Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the shear stress transport k-Ω turbulence model. Simulation results depict that swirling motions have ignorable influence on the flow field of the top part in the cross sections slightly downstream of the lobed trailing edge. Besides, for the flow field downstream of the L/D=0.1 cross section, the swirling motions are suggested to cause the clockwise stream-wise vortex to stretch into several smaller-scale vortexes. When the case with a bigger swirling angle is investigated, the induced smaller-scale vortexes are more strengthened by the swirling motions. Concerning the 15° swirling case, the loss caused by the destroyed vortex pattern and the benefit induced by the improved smaller-scale vortexes almost counteract with each other with respect to the thermal mixing efficiency. In the last studied cross section as compared with the baseline case, the case with a maximum swirling angle of 30° has increased 6.94% for the thermal mixing efficiency and decreased 0.42% for the total pressure recovery coefficient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0321.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: lithium-ion battery; safety; separator; coaxial electrospinning; dual-nozzle; core-shell nanofiber
Online: 28 July 2019 (17:00:49 CEST)
Though the energy density of lithium-ion batteries continues to increase, safety issues related with the internal short-circuit and the resulting combustion of highly flammable electrolyte impede the further development of lithium-ion batteries. It has been well-accepted that a thermal stable separator is important to postpone the entire battery short-circuit and thermal-runaway. Traditional methods to improve the thermal stability of separators includes surface modification and/or developing alternate material systems for separators which may always affect the battery performance negatively. Herein, a thermostable and shrink-free separator with little compromise in battery performance is prepared by coaxial electrospinning and tested. The separator consists of core-shell fiber networks where poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) layer serves as shell and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as the core. This core-shell fiber network exhibits little or even no shrinking/melting at elevated temperature over 250 °C. Meanwhile, it shows excellent electrolyte wettability and can take large amount of liquid electrolyte three times more than that of conventional Celgard 2400 separator. In addition, the half-cell using LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as cathode and the aforementioned electrospun core-shell fiber network as separator demonstrates superior electrochemical behavior, stably cycling for 200 cycles at 1 C with a reversible capacity of 130 mAh g-1 and little capacity decay.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0088.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: 3D coaxial; multi-nozzle; flow-focusing; high- rate; microsphere; tissue engineering; stereolithography
Online: 5 November 2018 (07:54:22 CET)
Tissue engineering is an emerging field of research due to its growing impact on the regeneration of tissue injured from damage and organ failure. Small hydrogel microspheres containing regenerative cells and stimulators can be used as building blocks to regenerate tissue by injecting them into damaged areas; a microneedle is used to minimize the incision and any associated infections. To address the need for production of a large number of microspheres for use in tissue engineering, we developed a 3D coaxial multi-nozzle flow-focusing device fabricated via a simple 3D-printing method that demonstrates a high rate of microsphere production per nozzle. This device has six coaxial microscale nozzles that produce hydrogel microspheres. Two individual parts—the inlet and nozzle—can be made separately by a 3D printer and bonded together using uncured photo-curable resin as glue. The dimensions of the microspheres are between 100 μm and 1200 μm. They are produced by adjusting the flow rate ratio between the dispersed and continuous media. A flow rate ratio of 180 demonstrated the highest microsphere production rate of 2.12e+5 microspheres per sec (0.25 mL/min). This microsphere production rate per nozzle is four times higher than that of currently available devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0201.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: lithium ion battery; safety; flame retardant; separator; electrospun fibers; dual-nozzle coaxial electrospinning
Online: 17 September 2019 (12:19:49 CEST)
Lithium-ion batteries have attracted enormous interests recently as promising power sources. However, the safety issue associated with the employment of highly flammable liquid electrolyte impedes the further development of next-generation lithium-ion batteries. Recently, researchers reported the use of electrospun core-shell fiber as the battery separator consisting of polymer layer as protective shell and flame retardants loaded inside as core. In case of a typical battery shorting, the protective polymer shell melts during thermal-runaway and the flame retardants inside would be released to suppress the combustion of the electrolyte. Due to the use of a single precursor solution for electrospinning containing both polymer and flame retardants, the weight ratio of flame retardants is limited and dependent. Herein, we developed a dual-nozzle, coaxial electrospinning approach to fabricate the core-shell nanofiber with a greatly enhanced flame retardants weight percentage in the final fibers. The weight ratio of flame retardants of triphenyl phosphate in the final composite reaches over 60 wt.%. The LiFePO4-based cell using this composite nanofiber as battery separator exhibits excellent flame-retardant property without compromising the cycling stability or rate performances. In addition, this functional nanofiber can also be coated onto commercial separators instead of being used directly as separators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0084.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Femtosecond laser micromachining; High order harmonic generation; de Laval gas micro nozzle; Attosecond science.
Online: 9 January 2020 (12:01:44 CET)
We report on the application of femtosecond laser micromachining to the fabrication of complex glass microdevices, for high-order harmonic generation in gas. The three-dimensional capabilities and extreme flexibility of femtosecond laser micromachining allow us to achieve accurate control of gas density inside the micrometer interaction channel. This device gives a considerable increase in harmonics generation efficiency if compared with traditional harmonic generation in gas jets. We propose different chip geometries that allow to control the gas density and driving field intensity inside the interaction channel to achieve quasi-phase matching conditions in the harmonic generation process. We believe that these glass micro-devices will pave the way to future downscaling of High-order Harmonic Generation beamlines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0066.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: nuclear facility; ultrasonic interface wave; defect detection; nondestructive testing; finite element method; inaccessible nozzle
Online: 13 January 2017 (10:01:23 CET)
An effective method to inspect inaccessible nuclear power facility by interface wave which propagate along the shrink fit boundary of reactor head is proposed in this study. Reactor head is relatively thick to inspect from the outside of reactor by conventional ultrasonic testing. The proposed interface wave can propagate a long distance from the fixed transducer position. The inside of nuclear reactor is limited to access due to the high radiation, so transducers are located at outside of nuclear facility and interface wave propagates into the nuclear reactor for defect detection. The numerical simulation and experiments were carried out to validate the effectiveness of the proposed interface wave inspection method. Various defect cases simulating field failures are also presented with satisfactory detectability by the proposed technique with the features for defect classification.