ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0139.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: interfacial rheology; interfacial shear rheometer; bicone interfacial rheometer; flow field based data processing
Online: 8 October 2018 (11:15:25 CEST)
Flow field based methods are becoming increasingly popular for the analysis of interfacial shear rheology data. Such methods take properly into account the subphase drag by solving the Navier-Stokes equations for the bulk phases flows, together with the Boussinesq-Scriven boundary condition at the fluid-fluid interface, and the probe equation of motion. Such methods have been successfully implemented at the double wall-ring (DWR), the magnetic rod (MR), and the bicone interfacial shear rheometers. However, a study of the errors introduced directly by the numerical processing is still lacking. Here we report on a study of the errors introduced exclusively by the numerical procedure corresponding to the bicone geometry at an air-water interface. In our study we directly input a preset the value of the complex interfacial viscosity and we numerically obtain the corresponding flow field and the complex amplitude ratio for the probe motion. Then we use the standard iterative procedure to obtain the calculated complex viscosity value. A detailed comparison of the set and calculated complex viscosity values is made upon changing different parameters such as real and imaginary parts of the complex interfacial viscosity and frequency. The observed discrepancies yield a detailed landscape of the numerically introduced errors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0582.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Semaglutide; GLP-1R; Interfacial Biophysics
Online: 24 July 2020 (11:58:41 CEST)
Semaglutide is a glucagon-like peptide 1 analog used for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. With 94% sequence similarity to human GLP-1, semaglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist, which binds directly to GLP-1R, causing various beneficial downstream effects that reduce blood glucose. Practically, it is favourable for semaglutide to bind not just directly, but also tighter, to its receptor GLP-1R. Therefore, incorporating currently available experimental structural data of semaglutide-GLP-1R, this short article reports for the first time that biophysically, semaglutide is able to bind tighter to GLP-1R with just a simple Val27-Arg28 exchange in its peptide backbone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0041.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: chip-nanocalorimetry; ultrafast nanocalorimetry; interfacial thermal resistance
Online: 2 August 2021 (13:08:06 CEST)
Ultrafast chip nanocalorimetry opens up remarkable possibilities in materials science by allowing samples to be cooled and heated at extremely high rates. Due to heat transfer limitations, controlled ultrafast cooling and heating can only be achieved for tiny samples in calorimeters with a micron-thick membrane. Even if ultrafast heating can be controlled under quasi-adiabatic conditions, ultrafast controlled cooling can be performed if the calorimetric cell is located in a heat-conducting gas. It was found that the maximum possible cooling rate increases as 1/r0 with decreasing radius r0 of the hot zone of the membrane. The possibility of increasing the maximum cooling rate with decreasing r0 was successfully implemented in many experiments. In this regard, it is interesting to answer the question: what is the maximum possible cooling rate in such experiments if r0 tends to zero? Indeed, on submicron scales, the mean free path of gas molecules lmfp becomes comparable to r0, and the temperature jump that exists at the membrane/gas interface becomes significant. Considering the limitation associated with thermal resistance at the membrane/gas interface and considering the transfer of heat through the membrane, we show that the controlled cooling rate can reach billions of K/s, up to 1010 K/s.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0469.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Interfacial phenomena; liquid marbles; reverse Cheerios effect
Online: 22 February 2021 (13:04:01 CET)
