ARTICLE Download: 0| View: 35| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0163.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: equol; bioavailable testosterone; total testosterone; sex hormone-binding globulin
Online: 17 June 2019 (10:53:28 CEST)
Little is known about the association between equol and bioavailable testosterone (BT) in adults. We examined the associations of urinary equol concentrations with serum total, bioavailable and free testosterone (FT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfide (DHEAS), free androgen index (FAI) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations. This cross-sectional study included 1904 women aged 59.7 years. Urinary equol and serum sex hormone concentrations were measured. Overall, urinary equol tended to be inversely associated with bioactive forms of androgenic indices (BT, FT or FAI) but not with total testosterone (TT) or DHEAS. Urinary equol was also positively associated with SHBG. In multi-covariate-adjusted analyses stratified by menopausal status, graded and inverse associations between urinary equol and bioactive forms of androgenic indices (BT, FT and FAI) were observed in postmenopausal women (all p-trends <0.05), but not in premenopausal women. A significant positive association between urinary equol and SHBG was observed only in postmenopausal women. No significant associations were observed between urinary equol and TT or DHEAS in either group. A path analysis indicated that these associations of equol with androgens in postmenopausal women might be mediated by SHBG. Our findings indicated urinary equol exhibited graded and inverse associations with BT or FT but not TT in women.
ARTICLE Download: 1| View: 40| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0155.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: carboplatin; CIPN; TRPA1; cAMP; PKA; AKAP
Online: 17 June 2019 (09:53:39 CEST)
Carboplatin, an anticancer drug, often causes chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (PN). Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), a non-selective cation channel, is a polymodal nociceptor expressed in sensory neurons. TRPA1 is involved not only in pain transmission but also in allodynia or hyperalgesia development. However, the effects of TRPA1 on carboplatin-induced PN is unclear. We revealed that carboplatin induced mechanical allodynia and cold hyperalgesia, and the pains observed in carboplatin-induced PN models were significantly suppressed by the TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 without a change in the level of TRPA1 protein. In cells expressing human TRPA, carboplatin had no effects on changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i); however, carboplatin pretreatment enhanced the increase in [Ca2+]i induced by the TRPA1 agonist, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC). These effects were suppressed by an inhibitor of protein kinase A (PKA). The PKA activator forskolin enhanced AITC-induced increase in [Ca2+]i and carboplatin itself increased intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels. Moreover, inhibition of A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) significantly decreased carboplatin-induced enhancement of [Ca2+]i induced by AITC and improved carboplatin-induced mechanical allodynia and cold hyperalgesia. These results suggested that carboplatin induced mechanical allodynia and cold hyperalgesia by increasing sensitivity to TRPA1 via the cAMP-PKA-AKAP pathway.
Sun, 16 June 2019
ARTICLE Download: 14| View: 73| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0151.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: ostomy; remote monitoring; stoma bag; machine learning; thermistor; capacitive sensor
Online: 16 June 2019 (17:15:26 CEST)
Over 55% of stoma patients suffer complications such as dehydration. Outcomes may be improved through communicating stoma output data to the patient and their clinical teams. Past artificial neural networks to improve accuracy in fluid level sensing were designed to account for ‘slosh’ caused by variable acceleration in one or two axes of movement. This paper describes the development of a novel sensor platform for non-invasive monitoring of stoma output in real time through incorporating a volumetric array consisting of thermistors and capacitive sensors into an ostomy appliance. Stoma output which exits the body at core temperature passes into a stoma appliance in a pattern which is dictated by water content, existing effluent within the bag and distortion of the usual bag shape. By using thermistors, a thermal boundary demarcates the accumulated level of fecal material as the effluent settles. A capacitive array allows the measurement of volume of output. The sensing components communicates via near field communication (NFC) and transmits data to a smartphone application by Bluetooth low energy (BLE). Testing of the device on 11 existing ileostomy patients with 51.6 bag hours of data found a correlation between measured volume and predictive value, supporting its use in this population.
REVIEW Download: 20| View: 84| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0145.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: multiple myeloma; angiogenesis; extramedullary disease; drug resistance; bone marrow microenvironment.
Online: 16 June 2019 (10:05:40 CEST)
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a genetically heterogenous disease that includes a subgroup of 10-15% of patients facing dismal survival despite most intensive treatment. The aim of this review article is to provide an integrated clinical and biological overview on the high-risk MM discussing the novel therapeutic perspectives aimed to target the neoplastic clone and its microenvironment. The dissection of the molecular determinants of the aggressive phenotypes and drug resistance can foster a better tailored clinical management of high-risk profile and refractoriness to therapy. Among the current clinical difficulties in MM, patient’s management manipulating the tumor niche represents a major challenge given the limited knowledge about the MM-milieu interaction. The angiogenesis and bystander infiltrate constitute pivotal mechanisms of mutual collaboration between MM and the non-tumoral counterpart. Immuno-modulatory and anti-angiogenic therapy hold great efficacy but variable and unpredictable responses in high-risk MM. Therefore, it would be worth to better select the population and the MM stage that could profit to a dual immune/vasculogenesis targeting. The comprehensive knowledge of the genetic heterogeneity and MM high-risk ecosystem enforce a systematic bench-to-bedside approach. Despite significant improvements in the biology knowledge, MM is still a chronic and incurable neoplasia and therapeutic options able to overcome the relapsing/refractory behavior represent an unmet clinical need. Here, we corroborate previous biological findings providing a synthetic outlook of novel druggable targets. We also summarize the existing multi-omics-based risk profiling tools, in order to better personalize the patient-oriented clinical management.
Fri, 14 June 2019
ARTICLE Download: 13| View: 154| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0130.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer; Wnt pathway; TCF1; NHERF1
Online: 14 June 2019 (05:00:53 CEST)
Wnt pathway is involved in breast cancer (BC) progression. Our aim was to evaluate the expression of some components of the Wnt pathway (β-catenin, FZD4, LRP5, LRP6 and TCF1) in order to detect potential associations with NHERF1 protein. In addition, we assessed their impact on patients’clinical outcome. We evaluated 220 primary BC samples by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and protein localization by immunofluorescence. We found a significant correlation between NHERF1 and FZD4, LRP5, LRP6 and TCF1. Univariate analysis showed that β-catenin (p<0.0001), FZD4 (p=0.0001), LRP5, LRP6 and TCF1 over-expression (p<0.0001 respectively) was related to poor disease free survival (DFS). A Kaplan-Meier analysis confirmed univariate data and showed a poor DFS for cNHERF1+/FZD4+ (p=0.0007), cNHERF1+/LRP5+ (p=0.0002), cNHERF1+/LRP6+ (p<0.0001) and cNHERF1+/TCF1+ phenotypes (p=0.0034). In multivariate analysis, TCF1 and β-catenin expression were independent prognostic variable of worse DFS (p=0.009 and p=0.027, respectively). In conclusion, we found that β-catenin, FZD4, LRP5, LRP6 and TCF1 overexpression was associated to poor prognosis. Furthermore, we first identified TCF1 as independent prognostic factor of poor outcome, indicating it as a new potential biomarker for BC patients management. In addition, Wnt pathway proteins expression, both alone and in association with NHERF1, suggests original associations of biological significance for new studies.
Thu, 13 June 2019
ARTICLE Download: 22| View: 224| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0119.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: audit; utilization; surgery; antibiotics; perception; infections; hospitals
Online: 13 June 2019 (09:52:04 CEST)
Background and objectives: The appropriate use of antibiotics is the main strategy of Antimicrobial stewardship program. This study was planned to evaluate the quality of antibiotic prescriptions, its adherence with standard guidelines and surgeons’ perception regarding antibiotic use in surgeries. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional observational and survey-based study comprised of two sections: Phase 1; to investigate the antibiotic utilization in three most common abdominal surgical procedures during 9 months (January 2017 to September 2017). The appropriateness of antibiotics was compared with evidence-based guidelines. Phase 2; the surgeon’s perspectives were evaluated through a self-administered questionnaire (13 items) during the next three months (October 2017 to December 2017). Descriptive statistics, chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests analysis were used through SPSS Statistical Package 21.0. Results: A total of 866 eligible surgical cases out of 1015 were investigated. An acute appendectomy (n= 418; 48.2%) was most common surgical intervention followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy (n= 278; 32.1%) and inguinal hernia (n= 170; 19.7%). About 97.5% of patients received antibiotics. Among these, 9.5% adhered according to guidelines with respect to correct choice, 40% for timing, 100% for dose and route (optimal value 100%). The ceftriaxone (J01XD04; n= 503; 59.5%) was most frequently prescribed antibiotic. A 200 participants (response rate 70.6%) filled out a validated questionnaire (internal consistency; α ≥ 0.7). One hundred and thirty-eight (69%) reported the overuse of antibiotics and most of them (97%) preferred broad-spectrum antibiotics instead of narrow-spectrum. The participants reported that non-availability hospital-based guidelines (n=193; 96.5%), prescribing of antibiotics without guidelines (n=186; 93%), underestimation of infection (n=177; 88.5%), lack of consensus (n=135; 67.5%) and poor awareness about guidelines (n=122; 61%) were the main determinants in their health care settings. Conclusions: The compliance of Surgical antibiotic was far below the recommendations of guidelines. The urgent needs of awareness among surgeons and implementation of antimicrobial stewardship program were important recommended interventions for appropriate use antibiotics.
Wed, 12 June 2019
REVIEW Download: 15| View: 176| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0107.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: dementia, behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, neuropsychiatric symptoms, aromatherapy, bergamot essential oil.
Online: 12 June 2019 (15:33:17 CEST)
Ageing of the world population makes of dementia a challenge for health systems worldwide. The cognitive disturbance is a serious but not the only issue in dementia; behavioural and psychological syndromes known as neuropsychiatric or behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia remarkably reduce the quality of life of patients. Rising evidence is unraveling the pathophysiology of these symptoms in which all the neurotransmitter systems in the Central Nervous System (CNS) are implicated, with a pivotal role of alterations of the glutamatergic neurotransmission. Pharmacological agents for the treatment of these disorders endowed with efficacy and safety are not available yet; aromatherapy provides the best evidence in the control of agitation, the most resistant symptom. Basic research effort demonstrates that the essential oil of bergamot induces anxyolitic-like effects, devoid of sedation, typical of benzodiazepines, with noteworthy advantage for demented patients. People suffering from dementia often cannot verbalize pain, thus resulting unrelieved and contributing to agitation. Bergamot essential oil provides extensive evidence of analgesic properties independent from the route of administration. Among other mechanisms, modulation of autophagy, a process involved in neuropathic pain, seems to be implicated in the analgesic activity of bergamot essential oil. These data, together with the reported safety profile form the rational basis for bergamot as a neurotherapeutic to be trialed for the control of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia.
ARTICLE Download: 12| View: 174| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0207.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: myopia,photon-electron theory,high-frequency electromagnetic radiation
Online: 12 June 2019 (12:31:59 CEST)
The exact etiology of myopia remains elusive. The author proposes the particle property of photon in living tissue and the photon-electron theory in living tissue, if the frequency of the photon exceeds the threshold, the photon has enough energy to strike the electron away and forms a hole of a diameter in photon diameter scale in living tissue include the eye. Longer time of high-frequency electromagnetic radiation will cause more holes and a larger radius of holes. The visual light which passes through the radiated hole in the eye cannot be refracted on the macula, this is myopia symptom of blurred vision, shortening the distance of the eye and the object will include more visual light into cornea and lens, this is myopia another symptom of nearsightedness. The particle property of photon causes elongation of the eye and the macular holes.Blue light and X-ray are two kinds of high-frequency electromagnetic radiation which can shot holes in eye and cause myopia.
Mon, 10 June 2019
ARTICLE Download: 14| View: 114| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0080.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: experimental lung cancer; immunomodulators; oxidative stress; autophagy; tumor growth; sirtuin-1
Online: 10 June 2019 (16:12:57 CEST)
Background: Lung cancer (LC) is a major leading cause of death worldwide. Immunomodulators that target several immune mechanisms have proven to reduce tumor burden in experimental models through induction of the immune microenvironment. We hypothesized that other biological mechanisms may also favor tumor burden reduction in lung cancer-bearing mice treated with immunomodulators. Methods: Tumor weight, area, and immune cells (T, B, macrophages, and TNF-alpha levels, immunohistochemistry) and tumor growth, oxidative stress, apoptosis, autophagy, and sirtuin-1 markers were analyzed (immunoblotting) in subcutaneous tumor of BALB/c mice injected with LP07 adenocarcinoma cells treated with monoclonal antibodies (CD-137, CTLA-4, PD-1, and CD-19, N=9/group) and non-treated control animals. Results: Compared to non-treated cancer mice, in tumors of monoclonal-treated animals, tumor area and weight and ki-67 significantly reduced, while T cell counts, oxidative stress, apoptosis, autophagy, and sirtuin-1 marker increased. Conclusion: Immunomodulators elicited a reduction in tumor burden (reduced tumor size and weight) through decreased tumor proliferation and increased oxidative stress, apoptosis, autophagy, and sirtuin-1 levels, which may have interfered with the immune profile of the tumor microenvironment. Future research should be devoted to the elucidation of the specific contribution of each biological mechanism to the reduced tumor burden.
COMMUNICATION Download: 23| View: 125| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0079.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: ovarian cancer metastasis, chemokines, cytoreductive surgery, Cytotoxic T cells, BDCA3 Dendritic cells.
Online: 10 June 2019 (16:03:23 CEST)
Nowadays the positive immune involvement in the eradication of tumor cells is assigned to the adaptive immune response. By awakening of in vivo responding T cells that are suppressed by the tumor and prevents immunological cure of the cancer. The adaptive immune response is a complex of different cells and protein molecules. Normally activated T cells are well-ordered by several late occurring inhibitors to contain the response to the unknown invaders and spare the normal cells. The tumor strengthens this inhibitory response to escape from immune elimination. Immunotherapy is to unleash the full capacity of the adaptive immune system by blocking this inhibitor response by monoclonal antibodies but with the potential drawback of autoimmune phenomena. Seen the success of the immunotherapy another feature of the immune system is overlooked. Cytokines and chemokines became in oblivion after their suspected necrosis of the tumor (TNF) did not fulfil their initial hope. When patients seek help for their complaints the ovarian cancer is in most cases already metastasized to the peritoneum and omentum. Here, we show that on the one hand chemokines produced by Th2, CD8 and NK cells inhibit cancer spreading and thus leads to a better operability and thus better survival. On the other hand, chemokine receptors are expressed by the tumor that are a decoy by binding chemokines that normally should attract antigen cross-presenting dendritic cells, which start an adaptive T cell response.
Fri, 7 June 2019
ARTICLE Download: 38| View: 205| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0052.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Parkinson's disease; brain phosphorylome; PINK1, alpha-synuclein; microtubular cytoskeleton; autophagy; synaptic signaling
Online: 7 June 2019 (03:21:19 CEST)
Hereditary Parkinson’s disease (PD) can be triggered by an autosomal dominant overdose of alpha-Synuclein (SNCA) as stressor or the autosomal recessive deficiency of PINK1 Serine/Threonine-phosphorylation activity as stress-response. We demonstrated the combination of PINK1-knockout with overexpression of SNCAA53T in double mutant (DM) mice to exacerbate locomotor deficits and to reduce lifespan. To survey posttranslational modifications of proteins underlying the pathology, brain hemispheres of old DM mice underwent quantitative label-free global proteomic mass spectrometry, focused on Ser/Thr-phosphorylations. As exceptionally strong effect, we detected >300-fold reductions of phosphoThr1928 in MAP1B, a microtubule-associated protein, and a similar reduction of phosphoSer3781 in ANK2, an interactor of microtubules. MAP1B depletion is known to trigger perturbations of microtubular mitochondria trafficking, neurite extension and synaptic function, so it was noteworthy that relevantly decreased phosphorylation was detected also for other microtubule and microfilament factors, namely MAP2S1801, MARK1S394, MAP1AT1794, KIF1AS1537, 4.1NS541, 4.1GS86 and ADD2S528. While the MAP1B heavy chain supports regeneration and growth cones, its light-chain assists DAPK1-mediated autophagy. Interestingly, relevant phosphorylation decreases of DAPK2S299, VPS13DS2429 and VPS13CS2480 in the DM brain affected regulators of autophagy, which are implicated in PD. Overall, significant downregulations were enriched for PFAM C2 domains, other kinases, and synaptic transmission factors upon automated bioinformatics, while upregulations were not enriched for selective motifs or pathways. Validation experiments confirmed the change of LC3 processing as reflection of excessive autophagy in DM brain, and dependence of ANK2/MAP1B expression on PINK1 levels. Our new data provide independent confirmation in a mouse model with combined PARK1/PARK4/PARK6 pathology that MAP1B/ANK2 phosphorylation events are implicated in Parkinsonian neurodegeneration. These findings expand on previous observations in D. melanogaster that the MAP1B ortholog futsch in the presynapse is a primary target of the PARK8 protein LRRK2, and on a report that MAP1B is a component of the pathological Lewy body aggregates in PD patient brains. Similarly, ANK2 gene locus variants are associated with the risk of PD, ANK2 interacts with PINK1/Parkin-target proteins such as MIRO1 or ATP1A2, and ANK2-derived peptides are potent inhibitors of autophagy.
