ARTICLE Download: 0| View: 0| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0256.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: nhanes; foodservice; nutrition assessment; dietary reference intakes; school lunch program
Online: 22 October 2019 (10:31:57 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to select target nutrients to be included in the nutritional standards of school lunches in Korea. The dietary intake data of children and adolescents aged 6-17 years old from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Ⅵ were analyzed for eight groups based on gender and age (6-8, 9-11, 12-14, and 15-17 years old). First, the usual intake of the 3,091 subjects was estimated and assessed to identify nutrients with insufficient or excessive intake prevalence. Along with the nutrients identified by the assessment, the energy and nutrients prioritized in the meal planning procedure of the 2015 Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans were the initial candidates: energy, the percentages of energy from carbohydrates, protein, and fat, vitamin A, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and iron. Phosphorus was excluded due to little evidence of clinical symptoms caused by insufficient intake. Sodium was excluded because reliable data on added salt were not available among the school lunch recipes in Korea. Therefore, energy, the percentages of energy from carbohydrates, protein, and fat, vitamin A, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, calcium, and iron were selected to be included in the nutritional standards of school lunches in Korea.
Sun, 20 October 2019
ARTICLE Download: 17| View: 36| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0239.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: deficit schizophrenia; machine learning; cytokines; cognition; inflammation; neuro-immune
Online: 20 October 2019 (17:21:05 CEST)
In Schizophrenia, pathway-genotypes may be constructed by combining interrelated immune biomarkers with changes in specific neurocognitive functions that represent aberrations in brain neuronal circuits. These constructs provide insight on the phenome of schizophrenia and show how pathway-phenotypes mediate the effects of genome X environmentome interactions on the symptomatology/phenomenology of schizophrenia. Nevertheless, there is a lack of knowledge how to construct pathway-phenotypes using Partial Least Squares (PLS) path modeling and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA). This paper aims to provide a step-by-step utilization guide for the construction of pathway-phenotypes that reflect aberrations in the neuroimmune - brain circuit axis (NIBCA) in deficit schizophrenia. This NIBCA index is constructed using immune biomarkers (CCL-2, CCL-11, IL-1β, sIL-1RA, TNF-α, sTNFR1, sTNFR2) and neurocognitive tests (Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia) predicting overall severity of schizophrenia (OSOS) in 120 deficit SCZ and 54 healthy participants. Using SmartPLS path analysis, a latent vector is extracted from those biomarkers and cognitive tests, which shows a good construct reliability (Cronbach alpha and composite reliability) and replicability and which is reflectively measured through its NIBCA manifestations. This NIBCA pathway-phenotype explains 75.0% of the variance in PHEMN (psychotic, hostility, excitation, mannerism and negative) symptoms. Using SIMCA, we constructed a NIBCA pathway-class that defines deficit schizophrenia as a qualitatively distinct nosological entity and which allows patients with deficit schizophrenia to be authenticated as belonging to the deficit schizophrenia class. In conclusion, our nomothetic approach to develop a nomological network combining neuro-immune and neurocognitive phenome markers to predict OSOS and cross-validate a diagnostic class generated replicable models reflecting the key phenome of the illness, which may mediate the effects of genome X environmentome interactions on the final outcome phenome features, namely symptomatology and phenomenology.
ARTICLE Download: 16| View: 40| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0236.v1
Online: 20 October 2019 (16:18:48 CEST)
PDEF is expressed in luminal epithelial cells of the prostate gland and associates with luminal phenotype. Hippo pathway regulates cell growth/proliferation, cellular homeostasis, and organ development by modulating phosphorylation of its downstream effectors. In previous studies, we observed decreased levels of PDEF during prostate cancer progression. In the present studies, we evaluated the effects of PDEF on total and phospho (Ser-127)YAP1 protein(a downstream effector of the Hippo pathway) levels in PC3 cells, a line of castrate resistant prostate cancer. We observed that the expression of PDEF in PC3 cells resulted in increased increased phospho(Ser127) -YAP1 protein levels. Our immunofluorescence analysis for YAP1 revealed an increased cytoplasmic/nuclear ratio of YAP1 in PDEF-PC3 cells as compared to VC-PC3 cells, suggesting PDEF may play a critical role in modulating YAP1 phosphorylation, and by extension in the regulation of the Hippo pathway. We also observed a decrease in YAP1 protein levels in prostate cancer tissues as compared to normal prostate tissues. Our analysis of multiple publicly available clinical cohorts revealed a gradual decrease in YAP1 mRNA expression during prostate cancer progression and metastasis. This decrease was similar to the decrease in PDEF levels which we reported earlier. In addition we observed further decreased in PDEF and YAP1 expression in Neuro-Endocrine Prostate Cancer (NEPC), and a direct correlation between PDEF and YAP1 expression. To the best of our knowledge, these results provide the first demonstration of modulation of YAP1 by PDEF in any system and suggest a cross-talk between PDEF and the Hippo pathway.
ARTICLE Download: 11| View: 39| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0230.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: carotid intraplaque hemorrhage; carotid atherosclerosis; semi-automatic quantification; MPRAGE
Online: 20 October 2019 (01:39:19 CEST)
Purpose: Carotid intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) increases risk of territorial cerebral ischemic events, but different sequences or criteria have been used to diagnose or quantify carotid IPH. The purpose of this study was to compare manual segmentation and semi-automatic segmentation for quantification of carotid IPH on magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient-echo (MPRAGE) sequences. Methods: Forty patients with 16–79% carotid stenosis and IPH on MPRAGE sequences were reviewed by two trained radiologists with more than five years of specialized experience in carotid plaque characterization with carotid plaque MRI. Initially, the radiologists manually viewed the IPH based on the MPRAGE sequence. IPH volume was then measured by three different semi-automatic methods, with high signal intensity 150%, 175%, and 200%, respectively, above that of adjacent muscle on the MPRAGE sequence. Agreement on measurements between manual segmentation and semi-automatic segmentation was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: There was near-perfect agreement between manual segmentation and the 150% and 175% criteria for semi-automatic segmentation in quantification of IPH volume. The ICC of each semi-automatic segmentation were as follows: 150% criteria: 0.861, 175% criteria: 0.809, 200% criteria: 0.491. The ICC value of manual vs. 150% criteria and manual vs. 175% criteria were significantly better than the manual vs. 200% criteria (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The ICC of 150% and 175% criteria for semi-automatic segmentation are more reliable for quantification of IPH volume. Semi-automatic classification tools may be beneficial in large-scale multicenter studies by reducing image analysis time and avoiding bias between human reviewers.
Sat, 19 October 2019
ARTICLE Download: 12| View: 47| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0229.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: malignant melanoma; head and neck cancer; cancer stem cell; melanoma metastasis; induced pluripotent stem cell
Online: 19 October 2019 (17:15:36 CEST)
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified in many cancer types. This study identified and characterized CSCs in head and neck metastatic malignant melanoma (HNmMM) to regional lymph nodes using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) markers. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining performed on 20 HNmMM tissue samples demonstrated expression of iPSC markers OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC in all samples while NANOG was expressed at low levels in two samples. Immunofluorescence (IF) staining demonstrated an OCT4+/SOX2+/KLF4+/c-MYC+ CSC subpopulation within the tumor nests (TNs) and another within the peritumoral stroma (PTS) of HNmMM tissues. IF also showed expression of NANOG by some OCT4+/SOX2+/KLF4+/c-MYC+ cells within the TNs in an HNmMM tissue sample that expressed NANOG on IHC staining. In situ hybridization (n=6) and reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (n=5) on the HNmMM samples confirmed expression of all five iPSC markers. Western blotting of four primary cell lines derived from four of the 20 HNmMM tissue samples showed expression of SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC but not OCT4 and NANOG, and three of these cell lines formed tumorspheres in vitro. We demonstrate the presence of two putative CSC subpopulations within HNmMM, which may be a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of this aggressive cancer.
REVIEW Download: 2| View: 38| Comments: 0
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: cancer; chemotherapy; nausea; vomiting; progressive muscle relaxation
Online: 19 October 2019 (16:11:44 CEST)
(1) Background: Previous systematic review suggested a beneficial effect of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. However, poor quality of eligible studies impaired the reliability and validity of findings. Moreover, additional potential studies with good quality published in Chinese language have been published recently. The aim of the present systematic review was to investigate the value of PMR training in preventing and alleviating nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy among cancer patients. (2) Methods: We assigned two independent investigators to search all potential studies in PubMed, Cochrane Controlled Register of Trial (CENTRAL), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), China Biomedical Literature database (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang data. We used data extraction sheet extracted all essential information, and used the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool to appraise the quality of eligible studies. Finally, we qualitatively summarized the results of all included studies. (3) Results: Six studies enrolling 288 patients were considered to meet our selection criteria finally. Of these 6 studies, three were labeled as moderate quality, and the remaining studies were low quality. All included studies consistently suggested that PMR has a positive impact on nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy among cancer patients especially alleviating the incidence, frequency and degree of delayed nausea and vomiting. (4) Conclusions: Independent studies indicated that PMR was a beneficial approach to prevent and alleviate nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy among cancer patients. However, further studies considering other types of primary tumors should be designed in order to increase the generality of PMR because studies included in the present systematic review mainly enrolled lung cancer and breast cancer.
Fri, 18 October 2019
REVIEW Download: 24| View: 82| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0216.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: antiophidic; antivenin plants; envenomation; ethnobotany; ethnomedicine; phospholipase A2; snakebite; traditional medicine; Uganda
Online: 18 October 2019 (11:41:08 CEST)
Snakebite envenomation, cognized as a neglected tropical disease, is a dread public health concern with the most susceptible groups being herdsmen, the elderly, active farmers, hunters, fishers, firewood collectors, 10 to 14-year old working children and individuals with limited access to education and health care. Snakebites are fragmentarily documented in Uganda primarily because most occur in rural settings where traditional therapists end up being the first line defence for treatment. Ethnobotanical surveys in Uganda have unveiled that some plants are used to antagonize the activity of various snake venoms. This review was sought to compile the sporadic information on the vegetal species reported as antivenins in Uganda. Electronic data indicate that no study entirely reported on antivenin plants in Uganda. A total of 77 plant species belonging to 65 genera, distributed among 42 botanical families claimed as antiophidic in Uganda are used for treatment of snakebites. Majority of these species belong to family Fabaceae (30.9%), Euphorbiaceae (14.3%), Asteraceae (11.9%), Amaryllidaceae (9.5%) and Solanaceae (9.5%). The antiophidic species listed are shrubs (40.5%), trees (32.9%) and herbs (17.7%), usually found in the wild and uncultivated. Antivenin extracts are primarily prepared from roots and leaves, through decoctions, infusions, powders and juices and administered orally or topically. The most frequently encountered therapeutically important species are Allium cepa L., Carica papaya L., Securidaca longipedunculata Fres., Harrisonia abyssinica Oliv. and Nicotiana tabacum L. Baseline epidemiological data on snake envenomation and antivenin plants in Uganda remain incomplete due to inadequate research and diverse ethnic groups in the country. There is a dire need to isolate and characterize the bioactive compounds in the claimed plants to enable their adroit utilization in handling the plague of snake envenomation. More baseline data should be collected on snake ecology and human behaviour as well as antivenin plants in Uganda. Indigenous knowledge on the use of plant preparations in traditional medicine in Uganda is humongous, but if this is not quickly researched and appropriately documented, indications as to the usefulness of this vegetal treasure house will be lost in the not so distant future.
REVIEW Download: 11| View: 74| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0214.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: inflammatory bowel diseases; parenteral nutrition; systematic review; meta-analysis; crohn disease
Online: 18 October 2019 (11:36:07 CEST)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease mediated by the immune system and characterized by the inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. This study is to understand how the use of parenteral nutrition (PN) can affect the adult population diagnosed with IBD. We conducted a systematic review, meta-analysis and a meta-regression. On the different databases, (MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane, LILACS, CINAHL, WOS) we found 119 registers, the accuracy was 16% (19 registers); After a Full-text review, only 15 research studies were selected for qualitative synthesis and 10 for Meta-analysis and Meta-regression. The variables used were Crohn’s Disease Activity Index (CDAI), albumin, body weight (BW) and post-operative complications (COM). PN has shown to have efficacy for the treatment of IBD and is compatible with other medicines. The CDAI and albumin improve although the effect of PN are greater after a while. However, the effect on the albumin could be less than the observed value in the meta-analysis, due to a possible publication bias. The BW does not change after intervention. COM utilizing PN has been observed, although the proportion is low.
Thu, 17 October 2019
ARTICLE Download: 16| View: 93| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0205.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: diabetes; vegetarian; diet; nutrition; metabolic syndrome; disparity; child
Online: 17 October 2019 (15:24:37 CEST)
The national rate of obesity in US Hispanic/Latinos exceeds all other major ethnic subgroups and represents an important health disparity. Plant-based diet interventions that emphasize whole plant foods with minimal processing and less refined grains and sugar have shown have shown great promise in control of obesity, but there is a paucity of data translating this treatment effect to disparity populations. The objective of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and scalability of the Healthy Eating Lifestyle Program (HELP) – a hospital-based, family centered, culturally tailored, plant-based diet intervention for Hispanic/Latino pediatric obesity patients and their families. Our evaluation methods included: 1) a quasi-experimental, one group, longitudinal study to measures changes in BMI at 0, 6, and 18 weeks of follow-up, and 2) A stakeholder analysis consisting of six key informant interviews of HELP program staff. We found a significant decrease in body mass index across all adults (-0.2 kg/m2 p=0.0047), that was much stronger in men. For children ages 5-12 years, there was also a significant decrease in BMI Z score from pre- to post- intervention (p=0.04). Program strengths were the cultural tailoring of the plant-based diet choices, and allowing a tiered approached that did not require adherence to strict vegetarianism. Our pilot study findings from HELP raise the possibility that incorporating plant-based diet choices into the treatment of pediatric obesity patients and their families can be an effective addition to a culturally responsive care model.
ARTICLE Download: 30| View: 105| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0191.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: polycystic ovarian syndrome; granulosa cells; microrna regulation; dna methylation; biomarker
Online: 17 October 2019 (12:30:58 CEST)
Aberration in microRNA (miRNA) expression or DNA methylation is a causal factor for polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), a common endocrine disorder and leading cause of infertility. However, the epigenetic interactions between miRNA and DNA methylation remain unexplored in PCOS. In this study, we conducted an integrated analysis of RNA-seq, miRNA-seq and MBD-seq on ovarian granulosa cells of PCOS and control groups to reveal the epigenetic interactions involved in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Firstly, we identified 830 genes and 30 miRNAs that were expressed differently in PCOS, and seven miRNAs were found to negatively regulate targeted mRNA expression. Next, in total, 130 miRNAs were found to be significantly differently methylated in promoter regions, while 13 were found to be associated with miRNA expression. Furthermore, the promoter hypermethylation of miR-429, miR-141-3p, and miR-126-3p was proven to suppress miRNA expression and therefore upregulate their corresponding genes, including XIAP, BRD3, MAPK14 and SLC7A5. Our results demonstrate that DNA methylation regulates miRNA expression and therefore controls its corresponding gene expression. The reactivation of the transcription of epigenetically silenced genes may be one of the key elements in PCOS pathogenesis. Meanwhile, the epigenetic mechanisms underlying the regulation of miRNA expression can provide a potential therapeutic target for PCOS in the future.
Wed, 16 October 2019
ARTICLE Download: 12| View: 79| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0185.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: sodium; potassium; nutrition; diet; urine spot; food frequency questionnaire; cardiovascular disease; childhood cancer survivors; Swiss childhood cancer registry; Europe
Online: 16 October 2019 (10:25:07 CEST)
Risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), common in childhood cancer survivors (CCSs), may be affected by diet. We assessed sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake, estimated from food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and morning urine spots, and its associations with cardiovascular risk in CCSs. We stratified CCS into three risk profiles based on A) personal history (CVD, CVD risk factors, or CVD risk free), B) body mass index (obese, overweight, or normal/underweight), and C) cardiotoxic treatment (anthracyclines and/or chest irradiation, or neither). We obtained a FFQ from 802, and sent a spot urine sample collection kit to 212, of which 111 (52%) returned. We estimated Na intake 2.9 g/day based on spot urine and 2.8 g/day based on FFQ; estimated K intake was 1.6 g/day (spot urine) and 2.7 g/day (FFQ). CCSs with CVD risk factors had a slightly higher Na intake (3.3 g/day), than CCSs risk free (2.9 g/day) or with CVD (2.7 g/day, p = 0.017), and obese participants had higher Na intake (4.2 g/day) than normal/underweight CCSs (2.7 g/day, p<0.001). Daily Na intake was above, and daily K intake below national recommended levels. Adult survivors of childhood cancer need dietary assistance to reduce Na and increase K intake.
