ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0188.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation & Radiography Keywords: recycling; radioactive waste; radioactive nanopowders; radioactive nanocomposites; radioactive semiconductor devices; radioactive space microelectronics; space industry
Online: 12 July 2022 (10:08:57 CEST)
The article provides an overview of nanocomposites and microelectronic elements used in space electronics and radiation control systems of nuclear reactors. Only those nanocomposites and microelectronic elements are taken into account that improve their characteristics in radiation fields or remain indifferent when exposed to ionizing radiation. Considering the chemical composition of the materials of these nanocomposites and microelectronic elements, it is analyzed from which radioactive materials (RM) obtained by recycling radioactive waste (RW) such composites and microelectronic parts can be made. Thus, an alternative way of radioactive waste disposal is proposed, when these wastes are used in the form of microelectronic elements designed to operate under conditions of cosmic radiation.
Mon, 16 May 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0198.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation & Radiography Keywords: radioactive waste; radioactive waste recycling; industrial slag; industrial ash; aerospace industry
Online: 16 May 2022 (07:50:42 CEST)
The article discusses an alternative way of recycling radioactive waste (RW), presented in the form of radioactive building materials - concrete and reinforced concrete structures and metal fittings, with the further use of materials, obtained during recycling, in the space industry. That is, it is supposed to send radioactive waste into space not as a passive ballast, but as a payload that will operate in space under conditions of increased radiation.
Wed, 2 March 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0044.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation & Radiography Keywords: energetic material; plasma; detonation; electromagnetism; high temperature
Online: 2 March 2022 (10:39:48 CET)
In the process of deflagration of energetic materials, strong electromagnetic radiation is to be generated, which causes the surrounding electronic equipment to fail to work normally. To solve this problem, it is necessary to clarify the mechanism of electromagnetic radiation generated by energetic materials. The mechanism of plasma changed by the deflagration of energetic materials is an important topic in the aerospace and geophysics fields. The academic community holds two main viewpoints on the mechanism of electromagnetic radiation generated by energetic materials: one is that the solid material is squeezed and deformed during the deflagration of energetic materials, and the charges of different polarities rub in space to form effective electric dipoles, which eventually generate electromagnetic radiation. Another view is that the deflagration of energetic materials causes the temperature of the medium to rise sharply, and bremsstrahlung is formed during the compression and diffusion of the high-temperature wave front, resulting in the generation of electromagnetic radiation. This paper, based on theoretical analysis and experimental data, holds the view that electromagnetic radiation is generated by the high-temperature thermal effect. It studies the relationship between temperature and electromagnetic radiation and obtains quantitative analysis conclusions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0043.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation & Radiography Keywords: explosion; energetic material; electromagnetic radiation; characteristic
Online: 2 March 2022 (10:37:39 CET)
During the explosion of energetic materials, obvious electromagnetic interference will be generated, which will affect the normal operation of surrounding electronic equipment. Experiments are still an important means to study this issue. A set of electromagnetic radiation measurement device based on short-wave omnidirectional antenna and ultra-wideband omnidirectional antenna is designed to measure the electromagnetic radiation generated by the explosion of energetic materials of different masses, and the electromagnetic radiation characteristics are obtained through data processing. The results show that the mass of the energetic material has a significant effect on the time-domain characteristics of the electromagnetic radiation generated by the explosion: the higher the mass of the energetic material, the shorter the delay response of the electromagnetic signal, the longer the duration, and the earlier the peak appears. The frequency of electromagnetic radiation signals generated by the explosion of energetic materials is mainly concentrated below 100 MHz, and the energy is most concentrated in the frequency band of 0~50 MHz. The composition of energetic materials has the greatest influence on the spectral distribution, and the spectral distribution of electromagnetic radiation produced by the explosion of explosives with different compositions has obvious specificity. The electromagnetic radiation intensity generated by the explosion of energetic materials has a strong correlation with the distance from the explosion center, and it decreases with the increase of the distance, and the decreasing range is large. The structure and detonation method of energetic materials can change the geometrical motion mode during the explosion, resulting in the non-uniformity of electromagnetic radiation propagation.