Thu, 6 June 2019
ARTICLE Download: 22| View: 185| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0048.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Ambulation, Ischemic stroke, pre-stroke depression, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA)
Online: 6 June 2019 (10:37:13 CEST)
Background. Specific clinical risk factors that may be associated with ambulatory outcome following thrombolysis therapy in ischemic stroke patients with pre-stroke depression is not fully understood. This was investigated. Methods. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of functional ambulatory outcomes. Patient demographics and clinical risk factors served as predictive variables, while improvement or no improvement in ambulatory outcome was considered as the primary outcome. Results. A total of 595 of these patients received rtPA of which 310 patients presented with pre-stroke depression, 217 had no improvement in functional outcome, while 93 patients presented with an improvement in functional outcome. Carotid artery stenosis (OR= 11.577, 95% CI, 1.281 – 104.636, P=0.029) and peripheral vascular disease (OR= 18.040, 95% CI, 2.956-110.086, P=0.002) were more likely to be associated with an improvement in ambulation. Antihypertensive medications (OR= 7.810, 95% CI, 1.401 –43.529, P=0.019),previous TIA (OR= 0.444, 95% CI, 0.517 –0.971, P=0.012), and congestive heart failure (OR= 0.217, 95% CI, 0.318 –0.402, P=0.030) were associated with a no improvement in ambulation. Conclusion. After adjustment for covariates, more clinical risk factors were associated with no improvement when compared with improvement in functional outcome following thrombolysis therapy in an acute ischemic stroke population with pre-stroke depression.
Wed, 5 June 2019
ARTICLE Download: 22| View: 207| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0045.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Cirrhosis; Bone marrow; Mesenchymal stem cells; Characteristics; Liver regeneration
Online: 5 June 2019 (15:43:03 CEST)
Liver cirrhosis leads to hepatic dysfunction and life-threatening conditions. Though clinical efficacy of autologous bone marrow-drived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) transplantation in alcoholic cirrhosis (AC) was demonstrated, the relevant mechanism has not been elucidated. We aimed to identify predictive factors and gene/pathways for responders after autologous BM-MSC transplantation. Fifty-five patients with biopsy-proven AC underwent autologous BM-MSC transplantation. The characteristics of responders who showed improvement in fibrosis score (≥ 1) after transplantation were compared with those of non-responders. BM-MSCs were analyzed with cDNA microarrays to identify genes and pathways that were differentially expressed in responder after transplantation. Thirty-three patients (66%) were responders. In the multivariate analysis, initial high Laennec score (p=0.007, odds ratio 3.73) and performance of BM-MSC transplantation (p=0.033, odds ratio 5.75) were predictive factors for responder. Three genes (olfactory receptor 2L8, microRNA4520-2, and chloride intracellular channel protein 3) were upregulated in responders and 11 metabolic pathways (inositol phosphate, ATP-binding cassette transporters, protein kinase signaling, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, endocytosis, phagosome, hematopoietic cell lineage, adipocytokine, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, fat digestion/absorption, and insulin resistance) were upregulated in non-responders (p<0.05). BM-MSC transplantation is warranted treatment for AC patients with high Laennec score. Cell-based therapy utilizing response-relating genes or pathway can be treatment candidate.
REVIEW Download: 65| View: 207| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0042.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: glucosinolate; sulphopharane; allyl isothiocyanate, phase II detoxification enzymes; anti-tumour agents; anti-bacterials; neutraceutical; sinigrin; glutathione-S-transferase
Online: 5 June 2019 (14:53:35 CEST)
This study reviewed aspects of the biology of two members of the glucosinolate family, namely sinigrin and glucoraphanin and their potential biomedical therapeutic and industrial applications. Sinigrin and glucoraphanin are converted by the -sulphoglucosidase myrosinase or the gut microbiota into their bioactive forms, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and sulphoraphanin (SFN) which constitute part of a sophisticated defence mechanism plants have developed over several hundred million years of evolution to protect them from parasitic attack from aphids, ticks and nematodes. These compounds display biological activities in a number of mammalian physiological processes and potential biotherapeutic application. Glucosinolates may be useful in bio-fumigation and treatment of biofilms which occur on plant equipment and medical implants formed by problematic pathogenic bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. AITC and SFN display similar antibiotic activity as Vancomycin in the treatment of bacteria listed by the World Health Organization as antibiotic-resistant "priority pathogens".AITC and SFN also display bioactivity in cancer chemoprevention through the induction of phase II antioxidant enzymes which inactivate potential carcinogens. The glucosinolates have found application in the prevention of bacterial and fungal spoilage of food substances during processing and in advanced food packaging formats which improve the shelf-life of food products.
ARTICLE Download: 36| View: 236| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0040.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: acid, air pollution, allergic diseases, Ca2+, mechanisms of allergy, multimorbidity, nonallergic, nonatopic
Online: 5 June 2019 (10:42:43 CEST)
Inflammatory allergic and nonallergic respiratory pathologies often co-exist. The root cause is not clear. This paper demonstrates that it is ascribable to protons (H+) released into cells by exogenous and endogenous acids. The hypothesis of acids as the common cause stems from two considerations: a) it has long been known that exogenous acids present in air pollutants can induce the irritation of epithelial surfaces, particularly the airways, inflammation and bronchospasm; b) according to recent articles, endogenous acids, generated in cells by phospholipases, play a key role in the biochemical mechanisms of initiation and progression of allergic responses. Therefore, the intracellular acidification and consequent Ca2+ increase, induced by protons generated by either acid pollutants or endogenous phospholipases, may be the causal mechanism of the multimorbidity of these diseases, and environmental acidity may contribute to their spread.
ARTICLE Download: 22| View: 212| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0033.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: gastrointestinal stromal tumors, GIST, Sunitinib, Imatinib, predictive factors
Online: 5 June 2019 (08:53:25 CEST)
Imatinib 400 mg is the standard of care for medical treatment of advanced GISTs. In the majority of cases, however, GISTs eventually develop resistance to imatinib. The optimal second line treatment has not been established yet and imatinib dose escalation (800 mg) or sunitinib represent two feasible options. The objective of this retrospective, multi-institutional, study is to analyze the validity of several parameters as possible predictive factors of response to sunitinib after imatinib failure. We reviewed 128 metastatic GISTs treated with sunitinib between January 2007 to June 2017. Primary tumour site, metastatic site, c-KIT/PDGFR-α mutational status, PET-FDG status and type of disease progression to sunitinib were assessed as possible predictive factors of response. This study identifies the gastric site of primary tumor as a predictive factor to sunitinib efficacy in second line setting. The mutational status (GIST WT), the site of metastasis (peritoneum) and the FDG-PET status (negative), although not statistically significant, seem to be elements of increased activity for sunitinib treatment. These results provide the rationale to drive physician for sunitinib choice in second line setting for metastatic GISTs, to improve patients selection and to maximize the benefit from the treatment, on the basis of possible predictive factors of response.
Tue, 4 June 2019
ARTICLE Download: 96| View: 663| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0030.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: autism; autistic spectrum disorder; children; behavior; ultrasonography; prenatal; pregnancy
Online: 4 June 2019 (12:56:37 CEST)
For the past several decades, abdominal prenatal ultrasonography has been the most significant technology in obstetrics with a long-established application. However, the frequency, exposure time, thermal and cavitation exposure indices, and increased acoustic output of the ultrasonic waves may be harmful to the embryo/fetus and might increase susceptibility to Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The increase in the prevalence of ASD is associated with an affluent ethnicity, high socioeconomic status, and high parental education where prenatal ultrasonography is readily available and affordable. Enhanced biophysical adverse effects may link the analogous increase in prenatal ultrasonography and autism, and prenatal ultrasonography may emerge as a risk factor for autism. Radiography usage provides historical evidence for this fact: the predominant past opinion was that exposure to X-rays during pregnancy caused no significant risk to a fetus. However, the association between X-ray exposure and childhood leukemia was only established 40 years after X-ray use began. This review focuses on excessive PUS usage and ASD development. Public Abstract Advancements in medical technology over the past several decades have made prenatal ultrasound more frequently accessible to expecting mothers during their pregnancy, especially for the affluent. A parallel development in health care is the increase in autism diagnoses (Autism Spectrum Disorder, or ASD) in children of affluent families. There is a general lack of studies of the impact of prenatal ultrasound on fetuses, especially around varying attributes such as frequency, duration of exposure, and thermal and cavitation indices. There is also a historical precedent set, where exposing fetuses to X-rays was not found to be harmful until it was linked to the development of childhood leukemia decades later. This paper seeks to establish a need to further study these attributes of prenatal ultrasound overuse and their possible impact on a developing fetus, with a special focus on the occurrence of Autism.
Mon, 3 June 2019
CONCEPT PAPER Download: 40| View: 270| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0025.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Medication adherence, definition, disorder, perspective, healthcare professional, disorder
Online: 3 June 2019 (14:11:22 CEST)
It is not new in medical history to propose a global concern to be classified as a disease. Defining a concern into disease allows to assign ethical responsibilities to develop powerful and effective interventions. It also allow to appropriate distribute the resources uniformly economically and morally. In 2003, World Health Organization report stated that 30-50 % of patients do not take their medications as prescribed associated with morbidity, mortality and health cost. It was considered a global concern, however, irrespective of decades of researches conducted on medication adherence, we are still unable to state that medication adherence issues are being resolved. In this review, we have described few apprehensions in current understandings of medication adherence that have limited its research. We have also proposed medication adherence as disorder and provided its’ definition and classification
ARTICLE Download: 29| View: 235| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0024.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: adenovirus; pneumonia; fever; response to antipyretic treatment
Online: 3 June 2019 (14:02:51 CEST)
In 2014, the outbreak of adenoviral pneumonia occurred in Korean military training center. However, there is limited data on characteristics of fever and its response to antipyretics therapy in immunocompetent adults with adenoviral positive community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Medical records of patients who were admitted to Armed Forces Chuncheon Hospital for treatment of CAP between January 2014 and December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. We evaluated demographics, clinico-laboratory findings and radiologic findings at admission were compared between adenovirus positive (Adv) group and adenovirus negative (non-Adv) group. Out of 251 military personnel with CAP during the study periods, 67 were classified into Adv group while 184 were Non-Adv group. Patients with Adv group had a longer duration of fever after admission and symptom onset. Adv group patients had a higher mean temperature at admission and more observed over 40 and 39 to 40℃. Adv group patients had more commonly observed no response to antipyretic treatment and adverse events after antipyretics use. Length of hospital stay had no significant difference between two groups and no patient died in both groups. In our study, Adv positive CAP in patients with immunocompetent military personnel had distinct characteristics of fever and response to antipyretic treatment.
ARTICLE Download: 31| View: 213| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0017.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer; relative survival; excess hazard; excess mortality
Online: 3 June 2019 (10:08:23 CEST)
Measurement of breast cancer burden and identification of its influencing factors help in the development of public health policy and strategy against the disease. This study aimed to examine the variability of the excess mortality of female breast cancer patients in the North East Region of Peninsular Malaysia. This retrospective cohort study was conducted using breast cancer data from the Kelantan Cancer Registry between 2007 and 2011, and Kelantan general population mortality data. The breast cancer cases were followed up for five years until 2016. Out of 598 cases, 549 cases met the study criteria and were included in the analysis. Modelling of excess mortality was conducted using Poisson regression. Excess mortality of breast cancer varied according to age group (50 years old and below vs above 50 years old, Adj. EHR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.31, 4.09; P=0.004), ethnicity (Malay vs non-Malay, Adj. EHR: 2.31; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.96; P=0.008), and stage (stage III and IV vs. stage I and II, Adj. EHR: 5.75; 95% CI: 4.24, 7.81; P<0.001). In conclusion, public health policy and strategy aim to improve cancer survival should focus more on patients presented at age below 50 years old, Malay ethnicity, and at a later stage.
REVIEW Download: 28| View: 154| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0007.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Vitamin C, Periodontal disease, Periodontitis, Gingivitis
Online: 3 June 2019 (08:46:35 CEST)
Vitamin C is important in preventing and slowing the progression of many diseases. There is significant evidence linking periodontal disease and vitamin C. We aimed to systematically review studies addressing the relationship between vitamin C and periodontal disease and the preventive ability of vitamin C against periodontal disease. Electric searches were performed using PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. Studies addressing the relationships between periodontal disease and vitamin C in adults aged over 18 years were included. Quality assessment was done using Critical Appraisal Skills Program guideline and GRADE-CERQual. Seventy hundred and sixteen articles were retrieved and fifteen articles (7 cross-sectional studies, 2 case-control studies, 2 cohort studies, and 4 randomized controlled trial [RCT]) were selected by reviewing all articles. Vitamin C intake and blood level were negatively related to periodontal disease in all 7 cross-sectional studies. Subjects who suffer from periodontitis presented lower vitamin C intake and lower blood vitamin C level than subjects without periodontal disease in the two case-control studies. Patients with lower dietary intake or lower blood level of vitamin C showed greater progression of periodontal disease than did the controls. Intervention using vitamin C administration improved gingival bleeding in gingivitis but not in periodontitis. Alveolar bone absorption was also not improved. The present systematic review suggested that vitamin C contributes to reduced risk of periodontal disease.
ARTICLE Download: 53| View: 196| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0003.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: apoptosis; Barhi date palm kernels (BDPK); extractable polyphenols (EPP); non-extractable polyphenols (NEPP); nobiletin (NOB); tectorigenin (TEC); persicogenin (PERSI).
Online: 3 June 2019 (08:33:05 CEST)
Background and objectives: The initiation of apoptotic death in cancer cells is the aim of many chemotherapeutic strategies. As many anticancer agents have been discovered in natural plant sources, the search for novel phytochemicals displaying anticancer activities continues at a tremendous rate. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of extractable polyphenols (EPP); non-extractable polyphenols (NEPP); nobiletin (NOB); tectorigenin (TEC) and persicogenin (PERS) from Barhi date palm kernels (BDPK) extracts on the induction of apoptosis in human lung cancer A549 and colon cancer HT29 cell lines. Materials and Methods: The anticancer activities were determined using MTT and trypan blue exclusion assays. Flow cytometry analysis was performed to study the cell viability, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The underlying mechanism of apoptosis induced by crude extracts and the purified compounds was investigated using caspase-3, -8 and -9 assays and the mitochondrial membrane potential assay. Results: The findings indicate that both BDPK extracts and the purified compounds do exert induced cell death on A549 and HT29 cells. The results observed from MTT- assay and trypan blue exclusion indicate that the cytotoxic effects of both plant extracts and the three isolated flavonoids are dose-dependent with higher cell death after 72 hours treatment. Treatment of human lung and colon cancer cells with EPP, NEPP, NOB, TEC and PERSI induced late stages of apoptosis as there was evidence of the DNA degradation and high percentage of the cells population was situated at sub-G1 phase, indicating a high population of apoptotic cells. Conclusions: Study of the apoptotic mechanism demonstrated that EPP and NEPP exhibited dependent mitochondrial signalling pathway as seen with caspase-9 and induced receptor-mediated (extrinsic) apoptotic pathway as seen with caspase-8. Therefore, our results suggest that BDPK extracts and the three isolated flavonoids could be a good candidate for developing anticancer agents.