ARTICLE Download: 17| View: 73| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0180.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: long term survival; Glioblastoma; IDH; EGFR; Ki67; p53
Online: 16 October 2019 (08:30:25 CEST)
Background: Glioblastomas (GBM) is generally burdened, to date, by a dismal prognosis, although Long Term Survivors have a relatively significant incidence. Our specific aim was to determine the exact impact of many surgery-, patient- and tumor-related variable on Survival parameters. Methods: The surgical, radiological and clinical outcomes of patients have been retrospectively reviewed for the present study. All the patients have been operated on in our Institution and classified according their Overall Survival in LTS (Long Term Survivors) and STS (Short Term Survivors). A thorough Review of our surgical series was conducted to compare the oncologic results of the patients in regards to 1. Surgical , 2. Molecular, and 3.Treatment related features. Results: A total of 177 patients were included in the final cohort. Extensive statistical analysis by means of univariate, multivariate and survival analyses disclosed a survival advantage for patients presenting a younger age, a smaller lesion and a better functional status at presentation. From the Histochemical point of view, Ki67(%) was the strongest predictor of better oncologic outcomes. A stepwise analysis of variance outlines the existence of 8 prognostic subgroups according to the molecular patterns of Ki67 overexpression and EGFR, p53 and IDH mutations. Conclusions: On the ground of our statistical analyses we can affirm that the following factors were significant predictors of survival advantage: KPS, Age, Volume of the lesion, Motor disorder at presentation, a Ki67 overexpression. A fine molecular profiling is feasible to precisely stratify the prognosis of GBM patients.
REVIEW Download: 35| View: 89| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0179.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: human parvovirus B19; nonstructural protein NS1; erythroid progenitor cells; differentiation; GATA; anemia
Online: 16 October 2019 (05:37:39 CEST)
Background Human parvovirus B19, a human pathogen of the erythroparvovirus genus, is responsible for a variety of diseases. Despite less symptoms caused by B19 infection in healthy individuals, this pathogen can not be neglected in specific groups who exhibit severe anemia. Main body of abstract Transient aplastic crisis and pure red cell aplasia are two kinds of anemic hemogram respectively in acute phase and chronic B19 infection, especially occur in individuals with a shortened red cell survival or immunocompromised patients. In addition, B19 infected pregnant women may suffer risks of hydrops fetalis secondary to severe anemia and fetal loss. B19 possesses high affinity to bone marrow and fetal liver due to its extremely restricted cytotoxicity to erythroid progenitor cells mediated by viral proteins. The nonstructural protein NS1 is considered to be the major pathogenic factor, which takes parts in differentiational inhibition and apoptosis of erythroid progenitor cells through inducing viral DNA damage responses and cell cycle arrest. The time phase property of NS1 activity during DNA replication and conformity to transient change of hemogram are suggestive of its role in regulating differentiation of hematopoietic cells, which is not completely understood. Conclusion In this review, we set up a hypothetic bridge between B19 NS1 and Notch signaling pathway or transcriptional factors GATA which are essential in hematopoiesis, to provide a new insight of the potential mechanism of B19-induced differentiational inhibition of erythroid progenitor cells.
ARTICLE Download: 152| View: 1091| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0178.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: essential oils; Bartonella henselae; persisters; stationary phase; antimicrobial activity
Online: 16 October 2019 (05:18:55 CEST)
Bartonella henselae is a fastidious Gram-negative intracellular bacterium which can cause cat scratch disease, endocarditis in humans and animals as well as other complications, leading to acute or chronic infections. The current treatment for Bartonella infections is not very effective due to antibiotic resistance and also persistence. To develop better therapies for persistent and chronic Bartonella infections, in this study, with the help of SYBR Green I/PI viability assay, we performed a high-throughput screening of an essential oil library against stationary phase B. henselae. We successfully identified 32 essential oils that had high activity, including four essential oils extracted from Citrus plants, three from Origanum, three from Cinnamomum, two from Pelargonium and two from Melaleuca, as well as frankincense, ylang ylang, fir needle, mountain savory (winter), citronella, spearmint, elemi, vetiver, clove bud, allspice and cedarwood essential oils. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination of these 32 top hits indicated they were not only active against stationary phase non-growing B. henselae but also had good activity against log phase growing B. henselae. The time-kill curve by drug exposure assay showed 13 active hits, including essential oils of oregano, cinnamon bark, mountain savory (winter), cinnamon leaf, geranium, clove bud, allspice, geranium bourbon, ylang ylang, citronella, elemi and vetiver, could eradicate all stationary phase B. henselae cells within 7 days at the concentration of 0.032% (v/v). Two active ingredients, carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde, of oregano and cinnamon bark essential oils, respectively, were shown to be very active against stationary phase B. henselae such that they were able to eradicate all the bacterial cells even at the concentration ≤ 0.01% (v/v). Our finding of active essential oils may help to develop more effective treatments for persistent Bartonella infections.
Tue, 15 October 2019
ARTICLE Download: 16| View: 80| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0165.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: growth hormone; traumatic brain injury; neural plasticity; neurogenesis; actin; nestin; striatum; thalamus
Online: 15 October 2019 (08:03:13 CEST)
Previously we demonstrated, in rats, that the treatment with growth hormone (GH) and rehabilitation, carried out immediately after a motor cortical ablation, significantly improved the motor affectation produced by the lesion and induced the re-expression of nestin in the contralateral motor cortex. Here we analyze cortical proliferation after ablation of the frontal motor cortex and investigate the re-expression of nestin in the contralateral motor cortex and the role of the striatum and thalamus in motor recovery. The rats were subjected to ablation of the frontal motor cortex in the dominant hemisphere or sham-operated and immediately treated with GH or vehicle (V), for five days. At 1 dpi (days after injury), 5 rats received daily injections (4 days) of bromodeoxyuridine and were sacrificed. The other 15 rats (n = 5 / group) underwent treatment and rehabilitation and were sacrificed at 25 dpi. GH induced the greatest number of proliferating cells in the perilesional cortex. GH and rehabilitation produced the functional recovery of the motor lesion and increased the expression of nestin in the striatum. In the thalamic ventral nucleus ipsilateral to the lesion, cells positive for nestin and actin were detected, but this was independent of GH. Our data suggest that GH-induced striatal nestin is involved in motor recovery.
Mon, 14 October 2019
REVIEW Download: 32| View: 109| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0159.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: APL; Therapy; NGS; Resistance; ATO; ATRA; Ascorbate
Online: 14 October 2019 (10:49:36 CEST)
In this review, we highlight new findings that have deepened our understanding of the mechanisms of leukemogenesis, therapy and resistance in APL. PML-RARa sets the cellular landscape of Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) by repressing transcription of RARa target genes and disrupting PML-NBs. RAR receptors control the homeostasis of tissue growth, modeling and regeneration, PML NBs are involved in self-renewal of normal and cancer stem cells, DNA damage response, senescence and stress response. Additional somatic mutations in APL mainly involve FLT3, WT1, NRAS, KRAS, ARID1B and ARID1A genes. Treatment outcomes in patients with newly diagnosed APL improved dramatically since the advent of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO). ATRA activates the transcription of blocked genes and degrades PML-RARα, while ATO degrades PML-RARa by promoting apoptosis and has a pro-oxidant effect. Resistance to ATRA and ATO may derive from mutations in the RARa ligand binding domain (LBD) and in the PML-B2 domain of PML-RARa, but such mutations cannot explain the majority of resistances experienced in the clinic, globally accounting for 5-10% of cases. Several studies are ongoing to unravel clonal evolution and resistance, suggesting the therapeutic potential of new retinoid molecules and combinatorial treatments of ATRA or ATO with different drugs acting through alternative mechanisms of action, which may lead to synergistic effects on growth control or induction of apoptosis in APL cells.
Sun, 13 October 2019
REVIEW Download: 32| View: 133| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: adenosine receptor; immune system; cancer therapy; tumor microenvironment; cell proliferation; metastasis
Online: 13 October 2019 (16:28:09 CEST)
There are four subtypes of adenosine receptors (ARs), named A1, A2A, A2B and A3, all of which are G protein-coupled receptors. The A2BAR, coupled to both Gαi and Gαq G proteins, is one of the several G-protein-coupled receptors that are expressed in a significantly higher level in some cancer tissues in comparison to adjacent normal tissues. There is growing evidence that the A2BAR plays an important role in tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis, metastasis, and immune suppression. Thus, A2BAR antagonists are potentially novel attractive anticancer agents. Several antagonists targeting at the A2BAR are currently in clinical trials for various types of cancers. In this review, we first describe the signaling, agonists, and antagonists of the A2BAR. We further discuss the role of the A2BAR in the progression of various types cancers, and the rationale of using A2BAR antagonists in cancer therapy
REVIEW Download: 68| View: 163| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0144.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: virus; antiviral drug; drug discovery; drug development; broad-spectrum antivirals
Online: 13 October 2019 (15:22:27 CEST)
Viral diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Broad-spectrum antiviral agents (BSAA) are key players in control of viral diseases. Here, we reviewed the discovery and development process of BSAAs, focusing on compounds with available safety profiles in human. We summarized the information on approved, investigational and experimental safe-in-man BSAAs in freely accessible database at https://drugvirus.info/. The number of these BSAAs will be increased as well as their spectrum of indications will be expanded pending the results of further pre-clinical and clinical studies. This will ultimately reinforce the arsenal of available antiviral options and provide better protection of general population from emerging and re-emerging viral diseases.
Sat, 12 October 2019
ARTICLE Download: 41| View: 151| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0136.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: apoptosis; cardiotrophin-1; colon; inflammation
Online: 12 October 2019 (03:38:00 CEST)
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a relatively frequent, chronic disease that impacts significantly the patient’s quality of life. Although many therapeutic options are available, additional approaches are needed because many patients either do not respond to current therapies or show significant side effects. Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) is a cytokine with potent cytoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties. The purpose of this study was to assess if the administration of CT-1 could reduce colon damage in mice with experimental UC. UC was induced with 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water. Some mice received i.v. dose of CT-1 (200 µg/kg) 2 hours before and 2 and 4 days after DSS administration. Animals were followed during 7 days after DSS. The severity of UC was measured by standard scores. Colon damage was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry. Inflammatory mediators were measured by Western blot and PCR. CT-1 administration to DSS-treated mice ameliorated both the clinical course (disease activity index), histological damage, inflammation (colon expression of TNF-α, IL-17, IL-10, INF-γ, and iNOS), and apoptosis. Our results suggest that CT-1 administration before UC induction improves the clinical course, tissue damage and inflammation degree in DSS-induced UC in mice.
REVIEW Download: 14| View: 160| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: acupuncture; dysphagia; post-acute stroke; overview; systematic reviews; meta-analyses; rehabilitation
Online: 12 October 2019 (03:31:46 CEST)
Background: Many randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews (SRs) on acupuncture treatment for post-acute stroke dysphagia have been published. Due to conflicting results an overview of SRs to summarize and assess the quality of this evidence to determine whether acupuncture is effective for this disease was conducted. Methods: Seven databases were searched for SRs and/or Meta-analysis of RCTs and quasi-RCTs on acupuncture for post-acute stroke dysphagia. Two authors independently identified SRs and meta-analyses, collected data to assess the quality of included SRs and meta analyses according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and the revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR 2). Results: 31 SRs were identified. Quality of 22 SRs was critically low, 5 SRs were low, and 4 Cochrane SRs were moderate when evaluated by AMSTAR2. 17 SRs reported 85.2-96.3% items of PRISMA. Five SRs included explanatory RCTs, 16 SRs included pragmatic RCTs, and 10 SRs included both. Conclusion: Currently evidence on the effectiveness of acupuncture on post-acute stroke dysphagia is low quality. Type of study appeared to have no direct influence on the result, but the primary outcome measures showed a relationship with the quality of SRs. High quality trials with large sample sizes should be the focus of future research. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019134163
Thu, 10 October 2019
ARTICLE Download: 65| View: 375| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0119.v1
Online: 10 October 2019 (15:02:17 CEST)
The aim of this study was to establish the blood glucose response to different cooking methods of pasta. Participants consumed three identical meals in a random order that were freshly cooked (hot), cooled and reheated. Blood glucose concentrations were assessed before, and every 15 minutes after ingestion of each meal for 120 minutes. There was a significant interaction between temperature and time (F(8.46-372.34) = 2.75, p = 0.005), with the reheated (90 minutes) condition returning to baseline faster than both cold (120 minutes) and hot conditions. Blood glucose AUC was significantly lower in the reheated (703 ± 56 mmol L-1 min-1) compared with the hot condition (735 ± 77 mmol L-1 min-1, t(92) = -3.36, pbonferroni = 0.003), with no significant difference with the cold condition (722 ± 62 mmol L-1 min-1). To our knowledge, the current study is the first to show that reheating pasta causes changes in post-prandial glucose response, with a quicker return to fasting levels in both the reheated and cooled conditions compared with the hot condition. The mechanisms behind the changes in post-prandial blood glucose seen in this study are most likely related to changes in starch structure and how these changes influence glycaemic response.
ARTICLE Download: 14| View: 152| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0111.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: zmęczenie mięśni; skurcz izometryczny; pośladek maksymalny; efekt zmęczenia; krótki tor; próg zmęczenia
Online: 10 October 2019 (05:36:06 CEST)
The aim of this study was to investigate the size of the change in fatigability of gluteus maximus muscles during difficult endurance training in dynamic conditions. The research covered involved eight female athletes of the Polish National Team in short track, which had been prepared to the Olympic Games in PyeongChang. The sEMG system was used to measure fatigue of right and left gluteus maximus muscles, in the modified Biering-Sorensen test. The test was conducted five times during the training: before training, after warmup, and after each of 3 series of the endurance training. Comparing the mean frequency of the surface electromyography power spectrum of the first and the last seconds of the test, statistically significant reduction (p<0.05) of the average frequency value of the right muscle from 55.61±7.08 Hz to 48.64±4.48 Hz and left muscle from 58.78±4.98 Hz to 53.18±4.62 Hz was reported. In the conducted Biering-Sorensen test, the value of the muscle signal frequency measured by surface electromyography decreases, which may prove the muscle fatigue. Reductions in the frequency measured in the first and the last second of the test, was higher of the right lower limb. The size of the d Cohen effect in fatigue drops along with subsequent five tests during the training.
Tue, 8 October 2019
BRIEF REPORT Download: 41| View: 87| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0077.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: heart failure; angiogenesis; angiopoietin-1; angiopoietin-2; cardiac fibrosis
Online: 8 October 2019 (05:59:11 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Ischemic and idiopathic heart failure are two different etiologies, however reactive cardiac fibrosis together with impaired vasculogenesis has been described in both of them. Implication of main proangiogenic factors as: angiogenin, agiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) has been described mainly in experimental models of heart failure. However, differences in molecular pathways between these cardiomyopathies are still under investigation. In this short communication we aimed to evaluate and compare the expression of pro-angiogenic molecules in the heart tissue of patients with advanced chronic heart failure (CHF) of ischemic and idiopathic etiology. Methods and Results: Heart tissue from left ventricular walls was obtained at transplantation from ischemic heart disease (IHD), idiopathic cardiomyopathy (ICM) patients. Tissue samples were examined using immunohistochemistry for angiogenic molecules. Immunopositivity (I-pos) for angiopoietin-1 was mainly observed in the cardiomyocytes, while I-pos for Ang-2 and Tie-2 receptor mainly in endothelial cells. Procollagen-I (PICP), angiogenin, Ang-1, Tie-2 receptor, were similarly expressed in IHD and ICM patients. In contrast, endothelial immunopositivity for Ang-2 was higher in IHD samples compared to ICM (p=0.03). Conclusions: Ang-2 expression is different in heart tissue of ICM and ICM patients and distribution of Ang-1 and angiogenin is higher in cardiomyocytes, whereas Ang-2 higher in endothelial cells, suggesting a different pattern of angiogenic stimulation, or at least of altered endothelial integrity. This data may serve for further studies investigating angiogenesis signaling pathways and in HF of different etiology.