Liquid marbles are defined as hydrophilic liquid droplets that are coated with hydrophobic powdered materials. Till now, the behaviour of liquid marbles has been studied for triphasic systems comprising of the constituent hydrophilic phase, the hydrophobic coating and ambient air. In this article, we report the dynamics of aqueous droplets of varying pH (i.e. acidic, neutral and basic, respectively) moving under the influence of gravity in commonly available mustard oil. We find that the said dynamics could be divided into four parts: (i) formation of hanging aqueous droplets from the top surface of oil, (ii) oblate spheroid droplets moving at constant velocity due to viscous drag, (iii) distant repulsive interactions between two droplets due to “reverse Cheerios effect” and (iv) final impact between the two droplets explained by viscoelastic sliding friction over a compliant surface. This work would be of great interest to researchers working in the domain of interfacial phenomena like oil exploration, biomedical engineering, food technology and towards the realization of droplet-based microfluidic computational platforms for “more than Moore’s” paradigm in the domain of unconventional computation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0061.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: Aminated polystyrene; Nanoparticles; Interfacial tension; Self-assembly
Online: 4 March 2020 (10:36:44 CET)
Nanoparticle (NP)–surfactants formed by the self-assembly of NPs and end-functionalized polymers at the hydrophilic/hydrophobic interface have a wide range of applications in many fields. In this study, the influence of density of amino groups, NPs dimension and pH on the interaction between end-functionalized polymers and NPs were extensively investigated. Single amino-terminated polystyrene (PS-NH2, Mw ≈ 0.6k, 2.5k, 3.5k, 3.9k) and diamino-terminated polystyrene (H2N-PS-NH2, Mw ≈ 1.1k, 2.8k) were prepared using reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer polymerization and atom transfer radical polymerization. NPs with different dimensions (zero-dimensional carbon dots with sulfonate groups, one-dimensional cellulose nanocrystals with sulfate groups and two-dimensional graphene with sulfonate groups) in the aqueous phase were added into the toluene phase containing the aminated PS. The influence of pH and the molecular weight of amino-terminated PS on the interfacial tension between two phases were investigated. The results indicate that aminated PS exhibited the strongest interfacial activity after compounding with sulfonated NPs at a pH of 3. Terminating PS with amino groups on both ends leads to better performance in in reducing the water/toluene interfacial tension than modifying the molecular structure of PS on a single end. The dimension of sulfonated NPs also contributed significantly to the reduction of the water/toluene interfacial tension. The minimal interfacial tension was 4.49 mN/m after compounding PS-NH2 with sulfonated zero-dimensional carbon dots. Molecular dynamics simulation on the evolution of the water/toluene interface in the presence of sulfonated carbon dots and H2N-PS-NH2 revealed that these opposite charged substances moved towards the interface in an extreme short time and orderly assembled in a thermodynamic equilibrium.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0037.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Biomineralization; Finnish blue mussel; Interfacial matrix protein; Chitin
Online: 1 February 2021 (13:56:20 CET)
Studying various marine biomineralized ultrastructures reveals the appearance of common architectural designs and building blocks in materials with fascinating mechanical properties that match perfectly to their biological tasks. Advanced mechanical properties of biological materials are attributed to evolutionary optimized molecular architectures and structural hierarchy. One example which has not yet been structurally investigated in great detail is the shell of Mytilus edulis L. (Finnish blue mussel) found in the archipelago of SW-Finland. Through a combination of various state-of-the-art techniques such as high-resolution electron microscopy imaging, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction, nanoindentation and protein analysis, both the inorganic mineralized components as well as the organic-rich matrix were extensively characterized. We found very similar ultra-architecture across the shell of M. edulis L. as compared to the widely studied and closely related M. edulis. However, we also found interesting differences, for instance in the thickness and degree of orientation of the mineralized layers indicating dissimilar properties and related alterations in the biomineralization processes. Our results show that the shell of M. edulis L. has a gradient of mechanical properties, with the increase in the stiffness and the hardness from anterior to the posterior region of the shell. The shell is made from distinct and recognizable mineralized layers each varying in thickness and microstructural features. At posterior regions of the shell, moving from