TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0391.v3
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: COVID-19; risk analysis; heuristic; probability; ascertainment; vaccination
Online: 12 January 2021 (12:26:41 CET)
This paper provides a framework for the assessment of household-level risk, incorporating both a individual social risk perspective and a location-based perspective. We use this framework as a heuristic to explore the effect of social reintegration choices individuals face, which are not be addressed by current policies. For example, we explore how integrating extended family households during COVID-19 without social distancing may affect household and community risk. The goal is to aid individual decision makers, who are seeking to maintain quality-of-life while navigating local policy, with nuance relating to location-specific behavior and disease prevalence.
Mon, 28 December 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0706.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: fecal incontinence; unconscious elderly; irritable bowel syndrome; gastrointestinal symptoms; constipation; diarrhea
Online: 28 December 2020 (13:24:54 CET)
The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is functional gastrointestinal tract disease, include abnormal defecation and abdominal pain. The Rome IV criteria define fecal incontinence as "recurrent and uncontrolled stool leakage that lasts more than 3 months." Fecal incontinence is common in patients with IBS and can have a significant negative impact on daily life and reduce the patient's quality of life. Diet and lifestyle guidance are needed to prevent fecal incontinence. Fecal incontinence can be reduced by ingesting dietary fiber, which can improve stool properties, and avoiding foods with stool-softening properties. Additionally, defecation habit guidance is important for preventing fecal incontinence. If rectal sensation is normal, it is recommended to go to the bathroom as soon as there is a desire to defecate. In elderly people, if there is stool in the rectum due to decreased rectal sensation and it continues to accumulate in the rectum without triggering the urge to defecate, overflowing leaky fecal incontinence may occur. For such patients, defecation habit training teaching them to defecate even if they do not have the desire to defecate may be effective. Education and advice on defecation reduces fecal incontinence and is beneficial to caregivers.
Thu, 10 December 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0265.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Tobacco and nicotine products; tobacco heating products; cigarettes; switching; consumer behaviour; usage patterns.
Online: 10 December 2020 (14:01:14 CET)
Providing data on usage patterns is key to assessing the reduced-risk potential of novel tobacco and nicotine products at a population level. We performed a nationwide cross-sectional survey of the general population in Japan to assess usage patterns after the introduction of tobacco heating products (THPs). Eligible participants were Japanese residents, aged 20 years or older who consented to complete the survey. Individuals living in institutions were excluded. A three-stage probability sampling method was applied that was geographically stratified by street blocks proportionate to population density. Respondents self-reported patterns of product use and reasons for THP use. Complete responses were available from 5,306 individuals, of whom 933.5 (17.6%) were current users, 984.2 (18.5%) were former users and 3388.4 (63.9%) were never users of tobacco products. Cigarettes were used by 14.6% of current tobacco product users and THPs by 5.3%. Cigarettes and THPs were used exclusively by 64.5% and 12.2%, respectively, and both were used by 12.7%. The most common reasons reported for THP use were perceived reduction in harm to self and others compared to cigarettes. While the prevalence of cigarette use in Japan is decreasing, THPs seem to be increasingly used as long-term alternatives to cigarette smoking.
Tue, 1 December 2020
Online: 1 December 2020 (15:05:55 CET)
This paper provides a framework for the assessment of household-level risk, incorporating both a individual social risk perspective and a location-based perspective. We use this framework as a heuristic to explore the effect of social reintegration choices individuals face, which are not be addressed by current policies. For example, we explore how integrating extended family households during COVID-19 without social distancing may affect household and community risk. The goal is to aid individual decision makers, who are seeking to maintain quality-of-life while navigating local policy, with nuance relating to location-specific behavior and disease prevalence.
Mon, 12 October 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0237.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Game-based therapy; robot-mediated therapy; neuromotor disability; cerebral palsy; subjective assessment; patient-centered assessment; caregiver burden; ankle range of motion; ankle strengthening; home exercise program
Online: 12 October 2020 (10:09:19 CEST)
Technological advances in game-mediated robotics provide an opportunity to engage children with cerebral palsy (CP) and other neuromotor disabilities in more frequent and intensive therapy by making personalized, programmed interventions available 24/7 in children’s homes. Though shown to be clinically effective and feasible to produce, little is known of the subjective factors impacting acceptance of what we term assistive/rehabilitative (A/R) gamebots by their target populations. This research describes the conceptualization phase of an effort to develop a valid and reliable instrument to guide the design of A/R gamebots. We conducted in-depth interviews with 8 children with CP and their families who had trialed an exemplar A/R gamebot, PedBotHome, for 28 days in their homes. The goal was to understand how existing theories and instruments were either appropriate or inappropriate for measuring the subjective experience of A/R gamebots. Key findings were the importance of differentiating the use case of therapy from that of assistance in rehabilitative technology assessment, the need to incorporate the differing perspectives of children with CP and those of their parents into A/R gamebot evaluation, and the potential conflict between the goals of preserving the quality of the experience of game play for the child while also optimizing the intensity and duration of therapy provided during play.
Tue, 4 August 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0104.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); pandemic; infectious disease; psychological (mental) consequences; mental distress; outbreak; epidemiological study
Online: 4 August 2020 (16:16:23 CEST)
Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing pandemic and life-threatening highly infectious disease. The people of Bangladesh are at high risk of COVID-19 and have already experienced various socio-economic, health and psychological (mental) consequences. Particularly, mental health problems are dominantly reported in the literature and should be controlled. The main objective of this epidemiological study is to assess the mental distress and identify its determinants using online-based survey. Such information is urgently needed to develop feasible strategies for Bangladesh. Methods: An online survey was conducted for this study from May 01 to May 05, 2020. A total of 240 respondents provided self-reported online responses. Respondent’s mental distress was measured by the General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12) and by the self-rated mental health (SRMH) question. Various kinds of statistical analyses ranging from simple to multivariable logistic recession were performed using SPSS 23.0. Results: About 31.3% and 48.3% of respondents were mentally distressed by GHQ-12 and SRMH question, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that mental distress was significantly higher among those respondents, whose usual activity was affected by the coronavirus (OR = 6.40, 95% CI: 1.87 - 21.90, p<0.001) and whose financial stress was increased due to lockdown (OR = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.01 – 4.46, p<0.05) on GHQ-12. Female sex (OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.03 – 3.75, p<0.05) and respondents with poor mental health before the outbreak (OR = 3.38, 95% CI: 1.18 – 9.72, p<0.05) were also significantly affected by mental distress on SRMH. Conclusions: At least thirty percent of the respondents were found to be mentally distressed. Some of the study findings, particularly significant determinants, should be considered while developing strategies to reduce the burden of mental distress among study respondents or similar group in Bangladesh.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0076.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: low-income Hispanics; type 2 diabetes; diet and exercise intervention; older adults; Health Belief Model
Online: 4 August 2020 (04:45:46 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to present the challenges faced when implementing a diet and exercise intervention for low-income older Hispanics with type 2 diabetes with an observational study of recruitment, attendance, and characteristics of Hispanic adults with type 2 diabetes in a community congregate meal site pre and post administration of a diet and exercise intervention. This report evaluates retentions and diabetes self-management beliefs Hispanic adults ≥60 years with type 2 diabetes (n=17) at baseline, and completion of the six-month intervention in terms of the Health Belief Model. There was limited interest in controlling diabetes with diet and exercise. Major barriers included lack of perceived vulnerability to diabetes complications and a belief that medication alone is sufficient to stabilize blood glucose. Environmental barriers included lack of transportation, access to exercise groups, access grocery stores, and limited ability to pay for healthy foods. A lesson learned from this intervention was that the diet and exercise intervention given was insufficient as a cue to action for this population interventions to engage low-income, older Hispanics with diabetes in diet and exercise need to consider strategies to overcome barriers such as health beliefs, transportation issues, lack of access to nutritious food and group exercise classes.
