ARTICLE Download: 165| View: 219| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0386.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation & Radiography Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging; arterial spin labelling; renal MRI; perfusion; renal ASL
Online: 28 May 2018 (06:26:31 CEST)
Purpose: A number of imaging readout schemes have been proposed for renal arterial spin labelling (ASL) to quantify kidney cortex perfusion, including gradient echo based methods of balanced fast field echo (bFFE) and gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (GE-EPI), or spin echo based schemes of spin-echo echo planar imaging (SE-EPI) and turbo spin-echo (TSE). Here, we compare these imaging schemes to evaluate the optimal imaging scheme for pulsed ASL (PASL) assessment of human kidney cortex perfusion at 3 T. Methods: Ten healthy volunteers with normal renal function were scanned using each 2D multislice imaging scheme, in combination with a respiratory triggered FAIR (flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery) ASL scheme on a 3 T Philips Achieva scanner. All volunteers returned for a second identical scan session within two weeks of the first scan session. Comparisons were made between the imaging schemes in terms of perfusion weighted image (PWI) signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and perfusion quantification, temporal SNR (tSNR), spatial coverage, and repeatability. Results: For each imaging scheme, renal cortex perfusion was calculated (bFFE: 276 ± 29 mL/100 g/min, GE-EPI: 222 ± 18 mL/100 g/min, SE-EPI: 201 ± 36 mL/100 g/min, TSE: 200 ± 20 mL/100 g/min). Perfusion was found to be higher for GE based readouts compared to SE based readouts, with significantly higher measured perfusion for the bFFE readout compared to all other schemes (P < 0.05), attributed to the greater vascular signal present. Despite the PWI-SNR being significantly lower for SE-EPI compared to all other schemes (P < 0.05), the SE-EPI readout gave the highest tSNR and was found to be the most reproducible scheme for the assessment of kidney cortex, with a CoV of 17.2%, whilst minimizing variability of the perfusion weighted signal across slices for whole kidney perfusion assessment. Conclusion: For the assessment of kidney cortex perfusion, SE-EPI provides optimal tSNR, minimal variability across slices and repeatable data acquired in a short scan time with low specific absorption rate.
Fri, 11 May 2018
ARTICLE Download: 226| View: 267| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0176.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation & Radiography Keywords: gel dosimetry; radiation dosimetry; radio-fluorogenic gel, luminescent dosimetry
Online: 11 May 2018 (05:29:00 CEST)
In radiotherapy, accurate deposition of energy to the targeted volume is vital to ensure effective treatment. Gel dosimeters are attractive detection systems, as tissue substitutes with potential to yield three-dimensional dose distributions. Radio-fluorogenesis is creation fluorescent chemical products in response to energy deposition from high-energy radiation. This report shares studies of a radio-fluorogenic gel dosimetry system, gelatin with coumarin-3-carboxlyic acid (C3CA), for the quantification of imparted energy. Aqueous solutions exposed to ionizing radiation result in the production of hydroxyl free radicals through water radiolysis. Interactions between hydroxyl free radicals and coumarin-3-carboxylic acid produce a fluorescent product. 7-hydroxy-coumarin-3-carboxylic acid has a blue (445 nm) emission, following UV to near UV (365–405 nm) excitation. Effects of C3CA concentration and pH buffers were investigated for this system. The response of the system was explored with respect to strength, type, and exposure rate of high-energy radiation. Results show a linear dose response relationship with a dose-rate dependency and no energy or type dependencies. This report supports the utility of gelatin-C3CA for phantom studies of radio-fluorogenic processes.
Fri, 8 July 2016
ARTICLE Download: 2529| View: 1331| Comments: 1 | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0009.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation & Radiography Keywords: Antennas; Communication systems; Electromagnetic analysis; Measurements; Radio propagation; Waveguides
Online: 8 July 2016 (03:44:51 CEST)
In this research paper, design and development of pyramidal horn antenna for J-band application is reported. It is particularly designed for 17 dB gain and half beam width about 25 degrees at 6.93 GHz. Horn aperture, horn axial length and distance from the throat of the antenna to aperture are the main design constraints which are calculated and used for the antenna design and simulation. Beam width in E-plane and H-plane horn is calculated and it is 19.18 dB and 22.86 dB respectively. The reported antenna design shows good performance for J-band in radiometry, satellite, and radar applications.