REVIEW Download: 92| View: 151| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0002.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: patient-derived xenograft; immunocompromised mice; precision medicine; drug screening; cancer; cell line
Online: 3 June 2019 (04:47:14 CEST)
Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models are created by engraftment of patients’ tumor tissues into immunocompetent mice. Since PDX model keep the characteristics of primary patient’s tumor such as gene expression profiles and drug sensitivity, it now becomes most reliable in vivo human cancer model. The engraftment rate are increased with the introduction of NOD/Scid based immunocompromised mice, especially, NK cell defective NOD strains such as NOD/Scid/IL2Rγnu (NOG/ NSG) mice and NOD/Scid/Jak3null (NOJ) mice. Success ratio differs from the origin of tumor: Gastrointestinal tumors tend to higher success rate and breast cancer is lower. Subcutaneous transplantation is most popular method to establish PDX, but some tumor needs orthotropic or renal capsule transplantation, and human hormone treatment is needed to establish hormone dependent cancers such as prostate and breast cancer. PDX library with patient’s clinical data, gene-expression patterns, mutational status, drug responsiveness and tumor architecture will be the powerful tool for developing specific biomarker and novel individualized therapy and establishing precision cancer medicine.
Fri, 31 May 2019
REVIEW Download: 54| View: 244| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0380.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: neem extracts; nutritional components; systemic diseases
Online: 31 May 2019 (08:44:25 CEST)
Plant-based alternative medicine is normally grounded on empiric cultural perception, as the main objective, these practices intent to either maintain good health or to provide a route to turn-the-tide on a specific disease or ailment. Amongst the thousands of plants that have been used and studied, Neem (Azadirachta indica) seems to have a very interesting tale to tell, since its properties to ward-off certain diseases have overtime, and in a rigorous way, been proven. The preceding concise review is a collection of some of the most relevant studies today, not only focusing on the health benefits obtained by its use, but digging into the molecular mechanisms of how the properties come about. In particular, we take a look over antioxidant properties and how these mediate and mitigate important molecules such as IL-6 and TNF-, leading the way in reducing systematic damage by oxidative stress. Further, we relate this oxidative reduction to other systemic diseases such as cancer and diabetes, as these are currently becoming the most rampant killers. As of yet not all is known about the different ways of extracting or the total composition of an extract, as these may be from different parts of the plant. Therefore, we also allude to an important cautionary view where toxicological effects and conflicting outcomes arise. Overall, presented results show a great potential for the different extracts of Neem as their antioxidant activity can be taken advantage off, and potentially used in modern medicine.
ARTICLE Download: 37| View: 189| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0377.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: dementia; AGAP; bicarbonate; cognitive function; Mild cognitive impairment; CERAD
Online: 31 May 2019 (08:31:49 CEST)
Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is a condition characterized by mild deficits in episodic and semantic memory and learning. The conversion rate of aMCI to Alzheimer disease (AD) is significantly higher in aMCI than in the general population. The aim of this study is to examine whether aMCI is a valid diagnostic category or whether aMCI comprises different subgroups based on cognitive functions. We recruited 60 aMCI patients, 60 with AD and 61 healthy controls who completed neuropsychological tests of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD-NP) and biomarkers including serum anion gap (AGAP). Principal component analysis, support vector machine and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) showed that AD patients and controls were highly significantly discrimanted from each other, while patients with aMCI overlap considerably with normal controls. SIMCA showed that 68.3% of the aMCI patients were assigned to the control class (named: aMCI-HC), 15% to AD (aMCI-AD), while 16.6% did not belong to either class (aMCI-strangers). aMCI-HC subjects showed sings of very mild cognitive decline and impaired recall. aMCI-strangers showed signs of mild cognitive impairment with impaired fluency and naming. aMCI-AD cases showed a cognitive profile reminiscent of AD an increased AGAP levels. In conclusion, our SIMCA model may classify subjects afforded a clinical diagnosis of aMCI according to Petersen’s criteria into three clinically relevant subgroups and help in the early detection of AD by identifying aMCI patients at risk to develop AD and those that have an AD prodrome.
Thu, 30 May 2019
ARTICLE Download: 34| View: 192| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0370.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Targeted drug delivery, VX2 tumor, breast cancer, cryoablation, cryo-assisted injection, cryo-assisted resection, blue dye, epirubicin.
Online: 30 May 2019 (13:44:41 CEST)
Background: We assess locoregional drug targeting effectiveness of intraoperative (IO) cryoprobe-assisted injection of blue dye (BD) and cytotoxic-tracer mixture (TTM), in VX2 tumor model, and its translational value to cryo-assisted breast tumor surgery with BD alone. Methods: Under computed tomography (CT) guidance, we injected two ml TTM in five aliquots in the margin of 16 frozen or normothermic VX2 tumors. We evaluated the IO and post-operative drug targeting and therapeutic efficacy in tumor-host interface (T-HI) by CT, gross examination, and histopathology. In twenty-six T1 to T4 primary breast cancer (BRCA) we performed ultrasound-guided (US) cryoprobe-assisted tumor freezing, BD guided lymphatic mapping, and surgery. We evaluated, IO and in freshly resected specimen, BD distribution pattern in T-HI, lymph node(s), breast parenchyma, and resection cavity. Results: Fluids-impervious frozen VX2 or breast tumor transported drug(s) an arc-like pattern at T-HI regardless of freeze dose, number of freeze-thaw cycles, drug dose fractionation, tumor characteristics or dimensions. During melting, TTM spread within fifty percent VX2 tumor mirrored that of T-HI; it was massive in normothermia. In VX2 twenty percent focal margin necrosis at pathology coincided with CT gap; in both studies, BD dose-staining spread in T-HI and tumor was linear. Eighty-four patients had one to twelve stained axillary lymph nodes; sixty-nine percent and all respectively, had another quadrant and resection cavity stained. Conclusion: Intraoperative freezing-assisted drug delivery and targeting techniques during cryoablation of VX2 tumor translate successfully to locoregional BD targeting, lymphatic mapping during cryo-assisted surgery of breast cancer.
Wed, 29 May 2019
ARTICLE Download: 28| View: 181| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0360.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: neuropsin; KLK8; mental disorders; mental health
Online: 29 May 2019 (16:50:08 CEST)
Neuropsin is an extracellular matrix serine protease that governs the proteolytic cleavage of synaptic proteins and consequently synaptic structural plasticity. In the brain, its substrates include the cell adhesion molecules Neuregulin-1 and L1CAM, that have been linked to neurodevelopmental processes and disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Neuropsin mRNA is abundant in the cerebellum and several peripheral tissues from mid-gestation but is mainly expressed in cortical and limbic tissues postnatally. Differential usage of neuropsin splice forms in the fetal and adult brain has only been reported in humans, suggesting that neuropsin may serve a specialized role in human neurodevelopment. Accordingly, both the expression and proteolytic activity of neuropsin are subject to regulation by neural activity as well as by environmental risk factors associated with mental illness, such as psychophysiological stress. Intriguingly, dysregulation of neuropsin has been reported in depression and Alzheimer’s disease and its implication in mental disorder is supported by genetic and epigenome wide studies. Here we review neuropsin regulation in mental health and provide a summary of clinical and preclinical evidence supporting a role for neuropsin in the pathogenesis of mental disorders.
REVIEW Download: 39| View: 185| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0358.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: alloimmune response; immunosuppressants; calcineurin inhibitors; corticosteroids; mTOR inhibitors; neurotoxicity; neuroprotective effects
Online: 29 May 2019 (16:37:44 CEST)
Although transplantation procedures have been developed for patients with end-stagec hepatic insufficiency or other diseases, allograft rejection still threatens patient health and lifespan. Over the last few decades, the emergence of immunosuppressive agents, such as calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, have strikingly increased graft survival. Unfortunately, immunosuppressive agent-related neurotoxicity is commonly occurred in clinical situations, with the majority of neurotoxicity cases caused by CNIs. The possible mechanisms whereby CNIs cause neurotoxicity include: increasing the permeability or injury of the blood-brain barrier, alterations of mitochondrial function, and alterations in electrophysiological state. Other immunosuppressants can also induce neuropsychiatric complications. For example, mTOR inhibitors induce seizures; mycophenolate mofetil induces depression and headache; methotrexate affects the central nervous system; mouse monoclonal immunoglobulin G2 antibody against cluster of differentiation 3 also induces headache; and patients using corticosteroids usually experience cognitive alteration. Therapeutic drug monitoring, individual therapy based on pharmacogenetics, and early recognition of symptoms have greatly reduced neurotoxic events. Once neurotoxicity occurs, a reduction in the drug dosage, switching to other immunosuppressants, using drugs to treat the neuropsychiatric manifestation, or blood purification therapy have proven to be effective against neurotoxicity. In this review, we summarize the recent topics on the mechanisms of neurotoxicity of immunosuppressive drugs. In addition, some information about neuroprotective effects of several immunosuppressants are also discussed.
ARTICLE Download: 36| View: 199| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0356.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Influenza A virus, immunology, immunotherapy, receptor; tumors
Online: 29 May 2019 (16:16:49 CEST)
Dewetting transition - a concept borrowed from fluid mechanics - is a physiological process which takes place inside the hydrophobic pores of ion channels. This transient phenomenon causes a metastable state which forbids water molecules to cross the microscopic receptors’ cavities. This leads to a decrease of conductance, a closure of the hole and, subsequently, severe impairment of cellular performance. We suggest that artificially-provoked dewetting transition in ion channels’ hydrophobic pores could stand for a molecular candidate to erase detrimental organisms, such as viruses, bacteria and cancer cells. We describe a novel type of high-affinity monoclonal antibody, which: a) targets specific trans-membrane receptor structures of harmful or redundant cells; b) is equipped with lipophilic and/or hydrophobic fragments that prevent physiological water flows inside ion channels. Therefore, we achieve an artificial dewetting transition inside receptors’ cavities which causes transmembrane ionic flows discontinuity, channel blockage and subsequent damage of morbid cells. As an example, we describe dewetting monoclonal antibodies targeting the M2 channel of the Influenza A virus: they might prevent water to enter the pores, thus leading to virion impairment.
Tue, 28 May 2019
REVIEW Download: 48| View: 135| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0338.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: castor bean; cancer therapy; immunotoxins; plant toxins; ribosome-inactivating proteins; ricin; rRNA N-glycosylase activity; traditional medicine; folk medicine; bioterrorism.
Online: 28 May 2019 (11:54:43 CEST)
The castor plant (Ricinus communis L.) has been known since time immemorial in traditional medicine in the pharmacopeia of Mediterranean and eastern ancient cultures. Moreover, it is still used in folk medicine worldwide. Castor bean has been mainly recommended as anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, anti-bacterial, laxative, abortifacient, for wounds, ulcers, and many other indications. Many cases of human intoxication occurred accidentally or voluntarily with the ingestion of castor seeds or derivatives. Ricinus toxicity depends on several molecules, among them the most important is ricin, a protein belonging to the family of ribosome-inactivating proteins. Ricin is the most studied of this category of proteins and it is also known to the general public, having been used for biocrimes in several cases. Here, the main steps of ricin research are reported with particular regards to its enzymatic activity, structure and cytotoxicity. Moreover, we discuss ricin toxicity for animals and humans, as well as the relation amongst bioterrorism and ricin and its impact on environmental toxicity. Ricin has also been of great utility to develop a number of immunotoxins specific for the elimination of unwanted cells, mainly cancer cells; some of these immunotoxins gave promising results also in clinical trials.
ARTICLE Download: 29| View: 123| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0332.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: obesity; renal injury; lipocalin-2; collagen type IV; inflammation
Online: 28 May 2019 (10:39:04 CEST)
Rats fed a high-fat diet with a single streptozotocin (STZ) injection developed obesity, prediabetes, cardiac hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction. Here we aimed to explore the renal consequences of prediabetes in the same groups of rats. Male Long-Evans rats were fed normal chow (CON; n = 9) or high-fat diet containing 40% lard and were administered STZ at 20 mg/kg (i.p.) at week four (prediabetic rats, PRED, n = 9). At week 21 cardiac functions were examined (Koncsos et al., 2016) and blood and urine samples were taken. Kidney samples were collected for histology, immunohistochemistry and for analysis of gene expression. High-fat diet and streptozotocin increased body weight gain and visceral adiposity, and plasma leptin, elevated fasting blood glucose levels, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance, despite hyperleptinemia, plasma C-reactive protein concentration decreased in PRED rats. Immunohistochemistry revealed elevated collagen IV protein expression in the glomeruli, and Lcn2 mRNA expression increased, while Il-1β mRNA expression decreased in both the renal cortex and medulla in PRED vs. CON rats. Kidney histology, urinary protein excretion, plasma creatinine, glomerular Feret diameter, desmin protein expression and cortical and medullary mRNA expression of TGF-β1, Nrf2, PPARγ were similar in CON and PRED rats. Reduced AMPKα phosphorylation of the autophagy regulator Akt was the first sign of liver damage, while serum lipid and liver enzyme levels were similar. In conclusion, glomerular collagen deposition and increased lipocalin-2 expression were the early signs of kidney injury, while most biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis were negative in the kidneys of obese, prediabetic rats with mild heart and liver injury.
REVIEW Download: 40| View: 122| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0328.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: adiponectin; diagnosis; HIV; insulin; non-amplification nucleic acid detection; ultrasensitive ELISA
Online: 28 May 2019 (10:18:41 CEST)
For the diagnosis of disease, the ability to quantitatively detect trace amounts of the causal proteins from bacteria/viruses as biomarkers in patient specimens is highly desirable. Here we introduce a simple, rapid, and colorimetric assay as a de novo, ultrasensitive detection method. This ultrasensitive assay consists of sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and thionicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (thio-NAD) cycling, forming an ultrasensitive ELISA, in which the signal substrate (i.e., thio-NADH) accumulates in a triangular manner, and the accumulated thio-NADH is measured at its maximum absorption wavelength of 400 nm. We have successfully achieved a limit of detection of ca. 10–18 moles/assay for a target protein. As an example of infectious disease detection, HIV-1 p24 could be measured at 0.0065 IU/assay (i.e., 10−18 moles/assay), and as a marker for a lifestyle-related disease, adiponectin could be detected at 2.3 × 10−19 moles/assay. In particular, despite the long-held belief that the trace amounts of adiponectin in urine can only be detected using a radioisotope, our ultrasensitive ELISA was able to detect urinary adiponectin. This method is highly versatile, because simply changing the antibody enables the detection of various proteins. This assay system requires only the measurement of absorbance, thus it requires equipment that is easily obtained by medical facilities, which facilitates diagnosis in hospitals and clinics. Moreover, we describe an expansion of our ultrasensitive ELISA to a non-amplification nucleic acid detection method for nucleic acids using hybridization. These de novo methods will enable simple, rapid, and accurate diagnosis.
REVIEW Download: 39| View: 117| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0326.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: stroke; antibody therapy; monoclonal antibody; inflammation; acid-sensing ion channel; receptor; growth factors
Online: 28 May 2019 (10:05:26 CEST)
Acute ischemic strokes are the third leading cause of death and the leading cause of neurological disability worldwide. The oxygen and glucose deprivation associated with ischemic strokes not only leads to neuronal cell death, but also increases the inflammatory response and decreases functional output of the brain. The only intervention approved by US Federal Drug and Food Administration for treatment of ischemic strokes is tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), however, such treatment can only be given within 4.5 hours of the onset of stroke-like symptoms. This narrow time-range limits its application, and it also might induce detrimental rather than beneficial effects to stroke patients by treatment of the tPA. In order to reduce the infarct volume of an acute ischemic stroke while increasing the time period for treatment, emerging therapies reveal great potential by targeting inflammation, growth factors, ion channels, and neurotransmitter receptors with monoclonal antibody (MAB). With successfully application in the treatment of cancer patient by MAB, in this review, we will focus on recent advances on stroke therapy by using MAB on the treatment of stroke by targeting inflammation, growth factors, ion channels, and neurotransmitter receptors. Therefore, developing specific MAB targeting the signaling pathway of stroke will contribute to stroke therapy.