Wed, 29 July 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0700.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: physical fitness; exercise self-efficacy; quality of life; adulthood
Online: 29 July 2020 (12:57:08 CEST)
Background: The aim of the present work is the elaboration of a systematic review of existing research on physical fitness, self-efficacy for physical exercise, and quality of life in adulthood. Method: Using the PRISMA statement guidelines, and based on the findings in 396 articles, the final sample was composed of 31 articles, which were reviewed to show whether self-efficacy has previously been studied as a mediator in the relationship between physical fitness and quality of life in adulthood. Results: The results indicate that little research exists in relation to healthy, populations with the majority being people with pathology. Physical fitness should be considered as a fundamental aspect in determining the functional capacity of the person. Conclusions: We discuss the need to investigate the mediation of self-efficacy in relation to the value of physical activity on quality of life and well-being in the healthy adult population in adult life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0690.v1
Online: 29 July 2020 (10:37:26 CEST)
This study aimed to develop a Laotian adolescent version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), determine its reliability and validity, and examine its factorial properties. The study targeted at 7,554 students in lower secondary schools and teacher training colleges in Lao PDR. Self-administered questionnaires were collected from 2012 to 2014. Exploratory factor analysis performed in three age groups using the weighted least square mean and variance adjusted estimation with robust maximum likelihood methods. The factor structure for each age group was the same; therefore, data from the full sample were analyzed further. The model was then tested by confirmatory factor analysis. A 2-factor model was determined as a common model among the age groups by using paralleled analysis. We determined a best-fitting structure comprising two factors: “Negative affect” and “Positive affect.” The Cronbach’s alpha was .81. “Effort” items loaded on the “Somatic and retarded activity” factor in the original model but loaded on the “Positive affect” factor in the adolescent model. “Depressed affect,” “Somatic and retarded activity,” and “Interpersonal” items were combined into the “Negative affect” factor in the adolescent model.
Sat, 25 July 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0604.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Parkinson's disease; Emotion; Facial Masking; Dysarthria; Stigma; Dehumanization; Loneliness
Online: 25 July 2020 (11:16:57 CEST)
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is typically well-recognized by its characteristic motor symptoms (e.g., bradykinesia, rigidity, and tremor). The cognitive symptoms of PD are increasingly being acknowledged by clinicians and researchers alike. However, PD also involves a host of emotional and communicative changes which can cause major disruptions to social functioning. These include problems producing emotional facial expressions (i.e., facial masking) and emotional speech (i.e., dysarthria), as well as difficulties recognizing the verbal and non-verbal emotional cues of others. These social symptoms of PD can result in severe negative social consequences, including stigma, dehumanization, and loneliness, which might affect quality of life to an even greater extent than more well-recognized motor or cognitive symptoms. It is therefore imperative that researchers and clinicians become aware of these potential social symptoms and their negative effects, in order to properly investigate and manage the socioemotional aspects of PD. The present review provides an examination of the current research surrounding some of the most common social symptoms of PD and their related social consequences, and argues that proactively and adequately addressing these issues might improve disease outcomes.
Sun, 19 July 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0451.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Burnout syndrome; MBI; Clinical personnel; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; metal health
Online: 19 July 2020 (21:24:17 CEST)
Objective: To examine the burnout syndrome among the healthcare personnel in Puerto Rico during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Descriptive study that pursues to understand burnout syndrome in the clinical personnel in Puerto Rico. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was sent via email to healthcare professionals around the island. Furthermore, open questions were asked to the participants. Results: The overall burnout level on the clinical personnel was found to be moderate. Nonetheless, in physicians, 12.1% had severe burnout levels compared to a 13.1% score in nurses. Additionally, 92.4% of physicians and 100% of nurses had moderate to severe burnout. In the three subscales, nurses scored high levels in all of them, and physicians were high in Emotional Exhaustion and moderate level in Depersonalization and Personal Accomplishment at Work. There were high levels of burnout syndrome of the clinical personnel in Puerto Rico. Conclusion: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, over 90% of healthcare professionals in Puerto Rico have been working with moderate to severe burnout syndrome, being the nurses the most affected. Key Words: Burnout syndrome, MBI, Clinical personnel, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2
Fri, 26 June 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0315.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: awareness of sustainability; education; psychological adaptation; environmental attitudes; policy support
Online: 26 June 2020 (12:43:46 CEST)
Identifying the determinants of human behavior is useful to adjust interventions and lead the civil society towards a stronger commitment with climate change mitigation and adaptation objectives, achieving greater support for successfully implementing environmental policies. Existing research has largely focused on case studies of pro-environmental behaviors (PEBs) in developed economies but there is yet very little evidence for developing countries. This study provides estimations of the effect of internal factors, such as sociodemographic variables, and four psychological dimensions (climate change knowledge, environmental attitudes, self-efficacy, trust in sources of environmental information) on PEBs. Data was obtained through a survey applied with future decision makers - university students - from Colombia (n = 4769) and Nicaragua (n = 2354). Indices were generated for PEBs and the psychological dimensions using z-scores and Principal Component Analysis. Partial correlations were evaluated through the Ordinary Least Squares method. Our results suggest that, in order to reach the planned emission reduction targets, policy approaches should more strongly focus on educating and motivating citizens and prepare them for contributing to the environmental cause, as well as provide individual solutions to combat climate change, rather than providing only information on its causes and consequences.
Fri, 5 June 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0050.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: competitive learning and memory functions; cognitive development; basal ganglia; medial temporal lobe; prefrontal cortex; model-based learning; model-free learning
Online: 5 June 2020 (14:10:15 CEST)
There has been a growing interest in incorporating psychological and neuroscientific knowledge about the development of cognitive functions in educational policies and academic practices. In this paper, we argue that the current knowledge about the interactions between these functions and their neurodevelopmental characteristics should also be considered in order to develop practices that could be better suited to pupils depending on their age. To facilitate this, we review current neuroscientific knowledge on the competitive interactions between two neural circuitry underlying distinct learning functions, their developmental trajectories and how they are linked to other functions such as cognitive control. The incorporation of this knowledge in education could help improve academic outcomes.
Thu, 14 May 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0230.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: statistical learning; phonotactics; order effects; working memory; mixed effects modeling
Online: 14 May 2020 (05:59:14 CEST)
A premise of statistical learning research is that learners attend to and learn the frequencies of repeating or co-occurring elements in the input. When the input is a series of words, participants readily learn the frequencies of phoneme sequences, that is, to learn phonotactic frequencies. Inherent to the concepts of both frequency and phonotactics is order, or the temporal structure of the input. Order is similarly inherent to statistical learning, yet the effect of order on statistical learning is not well understood. In the present study, adult participants learned the relative frequencies of eight item-medial consonant sequences, for example, the /mk/ in /nʌmkət/. Across five ordering conditions, both familiarization and test stimuli were independently ordered and randomized, thus allowing for a relatively broad search for order effects in an established statistical learning paradigm. Participants learned the target frequencies equivalently across the five ordering conditions, indicating no modulating effect of order. Nevertheless, participants also approached the task by applying idiosyncratic, structured orders to their responses. The result is an unexpected but robust effect of order. Both the results and the design of the study also allow for increased integration of statistical learning with memory and other aspects of cognition.
Wed, 13 May 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0228.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Obesity; Dietary practices; Diabetes; College students
Online: 13 May 2020 (15:26:52 CEST)
Obesity is an issue of public health concern as it contributes to chronic non-communicable diseases despite the fact that it is preventable. Dietary practices and environment have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, overweight and obesity among young people. This study aimed to assess the dietary patterns associated with obesity among Babcock University students. A descriptive cross-sectional study was used to obtain data from 391 participants. Results reveal respondent’s knowledge was 12.06 ± 2.3 translating to an 80% prevalence performance, level of perception was 37.23 ± 9.23 with prevalence of 59.0%, dietary practices was 19.6 ± 5.23 with 59% prevalence. Factors influencing dietary practices revealed mean score of 15.2 ± 4.5 with 72.3% prevalence performance. The factors identified in this study has a great influence on dietary practices of the study participants. In conclusion Babcock University students have an excellent knowledge of dietary practices related to obesity. They also had good dietary practices. The identified factors had a great influence on the study participants.
Tue, 5 May 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0087.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: 3D motion capture; full-body biomechanical modeling; X-factor; hip flexibility; whip-like movement; dispersion of impact load during falling
Online: 5 May 2020 (16:01:29 CEST)
Jumping side volley has created breathtaking moments and cherished memories for us. Regrettably, a scientific study on the skill has not been found in literature. Relying on talent of athletes to improvise on the fly can hardly be considered a viable learning strategy. This study targets to fill the gap by quantifying factors contributing to develop its coaching method. Using 3D motion capture (12-cameras, 200Hz) and full-body biomechanical modeling, our study aimed to identify elements that govern entrainment of the skill by examining jumping, kicking and falling phases of its execution. Given the rarity of players who have acquired this skill, we found five subjects for the study. Twenty-three trials were captured and quantified. The results unveil the following key elements: 1) the control of trunk rotation during the jumping, 2) the angle between thighs upon take-off, 3) the whip-like control of the kicking leg during airborne, 4) timing between ball motion and limbs’ coordination, and 5) damping mechanism during falling. An accurate kick can only be achieved through repetitive training. This underlines the need for athletes to master a safe landing technique that minimizes risk of injury during practice. Therefore, training should begin with learning a safe falling technique.