dorsal to ventral side, these layers are an oblique prismatic layer, a prismatic layer and a nacreous layer, in which the oblique prismatic layer is found to be the main and thickest mineralized layer of the shell. Probing the calcified rods in the oblique prismatic layer using high resolution SEM imaging revealed opening of channels with a diameters of 40-50 nm and lengths up to a micrometer extending through the rods. The chitin and protein have been found to be the main component of the organic-rich interfacial matrix as expected. Protein analysis showed two abundant proteins with sizes around 100 kD and 45 kD which likely not only regulates biomineralization and adhesion of the crystals but also governing the intrinsic-extrinsic toughening in the shell. Overall, this detailed analysis provides new structural insights into biomineralization of marine shells in general.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0552.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Insulin lispro; BPro28-BLys29 Exchange; Interfacial biophysics; Structural analysis;
Online: 23 July 2020 (11:45:01 CEST)
Insulin lispro was the first fast acting insulin analogue to obtain regulatory approval for therapeutic use. This article puts forward a novel biophysical mechanism where the net impact of the simple B28Pro-B29Lys exchange from regular insulin to insulin lispro is the establishment of a novel set of interfacial electrostatic interactions between Lys28 of insulin lispro and Asp12 of insulin receptor (IR). In addition, a set of structural analysis was presented in this article to further strengthen the binding of insulin lispro to IR, where two polar amino acid residues (Gln51 and Asn74 of insulin lispro) were put forward as two potential targets for site-directed mutagenesis of insulin lispro at its binding interface with IR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0066.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: interfacial phase; interface model; displacement jump; boundary element method
Online: 15 September 2017 (11:52:35 CEST)
Interface between matrix/coating or coating/coating in fact represents a very complicate thin interfacial layer. So interface model is necessary to avoid the difficulty on considering such a complicate thin layer in analysis. Classic interface model and cohesive model have been widely used in stress analysis of coating materials, though they cannot represent the effect of very thin interfacial layer accurately. A complete interface model has been deduced from the equivalent constitutive of interfacial layer in this paper. It is found that both classic interface model and cohesive model sometimes cannot give correct analysis results, while the complete interface model can always give a correct result. Moreover, the stress parallel to interface within the interfacial layer can also be analyzed by the new model. Besides, this model can also be used to describe the equivalent properties of interfacial layer, thereby, can provide a quantitative characterizing method for interfacial layer itself.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0705.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: bathocuproine, methylammonium lead iodide, electron-transporting interfacial layer, perovskite solar cells.
Online: 27 November 2020 (22:22:54 CET)
In this study, we improved the photovoltaic (PV) properties and storage stabilities of inverted perovskite solar cells (PVSCs) based on methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) by employing bathocuproine (BCP)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and BCP/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as hole-blocking and electron-transporting interfacial layers. The architecture of the PVSCs was indium tin oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate/MAPbI3/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester/BCP:PMMA or BCP:PVP/Ag. The presence of PMMA and PVP affected the morphological stability of the BCP and MAPbI3 layers. The storage-stability of the BCP/PMMA-based PVSCs was enhanced significantly relative to that of the corresponding unmodified BCP-based PVSC. Moreover, the PV performance of the BCP/PVP-based PVSCs was enhanced when compared with that of the unmodified BCP-based PVSC. Thus, incorporating hydrophobic polymers into BCP-based hole-blocking/electron-transporting interfacial layers can improve the PV performance and storage stability of PVSCs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0616.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: interfacial crystallization; liquid marble, hydrophobic particle; superhydrophobic surface; coffee-stain effect.