ARTICLE Download: 18| View: 115| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0323.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: black carbon; emergency department visits; allergic rhinitis; allergic asthma; case-crossover design; Serbia
Online: 28 May 2019 (09:50:24 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Many epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between black carbon (BC) and the exacerbation of allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. However, none of the studies in Serbia examined this relationship so far. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between BC and emergency department (ED) visits for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma in the Užice region of Serbia. Materials and Methods: A time-stratified case-crossover design was applied to 523 ED visits for allergic rhinitis and asthma exacerbation that occurred in the Užice region of Serbia between 2012−2014. Data regarding ED visits were routinely collected in the Health Center of Užice. The daily average concentrations of BC were measured by automatic ambient air quality monitoring stations. Odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic regression adjusted for the potential confounding influence of weather variables (temperature, humidity, and air pressure). Results: Statistically significant associations were observed between ED visits for allergic rhinitis and 2-day lagged exposure to BC (OR = 3.20; CI = 1.00−10.18; p < 0.05) and allergic asthma and 3-day lagged exposure to BC (OR = 3.23; CI = 1.05−9.95; p < 0.05). Conclusion: Exposure to BC in the Užice region increases the risk of ED visits for allergic rhinitis and asthma, particularly during the heating season.
ARTICLE Download: 26| View: 133| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0322.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: primary teeth; pulpotomy; furcal perforation; perforation size
Online: 28 May 2019 (04:53:46 CEST)
Aim: aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical and radiographic healing after repairing mechanical furcal perforations that occurred in primary molars by using MTA (Mineral Trioxide Aggregate) and search in some factors that may affect the prognosis of the treatment. Materials & Methods: we had 34 primary molars in 32 children aged 5–10 years, were treated by using MTA material after the occurrence of furcal perforation during pulpotomy procedure. Cases had been followed clinically and radiographically within 12 months. Statistical analyses were performed at p-value = 0.05. Results: All teeth were asymptomatic at the first week. Overall success rate was 79.3%. There was no significant statistically differences between overall-success rates according to the perforation size and continues bleeding in the furcation area (p-value > 0.05). Conclusions: Iatrogenic furcal perforations that may occur during pulpotomy in primary molars can be treated successfully by using MTA, and small sized-perforations may have more favorable prognosis than the large ones. Iatrogenic furcal perforations that may occur during pulpotomy in primary molars can be treated successfully by using MTA, and small sized- perforations may have more favorable prognosis than the large ones.
Mon, 27 May 2019
ARTICLE Download: 30| View: 141| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0317.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: childhood trauma; stressful life events; sleep patterns; anxiety; depression; adolescence
Online: 27 May 2019 (12:36:54 CEST)
Adolescence is a critical developmental period associated with an increase in stress, the appearance of anxiety and depressive symptoms, and changes in sleep patterns. Even though the disruption of sleep patterns in stress and anxiety and depressive disorders is well known, the independent effects of childhood trauma and stressful life events on sleep patterns are less understood. We tested the independent effects of stress (childhood trauma and stressful life events) while controlling for anxiety and depression on adolescent sleep patterns. Seven hundred fifty-two adolescents completed self-report questionnaires about childhood trauma, stressful life events, anxiety, and depression. Four sleep factors identifying movement during sleep, sleep regularity, sleep disturbances and sleep pressure were extracted in the principal component analysis of sleep questions. Both childhood trauma and recent stressful life events were significantly associated with sleep disturbances before and after controlling for anxiety and depression.
REVIEW Download: 16| View: 117| Comments: 0
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: blood-brain barrier; copper/iron homeostasis; neurodegenerative (Alzheimers, Parkinsons, Prion) disease; North Ronaldsay sheep
Online: 27 May 2019 (12:27:10 CEST)
The neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimers, Parkinsons, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntingdons) and the prion disorders, have in common a dysregulation of metalloprotein chemistry involving redox metals (Cu,Fe,Mn). The consequent oxidative stress gives rise to protein plaques and neuronal cell death. An equilibrium exists between the functional requirement of the brain for Cu and Fe and their destructive potential with the production of reactive oxygen species. The importance of the brain barrier is highlighted in regulating the import of these metals. Upregulation of key transporters occurs in foetal and neonatal life when brain metal requirement is high and is down-regulated in adult life when need is minimal. By contrast a neonatal mode of CTR1 upregulation persists in feral N.Ronaldsay sheep. This has led to the premise that metal regulation may return to the default setting in ageing with implications for neurodegenerative disease.
ARTICLE Download: 23| View: 113| Comments: 0
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Huntington's disease; quality of life; family caregiving; reliability and validity; factor analysis; Poland
Online: 27 May 2019 (11:53:51 CEST)
Huntington's disease (HD) is a rare genetic neurodegenerative disorder that causes motor disorders, neuropsychiatric symptoms and a progressing deterioration of cognitive functions. Complex issues resulting from the hereditary nature of HD, the complexity of symptoms and the concealed onset of the disease have a great impact on the quality of life of family carers. The caregivers are called as “forgotten people” in HD family, also in genetic counseling. This study aims to explore the reliability and validity of the Huntington’s Disease Quality of Life Battery for carers (HDQoL-C) within a Polish population. 90 carers recruited from the Enroll-HD study in Polish research centres of the European Huntington`s Disease Network completed a polish translation of the HDQoL-C. Data was subjected to Principle Components Analysis and reliability measures. The Polish version of the shortened versions of the HDQoL–C is similarly valid compared to the original English version and suitable for use within this population. The HDQoL-C has previously demonstrated a wide range of benefits for practitioners in capturing and understanding carer experience and these benefits can now be extended to Polish speaking populations.
Fri, 24 May 2019
ARTICLE Download: 53| View: 188| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0292.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: CrossFit; high-intensity functional training; Extreme conditioning programs
Online: 24 May 2019 (11:36:10 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to assess if self-regulation of intensity based on rating of perceived exertion (RPE) is a reliable method to control the intensity of metabolic conditioning of functional-fitness session. In addition, the relationship between RPE and changes in heart rate and lactate responses was also analyzed. Eight male participants (age 28.1 ± 5.4 years; body mass 77.2 ± 4.4kg; VO2max: 52.6 ± 4.6 mL·(kg·min)−1) completed three randomly sessions (5 to 7 days apart) under different conditions: (1) all-out (ALL); (2) self-regulation of intensity based on a RPE of 6 (hard) on the Borg CR-10 scale (RPE6); and (3) a control session. Rate of perceived exertion, LAC and HR response were measured pre, during and immediately after the sessions. The RPE and LAC during the ALL-OUT sessions were higher (p ≤ 0.05) than the RPE6 and control sessions for all the analyzed time points during the sessions. Regarding HR, the 22 min area under the curve of HR during ALL-OUT and RPE6 sessions were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) than the control session. The average number of repetitions was lower (p ≤ 0.05) for the RPE6 session (190.5 ± 12.5 repetitions) when compared to the ALL session (214.4 ± 18.6 repetitions). There was a significant correlation between RPE and LAC (p = 0.001; r = 0.76; very large) and number of repetitions during the session (p = 0.026; r = 0.55; large). No correlation was observed between RPE and HR (p = 0.147; r = 0.380). These results indicate that self-regulation of intensity of effort based on RPE may be a useful tool to control exercise intensity during a metabolic conditioning session of functional-fitness.
Thu, 23 May 2019
ARTICLE Download: 40| View: 172| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0285.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Deficit schizophrenia, machine learning, cytokine, cognition, Immunological biomarkers
Online: 23 May 2019 (16:25:44 CEST)
No studies have examined the immune fingerprint of major neuro-cognitive psychosis (MNP) or deficit schizophrenia using M1 macrophage cytokines in combination with chemokines such as CCL-2 and CCL-11. The present study delineated the neuro-immune fingerprint of MNP/deficit schizophrenia by analyzing plasma levels of IL-1β, sIL-1RA, TNF-α, sTNFR1, sTNFR2, CCL-2 and CCL-11 in MNP (n=120) versus healthy controls (n=54) in association with neurocognitive deficits (as assessed with the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia) and PHEMN (psychotic, hostility, excitation, mannerism and negative) symptoms. All immune biomarkers were significantly higher in MNP than in normal controls. MNP was best predicted by a combination of CCL-11, TNF-α, IL-1β and sIL-1RA which yielded a bootstrapped (n=2000) area under the Receiver Operating Curve of 0.985. Composite scores reflecting M1 macrophage activity and neurotoxic potential including combined effects of CCL-11 plus CCL-2 were significantly increased in MNP. Nevertheless, the effects of increased IL-1β and TNF-α in MNP were attenuated (statistically) by increased sIL-1RA and sTNFR2, two negative immune-regulatory markers. A large part of the variance in PHEM (38.4%-52.6%) and negative (65.8-7439%) symptoms was explained by combinations of immune markers whereby CCL-11 was consistently the most important. The immune markers also explained a large part of the variance in the Mini Mental State examination, list learning, digit sequencing task, category instances, controlled word association, symbol coding and Tower of London. Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy performed on the biomarkers showed that the inter-class distance between the models constructed around MNP and controls was 19.3 indicating a good separation. Partial Least Squares analysis showed that 72.7% of the variance in overall phenomenology was explained by the regression on IL-1β, sIL-1RA, CCL-11, TNF-α (all positively) and education (inversely). It is concluded that the combination of the above-mentioned markers defines MNP as a distinct neuro-immune disorder and that those markers in combination explain a large part of the variance in memory and executivive impairments and PHEMN symptoms.
ARTICLE Download: 28| View: 195| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0280.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: information; end of life; humanisation; health care system; qualitative research
Online: 23 May 2019 (06:09:36 CEST)
Health information and communication are key elements that allow patients and family members to make decisions about end-of-life process and guarantee a death with dignity. Objective: To understand carers’ experiences regarding health information and communication during the illness and death of family members. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in Andalusia based on the paradigm of hermeneutic phenomenology. Participants were carers who had accompanied a family member at the end of life for over 2 months and less than 2 years. Five nominal groups and 5 discussion groups were established, and 41 in-depth interviews with 123 participants were conducted. Atlas.ti 7.0 software was used to analyse the discourses. Results: Four dimensions of the dying process emerged: differences in carers’ perceptions of information and communication, a conspiracy of silence, consequences of the absence or presence of information, and the need for a culture change. Conclusions: Poor management of health information and communication at the end of life suffering and discomfort patients and their families. The culture of denying and avoiding death is still present today. A change in education about death would better enable health professionals to care for patients at the end of life.
ARTICLE Download: 46| View: 192| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0278.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: NMDA; excitotoxicity; Glaucoma; melanopsin-RGCs; intrinsically photosensitive-RGCs; Brn3a+RGCs; adult albino rat; retina; SD-OCT
Online: 23 May 2019 (04:43:45 CEST)
We studied short- and long-term effects of intravitreal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) on melanopsin-containing (m+) and non-melanopsin-containing (Brn3a+) retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). In adult SD-rats, the left eye received a single intravitreal injection of 5µL of 100nM NMDA. At 3 and 15 months, retinal thickness was measured in vivo using SD-OCT. Ex vivo analyses were done at 3, 7, 14 days or 15 months after damage. Whole-mounted retinas were immunolabelled for Brn3a and melanopsin, the total number of Brn3a+RGCs and m+RGCs were quantified and their topography represented. In control retinas, the mean total numbers of Brn3a+RGCs and m+RGCs were 78,903±3,572 and 2,358±144 (mean ± SD; n=10), respectively. In the NMDA injected retinas, Brn3a+RGCs numbers diminished to 50% and 25%, at 3 and 14 days, respectively, but there was no further loss up to 15 months. The number of immunoidentified m+RGCs decreased significantly at 3 days, recovered between 3-7 days and was back to normal thereafter. OCT measurements revealed a significant thinning of the left retinas at 3 and 15 months. Intravitreal injections of NMDA induce a rapid loss of 75% of Brn3a+RGCs, a transient downregulation of melanopsin expression but not m+RGC death, and a thinning of the inner retinal layers.
Wed, 22 May 2019
ARTICLE Download: 29| View: 203| Comments: 0
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: gut microbiota; voglibose; antibiotics; blood glucose; metabolism
Online: 22 May 2019 (12:01:09 CEST)
Voglibose, an α-glucosidase inhibitor, inhibits breakdown of complex carbohydrates into simple sugar units in intestine. Studies proved that none or very less metabolism of voglibose occurred in liver due to its poor intestinal absorption. Trillions of microorganisms reside in intestine and have several roles in metabolism and detoxification of a variety of xenobiotics. Due to the limited information on the metabolism in intestine, the possible metabolism of voglibose by intestinal microbiota was investigated in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro study, different concentrations of voglibose were incubated with intestinal contents prepared from both vehicle- and antibiotics-treated mice to determine the disappearance of voglibose over the time by using LC-MS/MS. The results indicated that the remained voglibose could be significantly more reduced when incubated with the intestinal contents from normal mice than with those from antibiotics-treated mice that had less enzyme activities. Similarly, in vivo pharmacodynamic effect of voglibose was determined following the administration of voglibose and starch in vehicle- and antibiotic-pretreated non-diabetic and diabetic mice, by measuring the modulatory effects of voglibose on blood glucose levels. The results showed that the antibiotic pretreatment to mice resulting in the reduced metabolism of voglibose caused significantly lowered blood glucose levels than control animals. Taken together, the present results clearly indicated that voglibose could be metabolized by intestinal microbiota, and that the metabolism of voglibose by intestinal microbiota would be pharmacodynamically critical in lowering blood glucose level.
ARTICLE Download: 9| View: 166| Comments: 0
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: infant; newborn; Cambodia; child mortality; perinatal mortality; health services
Online: 22 May 2019 (08:44:44 CEST)
Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe potential factors contributing to neonatal mortality in Takeo, Cambodia through assessment of verbal autopsies collected following newborn deaths in the community. The mortality review was nested within a trial of a behavioral intervention to improve newborn survival, and was conducted after the close of the trial, within the study setting. The World Health Organization standardized definition of neonatal mortality was employed, and two pediatricians independently reviewed data collected from each event to assign a cause of death. Results: Thirteen newborn deaths of infants born in health facilities participating in a community based, behavioral intervention were reported during February 2015–November 2016. Ten deaths (76.92%) were early neonatal deaths, two (15.38%) were late neonatal deaths, and one was a stillbirth. Five out of 13 deaths (38.46%) occurred within the first day of life. The largest single contributor to mortality was neonatal sepsis; six of 13 deaths (46.15%) were attributed to some form of sepsis. Twenty-three percent of deaths were attributed to asphyxia. The study highlights the continuing need to improve quality of care and infection prevention and control, and to fully address causes of sepsis, in order to effectively reduce mortality in the newborn period.: The study highlights the continuing need to improve both intrapartum and postnatal quality of care and infection prevention and control, and to fully address causes of sepsis, in order to effectively reduce mortality in the newborn period.
Mon, 20 May 2019
REVIEW Download: 50| View: 156| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0239.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: oligonucleotide therapeutics; RNA interference; antisense; aptamer; decoy; pancreatic cancer
Online: 20 May 2019 (10:12:46 CEST)
Although there is a several array of diagnostic and therapeutic choices for pancreatic cancer in recent years, a crucial medical approach for the refractory disease is still needed. Oligonucleotide therapeutics, such as those based on antisense RNAs, RNA interference, aptamers and decoys, are promising agents against pancreatic cancer because they identify a specific nucleotide sequence or protein and interfere with gene expression as molecular-targeted agents. Within just the past quarter-century, the diversity and feasibility of these drugs as diagnostic or therapeutic tools have dramatically increased. Actually, there have been several clinical and preclinical studies of oligonucleotides for patients with pancreatic cancer so far. To support the discovery of effective diagnostic or therapeutic options by using oligonucleotide-based strategies in the absence of satisfactory therapies for long-term survival and the rising trend of diseases, we summarize the current clinical trials of oligonucleotide therapeutics for pancreatic cancer patients with underlying preclinical or scientific data and focus on the possibility of oligonucleotides to target pancreatic cancer in clinical implications.