ARTICLE Download: 19| View: 106| Comments: 0
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: clinical trials; investigator qualification; good clinical practice; investigator training
Online: 8 October 2019 (05:18:34 CEST)
The Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative (CTTI) Investigator Qualification Project addresses the need for a more efficient and effective means of identifying qualified clinical investigators and delegates. Selection of investigators and delegates who are qualified by training and experience to conduct clinical trials is essential to safeguarding protections for study participants and ensuring data quality and integrity. Sponsors generally document investigator qualification through training on the principles of good clinical practice (GCP), as defined by the International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH), adopted by regulatory authorities in the US, Japan and the European Union. Although these GCP principles provide an important foundation for promoting the conduct of quality clinical trials, the industry standard “one-size-fits-all” GCP training may not fully prepare investigators and delegates for conducting quality clinical trials. Routine GCP training alone may not be sufficient to prepare an inexperienced member of a site team, while repeating such training is unlikely to enhance the qualifications of an experienced researcher. The CTTI project team used findings from qualitative research activities, as well as input from an expert meeting with multiple stakeholders, to identify gaps and redundancies in the current training of investigators and their delegates and recommend practical, action-based solutions. CTTI provides recommendations on how to implement a more efficient and effective means of qualification for investigators and delegates, determine whether a site team is a good fit for a particular protocol, and improve the quality of clinical trial conduct.
Mon, 7 October 2019
ARTICLE Download: 53| View: 104| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0074.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Quorum sensing; Virtual screening; E-pharmacophore; Drug discovery.
Online: 7 October 2019 (12:33:33 CEST)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an emerging opportunistic pathogen responsible for cystic fibrosis and nosocomial infections. In addition, empirical treatments are become inefficient due to their multiple-antibiotic resistance and extensive colonizing ability. Quorum sensing (QS) plays a vital role in the regulation of virulence factors in P. aeruginosa. Attenuation of virulence by QS inhibition could be an alternative and effective approach to control infections. Therefore, we sought to discover new QS inhibitors (QSIs) against LasR receptor in P. aeruginosa using chemoinformatics. Initially, a structure-based high-throughput virtual screening was performed using the LasR active site that identified 61404 relevant molecules. E-pharmacophore (ADAHH) screening of these molecules rendered 72 QSI candidates. In standard-precision docking, only 7 compounds were found as potential QSIs due to their higher binding affinity to LasR receptor (-7.53 to -10.32 kcal/mol compared to -7.43 kcal/mol of native ligands). The ADMET properties of these compounds were suitable to be QSIs. Later, extra-precision docking and binding energy calculation suggested ZINC19765885 and ZINC72387263 as the most promising QSIs. The dynamic simulation of the docked complexes showed good binding stability and molecular interactions. The current study suggested that these two compounds could be used in P. aeruginosa QS inhibition to combat bacterial infections.
CONCEPT PAPER Download: 36| View: 71| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0059.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: myopia progression; environmental factors; vision care knowledge
Online: 7 October 2019 (10:55:03 CEST)
Importance: Because of the high prevalence of myopia in Taiwan, understanding the risk factors for its development and progression is important to public health. Background: This study investigated the risk factors for myopia and their influence on the progression of myopia in schoolchildren in Taiwan. Design: Patients’ clinical records were obtained retrospectively from ophthalmologists. Questionnaires were given to collect demographic information, family background, hours spent on daily activities, myopia progression, and treatment methods. Participants: A total of 522 schoolchildren with myopia from a regional medical hospital in northern Taiwan participated the study. Written informed consent was obtained from the participants of legal age or the parents or legal guardians. Methods: Multivariable regression analyses were performed. Myopia measured in dioptres was analysed, controlling for patients’ family and demographic information as well as their daily behaviours. Main Outcome Results: Children with high myopic parents were more myopic. Earlier onset age of myopia was associated with a higher level of myopia and greater annual myopic progression. Children reporting more near work activities had higher levels of myopia and greater progression of myopia. Lower levels of myopia were associated with more exercise, longer periods of sleep, and better vision care knowledge in children and parents. Intake of food supplements had no effect on myopia. Conclusions and Relevance: In addition to genetics, education, environment, and near work activity can influence the development of myopia. Health policies for schoolchildren should promote protective activities and vision care knowledge in order to protect the eyesight of schoolchildren.
CASE REPORT Download: 12| View: 69| Comments: 0
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: diarrhea; wood creosote; Seirogan; retrospective study; capsule
Online: 7 October 2019 (10:52:58 CEST)
Seirogan, a wood creosote, is a nonprescription drug used to treat diarrhea. However, reports of its clinical use are rare. Here, we report on the efficacy of wood creosote (3 capsules daily) for the alleviation of diarrheal symptoms in 148 patients from 10 clinics in Japan. The wood creosote capsules were classified as remarkably effective (44 patients), effective (71 patients), and partially effective (13 patients) based on the degree of alleviation of diarrheal symptoms that were induced by a variety of causes. The antidiarrheal efficacy of the capsules did not differ between males and females, and young patients (21–30 years) showed greater improvement in diarrheal symptoms than did old patients (> 61 years). Although this report is based on the re-evaluation of old data that had been preserved by our company, the effectiveness and range of symptoms that were treatable with wood creosote has likely remained unchanged. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first public report on the clinical effectiveness of wood creosote capsules for the treatment of a wide range of diarrheal symptoms.
Fri, 4 October 2019
ARTICLE Download: 67| View: 130| Comments: 0
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: whole exome sequencing; melanoma; circulating tumor dna
Online: 4 October 2019 (10:35:02 CEST)
The use of circulating cell-free (cf) DNA to monitor cancer progression and response to therapy has significant potential but there is only limited data on whether this technique can detect the presence of low frequency subclones that may ultimately confer therapy resistance. In this study, we sought to evaluate whether whole-exome sequencing of cfDNA can accurately profile the mutation landscape of metastatic melanoma. We used whole-exome sequencing (WES) to identify variants in matched tumor-derived genomic (g) DNA and plasma-derived cfDNA isolated from a cohort of 10 metastatic cutaneous melanoma patients. WES parameters such as sequencing coverage and total sequencing reads were comparable between gDNA and cfDNA. There was significant concordance between gDNA and cfDNA based on the total number of variants identified and the degree of overlap in variants which was independent of the site of tumor biopsy. The mutant allele frequency of common single nucleotide variants was lower in cfDNA reflecting lower read depth and dilution of circulating tumor DNA in the circulation by other cfDNA species. In addition to known melanoma driver mutations, several other melanoma-associated mutations were found to be concordant between matched gDNA and cfDNA. This study highlights that WES of cfDNA can capture clinically-relevant mutations present in melanoma metastases, but does not appear to provide any additional unique information on tumor heterogeneity. Targeted deep sequencing may be required to detect low frequency genomic aberrations known for predicting therapy resistance.
ARTICLE Download: 58| View: 193| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0043.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: telemedicine; carbon dioxide; air pollutants; vehicle emissions; primary care
Online: 4 October 2019 (10:25:37 CEST)
This retrospective study evaluates the effect of a telemedicine program developed in the central Catalan region in lowering the environmental footprint by reducing the emission of atmospheric pollutants thanks to a reduction in the number of hospital visits involving journeys by road. Between January 2018 and June 2019 a total of 12,322 referrals were made to telemedicine services in the primary care centers, avoiding a total of 9,034 face-to-face visits. In total, the distance saved was 192,682 km, with a total travel time savings of 3,779 hours and a total fuel reduction of 11,754 liters with an associated cost of €15,664. This represents an average reduction of 3,248.3 g of carbon dioxide, 4.05 g of carbon monoxide, 4.86 g of nitric oxide and 3.2 g of sulphur dioxide. This study confirms that telemedicine reduces the environmental impact of atmospheric pollutants emitted by vehicles, reducing the number of journeys made for face-to-face visits and can contribute to environmental sustainability.
Thu, 3 October 2019
REVIEW Download: 48| View: 146| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0042.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: adherence; endocarditis; fimbriae; jp2; leukotoxin; periodontitis
Online: 3 October 2019 (14:04:07 CEST)
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a Gram-negative bacterium that is part of the oral microbiota. The aggregative nature of this pathogen or pathobiont is crucial to its involvement in human disease. It has been cultured from non-oral infections for more than a century, while the portrayal as an aetiological agent in periodontitis has emerged more recently. Although A. actinomycetemcomitans encodes several putative toxins, the complex interplay with other partners of the oral microbiota and the suppression of the initial host response may be central for inflammation and infection in the oral cavity. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive update on the clinical significance, classification, and characterisation of A. actinomycetemcomitans, which has exclusive or predominant host specificity for humans.
REVIEW Download: 53| View: 145| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0040.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: diabetes; exercise; cardiomyopathy; heart failure
Online: 3 October 2019 (13:59:22 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus is associated with cardiovascular, ophthalmic, and renal comorbidities. Among these, diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) causes the most severe symptoms and is considered to be a major health problem worldwide. Exercise is widely known as an effective strategy for the prevention and treatment of many chronic diseases. Importantly, the onset of complications arising from diabetes can be delayed or even prevented by exercise. Regular exercise is reported to have positive effects on diabetes mellitus and the development of DCM. The protective effects of exercise include the prevention of cardiac apoptosis, fibrosis, oxidative stress, and microvascular diseases, as well as improvement in cardiac mitochondrial function, and calcium regulation. The present review summarizes the recent findings to describe the potential mechanisms by which exercise may prevent DCM and heart failure.
Wed, 2 October 2019
CASE REPORT Download: 35| View: 150| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0020.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: acute myeloid leukemia; patients with organ dysfunction; gemtuzumab ozogamicin
Online: 2 October 2019 (06:19:36 CEST)
Objectives: To demonstrate the efficacy of Gemtuzumab ozogamicin in refractory AML patients with organ dysfunctions and poor performance status. Three refractory AML patients with are described. One of them was pretreated by intensive chemotherapy, two other patients progressed during Azacitidine treatment. WHO performance status III . Two patients had respiratory failure grade 2, the other one suffered from acute kidney insufficiency. Two patients were highly febrile with elevated CRP level. Gemtuzumab ozogamicin administration was performed in three patients followed by further switch to Gemtuzumab ozogamicin + Azacitidine or “7+3” treatment. Results: Gemtuzumab ozogamicin administration resulted in abrupt fever cessation in two febrile patients simultaneously with CRP level decrease and fast gradual resolution of respiratory failure. Recovery of kidney function was noticed in patient with renal insufficiency. WHO performance status have elevated in all three patients. No adverse effects grade II-III were noticed. Further treatment made two patients eligible for intensive chemotherapy, one patient was transplanted, patient with kidney failure obtained complete remission. Conclusions: Gemtuzumab ozogamicin therapy appeared to be safe and highly efficacious in relapsed/refractory AML patients with organ dysfunctions and poor performance status.
ARTICLE Download: 77| View: 143| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: community pharmacy; pharmacists; kap; travel health
Online: 2 October 2019 (05:50:05 CEST)
(1) Background: Travel medicine practice has not been a part of practice in the community pharmacies in Japan. However, it’s getting more common for pharmacists to run travel clinic in North America. With ongoing globalization, Japanese pharmacists might be practicing travel medicine in future. This descriptive study is to examine the current knowledge, attitudes, and practices among Japanese community pharmacists. (2) Methods: Invitation to the study was sent to all pharmacies or corporates listed on Nippon Pharmacist Association member list plus one another large size pharmacy chain that was not member of NPhA. Community pharmacists working under those companies received a weblink to the survey. The survey was conducted from June to July 2017 by online questionnaire. (3) Results: The self-declared knowledge level of infectious diseases as well as travel vaccinations was generally low. The frequency of correct answer of the antibiotic resistance in South East Asia was 48.5%. Knowledge level of qunine resistance to Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Ghana and Nicaragua was very low. (4) Conclusions: Japanese community pharmacists are not familiar with travel related infectious diseases and vaccines used in travel medicine. The knowledge on the antibiotic resistance in traveler’s diarrhea and malaria prophylaxis was all low that is consistent with low degree of exposure to travel health questions from patients in daily practice and low percentage of intention to earn travel health certificates.
Mon, 30 September 2019
REVIEW Download: 59| View: 175| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0344.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: horses; spermatozoa; ROS; oxidative stress; redox regulation; equine
Online: 30 September 2019 (08:06:46 CEST)
Redox regulation and oxidative stress have become areas of major interest in spermatology. Alteration of redox homeostasis is recognized as a significant cause of male factor infertility and is behind the damage that spermatozoa experience after freezing and thawing or conservation in a liquid state. While for a long time, oxidative stress was just considered an overproduction of ROS, nowadays it is considered as a consequence of redox deregulation. Many essential aspects of spermatozoa functionality are redox regulated, with reversible oxidation of thiols in cysteine residues of key proteins acting as an “on-off” switch controlling spermatic function. However, if deregulation occurs, these residues may experience irreversible oxidation and oxidative stress leading to spermatic malfunction and ultimately death. Stallion spermatozoa are “professional producers” of ROS due to their intense mitochondrial activity, and thus sophisticated systems to control redox homeostasis are also characteristic of this species. As a result, combined with the fact that embryos can easily be collected in this species, horses are a good model for the study of redox biology in the spermatozoa and its impact on the embryo.
ARTICLE Download: 27| View: 104| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0336.v1
Online: 30 September 2019 (03:21:27 CEST)
Background: Carnitine deficiency is common in patients on dialysis. Serum free carnitine concentration is significantly lower in patients on hemodialysis (HD) than in healthy individuals. However, there are few reports on serum free carnitine concentration in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). Methods: We examined serum concentrations of total, free, and acylcarnitine and the acylcarnitine/free carnitine ratio in 34 PD and 34 age-, sex-, and dialysis duration-matched HD patients. We investigated the prevalence of carnitine deficiency and clinical factors associated with carnitine deficiency in the PD group. Results: Prevalence of carnitine deficiency was 8.8% in the PD group and 14.7% in the HD group (P = 0.45). High risk of carnitine deficiency was found in 79.4% of the PD group and 85.3% of the HD group (P = 0.52). Carnitine insufficiency was found in 82.3% of the PD group and 88.2% of HD group (P = 0.49). Multivariate analysis revealed that duration of dialysis and age were independent predictors of serum free carnitine level in the PD group. Conclusions: The prevalence of carnitine deficiency, high risk of carnitine deficiency, and carnitine insufficiency in PD patients was 8.8%, 79.4%, and 82.3%, respectively. These rates were comparable to those in patients on HD.
Sun, 29 September 2019
ARTICLE Download: 27| View: 124| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0330.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Anesthesiology Keywords: myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery; anesthetic technique; high-sensitivity troponin i
Online: 29 September 2019 (07:08:24 CEST)
The cardioprotective effects of volatile anesthetics versus total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) are controversial, especially in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. Using current generation high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn), we aimed to evaluate the effect of anesthetics on the occurrence of myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery (MINS). From February 2010 to December 2016, 3555 patients without preoperative hs-cTn elevation underwent non-cardiac surgery under general anesthesia. Patients were grouped according to anesthetic agent; 659 patients were classified into a propofol-remifentanil total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) group, and 2896 patients were classified into into a volatile group. To balance the use of remifentanil between groups, a balanced group (n=1622) was generated with patients who received remifentanil infusion in the volatile group, and two separate comparisons were performed (TIVA vs. volatile and TIVA vs. balanced). The primary outcome was occurrence of MINS, defined as rise of hs-cTn I ≥ 0.04 ng/mL within postoperative 48 hours. The secondary outcomes were 30-day mortality, postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI), and adverse events during hospital stay (mortality, type I myocardial infarction (MI), and new-onset arrhythmia). In propensity-matched analyses, the occurrence of MINS was lower in the TIVA group compared to the volatile group (OR 0.642; 95% CI 0.450-0.914; p = 0.014). However, after balancing the use of remifentanil, there was no difference between groups in the risk of MINS (OR 0.832; 95% CI 0.554-1.251; p-value = 0.377). There were no significant associations between the two groups in type 1 MI, new-onset atrial fibrillation, in-hospital and 30-day mortality before and after balancing the use of remifentanil. However, the incidence of postoperative AKI was lower in the TIVA group (OR 0.362; 95% CI 0.194-0.675; p-value = 0.001). After balancing the use of remifentanil, volatile anesthesia and TIVA showed comparable effects on MINS in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery without preoperative myocardial injury. Further studies are needed on the benefit of remifentanil infusion.
