CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0254.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: dengue; chikungunya; Leptospira; co-infection; Colombia; Latin America
Online: 12 November 2018 (03:21:38 CET)
Background: The febrile patient from tropical areas, in which emerging arboviruses are endemic, represent a diagnostic challenge and potential co-infections with other pathogens (i.e bacteria or parasites) are usually overlooked. Objectives: We present a case of an elderly woman diagnosed with dengue, chikungunya and Leptospira interrogans co-infection. Study Design: Case report. Results: An 87-year old woman from Colombia complained of upper abdominal pain, arthralgia, myalgia, hyporexia, malaise and intermittent fever accompanied with progressive jaundice. She had a medical history of chronic heart failure (Stage C, NYHA III), without documented cardiac murmurs, right bundle branch block, non-valvular atrial fibrillation, hypertension, and chronic venous disease. Her cardiac and pulmonary status quickly deteriorated after 24 hours of her admission without electrocardiographic changes and she required ventilatory and vasopressor support. In the next hours the patient evolved to pulseless electrical activity and then she died. Dengue IgM, NS1 ELISA, MAT for Leptospira interrogans and RT-PCR for chikungunya, were positive. Discussion: This case illustrates a multiple co-infection in a febrile patient from a tropical area of Latin America that evolved to death.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0237.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; risk factors; outcomes; cardiovascular; Latin America.
Online: 19 June 2020 (10:22:50 CEST)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) fatal outcomes have been associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. In new epidemic areas, such as Latin America, there is a lack of studies about this. Here, we evaluated those factors in a retrospective cohort of patients in a national reference hospital of Lima, Peru. Design. A retrospective cohort observational study was done. For this study, information was obtained from clinical records of the hospital for the cases that were laboratory-diagnosed and related, during March 6th and April 30th, 2020. rRT-PCR was used for the detection of the RNA of SARS-CoV-2 following the protocol Charité, Berlin, Germany, from nasopharyngeal swabs at the National Institute of Health. Calculation of the odds ratio (OR) with the respective 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was done, also logistic regression for adjusted OR (multivariate) was done. Values of p < 0.05 were considered significant for all analyses. Results. One hundred six hospitalized patients were evaluated. The mean age of patients was 61.58 years (SD 16.81). Cardiovascular risk factors among them were hypertension (46.2%), diabetes (28.3%), and obesity (28.3%), among others. Fifty-six patients died (52.8%). Mortality associated factors at the multivariate analysis were arterial hypertension (OR=1.343, 95% 1.089-1.667), myocardial injury (OR=1.303, 95% 1.031-1.642), and mechanical ventilation (OR 1.262, 95% 1.034-1.665), as associated factors. Conclusion. As observed in other regions of the world, cardiovascular risk factors represent a significant and independent threat to be considered in patients with COVID-19. Further studies and interventions in Peru and Latin America are expected.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0343.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: coronavirus; 2019-nCoV; SARS-CoV-2; animal coronaviruses; COVID-19; bat coronavirus; zoonoses; epidemiology; transmission; diagnosis; antivirals; prevention and control
Online: 23 March 2020 (07:19:35 CET)
After the appearance of first cases of ‘pneumonia of unknown origin’ in the Wuhan city, China, during late 2019, the disease progressed fast. Its cause was identified as a novel coronavirus, named provisionally 2019-nCoV. Subsequently, an official name was given as SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2) by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) study group. The World Health Organization (WHO) named the Coronavirus disease-2019 as COVID-19. The epidemics of COVID-2019 have been recorded over 113 countries/territories/areas apart from China and filched more than 4292 humans, affecting severely around 1,18,326 cases in a short span. The status of COVID-2019 emergency revised by the WHO within 42 days from Public Health International Emergency (January 30, 2020) to a pandemic (March 11, 2020). Nonetheless, the case fatality rate (CFR) of the current epidemic is on the rise (between 2-4%), relatively is lower than the previous SARS-CoV (2002/2003) and MERS-CoV (2012) outbreaks. Even though investigations are on its way, the researchers across the globe have assumptions of animal-origin of current SARS-CoV-2. A recent case report provides evidence of mild COVID-2019 infection in a pet dog that acquired COVID-2019 infection from his owner in Hong Kong. The news on travellers associated spread across the globe have also put many countries on alert with the cancellation of tourist visa to all affected countries and postponement of events where international visits were required. A few diagnostic approaches, including quantitative and differential real-time polymerase chain reaction assays, have been recommended for the screening of the individuals at risk. In the absence of any selective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, re-purposed drugs are advocated in many studies. This article discourse the current worldwide situation of COVID-2019 with information on virus, epidemiology, host, the role of animals, effective diagnosis, therapeutics, preventive and control approaches making people aware on the disease outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1518.