Online: 25 September 2020 (15:30:00 CEST)
We report interfacial crystallization in droplets of saline solutions placed on superhydrophobic surfaces and liquid marbles filled with the saline. Evaporation of saline droplets deposited on superhydrophobic surface resulted in the formation of cup-shaped millimeter-scaled residues. The formation of the cup-like deposit is reasonably explained within the framework of the theory of the coffee-stain effect, namely, the rate of heterogeneous crystallization along the contact line of the droplet is many times higher than in the droplet bulk. Crystallization within evaporated saline marbles, coated with lycopodium particles, depends strongly on the evaporation rate. Rapidly evaporated saline marbles yielded dented shells built of a mixture of colloidal particles and NaCl crystals. We relate the formation of these shells to the interfacial crystallization promoted by hydrophobic particles coating the marbles, accompanied with the upward convection flows supplying the saline to the particles, serving as the centers of interfacial crystallization. Convective flows prevail over the diffusion mass transport for the saline marbles heated from below.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: marine mortar; multi-scale; interfacial behavior; strength; damage; on-line detection
Online: 7 May 2019 (11:38:17 CEST)
Marine mortar was the goal material and its multi-scale physical-chemical-mechanical characteristics were the principal interest in this study. The on-line multi-scale damage detection experiments art was designed to quantify the characteristics mathematically and graphically. The normal cylinder specimen with 70-day age was produced and investigated by dynamically global MSHCT scan and local detection of EDS, SEM and XRD. The experiments results indicated that the marine mortar offered the appreciable strength at the early age at least, although some saline minerals were generated during the preparation. The micro-interfacial behavior and the parental foci controlled the damage development of the marine mortar the performance of which was still the adjustable one by the composition optimization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0164.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: two-phase flow; interfacial friction factor; vertical pipes; higher viscosity, pressure drop
Online: 6 April 2021 (10:10:47 CEST)
Selection of appropriate friction factors is paramount for accurate prediction of key flow characteristics in gas–liquid two-phase flows. In this work, experimental investigation of vertical air and oil (with viscosities up to 200 mPa s) flow in a 0.060-m ID pipe is reported. Superficial air and oil velocity ranges utilized are from 22.37 to 59.06 m/s and 0.05 to 0.16 m/s respectively. The influence of estimation of interfacial friction factor on accurate determination of film thickness, void fraction and pressure gradient was investigated using a two-fluid model. The results indicated that the two-fluid model is capable of accurately predicting flow characteristics. Further, it reveals that the best performing correlations are the Belt et al. and Ambrosini et al. correlations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0615.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Polymer-coated nanoparticles; Crude oil recovery; Interfacial tension; Wettability alteration; flow diversion
Online: 25 September 2020 (14:22:21 CEST)
Nanoparticles have been proposed for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The research has demonstrated marvelous effort to understand the mechanisms of nanoparticles-EOR. Nevertheless, gaps still exist in terms of understanding the improved fluids and fluid-rock interactions by nanoparticles, which are the key driving forces for oil mobilization. This paper investigates four types of polymer-coated silica nanoparticles as additives for water flooding oil recovery in water-wet reservoirs. A series of flooding experiments were performed with nanoparticles at 0.1 wt.% in seawater at ambient conditions. The dynamics of fluids, fluid-rock interface interactions and fluid flow behavior were characterized in order to understand oil recovery mechanisms of nanoparticles. Experimental results showed an increase in oil recovery up to 14.8%-point with nanofluid injection compared to an average of 40% of the original oil in place (OOIP) obtained from control water flood test. Moreover, the nanoparticles mobilized residual oil and incremented oil recovery up to 9.2% of the OOIP. Displacement studies show that no single mechanism could account for the EOR effect with the application of nanoparticles. Instead, the mobilization of oil seemed to occur through a combination of reduced oil/water IFT, change in the rock surface roughness and wettability to more water-wet, and microscopic flow diversion due to clogging of the pores.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0258.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: polymer composites; polytetrafluoroethylene; fillers; layered silicates; serpentinite; wear resistance; strength; interfacial interaction
Online: 12 November 2018 (04:19:30 CET)
The article describes the study of the properties of polytetrafluoroethylene, modified using natural layered silicates—serpentinite. It is shown that the introduction of a small amount of layered silicates significantly increases the tribological characteristics of the material. The additional introduction of magnesium nano-spinels facilitated the formation of an intercalated polymer-silicate nanocomposite.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0593.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: forward osmosis; thin-film composite; dopamine; interfacial polymerization; structural stability; chlorine resistance