ARTICLE Download: 54| View: 122| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0329.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: premenstrual syndrome; chemokines; inflammation; neuro-immune; depression
Online: 29 September 2019 (06:29:54 CEST)
Objective: To examine associations between chemokines and menstrual cycle associated symptoms (MCAS). Methods: Forty-one women completed the Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP) rating scale during 28 consecutive days of the menstrual cycle. MCAS is diagnosed when the total daily DRSP score during the menstrual cycle is > 0.666 percentile. We assayed plasma CCL2, CCL5, CCL11, CXCL8, CXCL10, EGF, IGF-1, and PAI-1 at days 7, 14, 21 and 28 of the menstrual cycle. Results: CCL2, CCL5, CCL11 and EGF are significantly higher in women with MCAS than in those without. Increased CCL2, CXCL10, CXCL8, CCL11 and CCL5 levels are significantly associated with DRSP scores while CCL2 is the most significant predictor explaining 39.6% of the variance. The sum of the neurotoxic chemokines CCL2, CCL11 and CCL5 is significantly associated with the DRSP score and depression, physiosomatic, breast-craving and anxiety symptoms. The impact of chemokines on MCAS symptoms may differ between consecutive weeks of the menstrual cycle with CCL2 being the most important predictor of increased DRSP levels during the first two weeks, and CXCL10 or a combination of CCL2, CCL11 and CCL5 being the best predictors during week 3 and 4, respectively. Discussion: The novel case definition “MCAS” is externally validated by increased levels of uterus-associated chemokines and EGF. Those chemokines are involved in MCAS and are regulated by sex hormones and modulate endometrium functions and brain neuro-immune responses, which may underpin MCAS symptoms. As such, uterine-related chemokines may link the uterus with brain functions via a putative uterine-chemokine-brain axis.
REVIEW Download: 61| View: 159| Comments: 1 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0327.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: glioblastoma; renin-angiotensin system; cancer stem cells; drug repurposing
Online: 29 September 2019 (06:21:26 CEST)
Patients with glioblastoma (GB), a highly aggressive brain tumor, have a median survival of 14.6 months following neurosurgical resection with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Quiescent GB cancer stem cells (CSCs) invariably cause local recurrence. These GB CSCs that can be identified by embryonic stem cell markers express components of the renin-angiotensin system and are associated with circulating CSCs. Despite the presence of circulating CSCs, GB rarely develops distant metastasis outside the central nervous system. This paper reviews the current literature on GB growth inhibition in relation to CSCs, circulating CSCs, the RAS and the novel therapeutic approach by repurposing drugs that target the renin-angiotensin system to improve overall symptom-free survival and maintain quality of life.
ARTICLE Download: 43| View: 117| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0323.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: clade 188.8.131.52c h5n1 virus; immunity evasion; ha trimer stability; thermostability; mammalian pathogenicity
Online: 29 September 2019 (05:21:52 CEST)
Since 2007, highly pathogenic clade 2.3.2 H5N1 avian influenza A [A(H5N1)] viruses have evolved to clade 184.108.40.206a, b and c, and currently only 220.127.116.11c A(H5N1) viruses circulate in wild birds and poultry. During antigenic evolution, clade 18.104.22.168a and c A(H5N1) viruses acquired both S144N and V223I mutations around the receptor binding site of hemagglutinin (HA), with S144N generating an N-glycosylation sequon. We introduced single or combined reverse mutations, N144S and/or I223V, into the HA gene of clade 22.214.171.124c A(H5N1) virus and generated PR8-derived, 2 + 6 recombinant A(H5N1) viruses. When we compared replication efficiency in embryonated chicken eggs, mammalian cells and mice, the recombinant virus containing both N144S and I223V mutations showed increased replication efficiency in avian and mammalian hosts and pathogenicity in mice. The N144S mutation significantly decreased avian receptor affinity and egg white inhibition, but not all mutations increased mammalian receptor affinity. Interestingly, the combined reverse mutations dramatically increased the thermostability of HA. Therefore, the adaptive mutations possibly acquired to evade avian immunity may decrease viral thermostability as well as mammalian pathogenicity.
Sat, 28 September 2019
REVIEW Download: 34| View: 147| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0314.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: hypothalamus; endocrine; gangliocytoma; neurocytoma; pituicytoma; hormones
Online: 28 September 2019 (00:24:48 CEST)
The hypothalamus is the site of synthesis and secretion of a number of endocrine peptides that are involved in the regulation of hormonal activity of the pituitary and other endocrine targets. Tumors of the hypothalamus have been recognized to have both structural and functional effects including hormone hypersecretion. The classification of these tumors had advanced over the last few years and biomarkers are now available to classify these tumors and provide accurate structure-function correlations. This review provides an overview of tumors in this region that is critical to metabolic homeostasis with a focus on advances in the diagnosis of gangliocytomas, neurocytomas and pituicytomas that are unique to this region.
Fri, 27 September 2019
ARTICLE Download: 25| View: 155| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0309.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: val-phe-val-arg-asn (vfvrn); hypolipidemic effects; transintestinal cholesterol efflux (tice); 3t3-l1 preadipocyte; apoptosis
Online: 27 September 2019 (10:29:29 CEST)
Val-Phe-Val-Arg-Asn (VFVRN) has been identified and screened from lipid-lowering chickpea peptides (ChPs) by using a pharmacokinetic model in our previous experiment. The present study was conducted to investigate its effects and mechanisms on lipid metabolism. A high-fat diet C57BL/6J mice model and 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell model were used. VFVRN was found to significantly decrease the levels of some blood lipids. The expressions of LDL receptor (LDLR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)α, liver X receptor (LXR)α, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) in liver were up-regulated by VFVRN treatment. The expressions of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGR), fatty acid synthetase (FAS), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthetase (ACC), sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c and SREBP-2 in liver were significantly (P<0.05) down-regulated. Additionally, the expressions of PPARα and PPARγ in adipose tissues were up-regulated by VFVRN significantly (P<0.05). VFVRN might also contribute to transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE) by up-regulating the expressions of LXRα and ATP binding cassette G5/8 transporters (ABGC5/8). Moreover, VFVRN promoted 3T3-L1 preadipocyte apoptosis by up-regulating the expressions of BaX, cleaved Caspase-3 and down-regulating Bcl-2. VFVRN had potent effects in reversing metabolic disorders of blood and liver in a high-fat diet mice model, as well as to promote the apoptosis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.
REVIEW Download: 123| View: 244| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0304.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: cancer; complexity; machine learning; deep learning; fluid dynamics; turbulence; chaos
Online: 27 September 2019 (07:24:43 CEST)
Cancers are complex, adaptive ecosystems. It remains the lead cause of disease-related, pediatric death in North America. The emerging field of complexity science has redefined cancer as a computational system with intractable, algorithmic complexity. Herein, a tumor and its heterogeneous phenotypes are discussed as dynamical systems having multiple, chaotic attractors. Machine learning, Network science and information theory are discussed as current tools for cancer network reconstruction. The fluid dynamics of cancer-cell fate transitions and chemical pattern formation are briefly reviewed. Deep Learning architectures, delay-embedding algorithms and computational fluid models are proposed for better forecasting gene expression patterns in cancer ecosystems. Cancer cell decision-making is investigated within the framework of complexity theory.
ARTICLE Download: 23| View: 172| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0302.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: multiple sclerosis; physical fitness; body composition; functional mobility; physiotherapy
Online: 27 September 2019 (03:03:10 CEST)
Background and objectives: Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have many potential factors (spasticity, immobilization, glucocorticoids use) which can deteriorate the anthropometrical status and body composition and may have the potential impact on the functional mobility and basic motor skills improvement after physiotherapy. The aim of the study was to assess the functional mobility and basic motor skills in patients with MS and to correlate them with disability and anthropometrical status and body composition parameters. Materials and Methods: Timed Up-and-Go test (TUG), and six-minute walk test (6MWT) were performed in 36 patients with MS before and after 4 weeks of physiotherapy. Body mass index (BMI), waist to height ratio (W/HtR), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were assessed in this group. Body composition was evaluated by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and fat mass (FAT), fat free mass (FFM), total body water (TBW) and predicted muscle mass (PMM) were expressed as percentage of body mass. Clinical status was assessed by EDSS and AI scales. Results: After physiotherapy, there was a significant improvement in functional mobility and basic motor skills assessed by total distance in 6MWT (p<0.001) and in TUG trials (p<0.001). Positive significant correlations were found between the results obtained in both tests (either before and after physiotherapy) vs. FFM, TBW and PMM, whilst worse results in functional mobility and basic motor skills correlated significantly with higher WHtR, WHR and FAT (p<0.05). Clinical status (EDSS) were significantly related to the WHtR and body composition parameters with the same manner as the results in the either 6MWT and TUG. However, there were no significant relationships between BMI vs. either clinical status (EDSS, AI) and functional mobility tests results in patients with MS. Conclusions: Functional mobility and basic motor skills may be significantly improved during the physiotherapy, but they are related to the anthropometrical status and body composition of MS patients. Moreover, disability status is also significantly related to this parameters. Body composition deterioration seems to be the important target for the therapeutic intervention in MS patients. For proper nutritional status assessment in patients with MS, body composition analysis or WHtR instead BMI should to be used.
Thu, 26 September 2019
ARTICLE Download: 28| View: 191| Comments: 0
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: mast cell; tryptase; chymase; serine protease; human chymase; cleavage specificity; cytokine; chemokine; th2
Online: 26 September 2019 (12:00:55 CEST)
Mast cells (MC) are resident tissue cells found primarily at the interphase between tissues and environment. These evolutionary old cells store large amounts of proteases within cytoplasmic granules, and one of the most abundant of these proteases is the tryptase. To look deeper into the question their in vivo targets, we have analyzed the activity of the human MC tryptase on 69 different human cytokines and chemokines, and the activity of the mouse tryptase (mMCP-6) on 56 mouse cytokines and chemokines. These enzymes were found to be remarkably restrictive in their cleavage of these potential targets. Only five were efficiently cleaved by the human tryptase: TSLP, IL-21, MCP3, MIP-3b and eotaxin. This strict specificity indicates a regulatory function of these proteases and not primarily as unspecific degrading enzymes. We recently showed that the human MC chymase also had a relatively strict specificity, indicating that both of these proteases have regulatory functions. One of the most interesting such regulatory functions may involve controlling excessive TH2 mediated inflammation by cleaving several of the most important TH2-promoting inflammatory cytokines, including IL-18, IL-33, TSLP, IL-15 and IL-21 indicating a potent negative feedback loop on TH2 immunity.
ARTICLE Download: 42| View: 162| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0296.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; bode index; charlson comorbidity index; medical burden
Online: 26 September 2019 (09:58:37 CEST)
COPD is currently the fourth leading cause of death in the world. Globally, due to continued exposure to COPD risk factors and an aging population, the burden of COPD is expected to increase in the coming decades. The BODE (body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity) index is a practical and multidimensional predictor for prognosis of COPD, and better than FEV1.We used the database of Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital medical center, Taiwan to analyze the correlation between BODE index, healthcare resource utilization, and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). This retrospective study to collect COPD patients with complete BODE index data who had undergone a 6-minute walk examination in our hospital from January 2015 to December 2016. The medical cost and comorbidities database were analyzed from January 1, 2015, to August 31, 2017. Of 396 patients, 382 (96.5%) were male, with an average age of 71.3 ± 8.4 years. There was a significant association between the BODE index and the CCI of COPD patients (p < 0.001). Healthcare resource utilization was positively correlated with the BODE index during the 32 months of retrospective clinical outcomes: positively correlated with the number of hospitalizations (p<0.001), hospitalization days (p<0.001), hospitalization expenses (p=0.005), and total medical expenses (p=0.024), respectively. Our findings provide the crucial information for clinician to predict medical burden and comorbidities in patients with COPD by using BODE index.
Tue, 24 September 2019
ARTICLE Download: 38| View: 192| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0271.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: vitamin D; muscle strength; volleyball; athletes; shoulder
Online: 24 September 2019 (11:30:07 CEST)
This study aimed to examine the vitamin D status of professional volleyball athletes and to determine its correlation with shoulder muscle strength. We finally included 52 healthy male professional volleyball players (23.2 ± 4.5 years), who were categorized by vitamin D status (<20 ng/mL: deficiency, 20-30 ng/mL: insufficiency, and >30 ng/mL: sufficiency). We examined the strength of the internal rotator (IR) and external rotator (ER) muscles of the shoulder by using isokinetic dynamometer. Fourteen players (26.9%) had vitamin D deficiency, 24 players (46.2%) were vitamin D insufficient, and 14 players (26.9%) were vitamin D sufficient. There was no significant correlation between the vitamin D level and shoulder muscle strength at 60°/s (IR, r = 0.159, p = 0.26; ER, r = 0.245, p = 0.08), and at 180°/s (IR, r = - 0.093, p = 0.51; ER, r = - 0.037, p = 0.79). Moreover, the isokinetic shoulder strengths were not significantly different across the three groups in all settings. In conclusion, vitamin D insufficiency was common in elite volleyball players. Though not being associated with isokinetic muscle weakness, vitamin D should be regularly monitored and supplemented in young elite athletes, considering its importance on musculoskeletal health.
REVIEW Download: 71| View: 198| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0270.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; clinical trial fails; disease-modifying treatments; alzheimer’s disease biomarkers; combination treatment; clinical trial designs
Online: 24 September 2019 (11:23:25 CEST)
Despite all scientific efforts and many protracted and expensive clinical trials, no new drug has been approved by FDA for treatment of Alzheimer disease (AD) since 2003. Indeed, more than 200 investigational programs have failed or have been abandoned in the last decade. The most probable explanations for failures of disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) for AD may include late initiation of treatments during the course of AD development, inappropriate drug dosages, erroneous selection of treatment targets, and mainly an inadequate understanding of the complex pathophysiology of AD, which may necessitate combination treatments rather than monotherapy. Clinical trials’ methodological issues have also been criticized. Current drug-development research for AD is aimed to overcome these drawbacks. Preclinical and prodromal AD populations, as well as traditionally investigated populations representing all the clinical stages of AD, are included in recent trials. Systematic use of biomarkers in staging preclinical and prodromal AD and of a single primary outcome in trials of prodromal AD are regularly integrated. The application of amyloid, tau, and neurodegeneration biomarkers, including new biomarkers—such as Tau positron emission tomography, neurofilament light chain (blood and CSF biomarker of axonal degeneration) and neurogranin (CSF biomarker of synaptic functioning)—to clinical trials allows more precise staging of AD. Additionally, use of the Bayesian statistics, modifiable clinical trial designs, and clinical trial simulators enrich the trial methodology. Besides, combination therapy regimens are currently assessed in clinical trials. The abovementioned diagnostic and statistical advances, which have been recently integrated in clinical trials, are consequential to the recent failures of studies of disease-modifying treatments. Their experiential rather than theoretical origins may better equip potentially successful drug-development strategies.
ARTICLE Download: 43| View: 189| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0269.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: assisted reproductive technologies; In-Vitro Fertilization; Delphi; geneticization; Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis; diffusion of innovation
Online: 24 September 2019 (05:32:19 CEST)
This paper questions the potential shift of reproduction towards assisted reproductive technologies due to benefits provided by genetic manipulation of embryos. In order to examine the viability of such a shift and its implications from a regulatory perspective, we relied on two panels of experts from Israel and Spain, using the Delphi method and a series of in-depth interviews. We anticipate, at a first stage, a continuous-steady growth in the use of IVF, supplemented by preimplantation genetic diagnosis and the introduction of CRISPR/Cas. At a second stage, attracting a growing share of fertile people would require developments in genomics. While it is unclear whether these developments will fully materialize, they could be replaced by technoscientific imaginaries generating perceived benefits. We conclude that the regulation of reproductive genetics is becoming more critical and complex. The aim should be to ensure good practices and equity, while providing more information to the public. A broad and inclusive societal debate may overcome the difficulty of drawing a clear line between medical uses and non-medical uses of genetic selection and engineering and may contribute to finding the right balance between allowing autonomous decisions of patients and protecting the public interest.