Tue, 14 December 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0245.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation & Radiography Keywords: radiotherapy electron beams; output factors; tubular applicator; solid-state detector
Online: 14 December 2021 (15:55:57 CET)
High-energy small electron beams generated by linear accelerators are used for radiotherapy of localized superficial tumors. The aim of the present study is to assess the dosimetric performance under small radiation therapy electron beams of the novel PTW microSilicon detector by comparison with commercially available dosimeters. Relative dose measurements of circular fields with 20, 30, 40 and 50 mm aperture diameters were performed for 4 to 12 MeV energy range of electron beams generated by an Elekta Synergy linac. Percentage depth dose, transverse profiles and output factors normalized to the 10 × 10 cm2 reference field were measured. All dosimetric data were collected in a PTW MP3 motorized water phantom at SSD of 100cm by using the novel PTW microSilicon detector. The PTW diode E and the PTW microDiamond were also used in all beam aperture for benchmarking. Data for the biggest field size were also measured by the PTW Advanced Markus ionization chamber.Measurements performed by the microSilicon are in good agreement with the reference values for all the tubular applicators and beam energies, within the stated uncertainties. This confirms the reliability of the microSilicon detector for relative dosimetry of small radiation therapy electron beams collimated by tubular applicators.
Mon, 29 November 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0521.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation & Radiography Keywords: Multi-beam profile fast test method; Phased array antenna; Source reconstruction; Antenna test method
Online: 29 November 2021 (11:34:30 CET)
The testing requirements of the active phased array antennas are very different from those of traditional passive antennas, due to its beam steering capability. Usually, each beam profile of the active phased array needs a separate radiation pattern test, which makes the overall testing time extremely long. Thus the traditional antenna test method can no longer meet the efficiency and cost requirements of new active phased array antennas test. In this paper, a fast test method tailored for phased array antennas is proposed that offers significantly reduced testing time at the expense of slight sacrifice of the accuracy. Using the simulated element pattern in array and ideal port excitation, the beam profile in any direction can be predicted by testing only a certain beam profile. Through theoretical derivation and experiments, the effectiveness of the method is verified, and the testing efficiency of the phased array antenna is demonstrated to be improved by ten times or even more.
Mon, 2 August 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0018.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation & Radiography Keywords: deep reinforcement learning; source search and localization; active search; gamma radiation; source parameter estimation; sequential decision making; non-convex environment}
Online: 2 August 2021 (11:14:24 CEST)
Rapid search and localization for nuclear sources can be an important aspect in preventing human harm from illicit material in dirty bombs or from contamination. In the case of a single mobile radiation detector, there are numerous challenges to overcome such as weak source intensity, multiple sources, background radiation, and the presence of obstructions, i.e., a non-convex environment. In this work, we investigate the sequential decision making capability of deep reinforcement learning in the nuclear source search context. A novel neural network architecture (RAD-A2C) based on the actor critic (A2C) framework and a particle filter gated recurrent unit for localization is proposed. Performance is studied in a randomized 20 x 20 m convex and non-convex environment across a range of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)s for a single detector and single source. RAD-A2C performance is compared to both an information-driven controller that uses a bootstrap particle filter and to a gradient search (GS) algorithm. We find that the RAD-A2C has comparable performance to the information-driven controller across SNR in a convex environment and at lower computational complexity per action. The RAD-A2C far outperforms the GS algorithm in the non-convex environment with greater than 95% median completion rate for up to seven obstructions.
Tue, 13 July 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0282.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation & Radiography Keywords: PADC; poly(allyl diglycol carbonate); latent track; track core radius; G value; layered structure; REFIT; NISE; detection threshold; chemical criterion
Online: 13 July 2021 (09:34:32 CEST)
Modified structure along latent tracks and track formation process have been investigated in poly(allyl diglycol carbonate), PADC, which is well recognized as a sensitive etched track detector. This knowledge is essential to develop novel detectors with improved track registration property. The track structures of protons and heavy ions (He, C, Ne, Ar, Fe, Kr and Xe) have been examined by means of FT-IR spectrometry, covering the stopping power region between 1.2 to 12,000 eV/nm. Through a set of experiments on low-LET radiations – such as gamma ray -, multi-step damage process by electron hits was confirmed in the radiation-sensitive parts of the PADC repeat-unit. From this result, we unveiled for the first-time the layered structure in tracks, in relation with the number of secondary electrons. We also proved that etch pit was formed when at least two repeat-units were destroyed along the track radial direction. To evaluate the number of secondary electrons around tracks, a series of numerical simulations were performed with Geant4-DNA. Therefore, we are proposing new physical criterions to describe the detection thresholds. Futhermore, we propose a present issue of the definition of detection threshold for semi-relativistic C ions. And as a possible chemical criterion, formation density of hydroxyl group is suggested to express the response of PADC.