Tue, 28 April 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0492.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: COVID-19; pandemic; misconception; mathematical modeling; infectious disease; Nigeria
Online: 28 April 2020 (09:23:59 CEST)
This work considers a couple of misconceptions among Nigerian people in the COVID-19 Pandemic era. The impact of this Pandemic on animals and the role of Mathematical Epidemiologists in combatting the spread is discussed herein.
Fri, 13 March 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0222.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: servant leadership; perceived organizational support; employee well-being; correlation
Online: 13 March 2020 (02:53:46 CET)
This current research follows up on Greenleaf’s oft-quoted best test of servant leadership that calls for employees to be better off financially, emotionally, physically, psychologically, etc. because of the time spent with the servant leader. While oft-quoted, little empirical work exists to see if this is true. In this study, 170 participants provided their perception of their supervisors’ level of servant leadership, their perception of the organization’s support, and their self-report of their general well-being. Gender and age bracket information described the participants, and there were no significant differences between gender or age brackets for participants’ perception of their supervisors’ servant leadership. The analysis showed that there was a moderate positive correlation between servant leadership, perceived organizational support, and general well-being. A modification of an existing general well-being instrument provided a new eight-item general well-being scale with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.956.
Sun, 19 January 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0205.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: itch; scratch; automated real-time detection; machine-learning based image classifier; image sharpness
Online: 19 January 2020 (03:13:48 CET)
A 'little brother' of pain, itch is an unpleasant sensation that creates a specific urge to scratch. To date, various machine-learning based image classifiers (MBICs) have been proposed for quantitative analysis of itch-induced scratch behaviour of laboratory animals in an automated, non-invasive, inexpensive and real-time manner. In spite of MBICs' advantages, the overall performances (accuracy, sensitivity and specificity) of current MBIC approaches remains inconsistent, with their values varying from ~50% to ~99%, for which the reasons underlying have yet to be investigated further, both computationally and experimentally. To look into the variation of the performance of MBICs in automated detection of itch-induced scratch, this article focuses on the experimental data recording step, and reports here for the first time that MBICs' overall performance is inextricably linked to the sharpness of experimentally recorded video of laboratory animal scratch behaviour. This article furthermore demonstrates for the first time that a linearly correlated relationship exists between video sharpness and overall performance (accuracy and specificity, but not sensitivity) of MBICs, and highlight the primary role of experimental data recording in rapid, accurate and consistent quantitative assessment of laboratory animal itch.
Sun, 12 January 2020
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: community health; complex interventions; hierarchy of evidence; health inequalities; community engagement; community organizing; PACT; Citizens UK; evaluation; methodology
Online: 12 January 2020 (17:36:11 CET)
It is widely recognized that public health interventions benefit from community engagement and leadership, yet there are challenges to evaluating complex, community-led interventions assuming hierarchies of evidence derived from laboratory experimentation and clinical trials. Particular challenges include, first, inconsistency of the intervention across sites; and second, absence of researcher control over the sampling frame and methodology. This report highlights these challenges as they played out in the evaluation of a community-organized health project in South London. The project aimed to benefit maternal mental health, health literacy and social capital, and especially to engage local populations known to have reduced contact with statutory services. We evaluated the project using two studies with different designs, sampling frames and methodologies. In one the sampling frame and methodology were under community control, permitting comparison of change in outcomes from before to after participation in the project. In the other, the sampling frame and methodology were under researcher control, permitting a case-control design. The two evaluations led to different results however: participants in the community-controlled study showed benefits, while participants in the researcher-controlled study did not. The principal conclusions are that while there are severe challenges to evaluating a community-led health intervention using a controlled design, measurement of pre-/post-participation changes in well-defined health outcomes should typically be a minimum evaluation requirement, and confidence in attributing causation of any positive changes to participation can be increased by use of interventions in the project and in the engagement process itself that have a credible theoretical and empirical basis.
Tue, 24 December 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0314.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: self-reflection; adolescent; Smoking Cessation Program
Online: 24 December 2019 (09:41:29 CET)
The study aimed to understand the experiences of adolescent smokers who participated in a smoking cessation program based on self-reflection, and to develop the theoretical basis for constructing similar programs. The participants, ten students from middle and high schools located in cities G and S, were interviewed after the program ended. Data were collected from August to November 2019 and analyzed using a phenomenological approach to understand participant experiences in depth. The analysis revealed five major themes: ‘Uniqueness of the Program,’ ‘Perception of Smoking Cessation,’ ‘Positive Reflection on Life,’ ‘Understanding Others,’ and ‘A Search for Hope and Vision in Life.’ The findings revealed that the smoking cessation program facilitated the development of self-identity and vision, which may indirectly strengthen the motivation for adolescent smokers to quit smoking. These findings suggest the need for a life-changing smoking cessation program that enhances self-concept and self-esteem. Moreover, it highlights the importance of follow-up research to ensure effectiveness, and the need to develop programs with creative content.
Fri, 29 November 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0369.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: schools; youth; policy; built environment; food environment; social environment; organizational environment
Online: 29 November 2019 (04:18:03 CET)
Open campus policies that grant access to the off-campus food environment influence U.S. high school students’ exposure to unhealthy foods, yet predictors of these policies are unknown. Policy holding and built (walkability), food (access to grocery stores), social (school-to-neighborhood demographic similarity), and organizational (policy holding of neighboring schools) environment data were collected for 200 Oregon public high schools. These existing data derived from the Oregon School Board Association, WalkScore.com, 2010 Decennial Census, 2010-2014 American Community Survey, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, TDLinex, Nielson directories, U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, and Common Core of Data. Most (67%) of Oregon public high schools had open campus policies. Logistic regression analyses modeled open campus policy holding as a function of built, food, social, and organizational environment influences. With health and policy implications, results indicate that schools’ walkability, food access, and extent of neighboring open campus policy-schools are significantly associated with open campus policy holding in Oregon.
Tue, 26 November 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0312.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Internet; television; academic performance; utilization.
Online: 26 November 2019 (10:51:18 CET)
An investigation was carried out to study the effects of television and internet on academic performance of senior secondary schools students in Rigachukun Inspectorate of Kaduna state. A well structured and designed questionnaire was adopted in eliciting information from the respondents. The respondents were sampled from schools within Kaduna state. The information obtained showed that the percentage of senior secondary school students who made use of internet for academic purpose was as much as those who could not operate a computer or even browse the internet. Good number of students applied internet mostly through phones and computer with internet access in solving their assignment. A larger percentage of students devoted their time to watching non-educative programs on television, even though it was discovered that some of them also watch educative programs. Positive impacts of television and internet are however obscuring and not glaring. Investigation carried out revealed that students in senior secondary schools need to be sensitized and oriented on how they can derive the best from internet and television. Schools should be encouraged in using television and internet as an instrument of learning and teaching.
Sun, 24 November 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0267.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: psychological wellbeing; gifted teenagers; giftedness in math; giftedness in humanities; giftedness in sports
Online: 24 November 2019 (04:47:02 CET)
Current article presents the study of psychological wellbeing of adolescents (n=168, age 15-17) gifted in math, humanities and sports and educated in advanced programs for gifted children. Theoretical framework of this study is eudemonic concept of psychological wellbeing by C. Ryff. Psychological wellbeing is measured with Ryff wellbeing scales in Russian adaptation by L.V. Zhukovskaya and E.G. Troshikhina. The study is aimed at understanding differences in psychological wellbeing of gifted teenagers connected to gender and type of giftedness. The results suggest that general wellbeing score did not differ for adolescents with different types of giftedness or of different genders. Separate components of psychological wellbeing, such as purpose in life and self-acceptance, are influenced by activity connected to the talent. Gender differences are subjected to age-specific trends of personal development in adolescence. Type of giftedness might reinforce these trends.
Fri, 15 November 2019
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0176.v1
Online: 15 November 2019 (08:42:23 CET)
Infant cry is evolutionarily, psychologically, and clinically significant. During the last 60 years, several researchers and clinicians assessed the possibility of investigating the acoustical properties of cry for medical purposes. However, there is a lack of standardization in conducting and reporting cry-based studies. In this work, methodologies and procedures employed in infant cry analysis are reviewed, and best practices for reporting studies are provided. First, available literature on vocal and audio acoustic analysis have been examined to identify critical aspects of participant information, data collection, methods, and data analysis. Then, 180 peer-reviewed research articles have been assessed to certify the presence of identified critical information. Results show a general lack of critical description. Researchers in the field of infant cry need to agree on a standard set of criteria to report experimental studies, to better demonstrate the validity of the methods and obtained results.
