Preprint Review Version 2 This version is not peer-reviewed

Coronavirus Disease 2019 – COVID-19

Version 1 : Received: 28 February 2020 / Approved: 1 March 2020 / Online: 1 March 2020 (02:48:13 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 13 April 2020 / Approved: 13 April 2020 / Online: 13 April 2020 (02:29:00 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Dhama K, Sharun K, Tiwari R, Sircar S, Bhat S, Malik YS, Singh KP, Chaicumpa W, Bonilla-Aldana DK, Rodriguez-Morales AJ. Coronavirus Disease 2019 – COVID-19. Clin Microbiol Rev 2020 Oct; 33(4):e00028-20 Dhama K, Sharun K, Tiwari R, Sircar S, Bhat S, Malik YS, Singh KP, Chaicumpa W, Bonilla-Aldana DK, Rodriguez-Morales AJ. Coronavirus Disease 2019 – COVID-19. Clin Microbiol Rev 2020 Oct; 33(4):e00028-20

Journal reference: Clinical Microbiology Reviews 2020, 33
DOI: 10.1128/CMR.00028-20

Abstract

In the past decades, several new diseases have emerged in new geographical areas, with pathogens including Ebola, Zika, Nipah, and coronaviruses (CoVs). Recently, a new type of viral infection has emerged in Wuhan City, China, and initial genomic sequencing data of this virus does not match with previously sequenced CoVs, suggesting a novel CoV strain (2019-nCoV), which has now been termed as severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is suspected to originate from an animal host (zoonotic origin) followed by human-to-human transmission, the possibility of other routes such as food-borne transmission should not be ruled out. Compared to diseases caused by previously known human CoVs, COVID-19 shows less severe pathogenesis but higher transmission competence, as is evident from the continuously increasing number of confirmed cases globally. Compared to other emerging viruses such as Ebola virus, avian H7N9, SARS-CoV, or MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 has shown relatively low pathogenicity and moderate transmissibility. Codon usage studies suggest that this novel virus may have been transferred from an animal source such as bats. Early diagnosis by real-time PCR and next-generation sequencing has facilitated the identification of the pathogen at an early stage. Since, no antiviral drug or vaccine exists to treat or prevent SARS-CoV-2, potential therapeutic strategies that are currently being evaluated predominantly stem from previous experience with treating SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and other emerging viral diseases. In this review, we address epidemiological, diagnostic, clinical, and therapeutic aspects, including perspectives of vaccines and preventive measures that have already been globally recommended.

Subject Areas

emerging coronavirus; 2019-nCoV; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; diagnosis; vaccines; therapy; one health

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 13 April 2020
Commenter: Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: In this new version, we have significantly improved and updated the contents. The figures were improved and now we have provided two tables.
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