ARTICLE Download: 51| View: 125| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0235.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: chronic wound; hospital cost; epidemiology; public health
Online: 20 May 2019 (09:53:44 CEST)
Background: Chronic lower limb ulcers (CLLU) have an important burden to the individual and the healthcare system. However, there is a lack of information about the cost of CLLU in Argentina.Objective: To determinate the number and cost of consultation and hospitalization associated to CLLU in a public hospital in Argentina. Methods: Retrospective observational study. Cost estimation were calculated based on days of stay, treatments and laboratory tests in a inpatient population and the number of consultations, treatments and laboratory tests, in a outpatient population. Results: In 2013 and 2014, the overall number of consultation with ICD-10 codes was 7,224 and the number of inpatient was 359. The mean age for male and female outpatient consultations was 59.53(±13.06) years and 59.04(±10.93), respectively. For CLLU male and female inpatient, the mean age was 63.9(±10.4) years and 54.5(±8.6) years, respectively. The length of stay was 22.88 days. There was a mean of 0.41 surgeries per patient where 25% were amputations. The mean annual cost in a single public hospital was US$4,053.65 per inpatient and US$3,589.24 per outpatient. Conclusion: Cost information allows new public health policies to reduce socioeconomic burden due to CLLU.
Fri, 17 May 2019
ARTICLE Download: 32| View: 189| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0225.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: GeneXpert; TB Expert Panel; Smear Negatives; Clinically Diagnosed TB; TB DOTS; Chest X-ray
Online: 17 May 2019 (11:18:34 CEST)
Setting A high proportion of notified tuberculosis cases in the Philippines are clinically diagnosed (63%) as opposed to bacteriologically confirmed. Better understanding of this phenomenon is required to improve tuberculosis control. Objectives To determine the percentage of Smear Negative Presumptive Tuberculosis patients that would be diagnosed by GeneXpert; compare clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed as tuberculosis cases; and review the impact that the current single government physician and a reconstituted Tuberculosis Diagnostic committee (Expert Panel) may have on tuberculosis over-diagnosis. Design This is a cross-sectional study of 152 patients 15-85 years old with two negative Direct Sputum Smear Microscopy results, with abnormal chest X-ray who underwent GeneXpert testing and review by an Expert Panel. Results 31% (48/152) of the sample were Xpert positive. 93% (97/104) of GeneXpert negatives were clinically diagnosed by a Single Physician. Typical symptoms and X-ray findings were higher in bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis. When compared to GeneXpert results, the Expert panel’s sensitivity for active tuberculosis was high (97.5%, 39/40) but specificity was low (40.2%, 35/87). Conclusion Using the GeneXpert would increase the level of bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis substantially among presumptive Tuberculosis. An Expert panel will greatly reduce over-diagnosis usually seen when a decision is made by a Single Physician.
ARTICLE Download: 34| View: 204| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0221.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: brain cancer; glioblastoma multiforme; giant cell glioblastoma; prognosis
Online: 17 May 2019 (08:40:33 CEST)
Brain cancer is the tenth leading cause of death in the U.S. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal primary malignant central nervous system tumor in adults. The present study employed samples from 1985-2014 to discover the difference in prognosis among glioblastoma subtypes after the evolution of treatment modalities over the past few years. The current study aims to find the differences between Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and giant cell glioblastoma (GCG) in terms of prognosis among adults and elderly patients in the U.S. This study is a historical cohort type of study and is conducted on adults and elderly individuals with GBM or GCG from the years 1985-2014 in the U.S. Data were collected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) database. The study exposure was GBM or GCG and the outcome was mortality. The potential confounders were age, sex, race, ethnicity, year of diagnosis, primary site, and surgery. A chi-square test was used for categorical data. A univariate analysis was used for variables having a p-value < 0.05. Potential confounders were selected and evaluated using multivariate logistic regression models to calculate the odds ratio with stepwise selection. The study sample was 25,117. The incidences of GBM and GCG were not similar in relation to age group. Also, Spanish-Hispanic ethnicity was independently protective of GBM and GCG as compared to Non-Spanish-Hispanic ethnicity patients with GBM have a higher mortality rate than do GCG patients. The mortality rate was higher among patients diagnosed before 2010. In conclusion, GCG was not statistically significant in association to reduced mortality. Non-Spanish-Hispanics with GBM or GCG had a higher mortality rate than did Spanish-Hispanics. Factors such as being female, being age >59, and having a year of diagnosis before 2010 were independently associated with increased mortality.
Thu, 16 May 2019
ARTICLE Download: 61| View: 648| Comments: 1 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0213.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Keywords: Poor prognosis, medically non-beneficial care, futility, breaking bad news, withdrawal of care, miracle, hope, goals of care, communication, health disparities, racial discrimination, ethnocultural discrimination
Online: 16 May 2019 (12:38:38 CEST)
Objective: To recommend how physicians can best respond to families whose hopes for a miracle via divine intervention influence their medical decisions, like, for example, making them not want to withdraw ventilatory support in cases of poor neurologic prognosis because they are still hoping for God to intervene. Methods: Auto-ethnographic analysis of chaplaincy experience in this clinical context yields a nuanced 90-second, point-of-care spiritual intervention physicians can use to address the religious aspect of families who base medical decisions on their hopes for a miracle via divine intervention. Explanation of how spiritual intervention dovetails with existing physician communication protocol for responding to families hoping for a miracle. Results: Spiritual intervention for religious aspect of miracle-hoping families is integrated into existing physician communication protocol for responding to families hoping for a miracle with recommendations for utilization of existing communication technology when necessary. Conclusion: Properly addressing the religious dimension of families hoping for a miracle may be helpful for physicians interested in decreasing their own stress levels, improving outcomes for this clinical context, and ensuring that unintentional discrimination does not perpetuate racial disparities in end-of-life care.
Wed, 15 May 2019
ARTICLE Download: 42| View: 188| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0188.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: smartphone dependency; aggression; ego-resilience; parenting behavior; peer attachment
Online: 15 May 2019 (10:45:15 CEST)
This study was conducted to examine the moderating and mediating effect of ego - resilience, parenting attitude, and peer attachment in the relation between smartphone dependency and aggression. Participants were 1,863 youths using a smartphone among the first middle school students responded in the 7th Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey (KCYPS) conducted by the National Youth Policy Institute in Korea. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, a correlation, and a hierarchical regression analysis. First, ego-resilience showed a partial mediating effect on the relationship between smartphone dependency, aggression and significant moderating effects were revealed. Second, parenting behavior showed a partial mediating effect on the relationship between smartphone dependency and aggression, with no moderating effects seen. Third, peer attachment had a partial mediating effect on the relationship between smartphone dependency and aggression, with no moderating effects seen. The research suggested the mental health and growth of students could be improved by applying various nursing and health care programs to improve ego-resilience, parenting behavior and peer attachment as they grow into adulthood.
ARTICLE Download: 39| View: 151| Comments: 0
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: ontology; nutritional epidemiology; minimal data information; data quality descriptors; study reporting guidelines; Semantic Web
Online: 15 May 2019 (05:51:53 CEST)
1) Background: The use of linked data in Semantic Web are promising approaches to add value to nutrition research. An ontology, which defines the logical relationships between well-defined taxonomic terms, enables linking and harmonizing research output. To enable the description of domain-specific output in nutritional epidemiology, we propose the Ontology for Nutritional Epidemiology (ONE) according to authoritative guidance for nutritional epidemiologic research; 2) Methods: First, a scoping review was conducted to identify existing ontology terms for reuse in ONE. Second, existing data standards and manuscript reporting guidelines for nutritional epidemiology were converted into ontology, and the terms used in the standards were summarized and listed separately in a taxonomic hierarchy. Third, the ontologies of the nutritional epidemiologic standards, reporting guidelines and the core concepts were gathered in ONE. Three case studies were illustrated for its potential applications. (i) annotation of existing manuscripts and data, (ii) ontology-based inference, and (iii) estimation of reporting completeness in a sample of nine manuscripts; 3) Results: Ontologies for “food and nutrition” (n=33), “disease and special population” (n=86), “data description” (n=21), “research description” (n=32) and “supplementary (meta) data description” (n=44) were reviewed and listed. ONE consists of 339 classes (79 new classes to describe nutrition data and 24 new classes to describe the content of nutrition manuscripts). The case studies demonstrated the application of ONE. 4) Conclusion: ONE is a resource to automate data integration, searching and browsing, and can be used to assess reporting completeness in nutritional epidemiology.
Tue, 14 May 2019
REVIEW Download: 43| View: 125| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0177.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Cataract surgery, acute endophthalmitis, chronic endophthalmitis
Online: 14 May 2019 (15:28:30 CEST)
Background: The assessment of the incidence and characteristic of acute and chronic post-operative endophthalmitis (POE) after cataract surgery in Poland during 2010 - 2015. Patients and methods: All hospitalizations of patients, in the National Database of Hospitalizations, who underwent cataract surgery alone or in combined procedures in Poland between January 2010 and December 2015, with a billing code of endophthalmitis, were selected. Acute endophthalmitis was identified if symptoms occurred within 1 - 42 days from the cataract surgery and chronic endophthalmitis if symptoms occurred ≥ 43 days after cataract surgery, respectively. Results: In total, 1331 cases of POE after 1,218,777 cataract extractions were identified. The overall incidence of POE decreased from 0.125% in 2010 to 0.066% in 2015. In multiple logistic regression analyses, increasing age was significantly associated with acute POE, while type II diabetes mellitus, extracapsular cataract extraction and one-day surgery were significantly associated with chronic POE. The combined cataract surgery and male sex were significant risk factors for both acute and chronic POE. A total of 62.51% of all eyes affected by POE received antibiotic treatment and 37.49% had vitrectomy treatment. Conclusions: During the study period, the total incidence of post-operative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery decreased significantly.
CASE REPORT Download: 62| View: 126| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0173.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma; non small cell lung cancer; double primary cancers; B7-H3; gefitinib; chemotherapy
Online: 14 May 2019 (13:04:44 CEST)
Management of multiple primary cancers, a not so infrequent event in oncology practice, is a critical issue due to the lack of literature . In this study, we reported the case of a patient with metachronous double metastatic non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) who received gefitinib in combination with gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel and with mFOLFOX6 in first and second line, respectively. She achieved a progression free survival and an overall survival (OS) of 28 months for NSCLC and PFS-1 and OS of 20 and 13 months, respectively for PDAC. Moreover, the combination of gefitinib and chemotherapies treatments displayed a good safety profile. Given the insignificant frequency of this case, we performed a molecular characterization of both neoplasms with the aim to investigate the existence of particular activated pathways and/or similar immunological mutations. it is interesting to note that two neoplasms shared a commune mutation of B7-H3 gene, with the consecutive impairment of its expressed protein. In both PDAC and NSCLC, the expression of this protein was associated with a worse survival. Since B7-H3 is an anti-apoptotic protein, the reduction of its expression or function should justify a pro-apoptotic activity with a putative justification of the long survival of the patient considered in this report.
ARTICLE Download: 31| View: 96| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0109.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: child; diarrhea; water sanitation and hygiene; rehydration solution; zinc; case management; antibacterial agents; drug utilization; community participation; India
Online: 14 May 2019 (11:46:53 CEST)
Childhood diarrhea continues to be a major cause of under-five (U-5) mortality globally and in India. In this study, 1571 U-5 children residing in nine rural villages and four urban slums in Ujjain, India were included with the objective to use community participation and drug utilization research to improve diarrheal case management. The mean age was 2.08 years, with 297 (19%), children living in high diarrheal index households. Most mothers (70%) considered stale food, teething (62%), and hot weather (55%) as causes of diarrhea. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH)-related characteristics revealed that most (93%) households had toilets, but only 23% of the children used them. The study identified ineffective household water treatment by filtration through cloth by most (93%) households and dumping of household waste on the streets (89%). The results revealed low community awareness of correct causes of diarrhea (poor hand hygiene, 21%; littering around the household, 15%) and of correct diarrhea treatment (oral rehydration solution (ORS) and zinc use, 29% and 11%, respectively) and a high antibiotic prescription rate by healthcare providers (83%). Based on the results of the present study, context-specific house-to-house interventions will be designed and implemented.
CASE REPORT Download: 15| View: 83| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0017.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: marginal ridge staining; enamel crack; detecting cracks in teeth; PTR-LUM
Online: 14 May 2019 (07:37:04 CEST)
Detecting cracks in teeth is a clinical challenge. Patients may complain of diffuse pain on chewing, pain, at times, on temperature change and pain that occurs episodically. Common diagnostic tools such as radiographs and visual examination may not detect cracks. This case report shows how PTR-LUM in The Canary System can detect cracks in teeth not seen with other devices. In this clinical situation, the crack involved a portion of the mesial and distal surfaces of a mandibular second molar.
Mon, 13 May 2019
ARTICLE Download: 35| View: 164| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0165.v1
Online: 13 May 2019 (14:36:07 CEST)
Background: As the opioid epidemic continues, understanding the geospatial, temporal and demand patterns is important for policymakers to assign resources and interdict individual, organization, and country-level bad actors. Methods: GIS geospatial-temporal analysis, k-means cluster analysis, and extreme-gradient boosted random forests are used to evaluated ICD-10 F11 opioid-related admissions. The period of analysis was January 2016 through September 2018. Results: The analysis shows existing high-intensity areas in Chicago and New Jersey with emerging areas in Atlanta, Salt Lake City, Phoenix, and Las Vegas. Further, cluster analysis supports the current inflow from China through Mexico and Canada with another cluster in the Northeast likely associated with the Dominican flow. Explanatory models suggest that hospital overall workload and financial variables may be used for allocating opioid-related funds effectively, as the gradient-boosted random forest models accounted for 88% of the variability on a blinded test data set. Conclusions: Based on GIS analysis, the opioid epidemic is likely to spread or diffuse through the country, and interdiction efforts require demand-analysis such as that provided in this study to allocate scarce resources for supply-side and demand-side interdiction: prevention, treatment, and enforcement.
ARTICLE Download: 22| View: 79| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0153.v1
Online: 13 May 2019 (10:16:48 CEST)
A recent systematic review for 19 selected articles after searching through to 30 September 2017 showed vitamin D deficiency was associated with ischemic stroke (IS), not hemorrhagic stroke (HS). But a heterogeneity would be introduced with comparing the lowest and highest category of vitamin D. The aim of this article was to conduct an updated meta-analysis (UMA) with searching through to 31 March 2019. An interval collapsing method as information extraction was applied in order to decrease a heterogeneity among studies. Additional articles were selected from cited lists from 19 selected articles using citation discovery tools. Random effect model was applied if I-squared value was over 50%. A funnel plot and Egger’s test were used to detect a publication bias. After 5 new studies were added, the summary RRs [and their 95% confidence intervals] (I-squared value) were 1.52 [1.33–1.74] (0.0%) in IS, and 2.44 [1.34–4.46] (69.7%) in HS. This UMA supported the hypothesis that serum vitamin D deficiency was associated with an increased risk of HS as well as IS. Diverse public health programs against vitamin D deficiency status would be needed for higher risk group, especially elderly people.
Fri, 10 May 2019
ARTICLE Download: 24| View: 150| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0117.v1
Online: 10 May 2019 (10:30:14 CEST)
Dental scaling has high importance in oral health due to its effect on preventing the teeth root destruction. Moreover, it can influence other health aspects such as reducing the risk factor of infective endocarditis. There are various devices applicable to dental scaling. It is essential to select the most appropriate type of instrument to achieve more efficient scaling. Multi-Attribute Decision Making (MADM) is a mathematical approach widely applied in for selecting the best alternative based on essential criteria. In the present research, several criteria including cost, ease of use and sterilization, durability and effectiveness considered as criteria for device selection. The experts in the related field were asked to score the criteria and corresponded alternative. According to the results, obtained by applying the TOPSIS method, Piezon Master is the most option which is mainly due to its durability and effectiveness. The second rank belongs to Cavitron due to its ease of use and sterilization in addition to affordable cost.
Thu, 9 May 2019
ARTICLE Download: 33| View: 155| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0109.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: child; diarrhea; water sanitation and hygiene; rehydration solution; zinc; case management; antibacterial agents; drug utilization; community participation; India
Online: 9 May 2019 (12:39:13 CEST)
Childhood diarrhea continues to be a major cause of under-five (U-5) mortality globally and in India. In this study, 1571 U-5 children residing in nine rural villages and four urban slums in Ujjain, India were included with the objective to use community participation and drug utilization research to improve diarrheal case management. The mean age was 2.08 years, with 297 (19%), children living in high diarrheal index households. Most mothers (70%) considered stale food, teething (62%) and hot weather (55%) as causes of diarrhea. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH)-related characteristics revealed that most (93%) households had toilets, but only 23% children used them. The study identified ineffective household water treatment by filtration through cloth by most (93%) households and dumping of household waste on streets (89%). The results revealed low community awareness of correct causes of diarrhea (poor hand hygiene, 21%; littering around the household, 15%) and of correct diarrhea treatment (oral rehydration solution [ORS] and zinc use, 29% and 11%, respectively) and a high antibiotic prescription rate by health care providers (83%). Based on the results of the present study, context-specific house-to-house interventions will be designed and implemented.