Fri, 3 January 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0269.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation & Radiography Keywords: Computed Tomography; radiation dose; cancer risk; CTPA; effective diameter
Online: 3 January 2020 (11:21:25 CET)
This study aims to evaluate the patient’s dose exposure from Computed Tomography Pulmonary Angiography (CTPA) examination and to estimates the cancer risk induced from the examinations based on the patient’s size. One hundred patients were recruited, and data information was collected retrospectively. A multi-detector (MDCT) (Philips Brilliance 128, USA) scanner were utilized for the CTPA examination, and dose data were obtained from the system. The effective diameter of each subjects’ image was measured for the Size-specific dose estimates (SSDEs). All subjects divided into Group 1 (19 – 25 cm), Group 2 (25-28 cm) and Group 3 (28-38 cm), where the association between gender were analysed. Effective dose (E), SSDE, organ dose and cancer risk of each group were evaluated and compared statistically using independent t-test and one-way ANOVA. The range of mean CTDIvol, DLP and E values were (6.44 – 17.42 mGy), (239 – 631 mGy), (5.19 – 13.90 mSv), respectively. In respective with the patient’s effective diameter, the mean SSDE value for Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3 were 9.93 ± 3.89 mGy, 13.70 ± 9.04 mGy and 22.29 ± 7.35 mGy. The organ dose and cancer risk attained for breast, lung and liver were 17.05 ± 10.40 mGy (194 per one million procedure), 17.55 ± 10.86 mGy (192 per one million procedure) and 15.04 ± 9.75 mGy (53 per one million procedure), respectively. Lung and breast with more massive patient’s effective diameter received the highest dose exposure which increases the probability of the cancer risk. CTDIvol was found to be underestimated, and SSDE provides more accurate in describing the radiation dose and cancer risk. Body effective diameter found to be significant on the estimation except for gender. Therefore, it is essential to apply optimised protocols in order to reduce patient’s exposure during CTPA examination.
Thu, 5 December 2019
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation & Radiography Keywords: radiation track chemistry; chemical track structure; oxygen effect; oxygen depletion; ion beam therapy; ROS; superoxide anion
Online: 5 December 2019 (03:32:18 CET)
The radiosensitivity of biological systems is strongly affected by the system oxygenation. On the nanoscopic scale and molecular level, this effect is considered to be strongly related to the indirect damage of radiation. Even though particle track radiolysis has been the object of several studies, still little is known about the nanoscopic impact of target oxygenation on the radical yields. We present here an extension of the chemical module of the Monte Carlo particle track structure code TRAX, taking into account the presence of dissolved molecular oxygen in the target material. The impact of the target oxygenation level on the chemical track evolution and the yields of all the relevant chemical species is studied in water under different irradiation conditions: different linear energy transfer (LET) values, different oxygenation levels, and different particle types. Especially for low LET radiation, a large production of two highly toxic species (HO2• and O2•− ), which are not produced in anoxic conditions, is predicted and quantified in oxygenated solutions. The remarkable correlation between the HO2• and O2•− production yield and the oxygen enhancement ratio observed in biological systems suggests a direct or indirect involvement of HO2• and O2•− in the oxygen sensitization effect. The results are in agreement with available experimental data and previous computational approaches. An analysis of the oxygen depletion rate in different radiation conditions is also reported.
Tue, 15 October 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0168.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation & Radiography Keywords: neutron imaging; neutron detector; X-ray detector; CCD camera; CMOS camera; collimator; X-rays; image processing; computed tomography; CT reconstruction
Online: 15 October 2019 (11:15:26 CEST)
Neutron computed tomography (nCT) has been established at many major neutron sources worldwide, using high-end equipment requiring major investment and development. Many older and smaller reactors would be capable of doing nCT as well, but cannot afford the investment before feasibility is proven. We have developed a compact low-cost but high-quality detection system using a new cooled CMOS camera that can either be fully integrated into a sophisticated setup, or used with a rudimentary CT control and motion system to quickly evaluate feasibility of neutron CT at a given beam line facility. Exchanging the scintillation screen makes it feasible for X-rays as well, even for visible light (and transparent samples) using a matte screen. The control system uses a hack to combine motion control with existing imaging software so it can be used to test several dozen different cameras without writing specific drivers. Freeware software can do reconstruction and 3D imaging.
