ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0156.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: Health economics; Greece; tourism; COVID-19
Online: 21 June 2020 (16:15:24 CEST)
The issue of when and how to return to business following COVID-19 lockdown is occupying the minds of policymakers, C-Suite executives and managers the world over. We are concerned by the extent to which it appears that these decisions are being taken on a wing and a prayer, while being pitched to the public as though they shouldn’t be questioned. In this paper, we compare the likely impact of COVID-19 infections from travellers coming from the main countries that visit Greece, to the revenues they generate for the Greek economy. We find that arrivals from some countries should be excluded but aren't, while arrivals from other countries that are excluded perhaps shouldn't be. We show that a rational choice around limitations on the reopening of tourist markets depends on the demand for travel to Greece. We conclude that the current policy is largely economically rational, with some exceptions, but also speculate that Greece may not be ready to handle the resulting infection load.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0014.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: Hydrothermal; Venting; ROV; Photogrammetry; Greece; Milos
Online: 26 March 2018 (14:02:22 CEST)
The use of low-cost, Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) and underwater photogrammetry techniques for 3D reconstruction of shallow hydrothermal vent sites around Paleochori Bay, Milos Island, Greece. Characterising venting fields through interactive bathymetry models produced from still images taken from camera onboard ROV flown over areas of interest in double raster pattern. First time the shallow venting fields on Milos have been actively surveyed using ROV. Areas were successfully surveyed and the bathymetry was reconstructed using SfM photogrammetry with a ~10 cm scale resolution. A diverse range of benthic habitats were surveyed and the resulting topographic models will act as a baseline, providing further characterisation of the vent systems and any evolving seafloor morphology associated with mineral deposition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0079.v2
Online: 21 April 2017 (07:36:43 CEST)
A reduction in population sodium (as salt) consumption is one of the most cost-effective strategies to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease and it is a global health priority. High potassium intake is also recommended to reduce cardiovascular disease. To establish effective policies for setting targets and monitoring effectiveness within each country, the current level of consumption should be known. Greece lacks data on actual sodium and potassium intakes. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess dietary salt (using sodium as biomarker) and potassium intakes in a sample of healthy adults in northern Greece and to determine whether adherence to a Mediterranean diet is related to different sodium intakes or sodium-to-potassium ratio. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in Thessaloniki greater metropolitan area (northern Greece) (n=252, aged 18-75 years, 45.2% males). Participants’ dietary sodium and potassium intakes were determined by 24h urinary sodium and potassium excretions. In addition, we estimated their adherence to Mediterranean diet by the use of an 11-item MedDietScore (range 0-55). The mean sodium excretion was 175 (SD 72) mmol/day, equivalent to 4,220 (1,745) mg of sodium or 10.7 (4.4) g of salt per day and potassium excretion was 65 (25) mmol/day, equivalent to 3,303 (1,247) mg/day. Men had higher sodium and potassium excretions compared to women. Only 5.6% of the sample had salt intake <5g/d, which is the target intake recommended by the WHO. Mean sodium-to-potassium excretion ratio was 2.82 (1.07). There was no significant difference in salt or potassium intake or their ratio across MedDietScore quartiles. No significant relationships were found between salt intake and adherence to Mediterranean diet, suggesting that the perception of the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet does not hold when referring to salt consumption. These results suggest the need for a larger nation-wide survey on salt intake in Greece and underline the importance of continuation of salt reduction initiatives in Greece.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0009.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Microeconomics And Decision Sciences Keywords: sustainability assessment; farm level; AHP methodology; Greece
Online: 1 March 2020 (11:40:37 CET)
In recent years, farmers and policymakers have faced ample challenges and have struggled to support the sustainability of the agricultural sector. Sustainable agriculture encompasses multiple concepts, and its performance produces extensive debate about data requirements, appropriate indicators, evaluation methods, and tools. Under the European Union (EU) financed project FLINT (Farm Level Indicators for New Topics in policy evaluation), detailed data have been collected at the farm level to provide broader coverage of sustainability indicators on a wide range of relevant topics to facilitate the assessment of sustainability performance. The approach has been applied in a pilot network of representative farms at the EU level, considering the heterogeneity of the EU farming sector to provide data infrastructure with up to date information for sustainability indicators. This study aims to assess sustainability performance at the farm level in Greece. Representative and dominant agricultural systems, such as permanent crops, olive trees, arable crops, and livestock (sheep) farms, comprise the Greek sample. It uses the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) methodology and attempts to gain insights into the sustainability performance of agricultural systems. The outcome of the sustainability assessment reveals knowledge and develops support for strategic farm choices in order to support both farmers and policymakers towards more sustainable development plans. The results indicate that three typical Mediterranean farming systems, like permanent crops, olive trees, and extensive livestock systems (sheep farms), are more sustainable in contrast to intensive and arable crop farms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0047.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Biogenic emissions; Greece; Geographic Information System (GIS)