Online: 30 July 2018 (15:30:24 CEST)
The degradation and detachment of the polyamide (PA) layer in thin-film composite (TFC) membranes due to chlorine based chemical cleaning and material difference of PA layer and substrate are two major bottlenecks of forward osmosis (FO) technology. In this study, a new type of FO membranes were prepared by controlling self-polymerization of dopamine (DA) in the aqueous phase and the reaction with trimesoyl chloride (TMC) during interfacial polymerization (IP) process. These membranes were characterized by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and water contact angle measurements. The influence of synthesis parameters such as pH of the aqueous phase, reaction time, temperature, and monomer concentrations were systematically investigated. The optimized membrane showed enhanced structure stability in ethanol (7.1 times higher) and chlorine resistance (72.3 times higher) than the conventional Piperazine(PIP)/TMC membrane due to（poly-dopamine）PDA bio-adhesion and polyester groups in the membrane structure. In general, DA/TMC membranes could be an effective strategy to fabricate high-performance FO membranes with excellent structural stability and chlorine resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0444.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: interfacial phase change memory; phase change memory; artificial synaptic device; superlattice; neuromorphic devices
Online: 27 September 2021 (11:32:46 CEST)
Corresponding to the principles of biological synapses, an essential prerequisite for hardware neural networks using electronics devices is continuous regulation of conductance. We implemented artificial synaptic characteristics in a (GeTe/Sb2Te3)16 iPCM with a superlattice structure under optimized identical pulse trains. Based on atomically controlling the Ge switch in the phase transition that appears in the GeTe/Sb2Te3 superlattice structure, multiple conductance states were implemented by applying the appropriate electrical pulses. Furthermore, we found that the bidirectional switching behavior of a (GeTe/Sb2Te3)16 iPCM can achieve a desired resistance level using the pulse width. Therefore, we also fabricated a Ge2Sb2Te5 PCM and designed a pulse scheme based on the phase transition mechanism to compare to the (GeTe/Sb2Te3)16 iPCM. We designed an identical pulse scheme that implements linear and symmetrical LTP and LTD based on the iPCM mechanism. As a result, the (GeTe/Sb2Te3)16 iPCM showed relatively excellent synaptic characteristics by implementing gradual conductance modulation, a nonlinearity value of 0.32, and LTP/LTD 40 conductance states using identical pulses trains. Our results demonstrate the general applicability of the artificial synaptic device for potential use in neuro-inspired computing and next generation non-volatile memory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0012.v4
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: interfacial polymerization; in-situ FT-IR spectroscopy; thin-film composite membrane; nanofiltration membrane
Online: 8 January 2020 (09:04:29 CET)
The interfacial polymerization (IP) of piperazine (PIP) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) has been extensively utilized to synthesize nanofiltration (NF) membranes. However, it is still a huge challenge to monitor the IP reaction, because of the fast reaction rate and the formed ultra-thin film. Herein, two effective strategies were applied to reduce the IP reaction rate: (1) the introduction of hydrophilic interlayers between the porous substrate and the formed polyamide layer, and (2) the addition of macromolecular additives in the aqueous solution of PIP. As a result, in situ Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was firstly used to monitor the IP reaction of PIP/TMC with hydrophilic interlayers or macromolecular additives in the aqueous solution of PIP. Moreover, the formed polyamide layer growth on the substrate was studied in a real-time manner. The in situ FTIR experimental results confirmed that the IP reaction rates were effectively suppressed and that the formed polyamide thickness was reduced from 138 ± 24 nm to 46 ± 2 nm according to TEM observation. Furthermore, an optimized NF membrane with excellent performance was consequently obtained, which included boosted water permeation of about 141–238 (L/m2·h·MPa) and superior salt rejection of Na2SO4 > 98.4%.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0199.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: water structuring; exclusion zone; interfacial water; hydrophilic surface; biological effects; high dilution effects
Online: 15 December 2019 (15:51:54 CET)
The paper provides information on significant contamination of real laboratory water with hydrophilic microimpurities. This fact suggests that researchers are practically dealing with microdispersed systems. However, this fact is usually neglected in the discussions of the causes of the anomalous properties of water. We will show that, when exposed to various factors of physical nature, water demonstrates reactions of the same type, namely, increased pH and electrical conductivity, reduced redox potential and viscosity, and enhanced bioavailability. Each exposure is accompanied by the destruction of aggregates of the dispersed phase and its transition to a fine-dispersed state. The relationship between this phenomenon and the change in the physicochemical properties of water is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0117.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Thermal transport in nanocomposites; interfacial thermal conductance; graphene; borophene; multiscale modelling of thermal transport
Online: 6 January 2021 (13:26:46 CET)