Fri, 23 August 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0269.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation & Radiography Keywords: computed tomography; radiation dose; cancer risk; CTPA; lung effective diameter
Online: 23 August 2019 (10:53:52 CEST)
The present study aims to investigate radiation doses from Computed Tomography Pulmonary Angiography (CTPA) examinations based on the patient’s size and to estimate the probability of cancer risk induced from the examination. Data from 100 patients who had undergone CTPA examinations, such as scanning acquisition parameters, patient demography, as well as radiation dose exposure, were collected and analysed. All subjects which aged above 18 y/o were scanned using a Philips Brilliance 128 multi-detector CT (MDCT) scanner. The mean dose value for Volume Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDIvol), Dose-Length Product (DLP) and effective dose (E) were 11.06 ± 7.17 mGy, 400.38 ± 259.10 mGy.cm and 8.68 ± 5.47 mSv respectively. In addition, with respective of patient’s effective diameter, the mean SSDE value for Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3 were 9.93 ± 3.89, 13.70 ± 9.04 and 22.29 ± 7.35, respectively. Cancer risk per million procedure was calculated based on te recommendation by the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 103 report. The organ dose and cancer risk attained for breast, lung and liver were 17.05 ± 10.40 mGy (194 per one million procedure), 17.55 ± 10.86 mGy (192 per one million procedure) and 15.04 ± 9.75 mGy (53 per one million procedure), respectively. In conclusion, CTDIvol underestimated, and SSDE was more accurate in describing the radiation dose. Lung and breast with larger lung effective diameter received the highest dose exposure which increase the probability of the cancer risk. Therefore, it is important to apply optimised protocols in order to reduce patient’s exposure during CTPA examination.
Wed, 24 July 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0269.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation & Radiography Keywords: Computed Tomography; radiation dose; radiation cancer risk; CT Pulmonary Angiography; effective diameter
Online: 24 July 2019 (10:42:37 CEST)
Computed Tomography (CT) scan examinations has greater demands especially in CT Pulmonary Angiography (CTPA) owing to the public and radiology personnel worries towards CT radiation exposure and risks. The aim of present study is to evaluate the comprehensive radiation exposure in computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) and its cancer risk. The records of 100 patients who had undergone CTPA were retrieved. The radiation dose exposure, scanning acquisition protocol as well as patient characteristics were noted. Radiation exposure were presented as Volume Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDIvol), Size-Specific Dose Estimate (SSDE), Dose-Length Product (DLP), and effective dose (E) and organ dose. Effective cancer risk per million procedure was calculated by referring to the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 103. The CTDIvol, SSDE, DLP were comparable within different effective diameter groups. The average effective dose received by a patient was 8.68 mSv. The organ dose and effective cancer risk attained for breast, lung and liver were 17.05 ± 10.40 mGy (194 per one million procedure), 17.55 ± 10.86 mGy (192 per one million procedure) and 15.04 ± 9.75 mGy (53 per one million procedure), respectively. In conclusion, CTDIvol was undervalued and SSDE was more accurate in describing radiation dose exposure. The lungs and breast of subjects with large effective diameter were higher risk of developing cancer as they received the highest exposure. Therefore, extra safety measures should be considered for large-sized patients undergoing CTPA.Purpose: This study evaluates the comprehensive radiation exposure in computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) and its cancer risk.
Mon, 24 June 2019
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0231.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation & Radiography Keywords: bystander effect, genomic instability, lethal mutations,radiotherapy, diagnostic radiology
Online: 24 June 2019 (08:34:26 CEST)
Non-targeted effects (NTE) such as bystander effects or genomic instability have been known for many years but their significance for radiotherapy or medical diagnostic radiology are far from clear. Central to the issue are reported differences in response of normal and tumour tissues to signals from directly irradiated cells. This review will discuss possible mechanisms and implications of these different responses and will then discuss possible new therapeutic avenues suggested by the analysis. Finally, the importance of NTE for diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine which stems from the dominance of NTE in the low dose region of the dose response curve will be presented. Areas such as second cancer induction and microenvironment plasticity will be discussed.