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; genome; sequencing; phylogenetic analysis; Peru
Online: 23 November 2023 (11:07:09 CET)
Objective: To identify and characterise genomic and phylogenetically isolated SARS-CoV-2 viral isolates in patients from Lambayeque, Peru. Methods: nasopharyngeal swabs were taken from patients from the Almanzor Aguinaga Asenjo Hospital, Chiclayo, Lambayeque, Peru, which have been considered mild, moderate and severe cases of COVID-19. Patients had to have tested positive for COVID-19, using a positive RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2. Subsequently, the SARS-CoV-2 complete viral genome sequencing was carried out using Illumina MiSeq®. The sequences obtained from the sequence were analysed in Nextclade V1.10.0 to assign the corresponding clades, identify mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 genes and perform quality control of the sequences obtained. All sequences were aligned using MAFFT v7.471. The SARS-CoV-2 isolate Wuhan NC 045512.2 was used as a reference sequence to analyse mutations at the amino acid level. The construction of the phylogenetic tree model was achieved with IQ-TREE v1.6.12. Results: it was determined that during the period December 2020 and January 2021, the lineages s C.14, C.33, B.1.1.485, B.1.1, B.1.1.1, B.1.111 circulated, lineage C.14 the most predominant with 76.7% (n=23/30), these lineages were classified in clade 20D mainly and also within clade 20B and 20A. On the contrary, the variants found in the second batch of samples of the period September – October 2021 were Delta Variant (72.7%), Gamma (13.6%), Mu (4.6%), Lambda (9.1%), distributed between clades 20J, 21G, 21H, 21J and 21I. Conclusions: This study reveals updated information on the viral genomics of SARS-CoV-2 in the Lambayeque region, Peru, which is crucial to understanding the origins and dispersion of the virus and provides information on viral pathogenicity, transmission and epidemiology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0001.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: emerging coronavirus; 2019-nCoV; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; diagnosis; vaccines; therapy; one health
Online: 13 April 2020 (02:29:00 CEST)
In the past decades, several new diseases have emerged in new geographical areas, with pathogens including Ebola, Zika, Nipah, and coronaviruses (CoVs). Recently, a new type of viral infection has emerged in Wuhan City, China, and initial genomic sequencing data of this virus does not match with previously sequenced CoVs, suggesting a novel CoV strain (2019-nCoV), which has now been termed as severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is suspected to originate from an animal host (zoonotic origin) followed by human-to-human transmission, the possibility of other routes such as food-borne transmission should not be ruled out. Compared to diseases caused by previously known human CoVs, COVID-19 shows less severe pathogenesis but higher transmission competence, as is evident from the continuously increasing number of confirmed cases globally. Compared to other emerging viruses such as Ebola virus, avian H7N9, SARS-CoV, or MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 has shown relatively low pathogenicity and moderate transmissibility. Codon usage studies suggest that this novel virus may have been transferred from an animal source such as bats. Early diagnosis by real-time PCR and next-generation sequencing has facilitated the identification of the pathogen at an early stage. Since, no antiviral drug or vaccine exists to treat or prevent SARS-CoV-2, potential therapeutic strategies that are currently being evaluated predominantly stem from previous experience with treating SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and other emerging viral diseases. In this review, we address epidemiological, diagnostic, clinical, and therapeutic aspects, including perspectives of vaccines and preventive measures that have already been globally recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0328.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Dengue virus (DENV); geographical information systems (GIS); public health; travelers; arboviruses; infectious diseases epidemiology; Honduras
Online: 29 July 2019 (04:36:31 CEST)