Online: 7 December 2017 (15:44:08 CET)
Biogenic emissions affect the urban air quality as they are ozone and SOA precursors and should be taken into account when applying photochemical pollution models. The present study presents an estimation of the magnitude of Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds emissions (NMVOCs) emitted by vegetation over Greece. The methodology is based on computation performed with the aid of a Geographic Information System (GIS) and theoretical equations in order to develop an emission inventory on a 6x6 spatial resolution, in a temporal resolution of 1hr covering one year (2016). For this purpose, a variety of input data was used: improved satellite land-use data, land-use specific emission potentials, foliar biomass densities, temperature and solar radiation data. Hourly, daily and annual isoprene, monoterpenes and other volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) were estimated. In the area under study, the annual biogenic emissions were estimated up to 472 kt, consisting of 46.6% isoprene, 28% monoterpenes and 25.4% OVOCs. Results delineate an annual cycle with increasing values from March to April, while maximum emissions were observed from May to September, followed by a decrease from October to January.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0462.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: Machine Learning; Random Forest; Google Trends; Predictability; Banks; Greece
Online: 29 July 2022 (13:07:42 CEST)
Background/Objectives: Accurate prediction of stock prices is an extremely challenging task because of factors such as political conditions, global economy, unexpected events, market anomalies, and relevant companies’ features. In this work, the random forest has been used to forecast the prices of the four major Greek systemic banks Methods/Analysis: We make use of a set of financial variables based on intraday data: (i) Open stock price, (ii) High stock price, (iii) Low stock price, and (iv) Close stock price of a particular Greek systemic bank. Results/Findings: The variables used here are crucial in predicting systemic banks' stock closing prices. These provide a better prediction of the next day's closing price of the bank series. Novelty /Improvement: To our knowledge, this is the first study that employs machine learning techniques in Greek systemic banks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0590.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: deformation; earthquake; InSAR; inversion; fault; convergence; Apulia; Epirus; Greece
Online: 27 August 2020 (04:06:29 CEST)
We identify the source of the Mw = 5.6 earthquake that hit west-central Epirus on March 21, 2020 00:49:52 UTC. We use synthetic aperture radar interferograms tied to one permanent Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) station (GARD). We model the source by inverting the INSAR displacement data. The inversion model suggests a shallow source on a low-angle fault (39°) dipping towards east with a centroid depth of 8.5 km. The seismic moment deduced from our model agrees with those of the published seismic moment tensors. This geometry is compatible with the Margariti thrust fault within the collision zone between Apulia and Eurasia. We also processed new GNSS data and estimate a total convergence rate between Apulia and Eurasia of 8.9 mm yr-1 , of which shortening of the crust between the Epirus coastal GNSS stations and station PAXO in the Ionian Sea is equivalent to ~ 50% of it or 4.6 mm yr−1. A 60-km wide deformation zone takes up nearly most of the convergence between Apulia-Eurasia, trending N318°E. Its central axis runs along the southwest coast of Corfu, along the northeast coast of Paxos, heading toward the northern extremity of the Lefkada island.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0095.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: particulate matter; temporal variation; urban area of Athens; Greece
Online: 18 December 2016 (10:51:57 CET)
The main objective of this work is to investigate the temporal variation of PM10 concentrations within the urban area of Athens during the years 2001-2015. For this purpose, the time series of the particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10μm (PM10) is recorded for a 15-year period (2001-2015) in two different monitoring stations located in the urban area of Athens. The results show a totally different behavior of PM10 concentrations between the Athens city center and the suburban areas. It seems that in the city center the main sources of PM10 are traffic and heating systems especially during the cold period of the year. Furthermore, in the city center a significant seasonal variation was found with high concentrations during the cold period of the year and lower concentrations during the warm period of the year. Moreover, it was found that during the weekends, there is a decrease in PM10 concentrations probably due to the fact that majority of people do not use their vehicles. Finally, for both locations a significant temporal decreasing trend of the mean annual PM10 concentrations was found which indicates that during the last years, there have been improvements towards a better air quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0453.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Antiquities; Monuments; Cultural Routes; Greece; Kynouria; GIS; Websites; Story maps.
