REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0097.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Goat population; Goat milk; Milk production; Milk composition; Goat cheese; Therapeutic properties
Online: 3 August 2021 (15:57:07 CEST)
Since the 1980s, a growing interest in goat milk was noticed due to the nutritional values and health benefits of this milk, which resulted in increasing goat populations and milk production worldwide. This comprehensive review elaborates on goat milk composition compared to other types of milk. It is also an overview of goat milk production, properties, nourishment-value, applications in dairy products, and potential health benefits. Goat milk composition and its characteristics are slightly different from other types of milk and can be utilized to manufacture many dairy products. Fresh goat milk and goat milk products (e.g., yogurt and kefir were found to provide various potential health benefits, such as anti-inflammatory, prevent cardiovascular disease, anti-diabetic and antihypertensive, strengthen bones, boost immunity, and improve metabolism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0187.v1
Subject: Keywords: Transcriptome analysis; Capra hircus; Differential gene expression; Pashmina goat; Barbari goat; RNA-seq
Online: 5 March 2021 (11:50:26 CET)
The Pashmina and Barbari are two famous goat breeds found in the wide areas of the Indo-Pak region. Pashmina is famous for its long hair-fiber (Cashmere) production while Barbari is not-selected for this trait. So, the mRNA expression profiling in the skin samples of both breeds would be an attractive and judicious approach for detecting putative genes involved in this valued trait. Here, we performed differential gene expression analysis on publicly available RNA-Seq data from both breeds. Out of 44,617,994 filtered reads of Pashmina and 55,995,999 of Barbari which are 76.48% and 73.69% mapped to the ARS1 reference transcriptome assembly respectively. A pairwise comparison of both breeds resulted in 47,159 normalized expressed transcripts while 8,414 transcripts are differentially expressed above the significant threshold. Among these, 4,788 are upregulated in Pashmina while 3,626 transcripts are upregulated in Barbari. Fifty-nine transcripts harbor 57 genes including 32 LOC genes and 24 are annotated genes which were selected on the basis of TMM counts > 500. Genes with ectopic expressions other than uncharacterized and LOC symbol genes are Keratins (KRT) and Keratin Associated Proteins (KRTAPs), CystatinA&6, TCHH, SPRR4, PPIA, SLC25A4, S100A11, DMKN, LOR, ANXA2, PRR9 and SFN. All of these genes are likely to be involved in keratinocyte differentiation, sulfur matrix proteins, dermal papilla cells, hair follicles proliferation, hair curvature, wool fiber diameter, hair transition, hair shaft differentiation and its keratinization. These differentially expressed reported genes are critically valuable for enhancing the quality and quantity of the pashmina fiber and overall breed improvement. This study will also provide important information on hair follicle differentiation for further enrichment analyses and introducing this valued trait to other goat breeds as well.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0425.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Goat; Sheep; Small Ruminants; Animal Models; Regenerative Medicine.
Online: 21 January 2021 (15:01:17 CET)
Medical and translational scientific research requires the use of animal models as an initial approach to the study of new therapies and treatments, but when the objective is an exploration of translational potentialities, classical models fail to adequately mimic problems in humans. Among the larger animal models that have been explored more intensely in recent decades, small ruminants, namely sheep and goats, have emerged as excellent options. The main advantages associated to the use of these animals in research works are related to their anatomy and dimensions very similar to those of humans in most physiological systems, in addition to their low maintenance and feeding costs, tendency to be docile, long life expectancies and few ethical complications raised in society. The most obvious disadvantages are the significant differences in some systems such as the gastrointestinal, and the reduced amount of data that limits the comparison between works and the validation of the characterization essays. Despite everything, recently these species have been increasingly used as animal models for diseases in different systems, and the results obtained open doors for their more frequent and advantageous use in the future. The purpose of this review is to summarize the general principles related to the use of small ruminants as animal models, with focus on regenerative medicine, to group the most relevant works and results published recently and to highlight the potentials for the near future in medical research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0270.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus; goat; antigens; antibodies; proviral DNA
Online: 21 January 2021 (12:46:50 CET)
Aim: The aim of this study was to use a multi target approach to testing with both serological tests and an in-house real-time molecular test to investigate the prevalence of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) in goats from three hobbyist farms in the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia. Materials and Methods: We have approached the detection of using a multi target approach testing with both ELISA and an in-house real-time PCR test to investigate the prevalence of CAEV in goats. Animals from three hobbyist farms were used in this study. The animals from two farms (n=13 for F1 and n=8 for F2) had clinical signs of arthritis and mastitis. In the third farm (n=15 for F3), all goats were homebred and had no contact with imported animals. Results: CAEV antibodies (ELISA targets TM env and gag genes) were detected in serum samples from two farms (F1 and F2), indicating a seroprevalence 87.50-92.31%. Specific CAEV antibodies were also detected in milk samples. CAEV proviral DNA was detected in 53.85-62.50%. Results from all tests performed in the third farm (F3) were negative, indicting all tests were 100% specific.Conclusion: Results of this work show that CAEV is circulating and present in small hobbyist goat farms in Russia. Serological and molecular tests could be of importance for CAEV control and eradication programs in Russia for hobbyist goat farms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0421.v1
Online: 17 December 2020 (09:13:29 CET)
Whole genome pooled sequence data of 12 Pakistani Teddy goats is analyzed for positive selection signatures as their breed defining characteristics. Selection imprints left in the Teddy genome are unveiled by genomic differentiation after the successful paired-end alignment of 635,357,043 reads with (ARS1) reference genome assembly. Pooled-heterozygosity ( ) and Tajima’s D (TD) are applied for validation and getting better hits of selection signals, while pairwise FST statistics is conducted on Teddy vs. Bezoar (wild goat ancestor) for genomic differentiation. Annotation of regions under positive selection reveals 59 genes underlying production and adaptive traits. score ≥ 5 detected six windows having highest scores on Chr. 29, 9, 25, 15 and 14 that harbor HRASLS5, LACE1 and AXIN1 genes which are candidate for embryonic development, lactation and body height. Secondly, TD value of ≤ -2.2 showed 4 windows with very strong hits on Chr.5 & 9 harbor STIM1 and ADM genes related to body mass and weight. Lastly, FST analysis generated three strong signals with threshold ≤ 0.42 on Chr.12 & 5 harbor ITGB1 gene associated with milk production & lactation traits. Other significant selection signatures encompass genes associated with wool production, prolificacy, immunity and coat colors. In brief, this study identified the genes under selection in this Pakistani goat breed that will be helpful to refining future breeding policies and converging required productive traits within and across other goat breeds and to explore full genetic potential of this valued livestock species.