Tue, 8 October 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0087.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: sustainable land management; adoption; risk; upland; Vietnam
Online: 8 October 2019 (10:50:40 CEST)
This study investigates how the determinants including risk preference affect farmers’ decision to adopt SLM practices in upland areas of Vietnam. Empirical data collected through in-depth interviews with 200 farmers in Na Ri district, Bac Kan province were used. The factors affecting SLM adoption of farmers in Na Ri district were examined by the 2SLS or IV-Probit model. The estimated 2SLS regression indicated that there is a set of factors affecting SLM adoption, namely, relative risk aversion, farming experience, farm size, knowledge of SLM, membership in farmers’ organization, number of labors, and slope of farm land. Specifically, relative risk aversion had a negative effect on SLM practices adoption. The farmers who are less risk averse are more likely to adopt more SLM practices. This implies that reducing farmer’ risk exposure could promote SLM practices. This result is also helpful for policymakers to understand farmers’ behaviors and promote the diffusion of SLM practices across regions on a large scale.
Wed, 21 August 2019
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; exercise; motor activity; lung diseases; classificatory approach; sitting
Online: 21 August 2019 (09:59:39 CEST)
This study applies a cluster analysis to identify typical physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) patterns in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) before starting pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). We implemented an observational design which assessed baseline data on objectively measured PA and SB from the STAR (Stay Active after Rehabilitation) study. 355 persons wore a accelerometer (Actigraph wGT3X) for seven days before the start of their PR. Sociodemographic and disease-related parameters were assessed at the start of PR. We applied cluster analysis and compared groups applying univariate variance analyses. Data was available for 326 persons (31.6% women; age ø = 58 yr.). Cluster analysis revealed four movement clusters with distinct PA and SB patterns: sedentary non-movers (28.5%), sedentary occasional movers (41.7%), sedentary movers (19.6%), and sedentary exercisers (10.1%). The four clusters showed very different levels of moderate PA before rehabilitation (Ø daily minutes: 9; 28; 38; 70). Notably, all four clusters displayed considerably long average sitting time per day (Ø daily minutes: 644; 561; 490; 446). The groups differed significantly in disease-related parameters of GOLD severity, FEV1, CAT, and 6-Min-Walk-Test. In addition to PA promotion, PR programs should consider the reduction of sitting time as a valuable goal.
Wed, 31 July 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0353.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: organic food; sustainable consumption; visualization; personal shopping data; reflection; feedback
Online: 31 July 2019 (11:11:50 CEST)
Although food retailers have embraced organic certified food products as a way to reduce their environmental loading, organic sales only make up a small proportion of total sales worldwide. Most consumers have positive attitudes towards organic food, but attitudes are not reflected in behaviour. This article addresses consumers’ attitude-behaviour gap regarding their purchase organic food and reports on how visualization of personal shopping data may encourage them to buy more organic food. Through the design of the visualization tool, the EcoPanel, and through an empirical study of its use, we provide evidence on the potential of the tool to promote sustainable food shopping practices. Sixty-five users tested the EcoPanel for five months and interviews were made with ten of these. The test users increased their purchase of organic food with 23%. The informants used the EcoPanel to reflect on their shopping behaviour and to increase their organic shopping. We conclude that the visualization of food purchases stimulates critical reflection and the formation of new food shopping practices. This implies that food retailers may increase sales of organic food through using a visualization tool available for their customers. In this way these retailers may decrease their environmental impact.
Mon, 15 July 2019
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: hierarchical medical system, national health insurance, healthcare-seeking behavior, reduction in hospital visits
Online: 15 July 2019 (11:56:40 CEST)
Objective: This study investigated the effect of the hierarchical medical system under the national health insurance program on resident’s healthcare-seeking behavior in Taiwan. Background: Healthcare authorities in Taiwan initiated the allowance reduction of outpatient visits at regional hospitals and higher hierarchical hospitals from 2018. The ultimate goal is to implement a hierarchical medical system and provide the residents accessible as well as consistent medical services. Methods: This research was conducted through the questionnaire survey method and data were collected between August and December 2018 from the records of subjects who had recently sought medical attention. A total of 1,340 valid questionnaires were returned. Results: Regarding the effect on healthcare-seeking behavior, the following factors were significant: being aged between 40 to 49 (p＜.1), subjects with an educational background of junior high school (p＜.05), those who were not aware of the policy (p＜.001), and an awareness about both the hierarchical medical system and the policy to reduce outpatient visits to large hospitals (p＜.001). Conclusion: The public should be made aware about the hierarchical medical system to improve healthcare.
Wed, 26 June 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0258.v1
Online: 26 June 2019 (05:17:39 CEST)
Literature pertaining to youth development has identified the importance of understanding the physical, intellectual and emotional needs of adolescent youth. The purpose of this study was to compare the use of a ‘traditional’ and ‘progressive’ coaching style to train a general male youth population to improve sprint and jump performances, whilst assessing enjoyment to comment on long term application. Maximal sprint times, sprint kinematics, unilateral jump distances and repetitive tuck jump scores were measured alongside anthropometric variables to characterise performance. Results revealed significant (p>0.05) pre/post differences in anthropometric variables across all maturation groups, and each of the maturational levels displayed a tendency to favour a particular coaching or control condition. Pre-PHV groups responded most effectively to the progressive style of coaching, displaying improvements in horizontal jump performances, and -0.7 to -2.7% improvements in all sprint times, despite also showing the largest increase in tuck jump scores (25.8%). The circa-PHV group produced their greatest improvements in the traditional intervention, as displayed through significant improvements (p<0.05) in 20m sprint times and dominant-leg horizontal jump performance, whilst also revealing the greatest deterioration in tuck jump scores (14.2%). Post-PHV displayed the greatest improvements in the control setting, suggesting the natural benefits gained through adolescent development were greater than the influence of the training interventions. In conclusion, it is suggested that matching coaching strategies and delivery techniques to the period of biological maturation may have implications for both performance and athlete safety.
Wed, 29 May 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0355.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: behavioral factors; fuzzy analysis; gender; employees’ demographics; organizational citizenship behavior (OCB)
Online: 29 May 2019 (15:44:20 CEST)
This paper aims to investigate impact of employees’ gender on OCB as per the employees’ perception in Jordanian governmental hospitals. A convenient sample of 126 employees working in the three main governmental hospitals in north of Jordan has been taken for the purpose of this study. The collected data includes linguistic terms that suffer from uncertainty which, in turn, cannot be dealt with traditional numerical values. The result prove that gender impact on OCB has shown statistically significant differences at (α=0.05) as far as altruism, courtesy, and civic virtue are concerned; and this variable stands in favor of males with the total score of 0.011%. Similarly, as far as the effect of age factor on OCB is concerned, there have been statistically significant differences at (α=0.05) in relation to courtesy, sportsmanship, and civic virtue with the total score of 0.27%. Finally, the results provide a baseline data for further studies which may contribute more significant in the field of OCB.
Fri, 24 May 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0288.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: adolescent; current smoking; smoking behavior; tobacco message exposure
Online: 24 May 2019 (08:34:44 CEST)
This study investigated the influence and interaction of tobacco promotional and control information with adolescents’ current smoking and smoking susceptibility. 12,278 students were recruited from junior, senior and vocational high schools located in Shanghai, China. The exposure to tobacco promotional and control message of participants over the past 30 days were examined, as well as current smoking and never smokers’ initiation susceptibility. Complex sample analysis was applied. Descriptive and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted. 89.3% and 91.5% of adolescents investigated were exposed to tobacco promotional and control message respectively, which separately increased and decreased the risk of current smoking and never-smokers’ smoking susceptibility, especially among males and junior high school students. The risk changed in consistency with the exposure level（Ptrend < 0.001）. Tobacco control message seemed to mitigate the influence of tobacco promotions in the risk of both current smoking (OR = 0.64, 95%CI: 0.41–0.99) and smoking susceptibility (OR = 0.65, 95%CI: 0.46–0.93). Tobacco-related message exposure was highly prevalent and associated with youth smoking risk and smoking susceptibility. It is important to enhance the comprehensiveness and enforcement of promotion bans. Given the improvement of tobacco control message on smoking risk brought by tobacco promotions, the publicity and dissemination of tobacco control information need to be consistently strengthened.
Sun, 7 April 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0071.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: personalized recommendation service; usage behavior; KOSEN
Online: 7 April 2019 (12:42:30 CEST)
Background: We conducted research on the newly developed personalized recommendation service (PRS) of the global network of Korean scientists and engineers (KOSEN) in order to explore the information usage behavior and importance of the PRS used by Korean scientists and engineers. Methods: In order to understand information usage behavior, we gathered data from 513 survey results and analyzed them in terms of information usage behavior and the corresponding importance in each of the service quality areas. Results: We analyzed the 321 outcomes that indicated non-use of the PRS in order to understand the underlying reason(s); we employed 192 results that demonstrated the use of functionality to examine information usage behavior and importance. They found that the predominant motive for non-use of the service resulted from the respondents not knowing how to use it. According to demographic characteristics, the usage behavior of the PRS showed a difference regarding the purpose of using the service in the categories of gender and major field of study. Furthermore, users were concerned with various components of the PRS such as ease of use, design, relevance of content, user support, and interactivity. Conclusions: We suggest reinforcing user education degree and promotion to enhance the PRS. Since users were concerned with ease of use, design, relevance, user support, and interactivity, we recommend these as major points for improvement.