Graphene and borophene are highly attractive two-dimensional materials with outstanding physical properties. In this study we employed a combined atomistic continuum multiscale modeling to explore the effective thermal conductivity of polymers nanocomposites made of PDMS polymer as the matrix and graphene and borophene as nanofillers. We first conduct classical molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the interfacial thermal conductance between graphene/PDMS and borophene/PDMS interfaces. Acquired results confirm that the interfacial thermal conductance between nanosheets and polymer increases from the single-layer to multilayered nanosheets and finally converges. The data provided by the atomistic simulations were then used in the finite element method simulations to evaluate the effective thermal conductivity of polymer nanocomposites at continuum level. We explore the effects of nanofillers type, their volume content, geometry aspect ratio and thickness on the nanocomposites effective thermal conductivity. As a very interesting finding, we show that borophene nanosheets, despite almost two orders of magnitude lower thermal conductivity than graphene, can yield very close enhancement in the effective thermal conductivity in comparison with graphene, particularly for low volume content and small aspect ratios and thicknesses. We conclude that for the polymer-based nanocomposites, significant improvement in the thermal conductivity can be reached by improving the bonding between the fillers and polymer or in another word enhancing the thermal conductance at the interface. By taking into account the high electrical conductivity of borophene, our results suggest borophene nanosheets as promising nanofillers to simultaneously enhance the polymers thermal and electrical conductivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0279.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: membrane; forward osmosis; nanofiber; electrospinning; layered interfacial polymerization; layer-by-layer; thin film composite
Online: 16 July 2018 (11:28:07 CEST)
Electrospun nanofiber-supported thin film composite membranes are among the most promising membranes for seawater desalination via forward osmosis. In this study, a high-performance electrospun polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) nanofiber-supported TFC membrane was successfully fabricated after molecular layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte deposition. Negatively-charged electrospun polyacrylic acid (PAA) nanofibers were deposited on electrospun PVDF nanofibers to form a support layer consisted of PVDF and PAA nanofibers. This resulted to a more hydrophilic support compared to the plain PVDF nanofiber support. The PVDF-PAA nanofiber support then underwent a layer-by-layer deposition of polyethylenimine (PEI) and PAA to form a polyelectrolyte layer on the nanofiber surface prior to interfacial polymerization, which forms the selective polyamide layer of TFC membranes. The resultant PVDF-LbL TFC membrane exhibited enhanced hydrophilicity and porosity, without sacrificing mechanical strength. As a result, it showed high pure water permeability and low structural parameter values of 4.12 Lm−2h−1bar−1 and 221 µm, respectively, significantly better compared to commercial FO membrane. Layer-by-layer deposition of polyelectrolyte is therefore a useful and practical modification method for fabrication of high performance nanofiber-supported TFC membrane.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0018.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: surface energy, interfacial energy, surface tension, wetting model, wetting thermodynamics, sessile drop shape, microgravity
Online: 2 February 2018 (13:05:40 CET)
In this study, the values of the interfacial energies of seven different polymer-water systems obtained by Sessile Drop Accelerometry (SDACC) are compared with the values obtained by the Young’s-equation-based Owens-Wendt method. The SDACC laboratory instrument –a combination of a drop shape analyzer with high-speed camera and a microgravity tower- and the evaluation algorithms, are designed to measure the interfacial energies as a function of the geometrical changes of a sessile droplet shape due to the effect of “switching off” gravity during the experiment. The method bases on Thermodynamics of Interfaces and differs from the conventional aproach of the two hundred-years-old Young’s equation in that it assumes a thermodynamic equilibrium between interfaces, rather than a balance of forces on a point of the solid-liquid-gas contour line. A comparison of the mathematical model that supports the SDACC method with the widely accepted Young`s equation is discussed in detail in this study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0062.v3
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: surface energy; interfacial energy; surface tension; wetting model; wetting thermodynamics; sessile drop shape; microgravity
Online: 26 October 2017 (10:20:58 CEST)
A new method, the sessile drop accelerometry (SDACC) for the study and measurement of the interfacial energies of solid-liquid-gas systems, is tested and discussed in this study. The laboratory instrument and technique –a combination of a drop shape analyzer with high-speed camera and a laboratory drop tower- and the evaluation algorithms, were designed to calculate the interfacial energies as a function of the geometrical changes of a sessile droplet shape due to the effect of “switching off” gravity during the experiment. The method bases on the thermodynamic equilibrium of the system interfaces and not on the balance of bi-dimensional tensions on the solid-liquid-gas contour line. A comparison of the mathematical model that supports the method with the widely accepted Young`s equation is discussed in this study.