Background: After serious epidemics of chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) in the Americas, dengue (DENV) have reemerged in most countries. We analyzed the incidence, incidence rates, and evolution of DENV cases in Honduras from 2015-2018 and the ongoing 2019 epidemic. Methods: Using epidemiological weeks (EW) surveillance data on the DENV in Honduras, we estimated incidence rates (cases/100,000 population), and developed maps at national, departmental, and municipal levels. Results: From 1 January 2016 to 21 July 2019, a total of 109,557 cases of DENV were reported, 28,603 in 2019, for an incidence rate of 312.32 cases/100,000 pop this year; 0.13% laboratory-confirmed. The highest peak was reached on the EW 28°, 2019 (5,299 cases; 57.89 cases/100,000 pop). The department with the highest number of cases and incidence rate was Cortes (8,404 cases, 479.68 cases/100,000 pop in 2019). Discussion: The pattern and evolution of DENV epidemic in 2019 in Honduras has been similar to that which occurred for in 2015. As previously reported, this epidemic involved the north and central areas of the country predominantly, reaching municipality incidences there >1,000 cases/100,000 pop (1%). Studies using geographical information systems linked with clinical disease characteristics are necessary to attain accurate epidemiological data for public health systems. Such information is also useful for assessment of risk for travelers who visit specific areas in a destination country.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0348.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: SARS-COV-2; COVID-19; clinical pathology; pathogenesis; immunopathology
Online: 23 March 2020 (07:51:17 CET)
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by a novel coronavirus named Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome - Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in early December 2019 in China and attained a pandemic situation worldwide by its rapid spread to nearly 167 countries with 287.239 confirmed cases and 11.921 human deaths with a case fatality rate (CFR) of around 4 per cent. Bats were considered as the reservoir host, and the search of a probable intermediate host is still going on. Animals have anticipated culprit of SARS-CoV-2 as of now. The disease is mainly manifested by pneumonia and related respiratory signs and symptoms, but the involvement of the gastrointestinal system and nervous system is also suggested. The severe form of the disease associated with death is mainly reported in older and immune-compromised patients with pre-existing disease history. Death in severe cases is attributed to respiratory failure associated with hyperinflammation. Cytokine storm syndrome associated with rampant inflammation in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is considered as the leading killer of COVID-19 patients. COVID-19 patients were reported with higher levels of many pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines like IFN-g, IL-1b, IP-10, and MCP-1. Furthermore, severe cases of COVID-19 revealed higher levels of TNF-α, G-CSF, and MIP-1A. Blood profile of the COVID-19 patients exhibits lymphopenia, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia and RNAaemia along with increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase. SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women does not lead to fetus mortalities unlike other zoonotic coronaviruses like SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, with no evidence of intrauterine transmission to neonates. Rapid and confirmatory diagnostics have been developed, and high efforts are being made to develop effective vaccines and therapeutics. In the absence of any virus-specific therapeutic, internationally health care authorities are recommending adoption of effective prevention and control measures to counter and contain this pandemic virus. This paper is an overview of this virus and the disease with a particular focus on SARS-COV-2 / COVID-19 clinical pathology, pathogenesis and immunopathology along with a few recent research developments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1020.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: Plasmodium vivax; Duffy Blood-Group System; Vivax malaria; Plasmodium Duffy antigen binding protein; prevalence
Online: 14 July 2023 (13:01:06 CEST)
The Duffy protein, a transmembrane molecule, functions as a receptor for various chemokines and facilitates attachment between the reticulocyte and the Plasmodium Duffy antigen-binding protein. Duffy expression correlates with the Duffy receptor gene for the chemokine, located on chromosome 1, and exhibits geographical variability worldwide. Traditionally, researchers have described the Duffy negative genotype as a protective factor against phenotypic malaria expression. However, recent studies suggest this microorganism's evolution potentially diminishes this protective effect. Nevertheless, there is currently insufficient global data to demonstrate this phenomenon. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the Duffy genotype/phenotype and the prevalence of Plasmodium vivax infection. The protocol for the systematic review was registered in PROSPERO as CRD42022353427 and involved reviewing published studies from 2012 to 2022. Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, and Scielo databases were consulted. Assessments of study quality were conducted using the STROBE and GRADE tools. A total of 34 studies were included, with Africa accounting for most recorded studies. The results varied significantly regarding the relationship between the Duffy genotype/phenotype and Plasmodium vivax invasion. Some studies predominantly featured the negative Duffy genotype yet reported no malaria cases. Other studies identified minor percentages of infections. Conversely, certain studies observed a higher prevalence (99%) of Duffy-negative individuals infected with Plasmodium vivax. In conclusion, no evidence of a gender-specific distribution of malaria between Duffy-negative men and women was found. However, evidence supports that the homozygous Duffy genotype positive for the A allele (FY*A/*A) is associated with a higher incidence of Plasmodium infection. Furthermore, the negative Duffy genotype does not confer protection against this disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0119.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; pandemic; medical staff; vaccine
Online: 3 March 2021 (09:36:41 CET)
Introduction: The SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic has triggered the need for developing rapidly effective and safety vaccines to prevent infection, particularly in those at-risk populations such as medical personnel. The objective of this study was to assess perception of COVID-19 vaccination amongst Colombian physicians featuring two different sceneries of COVID-19 vaccination. Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out through an online survey, directed at medical staff in several cities in Colombia. The percentage of physicians who have a positive perception to be vaccinated and the associated factors that determine that decision were determined. A binomial regression analysis adjusted for age and sex was carried out, taking as a dependent variable the acceptance of free vaccination with an effectiveness of 60 and 80%. The most significant factors were determined in the non-acceptance of vaccination. Results: Between 77.1% and 90.8% of physicians in Colombia, accept COVID-19 vaccination, according to the scenario evaluated where the effectiveness of the vaccine was 60 or 80%, respectively. Medical specialty, have ever paid for a vaccine, recommend administrating the vaccine to their parents or people over 70 years and dispense the vaccine to their children were the factors to be vaccinated for free with an effectiveness of 60% and 80%. Conclusions: There is a high perception of the intention to vaccinate physicians in Colombia against COVID-19. But it is very similar to that of the general population, according to results reported in other studies.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0327.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: anosmia; ageusia; clinical manifestations; neurological; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19
Online: 20 May 2020 (10:39:41 CEST)
Over the course of the pandemic due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), multiple new clinical manifestations, as the consequence of the tropism of the virus, have been recognized. That includes now the neurological manifestations and conditions, such as headache, encephalitis, as well as olfactory and taste disorders. We present a series of ten cases of RT-PCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infected patients diagnosed with viral-associated olfactory and taste loss from four different countries.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0103.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Coronavirus; SARS-CoV; MERS-CoV; serology; molecular diagnosis; reservoir; public health
Online: 19 May 2020 (04:13:19 CEST)
Introduction: Coronaviruses are zoonotic viruses that include human epidemic pathogens such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome virus (MERS-CoV), and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome virus (SARS-CoV), among others (e.g., COVID-19, the recently emerging coronavirus disease). The role of animals as potential reservoirs for such pathogens remains an unanswered question. No systematic reviews have been published on this topic to date. Methods: We performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using three databases to assess MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV infection in animals and its diagnosis by serological and molecular tests. We performed a random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate the pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). Results: 6,493articles were retrieved (1960-2019). After screening by abstract/title, 50 articles were selected for full-text assessment. Of them, 42 were finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. From a total of 34 studies (n=20,896 animals), the pool prevalence by RT-PCR for MERS-CoV was 7.2% (95%CI 5.6-8.7%), with 97.3% occurring in