Fri, 1 March 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0009.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Bullying; autism spectrum disorder; attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; oppositional defiant disorder; social impairment.
Online: 1 March 2019 (12:24:17 CET)
The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of self-reported and parent-reported bullying victimization, perpetration, and victimization-perpetration and the associations of autistic social impairment and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms with bullying involvement in adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A total of 219 adolescents with high functioning ASD participated in this study. The associations of sociodemographic characteristics, parent-reported autistic social impairment on the Chinese Social Responsiveness Scale, and parent-reported ADHD and ODD symptoms on the Short form of the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Version IV Scale (SNAP-IV)-Chinese version with self-reported and parent-reported bullying victimization, perpetration, and victimization-perpetration evaluated using the Chinese version of the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire were examined using logistic regression analysis. The agreement between self-reported and parent-reported bullying involvement was low. Compared with bullying involvement experiences reported by adolescents themselves, parents reported higher rates of pure bullying victimization (23.7% vs. 17.8%) and victimization-perpetration (28.8% vs. 9.1%) but a lower rate of pure bullying perpetration (5.9% vs. 9.1%). Deficit in socio-communication increases the risk of being pure victims and victim-perpetrators. Parent-reported victim-perpetrators had more severe ODD symptoms than did parent-reported pure victims. The agreement between self-reported and parent-reported bullying involvement of adolescents with high functioning ASD was low. Deficit in socio-communication and ODD symptoms were significantly associated with a high risk of bullying involvement in adolescents with high functioning ASD.
Mon, 18 February 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0143.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: e-mail; scientific productivity; internet; digital era
Online: 18 February 2019 (07:27:23 CET)
Misuse of the main information technology used in the academy, electronic mail, can be ended through expanded knowledge and renewed education. Becoming acquainted with advanced time management and communication pragmatics students will shortly remedy today’s e-mail misuse leading to professors overwhelmed by anxiety-driven e-mails; and scholars wasting valued time on e-mail minutia. Universities reformed by managers literate in today’s management theory will focus again on teaching and research, prioritizing scholarly deep work and thus abandoning the use of “urgent” e-mails with the request of spreadsheets and reports. Professors across the world need to educate undergraduate students on the healthy and productive utilization of the e-mail.
Thu, 31 January 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0331.v1
Online: 31 January 2019 (16:01:30 CET)
The use of cell phones has increased worldwide in the past few decades, particularly in children and adolescents. Using these devices provides personal benefits. Communicating through cell phones was a very important factor in the socioeconomic progress of developed countries. However, it is beyond doubt that its indiscriminate use can accompany certain psychiatric disorders or cause some disorder in a person, within the phobic group of anxiety disorders called nomophobia—associated with anxiety, nervousness, discomfort, and distress when contact with the smartphone is lost, mainly in young users. This research proposal aims to identify symptoms that have not yet been detected by intensive cell phone use, considering that in Peru there are few studies of human health engineering and the physical mental health. Is for this reason that in our study, we sought to identify the symptomatic factors of nomophobia presented by students at the National University of Engineering and its interference with their academic life. To accomplish this study, we designed a questionnaire according to our reality with the use of focus groups techniques when the test was taken in class. Three symptomatic factors of nomophobia were identified: feelings of anxiety, compulsive smartphone use, and feelings of anxiety and panic. The study included a representative sample of 461 students of different years of study engineering (21\% women, 79\% men, over 17 years of age). Finally, given the widespread adoption of smartphones and their integration into educational environments, the results of this study can help educators understand students’ inclination to use their smartphones at all times.
Tue, 8 January 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0071.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Facebook; Facebook intrusion; couple relationships; conflicts; jealousy; psychometric properties; validation
Online: 8 January 2019 (15:15:56 CET)
The present study evaluates the psychometric properties of the Conflicts in Romantic Relationships Over Facebook Use Scale with a sample of Puerto Rican adults. A total of 577 Puerto Ricans participated on this confirmatory and psychometric study. The results confirmed that the scale has a multidimensional structure. These dimensions are: Partner Facebook intrusion, Conflict over Facebook use, and Jealousy over Facebook use. A total of 18 items complied with the criteria of discrimination and presented appropriate factorial loads (6 items per dimension). The Cronbach’s Alpha indexes of the dimensions ranged between .87 and .95 and the omega coefficients ranged between .88 and .95. In summary, the instrument has the appropriate psychometric properties to continue with validation studies, as well as to be implemented in various work areas, both theoretical and applied.
Fri, 16 November 2018
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0397.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Children; Eating disorders; Eating behavior; Feeding practices; Obesity
Online: 16 November 2018 (10:31:50 CET)
Abstract: Given the links between parental obesity and eating psychopathology in their children, it is important to understand the mechanisms via which unhealthy relationships with eating are passed from parents to children. The aim was to review research focusing on food-related parenting practices (FPPs) used by parents with overweight/obesity. Web of Science, PubMed and PsycINFO were searched. Twenty studies were included in the review. Single studies suggest differences between parents with healthy-weight vs overweight/obesity with respect to; food accessibility, food availability and modelling. Multiple studies suggest that several parenting strategies do not differ according to parental weight status (child involvement, praise, use of food to control negative emotions, use of food-based threats and bribes, pressure, restriction, meal and snack routines, monitoring, and rules and limits). There was inconclusive evidence with respect to differences in parental control, encouragement and use of unstructured FPPs among parents with healthy-weight vs overweight/obesity. The findings of this review imply some differences between parents with overweight/obesity and healthy-weight and the use of some food-related parenting practices, however they should be interpreted with caution since research remains limited and is generally methodologically weak. The review highlights opportunities for further research and to improve current measures of FPPs and help clarify current study findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0375.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: environmental literacy; environmental pollution; awareness; attitude; Yazd
Online: 16 November 2018 (05:19:57 CET)
Introduction: Different factors such as rapid growth of population, urbanization and industrialization of communities have detrimental effects on the environment. In regard to the importance of the environment and its fundamental role in sustainable development along with the awareness and attitude of the people of Yazd which has not yet been assessed, this study aims to assess the level of awareness, attitude and environmental literacy of the people of Yazd in relation to environmental issues and challenges in the year 2017. Materials and methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, the sample size was obtained from 410 Yazd city residents through prior studies and the Cochran formula. The sample was then selected by the stratified random sampling method. The data selection tool was a questionnaire with questions on demographic characteristics, awareness level, attitude and practices in relation to menopause. The data was analyzed upon collection by the SPSS-20 software and Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, and Chi-Square non-parametric tests along with the Spearman correlation test. In this study, the significance level was considered as 0.05. Results: In this study, a total of 404 questionnaires were completed and evaluated. Based on the obtained results, 224 individuals (55.4%) male, 53.3% married, 31.2% had at least a bachelor’s degree and the majority of individuals (40.1%) were in the 18-27 age group. In terms of area of residence, 64.1% reside in region 2. From all the participants, 51.3% of the participants believed that the main environmental issue in Yazd was water deficiency and pollution. The awareness score was statistically significant with the age, education level and employment status variables. Attitude only had significant relationship with the employment status variable. The relationship between the practices score was statistically significant with the age, marital status, and area of residence variables. There is a significant relation between age, income level and knowledge level but there is no significant relation with attitude levels. There is no significant relation between gender, education level, marital status, area of residence, awareness and attitude levels (p-value > 0.05). There is a positive correlation between awareness, attitude and practices scores. The results indicated that the attitude score of most participants (51.5%) was lower than the average score but the awareness and practices score of most participants was average. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, although the awareness of Yazdi citizens on some environmental issues and institutions that are active in the environmental pollution control field in the country appears low, but in general, the awareness of the people of Yazd, specifically regarding health issues stemming from pollution was assessed as adequate. Considering the importance of environmental factors’ role in communities’ health and its continuous improvement, due to the expansion of automated life namely in large cities within the country, it is necessary to conduct various researches to identify and control these factors and to carry out interventional studies to determine suitable solutions before implementing them.