DATASET | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0011.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: antigen-antibody complex structure; interfacial electrostatic feature; Machine Learning-Based Antibody Design; Protein Data Bank
Online: 1 March 2020 (12:39:55 CET)
The importance of antibodies in health care and the biotechnology research and development demands not only knowledge of their experimental structures at high resolution, but also practical implementation of this knowledge for both effective and efficient design and production of antibody for its use in both medical and research applications. While the experimental wet-lab approach is usually costly, laborious and time-consuming, computational (dry-lab) approaches, in spite of their intrinsic limitations in comparison with its experimental (wet-lab) counterpart, provide a cheaper and faster alternative option. For the first time, this article reports a comprehensive set of structural electrostatic features extracted from experimentally determined antigen-antibody-related structures, including especially those structural electrostatic features at the interfaces of all experimentally determined antigen-antibody complex structures as of February 29, 2020, to facilitate effective and efficient machine learning-based computational antibody design using currently available experimental structures inside Protein Data Bank.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0152.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids And Plasmas Physics Keywords: diamagnetic liquid surface; magnetic field; Moses Effect; interfacial tension; shape of the near-surface dip
Online: 15 January 2019 (11:42:05 CET)
Deformation of the surface of diamagnetic liquid by magnetic field is called the “Moses Effect”. Physics and applications of the direct and inverse Moses effects are reviewed. Experimental techniques enabling visualization of the effects are surveyed. Impact of magnetic field on micro- and macroscopic properties of liquids is addressed. Influence of the surface tension on the shape of the near-surface dip formed in a diamagnetic liquid by magnetic field is reported. Floating of diamagnetic bodies driven by the Moses effect is treated. The effect of the “magnetic memory of water” in its relation to the Moses Effect is discussed. The dynamics of self-healing of near-surface dips due to the Moses Effect is considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0118.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: halloysite nanotube(HNT); hybrid composite; aramid fiber; basalt fiber; interfacial property; fiber reinforced composite; aggregation
Online: 16 May 2017 (07:39:07 CEST)
Hybrid fiber reinforced composites can be controlled by price, weight and various mechanical properties depending on fiber ratio and lamination method. Despite these excellent hybrid properties, there is a disadvantage that inter-laminar fracture due to external impact, which is the biggest weakness of fiber reinforced composite materials, is weak. The test specimens were prepared by using a vacuum bag method, which is manufactured by using an autoclave device. The pre-preg is manufactured in the form of a B-stage. In the process of fabricating the nanoparticle pre-preg, the homogeneizer using an ultrasonic wave was used to disperse the epoxy subject without the curing agent into nanoparticles. The dispersion of the nanoparticles was dispersed by the weight of the epoxy resin. This is to take into account the cohesion of HNT and to understand the range of cohesion of HNT in a matrix with viscosity and its phenomenon. According to the Comparison of the interlayer interfacial properties and mechanical properties of Aramid / Basalt fiber hybrid composites by HNT addition, the fracture toughness, ILSS and bending strength of specimens with HNT content of more than a certain level were decreased because of the aggregation of HNT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0505.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: hydrogen evolution reaction; hydrogen spillover; interfacial processes; supported catalysts; reduced graphene oxide; Kinetic Monte Carlo; volcano curve; hydrogen adsorption
Online: 28 November 2022 (08:37:23 CET)