Sun, 22 September 2019
ARTICLE Download: 21| View: 160| Comments: 1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: metabolomics; metabolite profiling; prudent diet; western diet; food provisions; diet records; nutritional epidemiology; mass spectrometry
Online: 22 September 2019 (15:20:34 CEST)
A large body of evidence has linked unhealthy eating patterns with an alarming increase in obesity and chronic disease worldwide. However, existing methods of assessing dietary intake in nutritional epidemiology rely on food frequency questionnaires or dietary records that are prone to bias and selective reporting. Herein, metabolic phenotyping was performed on 42 healthy participants from the Diet and Gene Intervention (DIGEST) pilot study, a parallel two-arm randomized clinical trial that provided complete diets to all participants. Matching urine and plasma specimens were collected at baseline and following 2 weeks of provision of either a Prudent or Western diet with a weight-maintaining menu plan designed by a dietician. Targeted and nontargeted metabolite profiling was conducted using three complementary analytical platforms, where 80 plasma metabolites and 84 creatinine-normalized urinary metabolites were reliably measured (CV < 30%) in the majority of participants (> 75%) after implementing a rigorous data workflow for metabolite authentication with stringent quality control. We classified a panel of metabolites with distinctive trajectories following 2 weeks of food provisions when using complementary univariate and multivariate statistical models. Unknown metabolites associated with contrasting dietary patterns were identified with high resolution MS/MS and/or co-elution after spiking with authentic standards. Overall, 3-methylhistidine and proline betaine concentrations increased consistently after participants were assigned a Prudent diet (q< 0.05) in both plasma and urine samples with a corresponding decrease in the Western diet group. Similarly, creatinine-normalized urinary imidazole propionate, hydroxypipecolic acid, dihydroxybenzoic acid, and enterolactone glucuronide, as well as plasma ketoleucine and ketovaline increased with a Prudent diet (p< 0.05) after adjustments for age, sex and BMI. In contrast, plasma myristic acid, linoelaidic acid, linoleic acid, a-linoleic acid, pentadecanoic acid, alanine, proline, carnitine and deoxycarnitine, as well as urinary acesulfame K increased among participants following a Western diet. Most metabolites were also correlated (r > ±0.30, p< 0.05) to changes in average intake of specific nutrients from self-reported diet records reflecting good adherence to assigned food provisions. Our study revealed robust biomarkers sensitive to short-term changes in habitual diet for accurate monitoring of healthy eating patterns in free-living populations, which is required for validating evidence-based public health policies for chronic disease prevention.
Sat, 21 September 2019
ARTICLE Download: 39| View: 187| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0252.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: copper; endoglin; preeclampsia; VEGF-A; sVEGF-R1
Online: 21 September 2019 (09:51:28 CEST)
Preeclampsia (PE) is characterized by a series of clinical features such as hypertension and proteinuria associated with endothelial dysfunction and the impairment of placenta vascular endothelial integrity. This study aimed to investigate the effect of serum copper (Cu) level on some angiogenesis-related factors including vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sVEGF-R1), soluble endoglin (sEng) and cerruloplasmin (Cp) in Iraqi women with preeclampsia (PE) and control pregnant women. Therefore, 60 women with PE in addition to 30 healthy pregnant women were enrolled in the study. Serum concentration of sEng, VEGF-A, sVEGF-R1, and Cu in PE group significantly increased (p<0.05) in the PE group compared with that in the control group. Increased production of antiangiogenic factors, soluble VEGF-A and sEng contribute to the pathophysiology of PE, indicating the involvement of these parameters in the angiogenic balance in patients with PE. Tests for between-subject effects showed that the circulating angiogenesis factors and Cu were significantly associated with the presence of PE. Serum Cu level was significantly correlated with VEGF- A and VEGF-R1 levels but not with sEng. Multiple regression analysis revealed that only Cp and BP can significantly predict the complications in women with PE. In conclusion, serum Cu has a role in the angiogenesis in women with PE and may be a new drug target in the prevention or treatment of PE.
Fri, 20 September 2019
ARTICLE Download: 31| View: 189| Comments: 0
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: quality of life; celiac disease; parents; caregivers
Online: 20 September 2019 (19:04:08 CEST)
Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder triggered by the ingestion of gluten and affects approximately 1% of the global population. Currently, the only treatment available is lifelong strict adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD). Chronic diseases such as CD affect patients and their family members’ quality of life (QoL); particularly parents and caregivers who play an essential role in the child’s care and treatment. A higher level of psychological distress has been found in the parents of children with chronic ailments due to limited control over the child’s daily activities and the child’s illness. In this context, the validation of a specific questionnaire of QoL is a valuable tool to evaluate the difficulties faced by parents or caregivers of children with this chronic illness. A specific questionnaire for this population can elucidate the reasons for stress in their daily lives as well as the physical, mental, emotional, and social impact caused by CD. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and validate a specific questionnaire to evaluate the QoL of parents and caregivers of children and adolescents with CD. The study was developed in six steps: (i) development of the CD parent/caregiver QoL questionnaire (CDPC-QoL); (ii) subjective evaluation; (iii) validation of the questionnaire by the Delphi method; (iv) evaluation of the internal consistency and reproducibility of the CDPC-QoL; (v) application of the questionnaire to Brazilian CD parents or caregivers; and (vi) statistical analysis. Overall results showed that a higher family income resulted in a higher score of the worries domain. In addition, having another illness besides CD decreased the QoL (except in the worries domain). The other variables studied did not present a statistically significant impact on the QoL, which was shown to be low in all aspects. Knowledge of the QoL is important to help implement effective strategies to improve celiac patients’ quality of life and reduce their physical, emotional, and social burden.
ARTICLE Download: 40| View: 207| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0240.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: patient satisfaction; quality of care; private healthcare provider; public private mix model; tuberculosis control; health system
Online: 20 September 2019 (15:42:47 CEST)
Objective: The private healthcare providers (PHCP) are believed to improve access to healthcare services in Public-Private Mix (PPM) projects, as they are considered first point of contact for healthcare. The purpose of this study was to know the satisfaction level of TB patients. Design: A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study was carried out during November and December 2017 for 572 under-treatment patients registered with PHCPs in the PPM project. Lot quality assurance sampling technique was used to randomly select 19 districts from sample frame of 75 districts. In each selected district, data collector retrieved TB register of 8 months (Jan – Aug 2017) and systematically selected patients by fixed periodic interval. SPSS (version 24.0) was used to analyze the data. Results: Study included 53% (n=301) of males and 47% (n=271) of females, with mean age of 38 years (SD, ±18). Almost half of the participants were illiterate (51%, n=289) and 64% (n=365) were non-earning members of the family. In practice, most of the participants visit private providers (71%, n=407), including private hospital/clinic (44%) and traditional practitioners (27%; n=153). 55% of participants visited the current doctor because of clinic’s proximity to residence. 82% of the participants (n=469) were satisfied with the TB care services and 85% (n=488) said that they would recommend this clinic to others. Conclusion: PHCPs are preferred providers for individuals, which is consistent with findings of other studies. Though they are satisfied with TB care and services, interventions should be introduced to reduce the financial burden on the patient. Partnering PHCP is a way forward to ensure universal health coverage, health system strengthening and better health outcomes of the population.
REVIEW Download: 59| View: 238| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0234.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: neurobehavioral assessment; ecotoxicology; zebrafish; neurotoxicology
Online: 20 September 2019 (10:57:52 CEST)
The industry is increasingly relying on fish for toxicity assessment. However, current guidelines for toxicity assessment focus on teratogenicity and mortality. From an ecotoxicological point of view, however, these endpoints are not sensitive enough, as they are not able to detect sub-lethal or non-teratogenic effects that can nonetheless result in decreased fitness and/or inability to adapt to a changing environment, affecting whole populations. Impacts of toxicants on neurobehavioral function have the potential to affect many different life-history traits, and are easier to assess in the laboratory than in the wild. We propose that carefully-controlled laboratory experiments on different behavioral domains – including anxiety, aggression, and exploration – can increase our understanding of the ecotoxicological impacts of contaminants, since these domains are related to traits such as defense, sociality, and reproduction, directly impacting life-history traits. We review the effects of selected contaminants on these tests, focusing on larval and adult zebrafish, showing that these behavioral domains are highly sensitive to small concentrations of these substances. These strategies suggest a way forward on ecotoxicological research using fish.
ARTICLE Download: 17| View: 172| Comments: 1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: WHO-5; well-being; school-aged children; HBSC study; rural; urban; locality
Online: 20 September 2019 (03:29:35 CEST)
Mental health problems during adolescence is a serious public health issue in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Early detection is necessary alongside population level monitoring. Physical inactivity (PA) and increased screen-time can be a risk factor for low well-being. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between PA and screen-time with well-being among young adolescents in Kazakhstan. Young adolescents (n=4,731) aged 11y, 13y, and 15y from the Republic of Kazakhstan took part in the World Health Organization (WHO) collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. Respondents completed the WHO-5 Well-being scale, PA and screen-time. Internationally recommended cut-offs were used for analyses. Two adjusted models of binary logistic regressions were performed; PA (Model 1) and PA with screen-time (Model 2). The proportion of adolescents with good well-being reduced between 11y to 15y (boys, OR=0.66 CI=0.49-0.80; girls, OR=0.55, CI=0.43-0.71). Boys with daily PA were twice more likely, and girls 3.5 times more likely to report good well-being than inactive peers. More girls with low, than high, screen-time had positive well-being (OR=1.28, CI=1.04-1.59). Location between rural and urban was a significant factor. Daily PA can be protective of low well-being for both boys and girls. However, meeting reporting screen-time recommendations was only protective for girls and not boys. Designing and implementing positive well-being programmes require consideration of locality and amounts of PA and screen-time.
Thu, 19 September 2019
REVIEW Download: 37| View: 168| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0218.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: M-type phospholipase A2; Thrombospondin type containing domain A7; Retinol-binding protein; Beta-2 microglobulin; membranous glomerulonephritis; neutral endopeptidase
Online: 19 September 2019 (04:59:36 CEST)
Detection of PLA2R and THSD7A among primary membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) patients transformed the diagnosis, treatment monitoring and prognosis. Anti-PLA2R can be detected in 70-90% of primary MGN patients while anti-THSD7A in 2-3% of anti-PLA2R negative primary MGN patients depending on the technique used. Serum and urine samples are less invasive and non-invasive respectively and can detect the presence of anti-PLA2R and anti-THSD7A with higher sensitivity and specificity, significant in patients’ monitoring and prognosis better than exposing patients to frequent biopsy which is an invasive procedure. Different techniques of detection of PLA2R and THSD7A in patients’ urine and sera were reviewed with the aim of providing newer and alternative techniques. We proposed the use of biomarkers (PLA2R and THSD7A) in making the diagnosis, treatment decision and follow up of patients with primary MGN. We also reviewed other prognostic renal biomarkers like retinol binding protein (RBP) and beta-2 microglobulin in order to detect progression of renal damage for early intervention.
Wed, 18 September 2019
ARTICLE Download: 27| View: 234| Comments: 1 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0214.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; elderly; adverse event; difficult cannulation
Online: 18 September 2019 (17:54:04 CEST)
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a routinely used therapeutic procedure for the biliary and pancreatic diseases. Population aging may increase the typical indications of ERCP and come with more complexity and difficulties, especially in cannulation. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence, causes, and management of difficult biliary cannulation during ERCP in super-aged patients and the role of difficult cannulation as a risk factor for adverse events. A total of 614 patients, underwent ERCP, were prospectively studied as a cohort and divided into two groups based on their age. There were 146 patients aged 80 years or older in group A and 468 patients aged less than 80 years in group B. The primary outcome measures were the difficulty grade of papilla cannulation, clinical outcomes, and ERCP-related complications in the two groups. The adverse events were analyzed using logistic regression for patient age, co-morbidities, indications, and cannulation difficulty grade variables. There was no difference in the incidence of difficult cannulation between the two groups (32.9% vs. 34.4%, p=0.765) though, as expected, super-aged Group A had a higher prevalence of periampullary diverticulum (29.5% vs. 16.7%, p=0.001). The technical cannulation success rate was (96.6% vs. 96.8%, p= 0.54). All used cannulation techniques in the elderly group were efficient and safe. Logistic regression showed that age ≥80 was not associated with increased adverse events; however, difficult cannulation (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=3.478; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.877, 6.442; p<0.001) and CCI ≥2 (AOR=1.824; 95% CI=0.993, 3.349; p=0.045) were more likely to have adverse events. Age ≤65 (AOR=3.460; 95% CI=1.511, 7.922; p=0.003), female gender (AOR=2.362; 95% CI=1.089, 5.124; p=0.030), difficult cannulation (AOR=4.527; 95% CI=2.078, 9.860; p<0.001), and patients with cholangitis (AOR=3.261; 95% CI=1.204, 8.832; p=0.020) were strongly associated with increasing Post-ERCP Pancreatitis (PEP). Advanced age has not proved to be a risk factor of difficult cannulation, and secondary cannulation techniques can be safely and efficaciously utilized for this group. CCI ≥2 and difficult cannulation are associated with increased overall adverse events rate while age ≥80 factor is not.
ARTICLE Download: 35| View: 153| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0204.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Office of Innovation; novel drugs; novel therapies; regulatory science; Latin American Regulatory landscape
Online: 18 September 2019 (12:51:16 CEST)
Regulatory agencies across the Latin American Region have strengthened the regulatory science through the development of new tools, standards and various other related parameters to evaluate and assess safety, efficacy, quality and performance. The former have been implemented to promote and incorporate new drugs and technologies, which still, are a challenge to well-established regulatory frameworks. Furthermore, in today’s environment, the existing regulatory framework protecting public’s health creates barriers for market entry of novel drugs and medical devices. This article aims to the pioneering work that Cuban Regulatory Agency (CECMED) has been developing with the aim to build a strong regulatory framework geared to accelerated innovation and the successful transition from research and development to clinical development. The Office of Innovation recently established at the CECMED is the first flagship in Latin America and the Caribbean region. Its aim is to play a leading role as a driving force for the national and regional biopharmaceutical innovation. This article will discuss the Office of Innovation its conceptualisation and management taking into account the Latin American regional and national Cuban context.
ARTICLE Download: 28| View: 144| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: trilactic glyceride; intestinal function; gut microbiota; weaned piglet
Online: 18 September 2019 (07:28:51 CEST)
Both lactic acid and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) play important roles in maintenance of intestinal epithelial structure and function. Trilactic glyceride (TLG) obtains both excellences of lactic acid and SCFA. This study was to investigate the effects of trilactic glyceride on growth performance, blood parameters, liver function, intestinal morphology and intestine function of piglets. Twelve weaned piglets (21±2 d) were randomly allocated to two treatment groups: 1) control group, piglets fed the basal diet; 2) TLG group, piglets fed the basal diet supplemented with 0.5 % TLG. On day 21 of the trial, D-xylose (0.1 g/kg·BW) was orally administrated to all piglets and blood samples were collected 1 h thereafter. Then, all the piglets were sacrificed to examine intestinal mucosal morphology and collect fatty tissue, liver and intestinal mucosa for further analysis. The results showed that: compared with the control group, TLG group decreased blood ALB and GGT on day 10 and 20, TLG group decreased blood TP and increased blood TG on day 20 of the trail (p < 0.05); TLG group decreased blood D-xylose and LDL, increased blood HDL (p < 0.05). These data suggested that supplementing trilactic glyceride had beneficial impacts on promoting nutrients’ metabolism, maintaining intestinal integrity, and alleviating oxidative stress and diarrhoea. Further research of molecular mechanisms showed changing expression levels of related proteins and genes, suggesting that these could be involved in the regulation of the impact. The community composition of the gut microbiota was also found to be altered in several operational taxonomic units within the genus, Prevotella (order Bacteroidales), and the order, Clostridiales.