Wed, 14 November 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0324.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Adipose tissue, Adiposity, Sedentary bouts, Alpha sedentary, Elderly women
Online: 14 November 2018 (08:09:04 CET)
Background: This study aimed to describe the frequency and duration of sedentary bouts and assess the bidirectional cross-sectional associations between these characteristics and adiposity in elderly women. Methods: Data from 314 elderly community-dwelling women (mean age 66.6±6.5 years) from Czech Republic, Poland, and Slovakia were analyzed. Measures were collected in 2008–2017. Fat mass percentage (FM%) was used as an indicator of adiposity. The patterns of sedentary behaviour were monitored using an accelerometer, and ≥5, ≥10, ≥20, ≥30, ≥40, and ≥60 minute bouts were analyzed. The exponent alpha was also calculated to express the accumulation of sedentary time in bouts. We performed a multiple linear regression analysis to assess the bidirectional causal association between variables. Results: There was a significant association of FM% with time spent in bouts with a duration ≥5, ≥10, ≥20min (β ranging 0.11–0.28, p≤0.01) and the frequency of bouts with a length ≥5, ≥10, ≥20, and ≥30min (β ranging 0.03–0.74, p≤0.05) in fully-adjusted models. In contrast, a strong negative association was observed between FM% and alpha (bout distribution) in both directions (p≤0.001). Conclusions: Our results suggest that the sedentary characteristics such as bout duration, bout frequency, and distribution (alpha) are bidirectionally associated with adiposity and they should be considered in further research in older adults.
Thu, 11 October 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0244.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: motor competence; sedentary behavior; moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; primary schoolchildren; accelerometer
Online: 11 October 2018 (17:10:00 CEST)
Children’s motor competence (MC) has declined in the past decades, while sedentary behavior (SB) has increased. This study examined the association between MC and physical activity (PA) levels among primary schoolchildren. Demographics, body height and weight, MC (Athletic Skills Track) and PA levels (ActiGraph, GT3X+) were assessed among 595 children (291 boys, mean age = 9.2 years, SD = 1.1). MC was standardized into five categories: from very low to very high. PA levels were classified into sedentary behavior (SB), light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Mixed model analyses were conducted with PA levels as dependent variables and MC as the independent variable, while adjusting for age, gender, and BMI z-score on the individual level. Additional moderation analyses between covariates and MC and PA levels were also conducted. A negative association between MC and SB (β = -3.17) and a positive association between MC and MVPA (β =1.41) were found. The strength of both associations increased as children expressed lower or higher levels of MC. Increased age and being a girl were significant predictors of higher levels of SB and lower levels of MVPA. Non-overweight children spent significantly more minutes in MVPA compared with overweight children. No moderating effects of BMI, gender, and age were found on the association between MC and PA levels. MC is an important correlate of both SB and MVPA, particularly for children with very high or low MC. Developing and improving children’s MC may contribute to spending less time in SB and more time in MVPA, particularly for high-risk groups, i.e. children with low MC. Moreover, addressing MC development and PA promotion simultaneously might create positive feedback loops for both children’s MC and PA levels.
Wed, 26 September 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0520.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Energy consumption, Energy savings, Home Energy Management System (HEMS), Homeowners, Target group segmentation
Online: 26 September 2018 (15:39:15 CEST)
In contrast to physical sustainable measures carried out in homes, such as insulation, the installation of a Home Energy Management System (HEMS) has no direct and immediate energy-saving effect. A HEMS gives insight into resident behaviour regarding energy use. When this is linked to the appropriate feedback, the resident is in a position to change his or her behaviour. This should result in reduced gas and/or electricity consumption. The aim of our study is to contribute towards the effective use of home energy management systems (HEMS) by identifying types of homeowners in relation to the use of HEMS. The research methods used were a literature review and the Q-method. A survey using the Q-method was conducted among 39 owners of single-family homes in various Rotterdam neighbourhoods. In order to find shared views among respondents, a principal component analysis (PCA) was performed. Five different types of homeowner could be distinguished: the optimists, the privacy-conscious, the technicians, the sceptics, and the indifferent. Their opinions vary as regards the added value of a HEMS, what characteristics a HEMS should have, how much confidence they have in the energy-saving effect of such systems, and their views on the privacy and safety of HEMS. The target group classification can be used as input for a way in which local stakeholders, e.g. a municipality, can offer HEMS that is in line with the wishes of the homeowner.
Wed, 29 August 2018
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0505.v1
Online: 29 August 2018 (15:52:44 CEST)
Background: Alcohol is a psychoactive substance that leads to dependence and harmful drinking in worldwide. Alcohol use is the most prevalent among age from 13 to 29 year particularly in high school, college, and university students. It affected students mentally, physically, economically and their social issues. In low and middle-income countries particularly in Ethiopia, there is lack of data in systematic review and meta-analysis regarding the prevalence of alcohol use and associated factors among students. Methods: We will search studies using computerized search engine, main electronic databases and other applicable sources. PubMed/Medline, Global Health, Africa-wides, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and direct Google search will be searched to retrieve studies written in English language from 2010 to 2017. Observational studies (case control, cross-sectional, cohort or longitudinal survey, and surveillance reports) on the prevalence of alcohol use and associated factors among students in Ethiopia will be eligible. Data will be extracted by two authors independently. Data synthesis and statistical analysis will be carried out. Pooled estimate will be done to determine the prevalence of alcohol use by using comprehensive meta-analysis software. Protocol registration PROSPERO: 2017: CRD42018083222.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0478.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: synchronization; human decision makin; decoupling; opinion formation; agent-based modeling
Online: 29 August 2018 (00:57:01 CEST)
We introduce tools to capture the dynamics of three different pathways, in which the synchronization of human decision making could lead to turbulent periods and contagion phenomena in financial markets. The first pathway is caused when stock market indices, seen as a set of coupled integrate-and-fire oscillators, synchronize in frequency. The integrate-and-fire dynamics happens due to "change blindness", a trait in human decision making where people have the tendency to ignore small changes, but take action when a large change happens. The second pathway happens due to feedback mechanisms between market performance and the use of certain (decoupled) trading strategies. The third pathway occurs through the effects of communication and its impact on human decision making. A model is introduced in which financial market performance has an impact on decision making through communication between people. Conversely, the sentiment created via communication has an impact on financial market performance.
Tue, 7 August 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0148.v1
Online: 7 August 2018 (23:13:29 CEST)
Despite the uptake of tobacco smoking declining in the UK, smoking is still the leading cause of preventable poor health and premature death. While improved approaches to smoking cessation are necessary, encouraging and assisting smokers to switch by using substantially less toxic non-tobacco nicotine products may be a possible option. To date few studies have investigated the rates of smoking cessation and smoking reduction associated with the free provision of electronic-cigarettes (e-cigarette) to smokers. In this study the Blu Pro e-cigarette was given to smokers for use in place of tobacco for 90 days. The rates of smoking abstinence and daily smoking patterns were assessed at baseline 30 days, 60 days and 90 days. The response rate was 87%. After 90 days, the complete abstinence rate was 36.5% from 0% at baseline. Frequency of daily smoking reduced from 88.7% to 17.5% (P<0.001) and median consumption of cigarettes/day from 15 to 5 (P<0.001). Median days per month participants smoked also dropped from 30 to 13 after 90-days (P<0.001). On the basis of these results there may be value in smoking cessation services and other services ensuring that smokers are provided with e-cigarettes at zero or minimal costs for at least a short period of time.
Mon, 6 August 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0097.v1
Online: 6 August 2018 (05:52:46 CEST)
Background: Sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy in adolescents are acknowledged public health problems in many countries. Although it is known that the proper use of condoms allows avoiding these health problems, their use in Chile is still limited, for unknown reasons. Objective: Based on planned behavioural theory, the aim was to validate a behaviour model regarding condom use by measuring the influence of the variables that predict this use among Chilean university students. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in October 2016 among 151 Chilean university students belonging to the health and engineering areas. The information was collected through a self-administered survey. The sample was divided into two groups: stable and not stable relationships. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used for the analysis. Results: It was possible to explain the condom use of the students by 57%. The attitude was the main variable related to the intention of using condoms, together with the perceived behavioural control. Additionally, there are statistically significant differences in the variables that predict condom use among students with stable relations compared to those without a stable relationship. Conclusions: The planned behavioural theory is useful for predicting condom use behaviour when students have a stable partner.
Thu, 19 July 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0338.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Self-management, type 2 diabetes, immigrants, health systems, chronic diseases, qualitative study, lifestyle change, thematic analysis, socioeconomically disadvantaged, Stockholm
Online: 19 July 2018 (00:44:34 CEST)
Studies comparing provider and patient views and experiences of self-management within primary healthcare are particularly scarce in disadvantaged settings. In this qualitative study, patient and provider perceptions of self-management were investigated in five socio-economically disadvantaged communities in Stockholm. Twelve individual interviews and three group interviews were conducted. Semi-structured interview guides included questions on perceptions of diabetes diagnosis, diabetes care services available at primary health care centers, patient and provider interactions, and self-management support. Data was analysed using thematic analysis. Two overarching themes were identified. These were characterized by inherent dilemmas representing confusions and conflicts that patients and providers experienced in their daily life or practice respectively: adopting and maintaining new routines through practical and appropriate lifestyle choices (patients); and balancing expectations and pre-conceptions of self-management (providers). Patients found it difficult to tailor information and lifestyle advice to fit their daily life. Healthcare providers recognized that patients were in need of support to change behavior, but saw themselves as inadequately equipped to deal with the different cultural and social aspects of self-management. This study highlights patient and provider dilemmas that influence the interaction and collaboration between patients and providers with respect to communication and uptake of self-management advice.