camels, in which pool prevalence was 10.3% (95%CI 8.3-12.3). Qatar was the country with the highest MERS-CoV RT-PCR pool prevalence, 32.6% (95%CI 4.8-60.4%). From 5 studies and 2,618 animals, for SARS-CoV, the RT-PCR pool prevalence was 2.3% (95%CI 1.3-3.3). Of those, 38.35% were reported on bats, in which the pool prevalence was 14.1% (95%CI0.0-44.6%). Discussion: A considerable proportion of infected animals tested positive, particularly by nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT). This essential condition highlights the relevance of individual animals as reservoirs of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. In this meta-analysis, camels and bats were found to be positive by RT-PCR in over 10% of the cases for both; thus, suggesting their relevance in the maintenance of wild zoonotic transmission.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0075.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; immunotherapeutics; therapeutics; vaccines
Online: 7 April 2020 (02:01:34 CEST)
A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), causing an emerging coronavirus disease (COVID-19), first detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China has resulted in an outbreak in China which has taken a catastrophic turn with high toll rates in China and subsequently spreading across the globe. The rapid spread of this virus to more than 175 countries while affecting nearly 500,000 persons and causing more than 22,000 human deaths, it has resulted in a pandemic situation in the world. The SARS-CoV-2 virus belongs to the genus Betacoronavirus, like MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, all of which originated in bats. It is highly contagious, causing symptoms like fever, dyspnea, asthenia and pneumonia, thrombocytopenia and the severely infected patients succumb to the disease. Coronaviruses (CoVs) among all known RNA viruses have the largest genomes ranging from 26 to 32 kb in length. Extensive research has been conducted to understand the molecular basis of the SARS-CoV-2 infection and evolution, develop effective therapeutics, antiviral drugs and vaccines, and to design rapid and confirmatory viral diagnostics as well as adopt appropriate prevention and control strategies. Till date, no clinically proclaimed, proven therapeutic antibodies or specific drugs and therapeutics, and vaccines have turned up. Several molecular diagnostic tests such as Real Time-PCR, isothermal loop-mediated amplification of coronavirus (i-LACO), full genome analysis by next-generation sequencing (NGS), multiplex nucleic acid amplification, and microarray-based assays are in use currently for the laboratory confirmation of this CoV infection. In this review article, we describe the basic molecular organization and phylogenetic analysis of the coronaviruses, including the SARS-CoV-2, and recent advances in diagnosis and vaccine development in brief and focusing mainly on developing potential therapeutic options that can be explored to manage this pandemic virus infection, which would help in valid countering of COVID-19.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0011.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-Cov-2; bat coronavirus; zoonosis; spillover; expanding host range
Online: 2 April 2020 (04:43:45 CEST)
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome - Coronavirus-2) of the family Coronaviridae, appeared in Wuhan, Hubei province, China being its epicenter in December 2019. This disease was declared as posing Public Health International Emergency by World Health Organization on January 30, 2020, attained the status of a very high-risk category on February 29, and now having a pandemic status (March 11, 2020). COVID-19 has presently spread to more than 195 countries/territories while killing nearly 19,600 humans out of cumulative confirmed cases accounting to more than 430,000 within a short period of just a few weeks. The majority of deaths have been reported in Italy and China. Researchers worldwide are pacing with high efforts to counter the spread of this virus and to design effective vaccines and therapeutics/drugs. Few of the studies have shown the potential of animal-human interface and zoonotic links in the origin of SARS-CoV-2. Exploring the possible zoonosis and revealing the factors responsible for its initial transmission from animals to humans will pave ways to design and implement effective preventive and control strategies to counter COVID-19. The present review presents an overview of COVID-19 and the causative virus SARS-CoV-2, with particular emphasis on the role of animals and their jumping the cross-species barriers, experiences learned from SARS- and MERS-CoVs, zoonotic links, and spillover events, transmission to humans and rapid spread., highlighting in very brief the preventive and control measures along with a few of the recent research developments to counter this pandemic virus/disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0153.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; geographical information systems (GIS); coronavirus; epidemiology of infectious diseases; public health.