Mon, 16 September 2019
ARTICLE Download: 53| View: 100| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0175.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: water purification; developing countries; SDG-6; microbiological contamination; public health; membrane filtration
Online: 16 September 2019 (17:23:23 CEST)
Introduction: In rural communities in regions with limited resources the provision of clean water remains challenging. Fecal contamination of water is very common and results in a high incidence of diarrhea, subsequent acute kidney injury and mortality particularly in the very young and old. Membrane filtration is a practical solution to this problem and recent innovation allows membrane filtration using recycled hemodialyzers. We, Easy Water for Everyone, have quantified the systematic effect on health outcomes. Material and Methods: Between 02/2018 and 12/2018, 4 communities in rural Ghana (in the Greater-Accra region) were each provided with a high-volume membrane filtration devices (NUF 500; NuFiltration using recycled hemodialyzers). Health data from montly household surveys and chart review in local healthcare facilities were collected with approval from Ghana Health Services. Specifically, data was collected on gastrointestinal disease, acute kidney injury and therapeutic interventions. Incidence rates for a five-months period before and after implementation of the device were calculated and compared to rates during the same months from 4 neighboring communities that were not yet provided with the device. Results: Acceptance of the devices and the purified water in the studied villages was good and self-reported data of 1130 villagers over 10 months from 9 studied communities in rural Ghana (11% younger than 5 years and 14 % older than 65 years) were included in this analysis. The overall monthly incidence rate of diarrhea showed a decline following the implementation of the device in the 4 study villages from a mean of 0.18 to 0.05 cases per person-month for a reduction in rates by 72% (rate ratio = 0.27). By contrast, the control group of 4 villages in the same region showed no decline in mean rates during the same months as the study period with mean rates changing not significantly from 0.11 to 0.08 cases per person-month. Discussion: Provision of a hemodialyzer membrane filtration device markedly improves health outcomes as measured by diarrhea incidence within rural communities. While our data awaits confirmation in a larger population and further statistical analyses accounting for village characteristics, seasonality and subject demographics, the obvious decline in incidence rates supports widespread use of hemodialyzer membrane filtration devices, particularly in rural regions. Rollout of the device in further sites will likely increase our understanding in terms of risk and other preventive factors modifying the incidence of diarrhea and subsequent acute kidney injury.
ARTICLE Download: 36| View: 76| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0161.v1
Online: 16 September 2019 (10:51:10 CEST)
Among the different applicable irrigants for root canal disinfection, sodium hypochlorite 5.25% is one of the most attractive ones. The quality of root canal disinfection is dependent on some factors such as the employed approach, type of flow rate of irrigant and the size of needle. The majority of studies in the field of root canal disinfection are experimentally carried out. In the current article, Computation Fluid Dynamic (CFD) is used for modeling the antimicrobial liquid flow in the root canal and evaluate the effects of needle size and flow rate. Two needles, G28 and G30, are used for irrigation in three volumetric rates of flow including 0.10 mL⁄s , 0.20 mL⁄s and 0.30 mL⁄s. The results of numerical simulations revealed the improved quality of root canal disinfection by augmentation in the rate of flow and decrease in the inner diameter of the needle. According to the outcomes of the modeling, the highest average wall shear stress obtained in the case of using G28 needle and 30 mL⁄s flow rate, which was approximately 10.21 Pa.
Sun, 15 September 2019
BRIEF REPORT Download: 43| View: 103| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0150.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: blaOXA-244; Escherichia coli; carbapenems; resistance; Colombia
Online: 15 September 2019 (06:19:20 CEST)
The carbapenemase OXA-244 is a derivate of OXA-48, and its detection is very difficult in laboratories. Here we report the identification and genomic analysis of an Escherichia coli isolate (28Eco12) harbouring the blaOXA-244 gene identified in Colombia, South America. The 28Eco12 isolate was identified during a retrospective study and it was recovered from a patient treated in Colombia. The complete nucleotide sequence was established using the PacBio platform. A comparative genomics analysis with other blaOXA-244–harbouring Escherichia coli strains was performed. The 28Eco12 isolate belonged to sequence type (ST) 38 and its genome was composed of two molecules, a chromosome of 5,343,367 bp and a plasmid of 92,027 bp, which belonged to the incompatibility group IncY and did not harbour resistance genes. The blaOXA-244 gene was chromosomally-encoded and mobilized by an ISR1-related Tn6237 composite transposon. Notably, this transposon was inserted and located within a new genomic island. For our knowledge this is the first report of a blaOXA-244–harbouring Escherichia coli isolate in American continent.Our results suggest that the introduction of the OXA-244-producing E. coli isolate was through clonal expansion of the ST38 pandemic clone. Other isolates producing OXA-244 could be circulating silently on the American continent.
ARTICLE Download: 43| View: 104| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0147.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: iron; TIBC; ferritin; osmotic fragility; hypertension
Online: 15 September 2019 (03:10:09 CEST)
Background: Essential hypertension is a major public health associated with increase pressure on the vascular walls and red blood cells (RBCs). In the present work, osmotic fragility (OF) of RBCs was reexamined in the means of its correlation with two risk factor; iron status and lipid profile. Experimental: OF, iron status parameters, and lipid profile components were measured in 60 patients and compared with the results of 30 controls. Results: The results showed a significant increase in all iron indices of hypertensive patients in comparing with healthy control group except TIBC, UIBC, and transferrin concentrations, which decrease in these patients in comparing with control group. Serum TGs, total cholesterol, VLDLc, and LDLc were increased while there is no significant in serum HDLc in patients to comparing with control group. There is no significant change in OF between patients and controls where p=0.173. The iron status parameters and lipid profile components were dependent on sex and smoking state. Hemoglobin and PCV were correlated significantly with total cholesterol and LDLc. Transferrin saturation showed a positive correlation with cholesterol, LDLc, and TGs, but negatively correlated with HDLc. No significant correlation between all the measured parameters and OF in HT patients. There is a significant correlation between serum ferritin and systolic BP and between Hb and systolic BP. Conclusion: No significant effect on the OF in HT patients. HT patients have elevated level of iron parameters in comparing with controls. OD has no correlation with iron status parameters or with lipid profile components.
Sat, 14 September 2019
REVIEW Download: 56| View: 118| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0140.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma; immune checkpoint inhibitors; HCC; pembrolizumab; nivolumab; immune microenvironment; targeted therapies
Online: 14 September 2019 (18:37:29 CEST)
Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary liver cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer death worldwide. A total of 70-80% of patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage with a dismal prognosis. Sorafenib has been the standard of care for almost a decade until 2018 when FDA approved an alternative first-line agent namely lenvatinib. Whereas FOLFOX4 results an alternative first-line treatment for the chinese clinical oncology guidelines. In addition to cabozantinib, regorafenib, and ramucirumab, two therapeutics against the PD-L1/PD1 axis have been recently approved for subsequent-line therapy, as nivolumab and pembrolizumab. However, similar to other solid tumors, the response rate of single-agent targeting PD-L1/PD1 axis is low. Therefore a lot of combinatory approaches are under investigation, including the combination of different immune checkpoint inhibitors, the addition of immune checkpoint inhibitors after resection or during locoregional therapy, immune checkpoint inhibitors in addition to kinase inhibitors, anti-angiogenic therapeutics, and others. This review focuses on the use of ICIs for the hepatocellular carcinoma with an attent evaluation of new ICIs based combinatory approaches.
Wed, 11 September 2019
ARTICLE Download: 45| View: 224| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0123.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Active case findings; Tuberculosis; TOUCH Agent; High TB burden area; TB Surveillance; 4S Screening; THALI Project; SORT IT; Operational Research
Online: 11 September 2019 (13:30:30 CEST)
Background: Active case finding for TB was implemented in selected sixty high TB burden wards of Kolkata, India. Community volunteers called TOUCH agents (TAs) identified and referred presumptive TB patients (PTBPs) to health facilities for TB diagnosis and treatment. We aimed to describe the ‘care cascade’ of PTBPs identified during July to December, 2018 and to explore the reasons for attrition as perceived by TAs and PTBPs. Methods: An explanatory mixed methods study with quantitative phase of cohort study using routinely collected data followed by descriptive qualitative study with in-depth interviews was conducted. Results: Of the 3, 86,242 individuals enumerated, 1132 (0.3%) PTBPs were identified. Only 713 (63.0%) PTBPs visited referred facility for TB diagnosis. TB was diagnosed in 177 (24.8%) and the number needed to screen for one TB was 2,183 individuals. The potential reasons for low yield were stigma and apprehension about TB, distrust about TA, wage loss for attending health facilities and substance abuse among PTBPs. Conclusion: The yield of ACF was suboptimal with low PTBP identification rate and high attrition rate. Interviewing each individual for symptoms of TB and supporting PTBPs for diagnosis through sputum collection and transport can be adopted to improve the yield.
ARTICLE Download: 88| View: 238| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0122.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: open health; simple rules; ethics; reproducibility; research significance; open science
Online: 11 September 2019 (13:27:26 CEST)
We are witnessing a dramatic transformation in the way we do science. In recent years, significant flaws with existing scientific methods have come to light, including lack of transparency, insufficient involvement of stakeholders, disconnection from the public, and limited reproducibility of research findings. These concerns have sparked a global movement to revolutionize scientific practice and the emergence of Open Science. This new approach to science extends principles of openness to the entire research cycle, from hypothesis generation to data collection, analysis, replication, and translation from research to practice. Open Science seeks to remove all barriers to conducting high quality, rigorous, and impactful scientific research by ensuring that the data, methods, and opportunities for collaboration are open to all. Emerging digital technologies and "big data" (see "Ten simple rules for responsible big data research") have further accelerated the Open Science movement by affording new approaches to data sharing, connecting researcher networks, and facilitating the dissemination of research findings. Open scientific practices are also having a profound impact on the health sciences and medical research, and specifically how we conduct clinical research with human participants. Human health research necessitates careful considerations for practicing science in an ethical manner. There is also a particular urgency to human health research since the goal is to help people, so doing good science takes on a different meaning than simply doing science well. It also implores the scientist to reassess the conventional view of human health research as a pursuit conducted by scientists on human subjects, and lays a greater emphasis on inclusive and ethical practices to ensure that the research takes into account the interests of those who would be most impacted by the research. Openness in the context of human health research also raises greater concerns about privacy and security and presents more opportunities for people, including participants of research studies, to contribute in every capacity. At the core of open health research, scientific discoveries are not only the product of collaboration across disciplines, but must also be owned by the community that is inclusive of researchers, health workers, and patients and their families. To guide successful open health research practices, it is essential to carefully consider and delineate its guiding principles. This editorial is aimed at individuals participating in health science in any capacity, including but not limited to people living with medical conditions, health professionals, study participants, and researchers spanning all types of disciplines. We present ten simple rules that, while not comprehensive, offer guidance for conducting health research with human participants in an open, ethical, and rigorous manner. These rules can be difficult, resource-intensive, and can conflict with one another. They are aspirational and are intended to accelerate and improve the quality of human health research. Work that fails to follow these rules is not necessarily an indication of poor quality research, especially if the reasons for breaking the rules are considered and articulated (see rule 6: document everything). While most of the responsibility of following these rules falls on researchers, anyone involved in human health research in any capacity can apply them.
REVIEW Download: 26| View: 199| Comments: 1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: creatine; statin; myopathy; muscle; myalgia; prevention; treatment; pathogenesis; pathophysiology; mitochondria
Online: 11 September 2019 (04:43:37 CEST)
Statins prevent cardiovascular diseases, yet their use is limited by the muscle disturbances they cause. Rarely, statin-induced myopathy is autoimmune, but more commonly it is due to direct muscle toxicity. Available evidence suggests that statin-induced creatine deficiency may be a major cause of this toxicity, and that creatine supplementation prevents it. Statins inhibit guanidinoacetate methyl transferase (GAMT), the last enzyme in the synthesis of creatine, thus they decrease its intracellular content. Such decreased content could cause mitochondrial impairment, since creatine is the final acceptor of the phosphate group of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) at the end of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Decreased cellular synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) would follow. Accordingly, ATP synthesis is decreased in statin-treated cells. In vitro, creatine supplementation prevents the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore caused by statins. Clinically, creatine administration prevents statin myopathy in statin-intolerant patients. Additional research is warranted to hopefully confirm these findings. However, creatine is widely used by athletes with no adverse events, and has demonstrated to be safe even in double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of elder individuals. Thus, it should be trialed, under medical supervision, in patients who cannot assume statin due to the occurrence of muscular symptoms.
Tue, 10 September 2019
ARTICLE Download: 33| View: 209| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0107.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: daptomycin; antibiotic lock therapy; gentamicin; azithromycin; catheter-related bloodstream infections
Online: 10 September 2019 (10:43:51 CEST)
Background: Antibiotic lock therapy is an interventional modality used for treatment and prevention of central-line associated bloodstream infections. Stability and compatibility data for combinations are lacking, limiting clinical use. Objective: Compatibility and stability of daptomycin lock solutions in combination with azithromycin, gentamicin, and heparin or sodium citrate were evaluated up to 96 hours. Methods: Eight candidate lock solutions were prepared for compatibility and stability testing. All solutions were prepared in glass vials, and included daptomycin 1mg/mL in varying combinations with heparin 100 – 1,000 units/mL, trisodium citrate, azithromycin and/or gentamicin. Lactated Ringer’s solution was added as a diluent in a sufficient quantity to bring the total volume up to 5mL. Drug stability in the admixture was determined by the degradation of the components. The quantification of drugs was performed using Waters Alliance HPLC using Phenomenex Luna C8 (2), 150*2.6mm, 5µ column. A gradient run was executed for 20 minutes with 0.45% ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, pH 3.25 as eluent A and acetonitrile as eluent B at a flow rate of 1.0mL/min. Each solution was visually inspected for particulates and color change. Lock solutions were tested in triplicate. Results: Daptomycin degradation was <10% for all solutions at 48 hours, and for 7 of the 8 solutions at 72 hours. Gentamicin degradation was <5% for solutions in combination with daptomycin and trisodium citrate. No physical incompatibilities were detected. Conclusion: Study data support the stability and compatibility of daptomycin with additives in solution, allowing for fewer exchanges and longer dwell times for a lock solution. The addition of azithromycin or gentamicin may offer synergy and/or extended spectrum of activity. Daptomycin bioactivity with trisodium citrate needs confirmation.
Mon, 9 September 2019
REVIEW Download: 91| View: 330| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0098.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: unfolded protein response; endoplasmic reticulum; PERK; IRE-1; ATF4
Online: 9 September 2019 (11:54:25 CEST)
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) comprises a network of tubules and vesicles that constitutes the largest organelle of the eukaryotic cell. Being the location where most proteins are synthesized and folded, it is crucial for the upkeep of cellular homeostasis. In addition, it is the largest ionic calcium reservoir in cells, tightly regulating the levels of this second messenger according to cellular necessities. Disturbed ER homeostasis triggers the activation of an intricate and conserved molecular machinery, termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). Given the impact of this signaling network upon an extensive list of cellular processes, ER stress is involved in the onset and progression of multiple diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. There is, for this reason, an increasing number of publications focused on characterizing and/or modulating ER stress, which have resulted in a wide array of techniques employed to study ER-related molecular events. This review aims to sum up the tools available design a study of this nature.
ARTICLE Download: 46| View: 215| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0095.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: deficit schizophrenia; antioxidants; bacteria; neuro-immune; inflammation; oxidative and nitrosative stress
Online: 9 September 2019 (09:00:44 CEST)
Background: Primary deficit schizophrenia (DS) is characterized by enduring negative symptoms and represents a qualitatively different disease entity with respect to non-deficit schizophrenia (NDS). No studies investigated the association between the enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and DS and its phenomenology. Methods: In this case-control study, Thai women and men, aged 18-65 years, were divided in DS (n=40) and NDS (n=40) and were compared to controls (n=40). PON1 activities against 4-(chloromethyl)phenyl acetate (CMPA) and phenylacetate were determined. Moreover, subjects were genotyped for their PON1 Q192R polymorphism and IgA levels responses directed to Gram-negative bacteria were measured. Results: DS is significantly associated with the QQ genotype and the Q allele as compared with NDS and controls. PON1 activities are significantly and inversely associated with negative symptoms, formal thought disorders, psychomotor retardation, excitation and DS. The presence of the Q allele is associated with increased IgA responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Morganella morganii, and Pseudomonas putida as compared with RR carriers. Conclusions: The PON1 Q allele and lower PON1 activities especially against CMPA are associated with DS, indicating lowered quorum quenching abilities as well as lowered defenses against lipoperoxidation and immune activation. It is suggested that lowered PON1 activity in DS constitutes an impairment in the innate immune system which together with lowered natural IgM may cause lower immune regulation thereby predisposing towards greater neurotoxic effects of immune-inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative pathways and Gram-negative microbiota.