Tue, 19 June 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0295.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: long-term care, elderly people, behavior assessment, factor analysis, independence
Online: 19 June 2018 (10:59:03 CEST)
The rapid growth rate of the elderly population is a serious current issue in most countries, affecting them economically through needed medical treatment and healthcare planning. The priority concern is how to reduce the number of elderly people requiring long-term healthcare and raise the number who are able to live independently. This study executed a behavior assessment of elderly person’s self-reported use of electric scooters and analyzed their degree of acceptance of these assisted living tools, partly through a related factor analysis of our survey instrument. We used this questionnaire survey as our research method, applying SPSS22 software for factor analysis that revealed five survey facets.
Tue, 5 June 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0058.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: pediatric patient with T1DM; physical activity; muscle strength exercise; self-rated health
Online: 5 June 2018 (10:00:16 CEST)
Background: Even though a number of studies have verified the positive effect of physical activity (PA) on self-related health (SRH) no previous research has examined this association among pediatric patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between regular physical activity (PA) and self-rated health (SRH) in pediatric patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) who lacked diabetes care. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study among pediatric patients with T1DM who lacked diabetes care and were enrolled in a diabetes education program between January 2011 to January 2015 at the endocrinology clinic of Seoul National University Children’s Hospital in South Korea. The eligible participants for this study were 37 pediatric patients with T1DM aged 9 to 17 years. PA was divided into regular PA and muscle strength exercise to analyze the relationship with SRH using binomial logistic regression analysis. Results: The results showed SRH of pediatric patients with T1DM who did not engage in regular PA was significantly lower than those who did (OR in regular PA = .199 [95% CI: .040, .995]; OR in regular muscle strength exercise = .097 [95% CI: .023, .825]). Conclusions: In conclusion, regular PA and muscle strength exercise in pediatric patients with T1DM who lacked diabetes care were effective in improving their SRH. A systematic plan is required to enhance regular PA for pediatric patients with T1DM.
Mon, 4 June 2018
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0031.v1
Online: 4 June 2018 (10:23:46 CEST)
Background: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use among youth in Poland has become very popular. The aim of this study was to identify potential points of access to these products among students aged 16-17 before implementation of sales restrictions to minors in Poland in November 2016. Methods: A school-based, cross-sectional survey was administered in 2015-2016 in 21 secondary/technical schools across two regions of Poland. Analyses focused on 341 students aged 16-17 who reported past 30-day use of e-cigarettes. Pearson chi-square analyses were utilized to examine associations between access-related items, e-cigarette use, and demographics. Results: Among youth e-cigarette users, the most common access to their first e-cigarette was from a friend (38%), followed by purchasing from vape shops (26%). Similar patterns emerged when students were asked about the access to their currently used e-cigarette. Most youth reported no difficulty purchasing cartridges/e-liquid containing nicotine (90%); the majority of users (52%) reported buying such products in vape shops. Conclusions: Prior to implementing age-related sales restrictions, youth access to e-cigarettes and paraphernalia did not pose any significant barriers. Poland’s introduction of a new age limit on e-cigarette sales may help limit the number of youth who purchase e-cigarettes from vape shops.
Thu, 31 May 2018
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0478.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: health literacy; media health literacy; ehealth literacy; social environment; health apps; social support; digital health; empowerment
Online: 31 May 2018 (11:45:44 CEST)
Health literacy describes skills and competencies that enable people to gain access to, understand and apply health information to positively influence their own health and the health of those in the social environment. In an increasingly media saturated and digitized world, these skill sets are necessary for accessing and navigating sources of health information and tools, such as television, the Internet, and mobile apps. The concepts of Media Health Literacy (MHL) and eHealth Literacy (eHL) describe the specific competencies such tasks require. This article introduces the two concepts, and then reviews findings on the associations of MHL and eHL with several contextual variables in the social environment such as socio-demographics, social support, and system complexity, as a structural variable. As eHL and MHL are crucial for empowering people to actively engage in their own health, a growing body of literature reports of the potential and the effectiveness of intervention initiatives to positively influence these competencies. From an ethical standpoint, equity is emphasized, stressing the importance of accessible media environments for all - including those at risk of exclusion from (digital) media sources. Alignment of micro and macro contextual spheres will ultimately facilitate both non-digital and digital media to effectively support and promote public health.
Fri, 25 May 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0375.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: autism phenome; gut microbiome; behaviour reversal; meta-analysis; 16srRNA sequencing; operational taxonomic units (OTUs)
Online: 25 May 2018 (16:15:27 CEST)
Background: Gut-Brain-Axis provides bidirectional communicational route; imbalance of which can have pathophysiological consequences. It is a frontier in autism research, affects 85% of autistic children (NIH report). Their microbiome has few overall microbes and smaller number of health promising microbes than their neurotypical peers. We hypothesize autism gut might play a role in manifestation of autism behaviours and on treatment, can revert back to normal behaviour considerably. The aim is to better understand to what degree gut microbiota of autism subjects differs from controls and identify bacterial species present exclusively in autism. Materials and Methods: 16s-rRNA-sequence of autism-subjects were retrieved from the American Gut Project Archive. Taxonomic assignment was inferred by similarity based methods using Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology (QIIME). Species abundance was characterized and co-occurrence network was built to infer species interaction using measures of diversity. Statistical parameters were considered to validate the findings. Result: A total of 206 (1.8%) of American Gut Project datasets onstituted of autistic samples. Various bacteria such as Akkermansia sp., and Prevotella sp., were harboured in higher abundance in autistic children with statistical significance than in controls. Conclusion: These findings indicate connecting-link between gut-microbiome-brain-axis and autistic behaviour which can result in improved management
Thu, 10 May 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0152.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: sitting time; occupational; sedentary fragmentation; objective measurement
Online: 10 May 2018 (05:18:52 CEST)
Prolonged sedentary behaviour (SB) has shown to be detrimental to health. Nevertheless, population levels of SB are high and interventions to decrease SB are needed. This study aimed to explore the effect of an individualized consultation intervention aimed at reducing SB and increasing breaks in SB among college employees. A pre-experimental study design was used. Participants (n=36) were recruited at a college in Massachusetts, USA. SB was measured over 7 consecutive days using an activPAL3 accelerometer. Following baseline measures, all participants received an individualized SB consultation which focused on limiting bouts of SB >30 minutes, participants also received weekly follow-up e-mails. Post-intervention measures were taken after 16 weeks. Primary outcome variables were sedentary minutes/day and SB bouts >30 minutes. Differences between baseline and follow-up were analyzed using paired t-tests. The intervention did not change daily sedentary time (-0.48%; p>0.05). The number of sedentary bouts >30 minutes decreased significantly by 0.52 bouts/day (p=0.015). In this study a consultation based SB intervention was successful in reducing number of bouts >30 minutes of SB. However, daily sedentary time did not reduce significantly. These results indicate that consultation-based interventions may be effective if focused on a specific component of SB.
Wed, 9 May 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0136.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: detour task; equids; social cognition; social learning; spatial cognition
Online: 9 May 2018 (05:08:10 CEST)
Horses’ ability to adapt to new environments and to acquire new information plays an important role in handling and training. Social learning in particular would be very adaptive for horses as it enables them to flexibly adapt to new environments. In the context of horse handling, social learning from humans has been rarely investigated but could help to facilitate management practices. We assessed the impact of human demonstration on spatial problem-solving abilities in horses using a detour task. In this task, a bucket with a food reward was placed behind a double-detour barrier and horses (n = 16) received a human demonstration or no demonstration. Horses were allocated to two test groups of 8 horses each, which experienced the two treatments in a counterbalanced order. We found that horses did not solve the detour task faster with human demonstration. However, both test groups improved rapidly over trials. Our results suggest that horses prefer to use individual rather than social information when being confronted with a spatial problem-solving task.
Wed, 2 May 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0046.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: women’s empowerment; climate change adaptation; India; transnational advocacy networks
Online: 2 May 2018 (13:27:14 CEST)
1). As on-the-ground projects come into existence and continue to expand to adapt to climate change and empower women, it is important to understand their location within TANs. Using the Bhungroo technology as a case study, we aim to assess the potential of TANs to increase the scope and scale of local projects as well as the ability of similar and emerging projects to create social change at local levels. 2). We do so by analyzing interview and earned media hits data from the UNFCCC Momentum for Change. 3). We find that while TANs may help increase the scale and scope of projects, increasing their ability to effectively reach more people and areas is still up for debate 4). We conclude by considering how women’s political participation may be enhanced by similar projects.