Online: 12 June 2020 (12:36:52 CEST)
The epidemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) have affected all the regions of the world, nevertheless, in some countries there is a lack of studies on its main clinical and epidemiological features. We analyzed the incidence, incidence rates, and evolution of COVID-19 cases in Honduras from February 18-April 24, 2020.Methods: Using daily epidemiological data from surveillance about COVID-19 in Honduras, we calculated the rates of incidence (cases/100,000 population), and developed at national, departmental, and municipal levels GIS-based maps.Results: February 18 - April 24, 2020, a sum of 3,169 suspected COVID-19 cases have been assessed by RT-PCR, 533 (16.8%) of them were positive, for an incidence rate of 5.73 cases/100,000 pop. The highest peak was reached on March 31 (48 cases). The department with the highest number of cases and incidence rate was Cortes (383 cases, 71.9% of the total, 21.45 cases/100,000 pop). Discussion: The pattern and evolution of COVID-19 epidemic in Honduras has been particularly focused in the major urban areas, San Pedro Sula and Tegucigalpa, the capital city. Studies using geographical information systems linked with clinical disease characteristics are necessary to attain accurate epidemiological data for public health systems. Such information is also useful for assessment of the evolution of the pandemic and monitoring interventions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0228.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Lassa fever; epidemic; epidemiological analysis; pathogenesis; prevention
Online: 12 April 2023 (02:52:58 CEST)
Lassa fever, commonly known as Lassa hemorrhagic fever (LHF), is one of the progressive illnesses invading a large population of two to three million individuals in West Africa. The infection transmitted through the rodents severely impacts the local population and the medical professionals in surrounding areas, which were also the primary target of LHF. In epidemic areas, Lassa fever causes a public health threat since it poses a significant morbidity and fatality Case rate (CFR) ≥ 50%). The disease is widespread in West Africa and has developed into one of the most common and life-threatening viral hemorrhagic fevers. Monitoring and preventing persistent disease outbreaks has been challenging in affected regions due to insufficient healthcare facilities, diagnostics labs, care centers, and low socioeconomic conditions. An absence of public awareness and the emergence of an ecological niche is advantageous for the survival and multiplication of the mouse (Mastomys natalensis) inhabiting the Lassa virus serving as the disease's natural host and reservoir. The current review focuses on early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, highlighting the immediate requirement of clinically approved vaccines for LHF, causing preventative and control actions more difficult in the present era.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0347.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: monkeypox virus; infection; treatment; antiviral; drug; management; public health emergency; tecovirimat; cidofovir; bibliometric analysis
Online: 24 October 2022 (03:38:12 CEST)
Monkeypox virus infection is a recognized public health emergency. Little research has been done on treatment options for this disease. Until recently, there was not a single published work describing the usage of specific drugs in human patients with monkeypox virus infection. This paper gives the first bibliometric analysis of monkeypox treatment options based on data available on PubMed and Scopus. It also reviews the specific drugs used in the treatment of monkeypox. That includes data on Tecovirimat, Cidofovir, Brincidofovir, and Vaccinia Immune Globulin. Tecovirimat is a promising option in progressive disease in terms of efficacy and safety. However, Brincidofovir has been associated with discontinuation of treatment. Cidofovir is also not the preferred drug among physicians. Currently, Tecovirimat can be further used for the management of aggravating cases. More studies should be conducted on Tecovirimat to treat this condition, mainly through controlled trials.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0314.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: sexual transmission; monkeypox; emerging; global; epidemic
Online: 21 July 2022 (08:08:40 CEST)
Monkeypox is a rare disease which is rising nowadays in different countries since the first case in the UK was diagnosed on May 6, 2022, by the United Kingdom (UK) Health Security Agency. Then more than 12,500 cases were identified in over 68 countries up to July 18, 2022. In endemic areas, the monkeypox virus (MPXV) is commonly transmitted through zoonosis, while in non-endemic regions, it is spread through human-to-human transmission. Symptoms can include flu-like symptoms, rash, or sores in hands, feet, genitalia, or anus. In addition, people who did not take the smallpox vaccine were more liable to be affected than others. The exact pathogenesis and mechanisms are still unclear; however, most identified cases are reported in men who have sex with other men (MSM). According to the CDC, transmission can happen with any sexual or non-sexual contact with the infected person. However, a recent pooled meta-analysis reported that sexual contact is involved in more than 91% of the cases. Also, it is the first time that semen analysis for many patients has shown positive monkeypox virus DNA. Therefore, in this review, we will describe transmission methods for MPXV while focusing mainly on potential sexual transmission and associated sexually transmitted infections. We will also highlight the preventive measures that can limit the spread of the diseases in this regard.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0469.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2; COVID-2019; epidemiology; pathobiology; clinical profile; phyloanalysis; artificial intelligence; diagnosis; vaccines; therapeutics