Wed, 8 May 2019
ARTICLE Download: 59| View: 356| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Iranian traditional medicine; alternative and complementary medicine; database; natural products; Mizaj; temperament
Online: 8 May 2019 (10:08:54 CEST)
As a holistic medical school, Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) considers the human body as a dynamic and intricate network of interconnecting processes. Currently, systems biology and more precisely systems medicine and pharmacology can be an aid in providing rationalizations for many traditional medications and treatments and elucidating a great deal of knowledge they can offer to guide future research in medicine. Therefore, re-organization and standardization of traditional medicine data are requested more than ever before. To address this issue, we have constructed UNaProd, a Universal Natural Product database for materia medica of ITM. Primarily based on Makhzan al-Advieh, which is the most recent encyclopedia of materia medica in ITM with the largest number of monographs, this database was created using both text mining methods and manual editing. UNaProd is currently hosting to 2696 monographs from herbal to animal to mineral compounds in 16 diverse attributes such as origin and scientific name. In the current version, UNaProd is hyperlinked to IrGO and CMAUP databases for Mizaj and molecular features respectively and it is freely available at http://jafarilab.com/unaprod/.
Tue, 7 May 2019
ARTICLE Download: 41| View: 124| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0075.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Consumers' consciousness for health; companies’ health-friendly activities; health-friendly products and services; health status
Online: 7 May 2019 (11:14:55 CEST)
Although health policy resides mainly with the government, industry can play an important role in building a health ecosystem. From March to May, we administered questionnaires to 1,200 individuals from the general Korean population asking about their perception of health-friendly labels, and if they would purchase such labeled products (foods, pharmaceuticals, etc.) and services (purifying water, preventing air pollution, etc.) at extra cost. The participants placed a high value on the importance of mental, social, spiritual, and physical health factors in terms of company’s products and services with a score of about 8 out of 10 (range, 7.74-8.33). Most respondents (72.4%) said they were interested in adopting health-friendly labels. When a health-friendly label is introduced (such as one by the Business for Social Responsiveness), 65.1% of the respondents said they intended to purchase the product or service, while 6.8% said they did not, and 75.0% said they were willing to pay extra for the health-friendly product or service. Multivariate logistic regression models showed urban residence, high education level, and good social health to be significantly associated with positive attitudes toward health-friendly labels. People with high income, no religion, or normal weight were more likely to say they intend to purchase products and services with health-friendly labels. They also had a more positive attitude toward paying more for such products and services, as did people with good spiritual health. This study provides data that illustrate the importance of health-friendly products and services to the general population and companies.
Mon, 6 May 2019
BRIEF REPORT Download: 38| View: 134| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0062.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: SCAN zinc-finger; SCAND1; CDC37; MZF1; prostate cancer
Online: 6 May 2019 (12:10:22 CEST)
Cell division control 37 (CDC37) increases the stability of HSP90 client proteins and is thus essential for numerous intracellular oncogenic signaling pathways, playing a key role in prostate oncogenesis. Notably, elevated expression of CDC37 was found in prostate cancer cells, although the regulatory mechanisms through which CDC37 expression becomes increased are unknown. Here we show both positive and negative regulation of CDC37 gene transcription by two members of the SCAN transcription factor family- MZF1 and SCAND1, respectively. Consensus DNA-binding motifs for myeloid zinc finger 1 (MZF1 / ZSCAN6) were abundant in the CDC37 promoter region. MZF1 became bound to these regulatory sites and trans-activated the CDC37 gene whereas MZF1 depletion decreased CDC37 transcription and reduced tumorigenesis of prostate cancer cells. On the other hand, SCAND1, a zinc-fingerless SCAN box protein that potentially inhibits MZF1, accumulated at MZF1-binding sites in CDC37 gene, negatively regulated CDC37 gene and inhibited tumorigenesis. SCAND1 was abundantly expressed in normal prostate cells but was reduced in prostate cancer cells, suggesting a potential tumor suppressor role of SCAND1 in prostate cancer. These findings indicate that CDC37, a crucial protein in prostate cancer progression, is regulated reciprocally by MZF1 and SCAND1.
ARTICLE Download: 35| View: 168| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0054.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: acute hamstring muscle complex injury; radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy; rESWT, RSWT; soccer medicine
Online: 6 May 2019 (11:08:28 CEST)
Background: Acute injuries of the hamstring muscle complex (HMC) Type 3b (interfascicle / bundle-tear) are frequently observed in various sports disciplines both in elite and recreational sport. The treatment of choice of acute HMC injuries Type 3b is a progressive physiotherapeutic exercise program. Besides this, there is currently only insufficient scientific evidence to support other treatment methods, including local infiltrations and injections of platelet-rich-plasma. Very recently it was demonstrated that extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) may accelerate regeneration after acute skeletal muscle injury. The aim of the present study is to test the hypothesis that the combination of radial ESWT (rESWT) and a specific rehabilitation program (RP) is effective and safe in treatment of acute HMC injury Type 3b in athletes, and is statistically significantly more effective than the combination of sham-rESWT and RP. Methods/Design: We will perform a double blind, randomized, sham-controlled clinical trial at the clinic KinEf Kinesiología Deportiva, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Fourty patients with acute HMC injury Type 3b will be randomly allocated to receive either rESWT (nine rESWT sessions; three sessions per week; 2500 radial extracorporeal shock waves (rESWs) per session; energy density depending on what the patient tolerates) or sham-rESWT. In addition, all patients will receive a specific rehabilitation program that will last for eight weeks. The primary outcome measure will be the individual time (days) necessary to return to play. Secondary outcomes will include the presence or absence of reinjury during a time period of six months after inclusion into the study. Discussion: Because of the lack of adequate treatment options for acute HMC injury Type 3b in athletes and particularly the high reinjury rate, we hypothesize that the results of this trial will be of importance and have impact on clinical practice. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT03473899. Registered March 22, 2018.
ARTICLE Download: 31| View: 131| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0053.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: corpus cavernosum; erectile dysfunction; reactive oxygen species; SHR
Online: 6 May 2019 (11:02:31 CEST)
Carvacrol is a monoterpene found in essential oils from various plants. Several pharmacological properties have already been described for carvacrol, including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, vasorelaxant and hypotensive activities. The present study evaluated the effect of carvacrol on hypertensive rats with erectile dysfunction. Twelve-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were treated with vehicle, carvacrol (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) or sildenafil (1.5 mg/kg/day), intragastrically, for four weeks. Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were used as the normotensive controls. All substances tested reduced systolic blood pressure during the treatment period. The intracavernosal pressure/mean arterial pressure ratio of the hypertensive rats was improved by carvacrol and sildenafil treatments. In isolated rat corpora cavernosa, the acetylcholine- and SNP-induced relaxation responses were significantly increased by carvacrol or sildenafil treatments. In SHR corpora cavernosa, treatment with carvacrol attenuated the hypercontractility induced by phenylephrine or electrical field stimulation. Phe-induced hypercontractility in the presence of tempol was not altered when compared to the response induced by carvacrol alone. In rat corpora cavernosa fluorescence intensity emitted by the DHE probe was significantly reduced in SHR treated (carvacrol or sildenafil) groups when compared to that emitted in the SHR-CTL. This study showed that carvacrol improves the erectile function of hypertensive rats and reduces endothelial dysfunction, smooth muscle cell hypercontractility and superoxide anion generation.
ARTICLE Download: 33| View: 95| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0051.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: infant formulae; infant foods; minerals; toxic metals; hydroxymethylfurfural; storage conditions; safety
Online: 6 May 2019 (10:38:25 CEST)
Infant foods and formulae may contain toxic substances and elements which can be neo-formed contaminants or derived from raw materials or processing. The content of minerals, toxic elements and hydroxymethylfurfural in infant foods and formulae were evaluated. The effect of storage temperature on HMF formation in infant formulae and its potential as a quality parameter was also evaluated. Prune-based foods contained the highest HMF content. HMF significantly increased when storage temperature was elevated to 30 ℃ for 21 days. All trace elements were present in adequate amounts while the concentration of nickel was higher when compared to those of other studies. The study indicates that HMF can be used as quality indicator for product shelf-life and that the concentrations of minerals and toxic elements vary greatly due to the diverse compositions of foods and formulae. Such contaminants need to be monitored as infants represent a vulnerable group compared to adults.
REVIEW Download: 77| View: 72| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0035.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: blood pressure, diuretics, thiazide, beta blocker, calcium channel blocker, renin angiotensin system
Online: 6 May 2019 (08:31:53 CEST)
Hypertension is a common and growing medical problem that leads to enormous cardiovascular and kidney disease worldwide. While many drugs exist to treat hypertension, there is large individual variation in how a given individual responds to different agents, which contributes to dismal rates of hypertension control. While demographic factors predict which drugs may work better in certain individuals, a great degree of this variation has a genetic basis. In recent years, genome wide association studies have begun to identify specific gene variants that predict drug response to particular agents. This review identifies the major genetic variants influencing antihypertensive response that have emerged from this growing body of work. For novel genetic variants without a previously known biologic basis in blood pressure, it is crucial to validate initial findings in subsequent studies. This information may eventually lead to a more personalized approach to hypertension management that will improve blood pressure control and patient outcomes. The integration of this large amount of data and its real world application will be highly challenging, but strategies to accomplish this are discussed.
ARTICLE Download: 34| View: 64| Comments: 0
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: trichomonas vaginalis; compliance; treatment; STIs; HIV; cost-effectiveness
Online: 6 May 2019 (06:02:07 CEST)
Background: Trichomoniasis is the most common non-viral STI globally and yet is not a reportable disease. Trichomonas Vaginalis is an important source of reproductive morbidity and may increase risk of acquisition and transmission of HIV. WHO and CDC recommend various regimens of Nitro-Imidazoles for treatment. The common Nitro-Imidazoles used for Trichomoniasis are Metronidazole and Tinidazole, which vary in their cost, efficacy and side effect profile and it is relevant to study these factors, for better management of the patients. Objectives: This study aims to compare and study the efficacy, compliance of various treatment regimens, their outcomes and side-effects for Trichomoniasis, among STI clinic attendees in Trinidad. Methods: A clinical trial study was designed and after obtaining the informed consent a routine clinical examination was conducted and the swabs for Trichomoniasis tests were collected for diagnosis from the 692 participants. Out of 692 participants, Eighty two (82) patients with established diagnosis of Trichomonas infection were quasi-randomly treated using different regimens. Compliance to treatment, side effects and outcome were evaluated. Results: The prevalence of the Trichomoniasis in population attending our STI clinic is 11.9% and prevalence of HIV is 9%. Of the total 82 participants for the treatment, 80% were females; nearly 90% of the patients belonged to age group 15-45 years and over 60% were below 30 yrs. Among those diagnosed for Trichomonas vaginalis, 13.3% had associated HIV infection. The compliance with respect to single dose treatment was significantly better than the long duration oral regimen and has significant relation with side effects of the treatment. The outcome is generally better and comparable and shows no significant difference between different treatment regimens used in the study. Conclusions: Metronidazole and Tinidazole are commonly used drugs in various regimens. compliance is better with those treated with Tinidazole and Metronidazole stat, than with other groups. Outcome is comparable between these regimens, especially when combined with other important factors like abstinence and treatment of the partners. The treatment regimens mainly differ in the compliance and side effects profile, which suggests that to improve the compliance the drugs with less side effects, short course regimen would be a preferred choice.
Sun, 5 May 2019
ARTICLE Download: 31| View: 65| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: laparoscopic; open surgery; non-metastatic colorectal cancer; single surgeon experience
Online: 5 May 2019 (11:25:43 CEST)
The oncologic merits of laparoscopic technique for colorectal cancer surgery remain debatable. Eligible patients with non-metastatic colorectal cancer who were scheduled for an elective resection by only one surgeon in a medical institution were randomized to either laparoscopic or open treatment. During this period, total 188 patients received laparoscopic surgery and other 163 patients to open approach. The primary endpoint was cancer-free 5-year survival after operative treatment and secondary endpoint was the tumor recurrence incidence. We found there was no statistically significant difference between open and laparoscopic groups regarding average number of lymph nodes dissected, overall mortality rate, cancer recurrence rate or cancer-free 5-year survival. Nevertheless, laparoscopic approach was more effective for colorectal cancer treatment with shorter hospital stay and less blood loss despite operation time was significantly longer. Meanwhile fewer patients receiving laparoscopic approach developed postoperative urinary tract infection, wound infection, pneumonia or anastomosis leakage, which reached statistical significance. For non-metastatic colorectal cancer patients, laparoscopic surgery resulted in better short-term outcomes whether in total complications and intra-operative blood loss. Though there was no significant statistical difference in terms of cancer-free 5-year survival and tumor recurrence, we favor patients receiving laparoscopic surgery if not contraindicated.
Tue, 30 April 2019
REVIEW Download: 332| View: 261| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0327.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: sunscreen; sunburn; UV Radiation; melanoma; photoaging
Online: 30 April 2019 (11:18:23 CEST)
The sunscreen industry is achieving remarkable worldwide prominence by responding to the growing need for skin protection with fast-paced innovation. Increased consumer awareness of the harmful effects of sunlight has fueled the demand for improved photo protection. The need for broad-spectrum protection from both UVA and UVB rays has inspired scientists worldwide to research new cosmetic formulations and delivery systems. More effective sunscreen actives, emollients and novel cosmetic and functional ingredients have been regularly added to the formulator’s repertoire. Creativity in innovation has been hindered only by regulatory agencies and patent restrictions worldwide. Familiarity with the current restrictive regulations and patent law infringements has become integral to any research effort attempting to provide improved protection to individuals affected by the sun’s damaging effects. The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photo damaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sun screening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Unlike the situation in Europe where sunscreen ingredients are considered under cosmetics guidelines, the FDA is required to define sunscreens as drugs since they are advertised to prevent sunburn and, more recently, the risk of skin cancer. In the USA, the FDA has been regulating this industry since August 25, 1978, with the publication of the Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. Sunscreens are considered drugs and cosmetics and therefore must be governed by the FDA-OTC monograph. With the variety of sunscreen agents used in cosmetic and UV protection products, Australia, Canada, and the European Union (EU) have also developed regulatory protocols on safe sunscreen product use. Unlike the USA though, Australia has approved 34 active sunscreen ingredients and the EU has approved 28 of these ingredients. Current FDA regulations allow labeling of sunscreen products to a maximum of 30þ, despite the many products currently available with numbers as high as 100. From a cosmetic formulation point of view, increasing the SPF number in a product is governed by simple chemical principles.