The requirements for efficient replacement of fossil fuel, combined with the growing energy crisis, put hydrogen production into focus. Efficient and cost-effective electrocatalysts are needed for H2 production, and novel strategies for their discovery must be developed. Here we utilized Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations to demonstrate that hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) can be boosted via hydrogen spillover to the support when the catalyst surface is largely covered by adsorbed hydrogen under operating conditions. Based on the insights from KMC, we synthesized a series of reduced graphene oxide-supported catalysts and compared their activities towards HER in alkaline media with that of corresponding pure metals. For Ag, Au, and Zn, the support effect is negative, but for Pt, Pd, Fe, Co, and Ni, the presence of the support enhances HER activity. The HER volcano, constructed using calculated hydrogen binding energies and measured HER activities, shows a positive shift of the strong binding branch. This work demonstrates the possibilities of metal|support interface engineering for producing effective HER catalysts and provides general guidelines for choosing novel catalyst-support combinations for electrocatalytic hydrogen production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0412.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids And Plasmas Physics Keywords: two-phase flow; compressible flow; interfacial flow; computational hydrodynamic; computational gas dynamic; finite volume method; OpenFOAM; All-Mach number solver
Online: 31 May 2022 (07:09:48 CEST)
In this paper, we present the extension of the pressure-based solver designed for the simulation of compressible and/or incompressible two-phase flows of viscous fluids. The core of the numerical scheme is based on the hybrid Kurganov— Noele — Petrova/PIMPLE algorithm. The governing equations are discretized in the conservative form and solved for velocity and pressure, with the density evaluated by an equation of state. The acoustic-conservative interface discretization technique helps to prevent the unphysical instabilities on the interface. The solver was validated on various cases in wide range of Mach number, both for single-phase and two-phase flows. The numerical algorithm was implemented on the basis of the well-known open-source Computational Fluid Dynamics library OpenFOAM in the solver called interTwoPhaseCentralFoam. The source code and the pack of test cases are available on GitHub: https://github.com/unicfdlab/hybridCentralSolvers
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0109.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Non-crimp fabrics; Epoxy composites reinforced with NCFs; Silane coupling agent; Surface-modified SiO2 nanoparticles; Mechanical properties; Interfacial bonding; Thermal stability
Online: 6 October 2020 (08:42:56 CEST)
To expand the application scope and increase the demand for non-crimp fabrics (NCFs) as a lightweight vehicle material, the delamination and thermal strain in NCF composites must be restricted. Accordingly, to simultaneously improve the interfacial bonding and thermal stability of the NCF composites, in this study the epoxy resin, in which SiO2 nanoparticles was modified by a silane coupling agent, were infused to the stacked NCFs and between the layers of NCFs through the vacuum-assisted resin infusion molding (VARIM) process.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0050.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: DCMS, DCMSP, and sputtering; highly ionized pulse plasma magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS); bacterial inactivation kinetics; Cu and TiO2 synergic effects; interfacial charge transfer
Online: 16 September 2016 (13:31:00 CEST)
This review focuses on Cu/TiO2 sequentially and Cu-TiO2 co-sputtered catalytic/photocatalytic surfaces leading to bacterial inactivation discussing their stability, synthesis, adhesion and antibacterial kinetics. The intervention of TiO2, Cu and the synergic effect of Cu and TiO2 on films prepared by a colloidal approach and other techniques is also reviewed leading to bacterial inactivation. Processes in aerobic media and anaerobic media leading to bacterial loss of viability on multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens, Gram-negative (-) and Gram-positive(+) bacteria are described. Insight is provided for the interfacial charge transfer mechanism under solar irradiation occurring between TiO2 and Cu. surface properties of 2D TiO2/Cu and TiO2-Cu films are correlated with the bacterial inactivation kinetics observed in the dark and under light. The intervention of these antibacterial sputtered surfaces in health-care facilities leading to MRSA-isolates is described in the dark and under the actinic light. The synergic intervention of the Cu and TiO2 films leading to bacterial inactivation prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS), pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMSP) and highly ionized pulse plasma magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) is reported in a detailed way.