ARTICLE Download: 45| View: 227| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0094.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: sleep quality; road traffic noise; actimetry; indoor noise; noise measurements; noise annoyance; noise sensitivity; time of day
Online: 9 September 2019 (08:45:43 CEST)
It is unclear which noise exposure time window and noise characteristics during nighttime are most detrimental for sleep quality in real life settings. We have conducted a field study with 105 volunteers wearing a wrist actimeter to record their sleep during seven days, together with concurrent outdoor noise measurements at their bedroom window. Actimetry recorded sleep latency increased by 5.6 minutes (95% confidence interval: 1.6 to 9.6 minutes) per 10 dB(A) increase in noise exposure during the first hour after bedtime. Actimetry assessed sleep efficiency was significantly reduced by 2-3 percent per 10 dB(A) increase in measured outdoor noise (Leq, 1h) for the last three hours of sleep. For subjectively reported sleepiness, noise exposure during the last hour prior to wake up was most crucial with an increase in the sleepiness score of 0.31 units (95% CI: 0.08 to 0.54) per 10 dB(A) Leq,1h. Associations for estimated indoor noise were not more pronounced than for outdoor noise. Considering noise events in addition to equivalent sound pressure levels (Leq) only marginally improved the statistical models. Our study provides evidence that matching the nighttime noise exposure time window to the individual’s diurnal sleep-wake pattern results in a better estimate of detrimental nighttime noise effects on sleep. We found that noise exposure at the beginning and the end of the sleep is most crucial for sleep quality.
ARTICLE Download: 106| View: 209| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: fisetin; psoriasis; normal human epidermal keratinocyte; cell signaling; cell differentiation; proliferation; inflammatory cytokine; PBMC; CD4+ T lymphocyte; 3D psoriasis-like skin disease model
Online: 9 September 2019 (07:48:26 CEST)
Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated skin disease that involves interaction of both immune and skin cells, and is characterized by cytokine-driven epidermal hyperplasia, deviant differentiation, inflammation and angiogenesis. Because available treatments for psoriasis have significant limitations, dietary products are potential natural sources of therapeutic molecules, which can rescind molecular defects associated with psoriasis and could be developed for its management. Fisetin (3,7,3′,4′- tetrahydroxyflavone), a phytochemical naturally found in pigmented fruits and vegetables has demonstrated pro-apoptotic and antioxidant effects in several malignancies. This study utilized biochemical, cellular, pharmacological and tissue-engineering tools to characterize the effects of fisetin on normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs), peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and CD4+ T lymphocytes in 2D and 3D psoriasis-like disease models. Fisetin treatment of NHEKs dose and time-dependently induced differentiation and inhibited interleukin-22-induced proliferation, as well as activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Fisetin treatment of TNF-α-stimulated NHEKs significantly inhibited the activation of p38 and JNK, but had no effect on ERK1/2. In addition, fisetin treatment significantly decreased the secretion of Th1/Th-17 pro-inflammatory cytokines, particularly IFNγ and IL-17A by 12-O- tetradecanolylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-stimulated NHEKs and anti-CD3/CD28-activated human PBMCs. Furthermore, we established the in-vivo relevance of fisetin functions, using a 3D full-thickness human skin model of psoriasis (FTRHSP) that closely mimics in-vivo human psoriatic skin-lesions. Herein, fisetin significantly ameliorated psoriasis-like disease features, and decreased the production of IL-17 by CD4+ T lymphocytes co-cultured with FTRHSP. Collectively, our data identify pro-differentiative, anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects of fisetin, via modulation of PI3K-Akt-mTOR and p38/JNK pathways and the production of cytokines in 2D and 3D human skin model of psoriasis. These results suggest that fisetin has a great potential to be developed as an effective and inexpensive agent for the treatment of psoriasis and other related inflammatory skin disorders.
REVIEW Download: 75| View: 258| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0265.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Aging; Alzheimer’s disease; brain insulin resistance; db/db diabetic mouse model; diabetic cognopathy; insulin resistance; metabolic syndrome; mixed dementia; obesity; type 2 diabetes mellitus
Online: 9 September 2019 (06:12:15 CEST)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and late-onset Alzheimer’s disease-dementia (LOAD) are increasing in global prevalence and current predictions indicate they will only increase over the coming decades. These increases may be a result of the concurrent increases of obesity and aging. T2DM is associated with cognitive impairments associated with metabolic factors and increases the cellular vulnerability to develop the age-related increased risk of LOAD. This review addresses possible mechanisms due to obesity, aging, multiple intersections between T2DM and LOAD and mechanisms for the continuum of progression. Multiple ultrastructural images in female diabetic db/db models are utilized to demonstrate marked cellular remodeling changes of mural and glia cells and provide for the discussion of functional changes in T2DM. Throughout this review multiple endeavors to demonstrate how T2DM increases the vulnerability of the brain’s neurovascular unit (NVU), neuroglia and neurons are presented. Five major intersecting links are considered: i. aging (chronic age-related diseases); ii. metabolic (hyperglycemia - advanced glycation end-products and its receptor (AGE/RAGE) interactions and hyperinsulinemia – insulin resistance (a linking linchpin); iii. oxidative stress (reactive oxygen-nitrogen species); iv. inflammation (peripheral macrophage and central brain microglia); v. vascular (macrovascular accelerated atherosclerosis - vascular stiffening and microvascular NVU/neuroglial remodeling) with resulting impaired cerebral blood flow.
Sat, 7 September 2019
CASE REPORT Download: 64| View: 293| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0081.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: mercury; prenatal exposure; postnatal outcome; environmental health; epidemiological monitoring
Online: 7 September 2019 (01:06:51 CEST)
Background: It is well known the adverse effect of mercury exposure on pregnant women and newborns. Interactions between environmental factors and individual genetic susceptibility have been identified, particularly polymorphisms of codifying genes for the Glutathione S-transferase family (GSTs). Herein, we report a case series of patients with high Hg levels in biosamples. Case Series: Fourteen cases with high Hg levels were identified. Non-occupational or home exposure risk factors were identified. All mothers reported fish consumption during pregnancy. Almost 60% of the individuals were null for either one GSTs gene. To date, in the subsequent mother-child pairs toxicology controls no signs or symptoms of poisoning were identified and most of the mercury levels decreased and are below the accepted limit. Discussion: In this case series we found some similarities with the literature; among them, the relation of Hg ratio in maternal blood and umbilical cord, a possible exposure factor is the consumption of fish during pregnancy and, the high levels of Hg may be related with susceptibility biomarkers such as GSTs gene polymorphisms. This case series highlights the need to develop studies that evaluate the interactions between environmental factors and individual genetic susceptibility. Additionally, the importance of evaluating which Colombian fish species present the highest levels of Hg.
Fri, 6 September 2019
REVIEW Download: 62| View: 198| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0071.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Sorafenib; hepatocellular carcinoma; prognostic factors; predicitve factors
Online: 6 September 2019 (10:32:29 CEST)
Sorafenib is an oral kinase inhibitor that enhances survival in patients affected by advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). According to the results of two registrative trials, this drug represents a gold quality standard in the first line treatment of advanced HCC. Recently, lenvatinib showed similar results in terms of survival in a non-inferiority randomized trial study considering the same subset of patients. Unlike other targeted therapies, currently predictive and prognostic markers in HCC patients treated with sorafenib are lacking. Their identification could help clinicians in the daily management of these patients, mostly in light of the new therapeutic options available in the first.
Thu, 5 September 2019
ARTICLE Download: 32| View: 169| Comments: 0
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: HBOC; statewide random sampling; cancer survivorship; targeted intervention; tailored intervention; black participants; family recruitment
Online: 5 September 2019 (16:16:34 CEST)
We compared the efficacy of a tailored and a targeted intervention designed to increase clinical breast exam (CBE), mammography, and genetic services/testing among young breast cancer survivors (YBCS) (diagnosed <45 years old) and their blood relatives. A two-arm cluster randomized trial recruited a random sample of YBCS from the Michigan cancer registry and up to two of their blood relatives. Participants were stratified according to race and randomly assigned as family units to the tailored (n=637) or the targeted (n=595) intervention. Approximately 40% of participants were Black; 12% YBCS and 27% relatives were living in more than 20 different U.S. States. Higher screening rates were reported by YBCS (CBE p=0.05; mammography p=0.04) and relatives (CBE p<0.01; mammography p=0.04) in the tailored arm, and by White/Other YBCS (CBE p=0.02) and relatives (CBE p<0.01; mammography p=0.03). YBCS genetic testing rates increased from 22% to 26% (p=0.11). Black YBCS and relatives reported higher self-efficacy and intention for genetic testing, and higher satisfaction and intervention acceptance. The tailored intervention improved CBE and mammography uptake - despite having minimal contact with participants. Professional referrals will improve genetic testing uptake. Intervention materials increased self-efficacy and satisfaction for Black women but could not overcome multiple access barriers.
ARTICLE Download: 24| View: 137| Comments: 0
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: attitudes, and practices; health education; influencing factors; knowledge; norovirus
Online: 5 September 2019 (10:03:00 CEST)
This study aimed to understand the status of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of norovirus infection among primary and junior middle school students in Chizhou City, explore its influencing factors. A multistage stratified random sampling method was used to randomly select 1200 students from 8 primary and junior middle schools for the effective questionnaire survey in Chizhou City. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyse the possible influencing factors. Of 1176 participants, the average knowledge score of norovirus infection was (9.8 ± 3.6), and the scoring rate was 65.3%. The average attitude score was (11.6 ± 1.2), and the scoring rate was 96.3%. The average practice score was (10.4 ± 1.5), and the scoring rate was 86.9%. The difference in the average scoring rate among the three was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The four independent variables of county, education level, sex and age group statistically correlated with the knowledge score. Primary and junior middle school students in Chizhou City had a good attitude and practice compliance in the prevention and control of norovirus infection; however, their professional knowledge still needed further improvement.
Wed, 4 September 2019
ARTICLE Download: 26| View: 171| Comments: 0
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Body mass index, Metabolic syndrome, Obesity, Obesity paradox, Telomere, Waist circumference, Waist-to-hip ratio, Waist-to-height ratio
Online: 4 September 2019 (14:20:32 CEST)
Background Telomere shortening is related to aging and unfavourable health outcomes. Obesity and metabolic diseases are important factors for accelerating aging. This study aimed to find out the association between obesity, metabolic disease, and telomere length in metabolically healthy adults. Methods 237 adults were enrolled with written consents at a health promotion centre of a tertiary hospital from February 2014 to March 2015. After excluding 99 subjects who met the exclusion criterion, a total of 130 metabolically healthy subjects were selected for final analysis. The subjects were divided into quartile groups according to the telomere lengths of their oral mucosal cells. Results The subjects consisted of 66 (50.8%) males with a mean age of 58.59 years. The body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) increased significantly along with the quartile groups (Q1, 23.00; Q2, 23.96; Q3, 23.70; Q4, 25.20; P-for trend=0.008). Waist circumference (WC, P-for trend=0.022), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, P-for trend=0.005), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, P=0.001) also increased along with the quartile groups. Obesity prevalence (BMI ≥25 kg/m2), abdominal obesity (WC ≥90 cm for men, ≥85 cm for women), WHR 〉1.0 for men or 〉0.85 for women, and WHtR ≥0.5 increased significantly as the telomere length increased (P-for trend <0.05). After adjusting for covariates, the ORs for each obesity markers increased as the telomere length increased (P-for trend <0.05); and the ORs of WHtR were especially meaningful (Q1, 1.00; Q2, 2.53; Q3, 2.97; Q4, 7.81; P-for trend = 0.001). There were no significant trends for metabolic syndrome and its components along with the prevalence of fatty liver disease. Conclusion Obesity markers and telomere length had significant positive correlation despite the established theory. The obesity paradox may exist in metabolically healthy adults with regard to telomere length, However, further studies with larger sample sizes for the association between obesity and telomere length are needed.
ARTICLE Download: 41| View: 132| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0037.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: EGFR; ErbB3; Src; phosphorylation; TK inhibitor; cetuximab
Online: 4 September 2019 (03:21:39 CEST)
Activation of the EGFR pathway plays an important role in the progression of cancer and is associated with a poor prognosis in patients. The monoclonal antibody cetuximab, which displays EGFR extracellular domain-specific binding, has proven effective in the treatment of locally advanced disease and relapsed/metastatic disease. However, the effects of cetuximab are weaker than those of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). This study investigates differences in the effects on cell growth of cetuximab and EGFR TKI AG1478 at the molecular level using oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines. First, we found that there were EGFR-inhibitor sensitive (EIS) and EGFR-inhibitor resistant cell lines. The EIS cell lines expressed not only EGFR but also ErbB3, and both were clearly phosphorylated. The levels of phosphorylated ErbB3 were unaffected by cetuximab but were reduced by AG1478. EGFR ligand treatment increased the levels of phosphorylated EGFR but not phosphorylated ErbB3. Moreover, when EIS cell lines that were only capable of anchorage-dependent growth were grown in suspension, cell growth was suppressed and the levels of phosphorylated FAK, Src, and ErbB3 were significantly reduced. The levels of phosphorylated ErbB3 were unaffected by the FAK inhibitor PF573228, but were reduced by Src inhibition. Finally, combining cetuximab and a Src inhibitor produced an additive effect on the inhibition of EIS cell line growth.
ARTICLE Download: 43| View: 138| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0036.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: fluoropyrimidine; metronomic maintenance therapy; oxaliplatin-based regimen; stage III colorectal cancer; epidermal growth factor receptor
Online: 4 September 2019 (00:53:56 CEST)
Background: This retrospective study evaluate the survival effects of metronomic maintenance therapy with fluoropyrimidine in patients with stage III colorectal cancer (CRC) according to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression. Methods: We enrolled 197 patients with stage III CRC who had undergone radical resection and FOLFOX regimen adjuvant chemotherapy. The clinicopathological features and effects of metronomic maintenance therapy on survival according to treatment group and EGFR expression were analyzed. By conducting an in vitro cell line study and in vivo study through knockdout of EGFR gene, we analyzed the capacities of cell proliferation and migration. Results: Postoperative relapse and mortality were significantly more common in the FOLFOX group. Metronomic maintenance therapy was a significantly independent predictive factor of postoperative relapse and mortality, as well as a prognostic factor of disease-free survival and overall survival. We also demonstrated that EGFR-knockout Caco2 cells are more sensitive to the inhibition effect of fluoropyrimidine than the control those. Conclusions: The present study suggested EGFR expression as the prognostic factor in patients with stage III CRC receiving metronomic maintenance therapy. By analyzing EGFR expression and treatment strategies, we can identify the potential candidates with optimal survival benefit from metronomic maintenance therapy in patients with stage III CRC.