Mon, 28 May 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0386.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation & Radiography Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging; arterial spin labelling; renal MRI; perfusion; renal ASL
Online: 28 May 2018 (06:26:31 CEST)
Purpose: A number of imaging readout schemes have been proposed for renal arterial spin labelling (ASL) to quantify kidney cortex perfusion, including gradient echo based methods of balanced fast field echo (bFFE) and gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (GE-EPI), or spin echo based schemes of spin-echo echo planar imaging (SE-EPI) and turbo spin-echo (TSE). Here, we compare these imaging schemes to evaluate the optimal imaging scheme for pulsed ASL (PASL) assessment of human kidney cortex perfusion at 3 T. Methods: Ten healthy volunteers with normal renal function were scanned using each 2D multislice imaging scheme, in combination with a respiratory triggered FAIR (flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery) ASL scheme on a 3 T Philips Achieva scanner. All volunteers returned for a second identical scan session within two weeks of the first scan session. Comparisons were made between the imaging schemes in terms of perfusion weighted image (PWI) signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and perfusion quantification, temporal SNR (tSNR), spatial coverage, and repeatability. Results: For each imaging scheme, renal cortex perfusion was calculated (bFFE: 276 ± 29 mL/100 g/min, GE-EPI: 222 ± 18 mL/100 g/min, SE-EPI: 201 ± 36 mL/100 g/min, TSE: 200 ± 20 mL/100 g/min). Perfusion was found to be higher for GE based readouts compared to SE based readouts, with significantly higher measured perfusion for the bFFE readout compared to all other schemes (P < 0.05), attributed to the greater vascular signal present. Despite the PWI-SNR being significantly lower for SE-EPI compared to all other schemes (P < 0.05), the SE-EPI readout gave the highest tSNR and was found to be the most reproducible scheme for the assessment of kidney cortex, with a CoV of 17.2%, whilst minimizing variability of the perfusion weighted signal across slices for whole kidney perfusion assessment. Conclusion: For the assessment of kidney cortex perfusion, SE-EPI provides optimal tSNR, minimal variability across slices and repeatable data acquired in a short scan time with low specific absorption rate.
Fri, 11 May 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0176.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation & Radiography Keywords: gel dosimetry; radiation dosimetry; radio-fluorogenic gel, luminescent dosimetry
Online: 11 May 2018 (05:29:00 CEST)
In radiotherapy, accurate deposition of energy to the targeted volume is vital to ensure effective treatment. Gel dosimeters are attractive detection systems, as tissue substitutes with potential to yield three-dimensional dose distributions. Radio-fluorogenesis is creation fluorescent chemical products in response to energy deposition from high-energy radiation. This report shares studies of a radio-fluorogenic gel dosimetry system, gelatin with coumarin-3-carboxlyic acid (C3CA), for the quantification of imparted energy. Aqueous solutions exposed to ionizing radiation result in the production of hydroxyl free radicals through water radiolysis. Interactions between hydroxyl free radicals and coumarin-3-carboxylic acid produce a fluorescent product. 7-hydroxy-coumarin-3-carboxylic acid has a blue (445 nm) emission, following UV to near UV (365–405 nm) excitation. Effects of C3CA concentration and pH buffers were investigated for this system. The response of the system was explored with respect to strength, type, and exposure rate of high-energy radiation. Results show a linear dose response relationship with a dose-rate dependency and no energy or type dependencies. This report supports the utility of gelatin-C3CA for phantom studies of radio-fluorogenic processes.
Fri, 8 July 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0009.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation & Radiography Keywords: Antennas; Communication systems; Electromagnetic analysis; Measurements; Radio propagation; Waveguides
Online: 8 July 2016 (03:44:51 CEST)
In this research paper, design and development of pyramidal horn antenna for J-band application is reported. It is particularly designed for 17 dB gain and half beam width about 25 degrees at 6.93 GHz. Horn aperture, horn axial length and distance from the throat of the antenna to aperture are the main design constraints which are calculated and used for the antenna design and simulation. Beam width in E-plane and H-plane horn is calculated and it is 19.18 dB and 22.86 dB respectively. The reported antenna design shows good performance for J-band in radiometry, satellite, and radar applications.