Mon, 29 April 2019
ARTICLE Download: 99| View: 271| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0323.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: medical education; augmented reality; virtual reality; mixed reality; extended reality
Online: 29 April 2019 (10:09:05 CEST)
Background: Since the advent of virtual reality (VR), it has been used in medical education for surgical training and anatomy teaching. Recently, other modalities of extended reality (XR) such as augmented reality (AR) and mixed reality (MR) has also made its way into medical education. Although there has been research validating XR’s use in medical education, there have been few studies on the research trends of the different XR modalities. The paper aims to compare the research trends of the XR modalities in general and in terms of the medical fields studied and outcomes measured. Methods: Web of Science was searched, and preliminary data was extracted to analyze the general trend. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were then applied, and finalized articles were analyzed and grouped based on the medical field studied and outcomes measured. Results: 31 articles on VR, eight on AR and one on MR were included in the final analysis. We found that there is increasing research in VR since 1990 and AR since 2008. The research in MR is constant. Most of the papers on VR studied endoscopic surgery and anatomy whereas AR studied mostly anatomy and endovascular procedures. Using Miller’s prism of clinical competence, the competency measured most for VR and AR is “show”. Discussion and conclusion: Advancement in computing, communication and display technologies since 1990 may contribute to the increase in research on VR whereas the ubiquity of smartphone since 2008 may explain the increase in research on AR. Although both VR and AR are used in surgical training and anatomy teaching, we found possible strengths of VR in counseling and AR in practical skills. The competency "show" was measured most as most of the papers were on surgery, and the XR simulators used can capture surgical parameters
Wed, 24 April 2019
ARTICLE Download: 150| View: 834| Comments: 2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: allograft, resorption, sclerotic bone, exfoliation, bone failure
Online: 24 April 2019 (12:33:49 CEST)
AbstractCadaver bone is possibly the most common transplant material used today. Common types of cadaver bone transplants are freeze-dried bone allografts and xenografts. Studies have shown that mineralized freeze-dried bone allografts have the same percentage of retained bone graft particles at different time points, indicating that these materials are never resorbed. However, it is commonly accepted by clinicians that these materials are resorbed and convert the graft site into normal bone. This histologic study was undertaken to determine the fate of mineralized freeze-dried bone allograft particles grafted into human extraction sockets. Materials and Methods:This study is a photographic, radiologic, and histological analysis of mineralized freeze-dried bone allograft healing in human sockets after mineralization at different time points. The mineralized freeze-dried bone allografts used for evaluation in this study were particulate bone graft materials in maxillary or mandibular extraction sockets. Patient selection was random, based on the following time periods: 6 months, 2 years, 5 years, 7 years, 10 years and 15 years. No block bone grafts were evaluated. Results:No resorption of cadaver bone graft particles was found at any time point. No osteoclasts were found in any of the histology at any time point. At different time points from 6 months through 15 years, mineralized freeze-dried bone allograft particles were found to be exfoliated out of the alveolar crest as a result of the formation of a hypervascular zone surrounding the grafted site. The embedded graft particles remain embedded in sclerotic bone until the particles reach the alveolar crest at which time the sclerotic bone and graft particles break up and are released into the gingiva. All histologic samples from 6 months to 15 years contained residual graft particles. The sclerotic bone formed around graft particles did not integrate to the graft particles or the implant surface. Conclusions:Mineralized freeze-dried bone allograft particles are not resorbed after mineralization. A hypervascular zone forms around the grafted site and exfoliates the bone graft particles into the gingiva. The mineralization process produces sclerotic bone which never remodels into normal bone. Sclerotic bone covers but does not integrate to the retained bone graft particles or implant surface resulting in a weakened structure with an increased likelihood of bone failure and implant loss.
Tue, 23 April 2019
ARTICLE Download: 40| View: 172| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0246.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: Oxytocin, Oxytocin Receptor, Autism, Nepsys Scale, MAST Immune System Disease, Dendritic Spines, Magnocellular Neurons, Desensitization, Labor, Down Regulation
Online: 23 April 2019 (11:12:19 CEST)
This paper develops mathematical models examining possible roles of oxytocin and oxytocin receptors in the development of autism. This is done by demonstrating that mathematical operations on normalized data from the Stanford study (K.J. Parker, 2016), which establishes a correspondence between severity of autism in children and their oxytocin blood levels, generates a graph that is the same as the graph of mathematical operations on a normalized theoretical model for the severity of autism. This procedure establishes the validity of the theoretical model and the significance of oxytocin receptors in autism. A steady-state model follows, explaining the constant baseline concentrations of oxytocin observed in the cerebral spinal fluid and blood in terms of the neuromodulation by oxytocin of oxytocin receptors on the magnocellular neurons that produce oxytocin in nuclei in the hypothalamus. The implications of these models for possible roles of oxytocin and oxytocin receptors in autism is considered for several unrelated conditions that may be associated with autism. These are: oxytocin receptor desensitization and down-regulation as factors during labor in offspring autism development; reductions in the oxytocin receptor numbers in the fixed oxytocin receptor expression that occurs before birth; MAST Immune System disease; and the excess number of dendritic spines from lack of pruning observed in brains of autistic people. Research into the feasibility of generating magnocellular neurons and other neurons from adult stem cells is suggested as a way of doing invitro studies of oxytocin and oxytocin receptors to assess the validity of theories presented in this paper.
Mon, 22 April 2019
ARTICLE Download: 46| View: 118| Comments: 0
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: school health; child/adolescent health; health education; health promotion; school nutrition; school health; policy
Online: 22 April 2019 (11:57:43 CEST)
Supporting the implementation of school food and nutrition policies (SFNPs) is an international priority to encourage healthier eating among children and youth. Schools are an important intervention setting to promote childhood nutrition, and many jurisdictions have adopted policies, guidelines, and programs to modify the school nutrition environment and promote healthier eating. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between perceived adequacy and capacity for SFNP implementation on food availability and policy adherence in the province of Nova Scotia (NS), Canada, one of the first regions in Canada to launch a comprehensive SFNP. A cross sectional online survey was conducted in 2014-15 to provide a current-state of policy implementation and adherence. Adequacy and capacity for food policy implementation was used to assess policy adherence through the availability of prohibited ‘minimum’ nutrition foods. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted on a selected of available foods and ‘slow’ and ‘quick’ service food composition measures were dichotomized for food availability. Schools with above perceived average adequacy and capacity for policy implementation had more than three times (3.62) greater odds of adhering to a lunch policy, while schools that adhered to a snack and lunch policy had 52% and 82% lower odds of serving quick service foods, respectively. This study identified the need for appropriate adequacy and capacity for policy implementation to ensure policy adherence and improve the school food environment. These findings highlight the potential of SFNPs to have a positive impact on childhood nutrition, but adequately supporting their implementation is critical to ensure their impact.
ARTICLE Download: 38| View: 123| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0240.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: sarcopenia; slow gait speed; cognitive impairment; older adult; aging
Online: 22 April 2019 (11:28:59 CEST)
Cognitive impairment and sarcopenia may share common risk factors and pathophysiological pathways. This study was performed to examine the association between impairments in specific cognitive domains and sarcopenia (and its defining components) in a large group of community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional analysis was performed on the baseline data of 3,014 adults aged 70–84 years enrolled in the Korean Frailty and Aging Cohort Study (KFACS). The final analysis included 1,887 adults underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and cognitive function assessments. Those with disability in activities of daily living, dementia, severe cognitive impairment, Parkinson’s disease, musculoskeletal complaints, neurological disorders, or who were illiterate were excluded. Cognitive function was assessed using the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Packet, the Frontal Assessment Battery. For sarcopenia, we used the diagnostic criteria of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 9.6% for men and 7.6% for women. Sarcopenia (odds ratio [OR] 1.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04–2.99) and slow gait speed (OR 2.58, 95% CI 1.34–4.99) were associated with cognitive impairment in men. Only slow gait speed (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.05–3.36) was associated with cognitive impairment in women. Sarcopenia is associated with cognitive impairment mainly due to slow gait speed. Our results suggested that cognitive impairment domains, such as processing speed and executive function, are associated with sarcopenia-related slow gait speed.
ARTICLE Download: 33| View: 121| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0239.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Glucose tolerance; pharmacokineti; , Kaempferia parviflora; methoxyflavone
Online: 22 April 2019 (11:25:03 CEST)
Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex Baker (KP), Krachaidam in Thai or Thai ginseng, is an herbal medicine that has many potential pharmacological effects. This study focused on the oral glucose tolerance test and pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers administered with KP extract (90 and 180 mg/day, placebo). The oral glucose tolerance tests were performed at baselines and 28-days of administration. The pharmacokinetics were determined after a single dose administration of the tested products using 3,5,7,3,4-pentamethoxyflavone (PMF) and 5,7,4-trimethoxylfavone (TMF) as markers. The results showed that glucose metabolism via oral glucose tolerance test was not affected by KP extract. The results of pharmacokinetics study revealed that only TMF and PMF, but not DMF levels could be detected in human blood. The given doses of KP extract at 90 and 180 mg/day showed a linear dose-relationship of blood PMF concentration whereas blood TMF was detected only at high given dose (180 mg/day). The half-lives of PMF and TMF were 2–3 h. The Cmax, AUC and Tmax values of PMF and TMF estimated for the 180 mg/day dose were 85.3711.31, 73.2329.93 mg/ml; 291.8948.23, 412.20203.69 mg.h/ml; and 3.890.37, 4.500.96 h, respectively. PMF was quickly eliminated with higher Ke and Cl than TMF at the dose of 180 mg/day of KP extract. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that KP extract had no effect on glucose tolerance test. In addition, this is the first demonstration of the pharmacokinetic parameters of methoxyflavones of KP extract in healthy volunteers in a phase I study in drug development. The data suggest the safety of the KP extract and will be of benefit for further clinical trials using KP extract as food and sport supplements as well as a drug in health product development.
REVIEW Download: 72| View: 128| Comments: 0
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer; EGFR-TKI; intrinsic resistance; resistance mechanisms
Online: 22 April 2019 (11:08:42 CEST)
Activating mutations in the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor gene occur as early cancer-driving clonal events in a subset of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and result in increased sensitivity to EGFR-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). Despite very frequent and often prolonged clinical response to EGFR-TKIs, virtually all advanced EGFR-mutated (EGFRM+) NSCLCs inevitably acquire resistance mechanisms and progress at some point during treatment. Additionally, 20-30% of patients do not respond or respond for a very short time (< 3 months) because of intrinsic resistance. While several mechanisms of acquired EGFR-TKI-resistance have been determined analyzing tumor specimens obtained at disease progression, the factors causing intrinsic TKI-resistance are less understood. However, recent comprehensive molecular-pathological profiling of advanced EGFRM+ NSCLC at baseline has illustrated the co-existence of multiple genetic, phenotypic, and functional mechanisms that may contribute to tumor progression and cause intrinsic TKI-resistance. Several of these mechanisms have been further corroborated by preclinical experiments. Intrinsic resistance can be caused by mechanisms inherent EGFR or by EGFR-independent processes, including genetic, phenotypic or functional tumor changes. This comprehensive review describes the identified mechanisms connected with intrinsic EGFR-TKI-resistance and differences and similarities with acquired resistance and among clinically implemented EGFR-TKIs of different generations. Additionally, the review highlights the need for extensive pre-treatment molecular profiling of advanced NSCLC for identifying inherently TKI-resistant cases and designing potential combinatorial targeted strategies to treat them.
Fri, 19 April 2019
REVIEW Download: 32| View: 161| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0224.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: homeobox; oncogenesis; EMT; immunosuppression; IL6
Online: 19 April 2019 (11:56:10 CEST)
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common type of cancer, and is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths each year. It involves a multi-step progression and is strongly associated with chronic inflammation induced by the intake of environmental toxins and/or viral infections (i.e., hepatitis B and C viruses). Although several genetic dysregulations are considered to be involved in disease progression, the detailed regulatory mechanisms are not well defined. Homeobox (Hox) genes that encode transcription factors with homeodomains control cell growth, differentiation, and morphogenesis in embryonic development. Recently, more aberrant expressions of Hox genes were found in a wide variety of human cancer, including HCC. In this review, we summarize the currently available evidence related to the role of Hox genes in the development of HCC. The objective is to determine the roles of this conserved transcription factor family and its potential use as a therapeutic target in future investigations.
ARTICLE Download: 25| View: 137| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0212.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: stroke; post-stroke dementia; anaemia
Online: 19 April 2019 (09:41:13 CEST)
Background: Whilst lack of concentration is a known symptom of anaemia, its association with post-stroke dementia is unclear. Methods: We used data from a UK regional stroke register. To be eligible, patient must have survived to discharge and had anaemia by WHO criteria. Dementia status and other prevalent co-morbidities were assessed using ICD-10 codes. Patients were followed till May 2015 (mean follow-up 3.7 years, total person years = 27,769). Hazard Ratio for incident dementia was calculated using Cox-proportional hazards model controlling for potential confounders. Fine and Gray model was additionally constructed using mortality as the competing risk. Results: A total of 7,454 stroke patients were included with mean age (SD) of 75.9(12.3) years (50.2% men). Those with anaemia were older, has higher disability and co-morbidity burden prior to stroke. We observed a large amount of variation in the dementia incidence rates over time and that the hazard ratio increased every year. The significant association between anaemia and dementia incidence was lost after controlling for pre-stroke Modified Rankin score (HR1.17(0.97,1.40)). With every 20g/dL increase in Hb was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of dementia after adjustment for age, sex, stroke factors and disability but lost significance after adjustment for vascular risk factors. Competing risk analyses showed similar results. Conclusion: Whilst we found no evidence of anaemia as a risk factor for post-stroke dementia, the findings may be limited by potential under recognition of post stroke dementia.
Thu, 18 April 2019
REVIEW Download: 50| View: 152| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0208.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: rhabdomyolysis; pigment nephropathy; haem; NLRP3 inflammasome; acute kidney injury
Online: 18 April 2019 (08:11:08 CEST)
Pigment nephropathy is an acute decline in renal function following the deposition of endogenous haem-containing proteins in the kidneys. Haem pigments such as myoglobin and haemoglobin are filtered by glomeruli and absorbed by the proximal tubules. They cause renal vasoconstriction, tubular obstruction, increased oxidative stress and inflammation. Haem is associated with inflammation in sterile and infectious conditions, contributing to the pathogenesis of many disorders such as rhabdomyolysis and haemolytic diseases. In fact, haem appears to be a signaling molecule that is able to activate the inflammasome pathway. Recent studies highlight a pathogenic function for haem in triggering inflammatory responses through the activation of the nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. Among the inflammasome multiprotein complexes, the NLRP3 inflammasome has been the most widely characterized as a trigger of inflammatory caspases and the maturation of interleukin-18 and -1β. In the present review, we discuss the latest evidence on the importance of inflammasome-mediated inflammation in pigment nephropathy. Finally, we highlight the potential role of inflammasome inhibitors in the prophylaxis and treatment of pigment nephropathy.
Wed, 17 April 2019
ARTICLE Download: 35| View: 171| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0128.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: air pollution; conjunctivitis; exposure; linear; model; case-crossover; poisson
Online: 17 April 2019 (11:58:14 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to assess the concentration-response relations between conjunctivitis and exposure to ambient ozone. This retrospective study includes emergency department (ED) visits for conjunctivitis in Edmonton, Canada, for the period April 1992–March 2002. Daily average levels of ozone (range: 1.2–50.9, ppb), of temperature, and of relative humidity were estimated and used for the period of the study. For each of the considered exposure lags, (from 0 to 9 days), six different models were fitted to estimate the concentration-response function. The goodness of fit was assessed using the Akaike information criterion. During the period of the study, 17,211 ED visits for conjunctivitis were recorded and used. For all subjects together, a positive statistically significant association was obtained for the exposure lagged by 5 days. For female subjects, lags 1, 3, and 9 had positive statistically significant associations (lag 2 had negative associations). For male subjects, only lag 5 had a positive statistically significant association. The estimated non-linear concentration-response functions for the considered groups (all, males, females) and lags, revealed the associations along the exposure levels. The fitted shapes are described by algebraic functions and may have various forms. The estimated functions are useful to determine the risk associated with exposure to ground-level ozone.
ARTICLE Download: 79| View: 206| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: adipose-derived; bone regeneration; cartilage regeneration; clinical application; clinical studies; differentiation; hair loss; induced pluripotent stem cells; maxillary sinus augmentation; osteoarthritis; pluripotency; regenerative
Online: 17 April 2019 (11:25:14 CEST)
Various tissue resident stem cells are receiving attention from basic scientists and clinicians as they hold certain promise for regenerative medicine. This paper is intended to clarify and facilitate the understanding, development and adoption of regenerative medicine in general and specifically of therapies based on unmodified, autologous adipose-derived regenerative cells (UA-ADRCs). To this end, results of landmark experiments on stem cells and stem cell therapy performed in the labs of the authors are summarized, the most intriguing of which are the following: (i) vascular associated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated from different organs (adipose tissue, heart, skin, bone marrow and skeletal muscle) and differentiated into ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm, providing significant support for the hypothesis of the existence of a small, ubiquitously distributed, universal vascular associated stem cell with full pluripotency; (ii) the orientation and differentiation of MSCs are driven by signals of the respective microenvironment; and (iii) these stem cells irrespective of the tissue origin exhibit full pluripotent differentiation potential without any prior genetic modification or the need for culturing. They can be obtained from a small amount of adipose tissue when using the appropriate technology for isolating the cells, and can be harvested from and re-applied to the same patient at the point of care without the need for complicated processing, manipulation, culturing, expensive equipment, or repeat interventions. These findings demonstrate the potential of UA-ADRCs for triggering the development of an entire new generation of medicine for the benefit of patients and of healthcare systems.