Tue, 3 September 2019
ARTICLE Download: 95| View: 197| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0033.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: depression; cytokines; neuro-immune; inflammation; oxidative stress; antioxidants
Online: 3 September 2019 (16:20:18 CEST)
Beta-thalassemia major (β-TM) patients are treated with repeated blood transfusions, which may cause iron overload (IO), which in turn may induce immune aberrations. Patients with β-TM have an increased risk of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aims of the present study are to examine whether repeated blood transfusions, IO and immune-inflammatory responses are associated with MDD in children (6-12 years) with β-TM. The Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), iron status (serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, TS%) and serum levels of CCL11, IL-1β, IL-10, and TNF-α were measured in β-TM with (n=54) and without (n=57) MDD and in healthy children (n=55). The results show that MDD in β-TM is associated with a greater number of blood transfusions, increased IO and IL-1β levels. Partial Least Squares path analysis shows that 68.8% of the variance in the CDI score is explained by the number of blood transfusions, IO, and increased levels of IL-1β and TNF-α. The latter two cytokines partly mediate the effects of IO on the CDI score, while the effects of blood transfusions on the CDI score are partly mediated by IO and the path from IO to immune activation. IO is also associated with increased IL-10 and lower CCL11 levels but these alterations are not significantly associated with MDD. In conclusion, blood transfusions may be causally related to MDD in β-TM children and their effects are in part mediated by increased IO and the consequent immune-inflammatory response. The results suggest that not only IO and its consequences including inflammation and ferroptosis, but also other factors related to the number of transfusions may cause MDD including psychosocial stressors. Current treatment modalities with folic acid and vitamin C are insufficient to attenuate IO and immune-inflammatory responses and to prevent MDD is children with β-TM undergoing blood transfusions.
Mon, 2 September 2019
REVIEW Download: 54| View: 144| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0026.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: antiandrogen; bisphosphonates; bone niche; immune system; osteoimmunology; RankL; targeted therapy
Online: 2 September 2019 (16:34:22 CEST)
Osteoimmunology was coined about twenty years ago to identify a strict cross talk between bone niche and immune system both in physiological and pathological activities, including cancer. Several molecules are involved in the complex interaction between bone niche, immune and cancer cells. The Receptor Activator ok NF-kB (RANK)/RANK Ligand (RANKL/Osteoprotegerin (OPG) pathway plays a crucial role in bone cells/cancer interactions with subsequently immune system control failure, bone destruction, inhibition of effect and metastasis outcome. The bidirectional cross talk between bone and immune system could became a potential target for anticancer drugs. Several studies evidenced a direct anticancer role with improved survival of bone-targeted therapies such as bisphosphonates and RANKL antagonist Denosumab. Conversely, initial data evidenced a possible anti-bone resorption effect of systemic anticancer drugs through and immunomodulation activity, i.e. new generation antiandrogens (Abiraterone) in prostate cancer. All data could open a future rationale of combined bone, immunologic and targeted therapies in cancer treatment.
Sun, 1 September 2019
REVIEW Download: 51| View: 164| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0009.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: inflammatory bowel diseases; enteral nutrition; systematic review; meta-analysis; Crohn disease
Online: 1 September 2019 (10:32:09 CEST)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease mediated by the immune system and characterized by the inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. One of the possible treatments for this pathology is a change in the type of diet, the enteral nutrition (EN) is one of them. This study is to understand how the use of EN can affect the adult population diagnosed with IBD. We conducted a systematic review, meta-analysis and a meta-regression. On the different databases, (MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane, LILACS, Cinhal, WOS) we found 363 registers, the accuracy was 12% (44 registers); After a Full-text review, only 30 research studies were selected for qualitative synthesis and 11 for Meta-analysis and Meta-regression. The variables used were Crohn’s Disease Activity Index (CDAI), C-Reactive Protein (CRP) and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR). EN has shown to have efficacy for the treatment of Crohn’s Disease and is compatible with other medicines. As for the CDAI or the rates of remission, there were no differences between enteral and parenteral nutrition. Polymeric formulas, have shown better results with respect to the CRP. The long-term treatment could dilute the good CDAI results that are obtained at the start of the EN treatment.
Thu, 29 August 2019
ARTICLE Download: 36| View: 174| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0314.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: brucellosis; elevated liver enzymes; hepatomegaly; children
Online: 29 August 2019 (17:22:42 CEST)
Background and Objective: In the present study, the purpose was to compare the demographic, clinical and laboratory results of pediatric brucella cases who had liver involvement and who had no specific organ involvement. Material and Methods: The data of 248 patients between 2 and 18 years of age diagnosed with Brucellosis between July 2017 and August 2018 were analyzed retrospectively. The patients who had liver involvement and who did not have other specific organ involvement were compared in terms of presentation, physical examination findings, age, gender, hemogram, AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, bilirubines, sedimentation, CRP, clinical and laboratory findings, and culture and relapse rates. Results: No significant differences were detected between the patients who had liver involvement (n=92) and who did not have specific organ involvement (n=156) in terms of diagnosis age and gender. Loss of appetite, nausea and sensitive stomach were higher in the patients who had hepatic involvement, and weariness was determined to be more in the control group patients. In the patients who had hepatic involvement, the hemoglobin and platelet values were lower, and the sedimentation, CRP and blood culture growth were higher. The relapse rates were lower in patients who had liver involvement. Conclusion: In patients who have liver involvement, in addition to elevated hepatomegaly and transaminase levels, the growth rate of the acute-phase reactants and brucella is higher in blood culture; and the relapse rate is lower after treatment. Brucellosis must be considered in the differential diagnosis of hepatomegaly and transaminase elevation where brucellosis is seen endemically. We believe that early diagnosis of brucellosis is important in treatment response.
ARTICLE Download: 36| View: 169| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0312.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: child; fruit; vegetables; school health services; public policy; environment and public health
Online: 29 August 2019 (17:03:20 CEST)
The School Fruit and Vegetables Scheme (SFVS) implemented by the European Union during 2009/10 aims to improve the diet of school children and to support agricultural markets and environmental sustainability. The objective of this study was to characterize the SFVS implementation in Spain (2009-2017). A descriptive, longitudinal, observational and retrospective study was carried out based on document analysis of annual strategies of the SFVS. We studied the average budget for the EU, the number of students enrolled, the cost of the SFVS by student and by day, the duration of the SFVS, the quantity of fruits and vegetables (FV) per student, the variety of FV, the inclusion of local, seasonal and organic foods, and the education activities (EA). The results were studied by autonomous community (AC). The budget increased from 7.4 million euros in 2009/10 to 14.4 in 2016/17. Since 2014/15, the increase came from EU funds, the number of students increased from 18% in 2009 to 20% in 2016. The quantity of FV went from 2,579 to 4,000 tons, duration increased from 9.8 to 19.6 days and the variety of fruits and vegetables increased from 20 to 21 and from 5 to 6 respectively. In AC there were important variations in EA, in the number of enrolled students (7.4% to 45.6%), in the cost per student (2.3€ to 28€) and in the duration in days (5.6 to 70 days). The inclusion of local, seasonal and organic foods was identified in 5 of the 8 years studied. The development and reach of the SFVS in Spain is still insufficient to influence dietary patterns and health in the school population. However, the SFVS has generated an economic market for agricultural production.
ARTICLE Download: 40| View: 206| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0308.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: horse; equine; Polo; GPS; horse welfare
Online: 29 August 2019 (08:37:57 CEST)
Polo is an equestrian team sport, consisting of Open and Women’s only handicapping systems. As cumulative player handicap increases in Open Polo, distance covered, average speeds and high intensity work performed per chukka also increase. These activities may differ in terms of distribution of, and their affect upon, match outcome in Women’s Polo, and thus have implications for equine preparation and management. This study aimed to quantify spatiotemporal differences between Open and Women’s Polo when matched for handicap and assess their affect upon chukka and match outcome using a prospective cohort design. Distance, speed and high intensity activity data were collected via player worn global positioning system (GPS) units during 16-goal Open and Women’s Polo tournaments. Notational analysis quantified chukka duration and chukka and game outcomes. Between group differences were assessed by independent samples t-tests, and two factor mixed effects ANOVA for within group analyses. Between group differences were analysed using an independent samples t-test with alpha defined a priori as p<0.05. Open and Women’s Polo differed by a small to large extent (ES: 0.54 – 1.81) for all spatiotemporal metrics. In Open Polo, players covered moderately more distance (429.0m; 238.9m to 619.0m), with small to large increases in high intensity activities performed in games won. Whereas in Women’s Polo, moderately higher maximum speeds were attained in games won (17.13 km/h; 11.86 km/h to 22.40 km/h) and a small increase in accelerations performed (5.1; 0.2 to 10.0). Open and Women’s Polo, when matched for handicap, present with small to large spatiotemporal differences that are likely of practical significance, and influence game outcome differently between codes. These differences do not necessarily mean that Polo ponies need to be trained differently for each code.
ARTICLE Download: 79| View: 284| Comments: 2 | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0303.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: ventilatory assessment; physiotherapy; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Online: 29 August 2019 (04:52:15 CEST)
Background and objective: Addressing the global morbidity associated with pulmonary disease is an important need for the respiratory community. However, there is also a growing momentum to show the efficacy of new tools of diagnosis. Despite this, there are few physiotherapeutic tools that help identify and categorize these conditions. The aim was to analyze the variables of physiotherapy index of the ventilatory workload (PIVW) in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) during stability and exacerbation in an outpatient setting. Material and Methods: Analyzed retrospectively of 198 clinical records were reviewed. The PIVW was extracted in stability and exacerbation of these patients with COPD. After applying the exclusion and inclusion criteria; 54 patients were classified. Through the statistical analysis of chi-square, a significant association was reported for each of the variables and the total PIVW score. Results: when analyzing the baseline with the peak of PIVW, there was a significant increase in patients COPD exacerbation. Similarly, the variables that constitute the loads, translations and supports underwent a significant increase from baseline to exacerbation (p<0.0001), except for the additional oxygen contribution, where the frequency of patients was the same in basal and exacerbation as well. Conclusions: the PIVW, serves to determine ventilatory problemas in outpatients, characterizing the specific changes of loads, translators or assistance.
ARTICLE Download: 26| View: 154| Comments: 0
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: skin sensitization potential; prediction; in silico models; machine learning; local lymph node assay (LLNA); cosmetics; drugs; pesticides; chemical space; applicability domain
Online: 29 August 2019 (04:38:16 CEST)
The ability to predict the skin sensitization potential of small organic molecules is of high importance to the development and safe application of cosmetics, drugs and pesticides. One of the most widely accepted methods for predicting this hazard is the rodent local lymph node assay (LLNA). The goal of this work was to develop in silico models for the prediction of the skin sensitization potential of small molecules that go beyond the state of the art, with larger LLNA data sets and, most importantly, a robust and intuitive definition of the applicability domain, paired with additional indicators of the reliability of predictions. We explored a large variety of molecular descriptors and fingerprints in combination with random forest and support vector machine classifiers. The most suitable models were tested on holdout data, on which they yielded competitive performance (Matthews correlation coefficients up to 0.52; accuracies up to 0.76; areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves up to 0.83). The most favorable models are available via a public web service at https://nerdd.zbh.uni-hamburg.de/skinDoctor/ that, in addition to predictions, provides assessments of the applicability domain and indicators of the reliability of the individual predictions.
ARTICLE Download: 36| View: 166| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0300.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: coronary dimensions; Poiseuille’s Equation; arteriovenous fistula; coronary dilatation; wall shear stress; coronary blood flow; atherosclerosis; angiogenesis
Online: 29 August 2019 (03:35:08 CEST)
Background: The purpose was to develop a novel hypothetical method to increase the size of coronary arteries. Methods: In the long-term observation the coronary sizes were dilated in three unexpected scenarios. The coronary artery sizes were observed in patients with mitral stenosis (n=59) by angiogram prior to percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty or valve replacement surgery for severe mitral stenosis. The coronaries of patients with patent ductus arteriosus who underwent surgical closure in the past (n=12) were examined by echocardiogram. Patients with renal failure on long-term dialysis through peripheral arterio-venous fistula without left ventricular hypertrophy (n=17) were studied by echocardiography. Normal age, weight and sex matched coronary sizes served as controls in the study. All these observations were made over a period of 11.5 years. Results: The sizes of coronaries in patients with mitral stenosis, patients who underwent closure for patent ductus arteriosus, and in patients on hemodialysis through arteriovenous fistulas were higher than normal controls (p<0.05, for all). A hypothetical model to increase the coronary sizes could be developed based on the analysis of the differential equations of Poiseuille’s. The proposed method is creating a peripheral arterio-venous fistula, which could be closed later electively by a percutaneous method/surgery. The closure time needs to be determined by experimental studies. The other methods could be a continuous exercise program or usage of beta-blockers. Conclusion: A novel hypothetical method of peripheral arteriovenous fistula formation could potentially increase the size of the coronaries, and this could be closed later.
Wed, 28 August 2019
ARTICLE Download: 41| View: 155| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0297.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: oxidative status; antioxidant status; oxidative stress; cardiovascular diseases; overweight; obesity
Online: 28 August 2019 (14:51:29 CEST)
Obesity is one of the factors leading to the development of atherosclerosis. This metabolic disorder is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species, which affect the oxidative stress level. The aim of this study was to evaluate oxidative/antioxidative status and to investigate the correlation between redox markers and anthropometric parameters and body composition in adult patients after myocardial infarction and in individuals without a cardiovascular event in the past. Descriptive data on socio-demographic, clinical, and anthropometric features and blood samples were collected and categorized into two equal groups: after myocardial infarction (study group (SG), n = 80) and without a cardiovascular event (control group (CG), n = 80). The oxidative/antioxidative status was assessed in plasma on the basis of total oxidative/capacitive status (PerOx), total antioxidative status/capacity (ImAnOx), and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). OxLDL was significantly higher in the CG group compared to the SG group (p = 0.02). No significant differences were found with regard to PerOx and ImAnOx values between the studied groups. Significant positive correlation between PerOx and percentage of adipose tissue (FM [%]) and body adiposity index (BAI) was found in the two studied groups. ImAnOx significantly positively correlated with VAI in SG and FM% in CG. OxLDL negatively correlated with body mass index and waist to hip circumference ratio in CG. The total oxidative/antioxidative status is related to the amount of adipose tissue and the BAI of the subjects. It was observed that it correlates more frequently with the visceral distribution of body fat.
Tue, 27 August 2019
ARTICLE Download: 47| View: 164| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0286.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: MicroRNAs; next generation sequencing; dog; melanoma
Online: 27 August 2019 (16:16:55 CEST)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) dysregulation contribute the cancer pathogenesis. However, the miRNA profile of canine oral melanoma (COM), one of the frequent malignant melanoma in dog is still unrevealed. The aim of this study is to reveal the miRNA profile in canine oral melanoma. MicroRNAs profile of oral tissues from normal healthy dogs and COM patients were compared by next-generation sequencing. Along with tumour suppressor microRNAs (miRNAs), we report 30 oncogenic miRNAs in COM. Expression of miRNAs were further confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Pathway analysis showed that deregulated miRNAs impact on cancer and signalling pathways. Three oncogenic miRNAs targets (miR-450b, 301a, and 223) from human study also were down-regulated in COM and had significant negative co-relation with their respective miRNA. Furthermore, we found that miR-450b expression is higher in metastatic cells and regulated MMP9 expression through a PAX9-BMP4-MMP9 axis. In silico analysis indicated that miR-126, miR-20b, and miR-106a regulated the highest numbers of differentially expressed transcription factors in respect to human melanoma. Chromosomal enrichment analysis revealed the X chromosome was enriched with oncogenic miRNAs. We comprehensively analyzed the miRNA’s profile in COM which will be a useful resource for developing therapeutic interventions in both species.
ARTICLE Download: 28| View: 143| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0285.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: oral health , pre-diabetic, diabetic, oral systemic, screening, H1A1c, Findrisk , periodontal
Online: 27 August 2019 (11:58:44 CEST)
Pre-diabetes is a serious health condition where blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough yet to be diagnosed as type 2 diabetes. Pre-diabetes puts one at an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and heart disease Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 384 patients aged 20-70 years old, attending the dental clinics to assess the risk for diabetes, using the FINDRISC questionnaire, HbA1c blood test and a periodontal examination. Results: The mean age of participants was 38.90±10.74. 32.3% were categorized as no risk, 46.6% low risk, while 19% and 2.1% moderate and high risk of developing diabetes respectively. Tests for serum HbA1c Level showed 46.1 % had normal HbA1c followed by 18.0% and 3.6 % were pre-diabetic and diabetic respectively. 19.3% of participants had periodontal pockets measuring more than 4mm and 15.9% measuring more than 6mm. Conclusion: The study has proven to be useful in identifying patients at high-risk of developing diabetes. Controlling and managing periodontal disease could be a new aspect to include in the standards for diabetes care. Dental settings could be a successful platform to carry out the screening and risk stratification of pre-diabetic patients.
CASE REPORT Download: 79| View: 146| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0278.v1