Online: 26 April 2020 (08:15:23 CEST)
The technology-driven world of the 21st century is currently confronted with a major threat to humankind in the form of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). As of April 22, 2020, COVID-19 has claimed 169, 006 human lives and had spread to over 200 countries with more than 2,471,136 confirmed cases. The perpetually increasing figures associated with COVID-19 are disrupting the social and economic systems globally. The losses are unmatched and significantly higher compared to those from previously encountered pathogenic infections. Previously, two CoVs (SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome-CoV) affected the human population in 2002 and 2012 in China and Saudi Arabia, respectively. Based on genomic similarities, animal-origin CoVs, primarily those infecting bats, civet cats, and pangolins, were presumed to be the source of emerging human CoVs, including the SARS-CoV-2. The cohesive approach amongst virologists, bioinformaticians, big data analysts, epidemiologists, and public health researchers across the globe has delivered high-end viral diagnostics. Similarly, vaccines and therapeutics against COVID-19 are currently in the pipeline for clinical trials. The rapidly evolving and popular technology of artificial intelligence played a major role in confirming and countering the COVID-19 pandemic using digital technologies and mathematical algorithms. In this review, we discuss the noteworthy advancements in the mitigation of the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on the etiological viral agent, comparative genomic analysis, population susceptibility, disease epidemiology, animal reservoirs, laboratory animal models, disease transmission, diagnosis using artificial intelligence interventions, therapeutics and vaccines, and disease mitigation measures to combat disease dissemination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0378.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Coronavirus Disease 2019; SARS-CoV-2; clinical features; laboratory; outcomes; epidemic.
Online: 11 March 2020 (10:35:01 CET)
Introduction: An epidemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) begun in December 2019 in China, causing a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Among raised questions, clinical, laboratory, and imaging features have been partially characterized in some observational studies. No systematic reviews have been published on this matter. Methods: We performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using three databases to assess clinical, laboratory, imaging features, and outcomes of COVID-19 confirmed cases. Observational studies, and also case reports, were included and analyzed separately. We performed a random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate the pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). Results: 660 articles were retrieved (1/1/2020-2/23/2020). After screening by abstract/title, 27 articles were selected for full-text assessment. Of them, 19 were finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. Additionally, 39 case report articles were included and analyzed separately. For 656 patients, fever (88.7%, 95%CI 84.5-92.9%), cough (57.6%, 40.8-74.4%) and dyspnea (45.6%, 10.9-80.4%) were the most prevalent manifestations. Among the patients, 20.3% (95%CI 10.0-30.6%) required intensive care unit (ICU), with 32.8% presenting acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (95%CI 13.7-51.8), 6.2% (95%CI 3.1-9.3) with shock and 13.9% (95%CI 6.2-21.5%) of hospitalized patients with fatal outcomes (case fatality rate, CFR).Conclusion: COVID-19 brings a huge burden to healthcare facilities, especially in patients with comorbidities. ICU was required for approximately 20% of polymorbid, COVID-19 infected patients and this group was associated with a CFR of over 13%. As this virus spreads globally, countries need to urgently prepare human resources, infrastructure, and facilities to treat severe COVID-19.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0232.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Monkeypox; Vaccine; Outbreak
Online: 15 July 2022 (12:12:58 CEST)
(1) Background: The monkeypox virus (MPV) is a double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the Poxviridae family, Chordopoxvirinae subfamily, and Or-thopoxvirus genu. It was called monkeypox because it was first discovered in monkeys, in a Danish laboratory, in 1958. However, the actual reservoir for MPV is still unknown. (2) Methods & Results: We have reviewed the existing literature on the options for Monkeypox virus. There are three available vaccines for orthopoxviruses: ACAM2000, JYNNEOS, and LC16, with the first being a replicating vaccine and the latter being non or minimally replicating. (3) Conclusions: Smallpox vaccinations previously provided coincidental im-munity to MPV. ACAM2000(a live‐attenuated replicating vaccine) and JYNNEOS (a live‐attenuated, non-replicating vaccine) are two US FDA‐approved vaccines that can prevent monkeypox. However, ACAM2000 may cause serious side effects, including cardiac problems, whereas JYNNEOS is associated with fewer com-plications. The recent outbreaks across the globe have once again highlighted the need for constant monitoring and the development of novel prophylactic and therapeutic modalities. Based on available data, there is still a need to develop an effective and safe new generation of vaccines specific for monkeypox that are killed or mRNA before monkeypox is declared a pandemic.