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: CTs molecular weight; ruminal fermentation; bio-hydrogenation; milk compositions; goat
Online: 20 September 2020 (14:44:56 CEST)
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of condensed tannin (CTs) with differing molecular weight on their capacity to modify the fatty acid profile in milk. Twenty multiparous crossbred lactating dairy goats were assigned in a randomized complete block design (RCBD), and were subjected to receive the dietary treatments as followings; T1: control (with no CTs supplementation), T2: supplemented with mangosteen peel in a concentrate as a source of low molecular weight CTs at level of 3.0 %DM of CTs equivalent, T3: supplemented with the same diet with T2 but added with polyethylene glycol (PEG, as tannin inactivator) as the control of T2, and T4: supplemented with quebracho CT extract (UNITAN ATO, Buenos Aires, Argentina; 75-77 % tannins) in a concentrate as a source of high molecular weight CTs at level of 3.0 %DM of CTs equivalent, and T5) supplemented with the same diet with T4 but added with PEG as the control of T4. No significant change was detected for feed intake and nutrient digestibility indicate that CTs at level of 3.0 %DM of diet did not showed the detrimental effect to feed intake and nutrient digestibility, however, ruminal fermentation parameters and milk yield and milk compositions did not affected by different source of CT inclusion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0335.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: digestibility; goat; growth performance; rice stubble; urea; value-added product; white-rod fungi
Online: 12 March 2021 (08:44:38 CET)
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of fungal treatment (Pleurotus ostreatus) of urea-treated rice stubble on growth performance in slow-growing goats. Eighteen crossbred Thai native x Anglo-Nubian male goats (average body weight: 20.4 ± 2.0 kg) were randomly assigned to three experimental total mixed rations containing 35% rice stubble (RS) that was either untreated (URS), urea treated (UTRS) or treated with urea and fungi (UFTRS). URS and UTRS were cultivated and harvested from aseptically fungal spawn, incubated at 25-30 °C for 25 days. Indicators of growth performance were monitored and faeces were collected quantitatively to assess nutrient digestibility, during a 12-week feeding trial. All goats remained healthy throughout experiment. The goats fed UFTRS had a lower feed conversion ratio (kg feed/kg growth) compared to goats fed URS or UTRS. Compared to URS, dietary UFTRS increased nutrient digestibility of slow-growing goats, such as OM (+8.5%), CP (+5.5%), NDF (+39.2%), and ADF (+27.4%). Likewise, dietary UFTRS tended to increase rumen ammonia concentrations but rumen pH and volatile fatty acids were not affected by UFTRS. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the fungal treatment of RS is an effective tool to improve the growth performance of slow-growing goats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0452.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Cape Lob Ear; Cape Speckled; meat goat breeds; meat tenderness; meat colour; collagen; chevon
Online: 24 November 2021 (10:47:43 CET)
Meat tenderness, water holding capacity (WHC) and colour attributes of six muscles (Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL), Semimembranosus (SM), Biceps femoris (BF), Supraspinatus (SS), Infraspinatus (IS), Semitendinosus (ST)) from large frame Indigenous Veld Goats (IVG) and Boer Goats (BG) were studied. Weaner male Boer Goats (BG; n = 18; 10 bucks and 8 wethers) and large frame Indigenous Veld Goats (IVG; n = 19; 9 bucks and 10 wethers) were raised on hay and natural grass, and on a commercial pelleted diet to a live weight of 30 - 35 kg. All goats were slaughtered at a commercial abattoir and the dressed carcasses chilled at 4°C within 1-hour post-mortem. The muscles were dissected from both sides 24-hours post-mortem and aged for 1-day and 4-days. Variations in meat characteristics such as ultimate pH, WHC, percentage purge, myofibril fragment length, intramuscular fat, connective tissue characteristics, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. Bucks had higher L* and Hue-angle values, whereas wethers had increased a* and Chroma values. The muscle baseline-data will allow informed decisions to support muscle-specific marketing strategies, which may be used to improve consumer acceptability of chevon.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0097.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: cow milk; sheep milk; goat milk; proteomics methods; bioactive peptides; antimicrobial peptides; allergenic potential; adulterations
Online: 8 October 2022 (08:22:24 CEST)
Milk is newborn’s food and an emulsion full of all necessary components for neonatal growth. Its consumption is worldwide and is the base for all dairy products. Because of the latter, many new technologies are growing, among them proteomics; in order to give new insights in milk’s compounds and to maximize the beneficial potential for consumers’ health. In this review, we aimed to gather data of proteomics studies for the majority of dairy animals and elucidate the role of milk bioactive compounds. Furthermore, special reference was made to milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) peptides and the result of thermal treatment in milk proteins. Finally, the proteomic approach regarding adulterations was included in the review.