ARTICLE Download: 47| View: 155| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0193.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: C. argyrosperma; corneal chemical burn; angiogenesis; corneal neovascularization (CNV); vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF); Interleukin-1β (IL-1β); Cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2); Nuclear Factor-kappaB (NF-κB)
Online: 17 April 2019 (06:07:15 CEST)
Cornea severe inflammation produces opacity or even perforation, scarring, and angiogenesis, resulting in blindness. The cornea can be used to study the effect of new anti-angiogenic chemopreventive agents. We researched the anti-angiogenic effect of two extracts, Methanol (Met) and Hexane (Hex), from the seed of Cucurbita argyrosperma, in the inflamed corneas. The corneas of Wistar rats were alkali-injured and treated intragastrically for seven successive days. Clinical manifestation as opacity score, corneal neovascularization (CNV) area, re-epithelialization percentage, and histological evaluation were performed. Inflammatory (COX-2, NF-κB, and IL-1β), and angiogenic (VEGF-A, VEGFR1, VEGFR2) markers were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Cox-2, Il-1β, and Vegf-a mRNA levels were also determined. After treatments, we observed slim corneal thickness with lower opacity scores and low cell infiltration compared to untreated rats. Treatment also accelerated wound healing and decreased CNV area. The staining of inflammatory and angiogenic factors was significantly decreased. These effects are related to a down-expression of Cox-2, Il-1β, and Vegf. These results suggest that intake of C. argyrosperma seed can be used to attenuate the angiogenesis secondary to inflammation in corneal chemical damage.
Tue, 16 April 2019
ARTICLE Download: 70| View: 141| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0176.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: depression; cytokines; inflammation; endogenous opioid; opioid receptor
Online: 16 April 2019 (09:49:14 CEST)
Background: There is now evidence that immune and opioid systems show functional reciprocal relationships and that both systems may participate in the pathophysiology of major depression (MDD). Objective: The present study was carried out to delineate differences between MDD patients and healthy controls in dynorphin and kappa opioid receptor (KORs) in association with levels of β-endorphins and mu opioid receptors (MORs), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10. Method: The present study recruited 60 drug-free male participants with MDD aged 24-70 year and 30 age-matched healthy males as control group and measured serum levels of dynorphin, KOR, β-endorphin, MOR, IL-6 and IL-10. Results: Serum dynorphin, KOR, β-endorphin and MOR are significantly increased in MDD as compared with controls. The increases in the dynorphin/KOR system and β-endorhin/MOR system are significantly intercorrelated and are both strongly associated with increased IL-6 and IL-10 levels. Dynorphin, β-endorphin, KOR and both cytokines showed a good diagnostic performance for MDD versus controls, whereby both opioid peptides and cytokines show a bootstrapped (n=2000) area under the receiver operating curve of 0.972. KOR and the dynorphin/KOR system are both significantly decreased in depressed subjects with comorbid nicotine dependence. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that in MDD, immune activation is associated with a simultaneous activation of dynorphin/KOR and β-endorhin/MOR signaling and that these opioid systems may participate in the pathophysiology of depression by a) exerting immune regulatory activities attenuating the primary immune response; and b) modulating reward responses and mood as well as emotional and behavioral responses to stress.
Mon, 15 April 2019
ARTICLE Download: 85| View: 276| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0170.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: topic modelling; latent dirichlet allocation; text mining; assisted reproduction; ART; IVF
Online: 15 April 2019 (12:25:12 CEST)
Study question: What are the current trends of research in Human Assisted Reproduction around the world? Summary answer: USA is the leading country, followed by the UK, China, France and Italy. The largest research area is “laboratory techniques”, although other areas such as “public health”, “quality, ethics and law” and “female factor” are gaining ground worldwide. What is known already: Scientific research, especially in health and medical sciences, aims at addressing specific needs that society (and, especially, patients) perceives as pressing. One of the main challenges for policymakers and research funders alike is therefore to align research priorities to societal needs. We can thus think of research agendas in terms of a demand side (societal needs) and a supply side (research outputs). Research output in Human Assisted Reproduction has expanded in the past years, as indicated by the increasing number of scientific publications in indexed journals in this area. Nevertheless, no map of research related to assisted reproduction has been produced so far, hindering the identification of potential areas of improvement and need. Study design, size, duration: 26,000+ scientific publications (articles, letters, and reviews) on Human Assisted Reproduction produced worldwide between 2005 and 2016 were analyzed. These publications were indexed in PubMed or obtained from reference list of indexed publications included in the analysis.Participants/materials, setting, methods: The corpus of publications was obtained by combining the MeSH terms: “Reproductive techniques”, “Reproductive medicine”, “Reproductive health”, “Fertility”, “Infertility”, and “Germ cells”. Then it was analyzed by means of text mining algorithms (Topic Modeling (TM) based on Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA)), in order to obtain the main topics of interest. Finally, these categories were analyzed across world regions and time. Main results and the role of chance: We identified 44 main topics, which were further grouped in 11 macro categories, form larger to smaller: “laboratory techniques”, “male factor”, “quality, ethics and law”, “female factor”, “public health and infectious diseases”, “basic research and genetics”, “pregnancy complications and risks”, “general infertility and ART”, “psychosocial aspects”, “cancer”, and “research methodology”. The USA was the leading country in number of publications, followed by the UK, China, France and Italy. Interestingly, research contents in high income countries is fairly homogeneous across macro-categories, and it is dominated by “laboratory techniques” in Western and Southern Europe, and by “quality, ethics and law” in North America, Australia and New Zealand. In middle income countries we observe that research is mainly performed on “male factor”, and noticeably less on “female factor”. Finally, research on “public health and infectious diseases” predominates in low-income countries. Regarding temporal evolution of research, “laboratory techniques” is the most abundant topic on a yearly basis, and relatively constant over time. However, since production in most of the other categories is increasing, the relative contribution of this research category is actually decreasing. Publication is especially increasing in “public health and infectious diseases” (in all world regions, but especially in low income countries), “quality, ethics and law” (high income countries), and “female factor” (middle income countries). Limitations, reasons for caution: Three main factors might limit the robustness of our work: the textual corpus analyzed is based on abstract and titles, the reproducibility of the stochastic algorithms applied, which may produce slightly differing results at each run, and the interpretation of the topics obtained. Wider implications of the findings: This study should prove beneficial in the design of research strategies and policies that foster the alignment between supply (assisted reproduction research) and demand (society). Study funding/competing interest(s): PTQ-14-06718 of the Spanish MINECO Torres Quevedo programme (FAM).
ARTICLE Download: 35| View: 123| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0169.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: esthetic archwires; coating stability; backscattered electron microscopy
Online: 15 April 2019 (11:55:14 CEST)
Background/Aim: There is continuing interest in engineering esthetic labial archwires. The aim of this study was to coat nickel-titanium (NiTi) and beta-titanium (β-Ti), also known as titanium molybdenum (TMA), archwires by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) and to analyze the characteristics of the PEO-surfaces. Materials and Methods: PEO-coatings were generated on 0.014-inch NiTi and 0.19x0.25-inch β-Ti archwires. The surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and stereomicroscopy. Cytocombability testing was performed with ceramized and untreated samples according to EN ISO 10993-5 in XTT-, BrdU- and LDH-assays. The direct cell impact was analyzed using LIVE-/DEAD-staining. In addition, the archwires were inserted in an orthodontic model and photographs were taken before and after insertion. Results: The PEO coatings were 15 to 20 µm thick and esthetically pleasing. The cytocompatibility analysis revealed good cytocompatibility results for both ceramized NiTi and β-Ti archwires. In the direct cell tests, the ceramized samples showed improved compatibility as compared to those of uncoated samples. However, bending of the archwires resulted in loss of the PEO-surfaces. Nevertheless, it was possible to insert the β-Ti PEO-coated archwire in an orthodontic model without loss of the PEO-ceramic. Conclusion: PEO is a promising technique for the generation of esthetic orthodontic archwires. Since the PEO-coating does not resist bending, its clinical use seems to be limited so far to orthodontic techniques using straight or pre-bended archwires.
ARTICLE Download: 35| View: 91| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0164.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: team-based learning; flipped classroom; team re-allocation
Online: 15 April 2019 (11:36:43 CEST)
Previously, we described the initial use of Flipped Team‐Based learning (FTBL) defined as TBL approach combined with flipped classroom learning methodology, in which students previewed online lectures and applied their knowledge in different in-class activities. The purpose of the present study is to review the progress within this approach and to investigate how constant changes in team allocation can affect student’s perception regarding this modified FTBL approach. Although students showed reluctance initially to get out of their ‘comfort zone’, our findings show that learners perceived the adoption of the continued random allocation, and became accustomed to this learning approach, which finally assisted them to enhance their team-work skills and classroom performance, to develop their reflective capabilities as well as improving their rapport building skills, learning and academic performance. Learners also believed that this learning strategy that creates critical incidents can simulate their future work environment as they might be expected to work in unfamiliar situations. Therefore, the present study indicated strong support for the modified FTBL method and was seen to work exceptionally well, despite some minor problems that students can experience working in a team and/or with different teammates in every session.
Sat, 13 April 2019
ARTICLE Download: 34| View: 113| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0152.v1
Online: 13 April 2019 (05:08:57 CEST)
Background: Formation and rupture of cerebral aneurysms may be related to certain types of configuration of the circle of Willis. Analysis of their interdependence can be of great importance. Methods: A group of 114 patients treated operatively for the cerebral aneurysm rupture and a group of 56 autopsied subjects were involved in the study. Four basic types of the circle of Willis configurations were formed–two symmetric types A and C, and two asymmetric types B and D. Results: A statistically significantly higher presence of asymmetry of the circle of Willis in the group of surgically treated subjects (p=0.006) with a significant presence of asymmetric Type B in this group (p=0.017) were determined. The presence of changes in the A1 segment in the group of subjects with solitary aneurysms on the anterior communicating artery showed a statistically significant presence in the group of autopsied subjects (p=0.0004). Analyzing the presence of symmetry of the circle of Willis between the two groups, that is, the total presence of symmetric types A and C indicated their statistically significant presence in the group of autopsied patients (p=0.043). Conclusion: Changes such as hypoplasia or aplasia of A1 and the resulting asymmetry of the circle of Willis directly affect the possibility of the rupture of cerebral aneurysms. Detection of the corresponding types of the circle of Willis after diagnostic examination can be the basis for the development of a protocol for monitoring such patients.
Thu, 11 April 2019
ARTICLE Download: 75| View: 151| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0142.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Urology Keywords: NGF/TrkA signaling; mitogenesis; invasiveness; EMT; 3D models; castrate-resistant prostate cancers
Online: 11 April 2019 (12:55:18 CEST)
Resistance to hormone therapy and disease progression is the major challenge in clinical management of prostate cancer (PC). Drugs currently used in PC therapy initially show a potent antitumor effect. Nevertheless, PC gradually develops resistance, relapses and spreads. Most patients develop, indeed, castrate-resistant PC (CRPC), which is almost incurable. The nerve growth factor (NGF) acts on a variety of non-neuronal cells by activating the NGF tyrosine-kinase receptor, TrkA. NGF signaling is deregulated in PC. In androgen-dependent PC cells, TrkA mediates the proliferative action of NGF through its cross talk with the androgen receptor (AR). Epithelial PC cells, however, acquire the ability to express NGF and TrkA, as the disease progresses, indicating a role for NGF/TrkA axis in PC progression and androgen-resistance. We here report that once activated by NGF, TrkA mediates proliferation, invasiveness and epithelial-mesenchyme transition (EMT) in various CRPC cells. NGF promotes organoid growth in 3D models of CRPC cells, and specific inhibition of TrkA impairs all these responses. Thus TrkA represents a new biomarker to target in CRPC.
Wed, 10 April 2019
ARTICLE Download: 56| View: 163| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0130.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: retrospective hospital-based study, overweight, obesity, pregnancy pathologies, caesarean section, weight gain
Online: 10 April 2019 (12:34:37 CEST)
This study aimed to evaluate the impact of selected pregnancy pathologies statistically depending on overweight/obesity and excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy on women who gave birth in the years 2013–2015 at the Second Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics at the University Hospital in Bratislava, Slovakia. In a retrospective study, we analyzed data gathered from the sample, which consisted of 7,122 women. Our results indicate a positive statistical dependency of the groups of women with overweight and obesity and gestational hypertension (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=15.3; 95% CI 9.0−25.8 for obesity), preeclampsia (AOR=3.4; 95% CI 1.9−6.0 for overweight and AOR=13.2; 95% CI 7.7−22.5 for obesity), and gestational diabetes mellitus (AOR=1.9; 95% CI 1.2−2.9 for overweight and AOR=2.4; 95% CI 1.4−4.0 for obesity). A higher incidence of pregnancies terminated by cesarean section was observed in the group of obese women. Gestational weight gain above the IOM (the Institute of Medicine) recommendations was associated with a higher risk of pregnancy terminated by C-section (AOR=1.2; 95% CI 1.0−1.3), gestational hypertension (AOR=1.7; 95% CI 1.0−2.7), and infant macrosomia (AOR=1.7; 95% CI 1.3−2.1). Overweight and obesity during pregnancy significantly contribute to the development of pregnancy pathologies and increased incidence of cesarean section. Systematic efforts to reduce weight before pregnancy through pre-pregnancy dietary counseling, regular physical activity, and healthy lifestyle should be the primary goal.
REVIEW Download: 66| View: 141| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0127.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: PTEN; PI3K; cancer predisposition syndromes; targeted therapies; mouse models of human cancer
Online: 10 April 2019 (10:37:43 CEST)
The PI3K-AKT-mTOR signal transduction pathway regulates a variety of biological processes including cell growth, cell cycle progression and proliferation, cellular metabolism and cytoskeleton reorganization. Fine-tuning of the PI3K pathway signaling output is essential for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and uncontrolled activation of this cascade leads to a number of human pathologies including cancer. Inactivation of the tumour suppressor phosphatase PTEN and/or activating mutations in the proto-typical lipid kinase PI3K have emerged as some of the most frequent events associated with human cancer and as a result the PI3K pathway has become a highly sought-after target for cancer therapies. In this review we summarize the essential role of the PTEN-PI3K axis in controlling cellular behaviors by modulating activation of key proto-oncogenic molecular nodes and functional targets. Further, we highlight important functional redundancies and peculiarities of these two critical enzymes that over the last few decades have become a central part of the cancer research field and have instructed hundreds of pre-clinical and clinical trials to better cancer treatments.
ARTICLE Download: 49| View: 129| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0124.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: dental care; immigrants; inequalities; health survey; economic crisis
Online: 10 April 2019 (09:44:49 CEST)
This study evaluates inequalities in the use of dental services according to place of birth before and after the economic crisis in Spain. A cross-sectional study was performed in the population aged 18 to 65 years in Spain. We used data from three Spanish National Health Surveys for years 2006 (before the crisis), 2014 and 2017 (after the crisis). Log-binomial regression was used to quantify the association between region of origin and use of dental care services before and after controlling for the selected covariates. In 2006, we found a greater probability of not using dental care services in immigrants from Asia (PR:1.36, 95% CI:1.10–1.67) and Africa (PR:1.16; 95% CI:1.05–1.28) compared to the natives. For 2014, the probability of not using dental care services was greater for all immigrants compared to the natives, with the greatest odds for those from Africa (PR:1.71; 95% CI:1.46–2.01) and Asia (PR:1.3; 95% CI:1.23–1. 47). The associations for 2017 were weaker in magnitude than the ones observed for 2014, although stronger than for 2006. This study suggests that the economic recovery did not have the same impact for natives and immigrants regardless of regions of origin, given the observed inequalities in use of dental services.
ARTICLE Download: 70| View: 160| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0120.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: mixed reality headset; mobility assessment; wearable sensor; fall risk; aging
Online: 10 April 2019 (08:33:16 CEST)