Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

An Update on SARS-COV-2/COVID-19 with Particular Reference on Its Clinical Pathology, Pathogenesis, Immunopathology and Mitigation Strategies – A Review

Version 1 : Received: 22 March 2020 / Approved: 23 March 2020 / Online: 23 March 2020 (07:51:17 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Dhama K, Patel SK, Pathak M, Yatoo MI, Tiwari R, Malik YS, Singh R, Sah R, Rabaan AA, Bonilla-Aldana DK, Rodriguez-Morales AJ. An Update on SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 with particular reference to its clinical pathology, pathogenesis, immunopathology and mitigation strategies. Travel Med Infect Dis 2020 May 30 Epub Ahead https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1477893920302349 Dhama K, Patel SK, Pathak M, Yatoo MI, Tiwari R, Malik YS, Singh R, Sah R, Rabaan AA, Bonilla-Aldana DK, Rodriguez-Morales AJ. An Update on SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 with particular reference to its clinical pathology, pathogenesis, immunopathology and mitigation strategies. Travel Med Infect Dis 2020 May 30 Epub Ahead https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1477893920302349

Journal reference: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease 2020
DOI: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101755

Abstract

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by a novel coronavirus named Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome - Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in early December 2019 in China and attained a pandemic situation worldwide by its rapid spread to nearly 167 countries with 287.239 confirmed cases and 11.921 human deaths with a case fatality rate (CFR) of around 4 per cent. Bats were considered as the reservoir host, and the search of a probable intermediate host is still going on. Animals have anticipated culprit of SARS-CoV-2 as of now. The disease is mainly manifested by pneumonia and related respiratory signs and symptoms, but the involvement of the gastrointestinal system and nervous system is also suggested. The severe form of the disease associated with death is mainly reported in older and immune-compromised patients with pre-existing disease history. Death in severe cases is attributed to respiratory failure associated with hyperinflammation. Cytokine storm syndrome associated with rampant inflammation in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is considered as the leading killer of COVID-19 patients. COVID-19 patients were reported with higher levels of many pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines like IFN-g, IL-1b, IP-10, and MCP-1. Furthermore, severe cases of COVID-19 revealed higher levels of TNF-α, G-CSF, and MIP-1A. Blood profile of the COVID-19 patients exhibits lymphopenia, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia and RNAaemia along with increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase. SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women does not lead to fetus mortalities unlike other zoonotic coronaviruses like SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, with no evidence of intrauterine transmission to neonates. Rapid and confirmatory diagnostics have been developed, and high efforts are being made to develop effective vaccines and therapeutics. In the absence of any virus-specific therapeutic, internationally health care authorities are recommending adoption of effective prevention and control measures to counter and contain this pandemic virus. This paper is an overview of this virus and the disease with a particular focus on SARS-COV-2 / COVID-19 clinical pathology, pathogenesis and immunopathology along with a few recent research developments.

Subject Areas

SARS-COV-2; COVID-19; clinical pathology; pathogenesis; immunopathology

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