Online: 27 June 2018 (16:00:03 CEST)
On the occasion of Kynouria and in order to achieve the protection and projection of antiquities, a web-based model is proposed for highlighting individual monuments and archaeological sites, having in mind the historical and archaeological evidence of the region, the topography, the demographic profile and the tourist infrastructure, and combining them with the development programs for cultural routes. Therefore, creating suitable databases and mapping the monuments in the area are key prerequisites of the process, as they contribute to an objective assessment of the current situation and then to make rational decisions. In this frame, modern technology provides some important planning tools (GIS, GPS, and OMS) which allow recording and mapping of data, viewing the relationships between them in the area where they appear and managing their projection. The complete study of Kynouria’s archaeological routes contains the implementation of a website using free or open-source software, which should include all the necessary procedures and the historical and archaeological information material (text, maps, and photographs).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0068.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: particulate matter; AirQ model; hospital admission respiratory disease; Athens; Greece
Online: 14 November 2016 (04:13:34 CET)
The main objective of this work is the assessment of the annual number of hospital admissions for respiratory disease (HARD) due to the exposure to in-healable particulate matter (PM10), within the greater Athens area (GAA), Greece. Towards this aim, the time series of the particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10μm (PM10) recorded in six monitoring stations located in the GAA, for a 13-year period 2001-2013, is used. Initially, a descriptive statistical treatment of PM10 concentrations took place. Furthermore, the AirQ2.2.3 software developed by the WHO was used to evaluate adverse health effects by PM10 in the GAA during the examined period. The results show that, during the examined period PM10 concentrations present a significant decreasing trend. Also, the mean annual HARD cases per 100,000 inhabitants ranged between 20 (suburban location) and 40 (city centre location). Approximately 70% of the annual HARD cases are due to city centre residents. In all examined locations, a declining trend in the annual number of HARD cases is appeared. Moreover, a strong relation between the annual number of HARD cases and the annual number of days exceeding the European Union daily PM10 threshold value was found.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0015.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: barcoding; Dactylogyridae; Dactylogyrinae; ectoparasites; giant goby; Gobiidae; Gobius cobitis; Greece; Monogenea; Platyhelminthes
Online: 1 June 2022 (10:46:18 CEST)
Gobies and their ectoparasitic monogenean flatworms are promising models for species diversification because of their species richness. Recent decades have seen the discovery of several new species of Gyrodactylus (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) on European gobies, mostly in the sand goby lineage and especially in the Eastern Mediterranean. However, the monogenean fauna of other gobies is much less understood. Therefore, we scrutinized five gobiid species (34 specimens, vouchered, with some representatives sequenced), sampled in Greece, for monogenean ectoparasites. Only specimens of the giant goby Gobius cobitis were infected; they harbored Xenoligophoroides cobitis (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) on their gills. Here we provide the first record from Greece, and the first ITS rDNA and COI sequences of the representative of this monotypic genus. Also 28S rDNA was sequenced and compared with published data from across its known distribution, suggesting clinal variation. Lack of sequence data of closely related dactylogyrid monogeneans prevents either proposing a sister-group for Xenoligophoroides, or inferring a scenario explaining the presence of a single known member of this genus on gobies. Possible hypotheses include either the ancestral long-term presence on gobiids but “missing the boat” of the diversification events in the “Gobius-lineage”, or a recent host switch from a non-gobiid host.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0326.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: air pollution; transportation policy; vehicle fleet projections; electric vehicles; exponential smoothing; Greece
Online: 21 December 2021 (12:26:52 CET)
This study provides a thorough review and analysis of the evolution of the Greek vehicle fleet over the last ~30 years, which is next used for the generation of high granularity fleet projections and for the estimation of relevant environmental benefits by 2030. The integrated methodology developed takes also into account vehicle clustering and the Brown’s Double Simple Exponential Smoothing technique that together with the adoption of COPERT based emission factors allow for the estimation of the anticipated emissions in 2030. Expected 2030 emissions levels suggest a reduction across all pollutants in comparison to 2018, ranging from 3.7% for PM10 to 54.5% for NMVOC (and 46% for CO, 14% for SO2, 28% for NOX and 21% for CO2). We find that Greece is on track with national goals concerning the reduction of air pollution from the transportation sector, stressing the positive contribution of EVs and new, "greener" vehicles, and setting new challenges for the further improvement of the sector beyond the 2030 outlook.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0305.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Linguistics Keywords: politics; political speech; economic crisis; Greece; deictics; space; time; image schemas; metonymicity
Online: 27 July 2019 (00:51:33 CEST)
This paper discusses the metonymic uses of the greek deictic adverbs εδώ [here] and εκεί [there] in the language of politics. The paper draws examples from political speeches which taken place in the Hellenic Parliament during 2011 and discussed the financial situation of Greece during that time. The paper discusses the multiple senses of these deictic adverbs and suggests that the temporal and spatial denotations of εδώ and εκεί are subject to image schemas. It is argued that the image schemas in which εδώ and εκεί are rooted have a metonymic basis. The paper also suggests that the spatio-temporal senses of εδώ and εκεί go beyond their deictic function due to their metonymic basis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0194.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: COVID-19; health care workers; Greece; mental health; depression; anxiety; traumatic stress; burnout
Online: 8 February 2021 (11:41:59 CET)
COVID-19 pandemic has the potential to adversely affect the mental health of healthcare workers (HCWs). The public healthcare system in Greece was already facing serious challenges at the outset of the outbreak following years of austerity and an escalating refugee crisis. The multi-center, cross-sectional study aims to assess the levels and associated risk factors of anxiety, depression, traumatic stress and burnout of frontline staff in Greece. A total of 464 HCWs in six reference hospitals completed a self-administered questionnaire comprising of sociodemographic and work-related information and psychometric scales. The proportion of HCWs with symptoms of moderate/severe depression, anxiety and traumatic stress were 30%, 25% and 33% respectively. Burnout levels were particularly high with 65% of respondents scoring moderate/severe in Emotional Exhaustion, 92% severe in Depersonalization and 51% low/moderate in Personal Accomplishment. Predictive factors of adverse psychological outcomes included fear, perceived stress, risk of infection, lack of protective equipment and low social support. The psychological burden associated with Covid-19 in healthcare professionals in Greece is considerable with more than half experiencing at least mild mental health difficulties. Findings signal the need for immediate organizational and individually tailored interventions to enhance resilience and support wellbeing under pandemic conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0412.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: seismic swarm; relocated aftershocks; transition zone; b-value temporal variation; central Ionian Islands (Greece)
Online: 25 May 2020 (16:47:35 CEST)
A quite energetic seismic excitation consisting of one main and additional three distinctive earthquake clusters that occurred in the transition area between the Kefalonia Transform Fault Zone (KTFZ) and the continental collision between Adriatic and Aegean microplates, is thoroughly studied after high–precision aftershocks’ relocation. The activated fault segments are in an area where historical and instrumental data have never claimed the occurrence of a catastrophic (M>6.0) earthquake. The relocated seismicity initially defines an activated structure extending from the northern segment of the Lefkada branch of KTFZ with the same NNE–SSW orientation and dextral strike-slip faulting and then keeping the same sense of motion its strike becomes NE–SW and its dip direction NW. This provides unprecedented information on the link between the KTFZ and the Collision front and sheds more light on the regional geodynamics. The earthquake catalog, which is specially compiled for this study, starts one year before the occurrence of the Mw5.4 mainshock and adequately provides the proper data source for investigating the temporal variation of the b–value, which might be used for discriminating foreshock and aftershock behavior.