Mon, 26 February 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0167.v1
Online: 26 February 2018 (12:07:42 CET)
Planning, development and design policies influence sense of safety of people touse the City centre or Central Business District (CBD) and therefore city centres can becomeactive and vibrant during the day and night. This paper reviews past and present planningpolicies relevant for feeling of personal safety in the context of housing, retail, amenities,street infrastructure, building design and transportation aspects. The past development trendsshow that insignificant attention has been paid to people's sense of safety when using publicspaces, particularly at night, a factor identified important in creating attractive city centressince 1960s. Local plans primarily refer to safety in relation to roads, accessibility andworkability. Local policies also show the dominance of CCTV since the 1990s has becomeubiquitous, but changes to sense of safety in urban spaces now may actually be a betterreflection of planning and design decisions made over the past 20 years.
Tue, 23 January 2018
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0212.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: food labelling; serve size; obesity; back of pack label; BOP; front of pack label; FOP; food marketing; nudging
Online: 23 January 2018 (08:12:19 CET)
This scoping review investigated how consumers perceive and interpret serving size information on food packages. A search of seven databases (2010 to September 2017) was followed by title and abstract screening, with relevant articles assessed for eligibility in full-text. Fourteen studies met inclusion criteria, with relevant data extracted by one reviewer and checked for consistency by a second reviewer. Five studies reported poor understanding of nutrition facts labelling and portion size, with information to ‘benchmark’ serving size against reported as helpful in two studies. Consumer attitudes towards serving size labelling were measured in six studies and identified that serving size information was interpreted as indicative of nutrient intake regardless of portion size recommendations. Increased labelled serving sizes resulted in increased portion sizes in three studies, with three studies reporting the opposite or neutral effect for discretionary food portion sizes. The influence of labelled serving size on consumer attitudes and consumption is complex and sometimes counterintuitive. As labelled serving size can impact on consumption, any changes may result in unintended public health consequences. The effects of labelled serving size format changes should be tested carefully within experimental and ecological contexts and accompanied by tailored, comprehensive and serving size-specific food literacy initiatives.
Fri, 12 January 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0105.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: energy drinks; adolescent lifestyle; alcohol; caffeine; sports
Online: 12 January 2018 (05:12:03 CET)
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has identified some risk factors for the occurrence of side effects linked to energy drinks (EDs) consumption by young people. Tachycardia, sleeplessness, caffeine addiction may be caused by excessive consumption of EDs during parties, sport matches, ect. EDs consumption has been evaluated in a sample of students in Italy together with some aspects of their lifestyle. The survey was performed in two high schools from September 2014 to June 2015. 583 students between 14 to 18 years were recruited and a standard questionnaire (EFSA checklist) was used to collect information on responders characteristics, beverages consumption, EDs with alcohol, and EDs and sports. 350 out of 583 responders (60%) consumed EDs and 146 out of 583 responders (25%) reported an occasional alcohol consumption. Despite 82 out of 146 alcoholic drinkers (56%) were EDs-alcohol consumers, only 70 out of 583 adolescents (12%) reported habitual EDs consumption. Moreover, 38 out of 379 (10%) of all physically active adolescents reported frequent EDs consumption before sportive trainings. Study results highlight the need for primary prevention measures in communication campaigns and training delivered by school to limit potential health threats related to excess of EDs consumption.
Wed, 29 November 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0185.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Atoyac River; water pollution; heavy metals; coliforms; Emilio Portes Gil; Puebla
Online: 29 November 2017 (07:43:21 CET)
The Atoyac River crosses the metropolitan area of Puebla, Mexico, and presents a condition of severe degradation that has been poorly studied. The research was conducted in the year 2016 and analyzed the space-time dynamics of the water quality of the river, the increase in pollution in the period 2011–2016, and the water quality of the Atoyac River used for agricultural irrigation and human consumption in the population of Emilio Portes Gil, Ocoyucan, based on official Mexican standards (NOMs). The anoxic state of the river was demonstrated (~1.47 mgO2/L) and the high organic pollution, particularly in drought, as well as the presence of large populations of coliform bacteria, and 11 enterobacteries of pathogenic importance. The pollution recorded an average increase of 49% in the period 2011-2016, and the values of Fe, Al, Pb, and Cd in variable percentages. It was evidenced that water for irrigation and wells is contaminated with fecal bacteria (104–549 NMP/100 mL), including pathogenic. In wells, the concentration of heavy metals was 5 times higher in drought. These results represent a serious threat for the population of Emilio Portes Gil and the environment in the metropolitan area of Puebla.
Wed, 22 November 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0141.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: organizational culture; mission; consistency; involvement; adaptability
Online: 22 November 2017 (04:19:38 CET)
The main goal of this paper is to address how quickly and to what extent are international organizational cultures, brought by the world companies after the process of privatization, being implemented in a single monolithic culture. For this purpose was adopted and applied Denison model of organizational culture, which has been chosen because it emphasizes the need for balance between requirements for organization’s stability demands and its required flexibility. Considering that a different organizational culture reflects systematic change of an entire organization, this paper focuses on exploring the differences in culture dimensions among companies in domestic and foreign ownership in Serbia. A sample of 1000 employees was statistically processed. Changes in organizational culture tend to be relatively slow. The results confirm that organizational culture is a complex working environment, concerning organizational values, which represents a fundamental element of organizations. Given that the process of company ownership changes occurred fifteen years prior to the research implementation, obtained results show effects of interaction between national and organizational culture in this, relatively short, period of time. Obtained results can be generalized to countries that are passing or have recently passed a transition, and are similar in cultural characteristics.
Mon, 6 November 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0037.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: social learning; self-efficacy; subjective norm; betel nut chewing; taxi driver
Online: 6 November 2017 (07:27:59 CET)
The betel nut chewing habit of taxi drivers has shown that can promote companionship, relaxation, and emotional stability at work. 19.3% of betel nut behaviors are instigated by an invitation among drivers to engage in the habit. The objective of this study was to explore the impact of social learning, subjective norm, and self-efficacy on betel nut chewing in taxi drivers in Taiwan. We conducted a cross-sectional study on taxis’ driver of betel nut behaviour and measured their evaluations of its consequences using a self-report questionnaire. Other variables include socio-demographic characteristics and chewing-related experience. The overall variance is 44.5% in socio-demographic variable, social learning, self-efficacy, and subjective norm. Results show that the variables of affected betel nut chewing behavior, driving years has the strongest influence, followed by learning about betel nut from the media, relatives, and friends, and education level, which positively affect betel nut chewing behavior. Findings indicated that education related to quitting betel nut chewing, significant others, and rules of the taxi fleet are adopted to design a plan for quitting betel chewing to reduce the positive expectations of taxi drivers for betel nut chewing and decrease their betel nut chewing behavior.
Wed, 1 November 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0006.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: hypothetics; enothetics; reliability; validity; accuracy
Online: 1 November 2017 (04:56:55 CET)
The purpose of this article is to assess the reliability and accuracy (validity) of hypothetical binary tasting judgments in an enological framework. The heuristic model that is utilized allows for the control of a wide array of variables that would be exceedingly difficult to fully control in the typical enological investigation. It is shown that results that are judged to be enologically significant are uniformly judged to be statistically significant as well, whether the level of wine Taster agreement is set at 70% (Fair); 80% (Good), or 90% (Excellent), However, in a number of instances, results that were statistically significant were not enologically significant by standards that are widely accepted and utilized. This finding is consistent with the bio-statistical fact that given a sufficiently large sample size, even the most trivial of results will prove to be statistically significant. Consistent with expectations, multiple patterns of 80% (Good) and 90% (Excellent) agreement tended to be both statistically and enologically significant.
Mon, 16 October 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0099.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: ethology; anthrozoology; semiotics; animal sanctuaries; captivity; anthropization; animal ethics; non invasive observation
Online: 16 October 2017 (05:42:33 CEST)
The present essay illustrates the methodological and theoretical premises of an emerging research area carrying out both ethological and (bio)ethical implications: the ethology of the freed animal (EFA). Unlike existing ethological fields, EFA focuses neither on non human (NH) animals in natural conditions of freedom in their own environment, nor on NH animals kept in conditions of “captivity”. Rather, EFA consists of a comparative study of NH animals that are released from a condition of more or less abusive captivity and instead relocated in an environment more appropriate to their species-specific and individual characteristics and inclinations. Ideal places for this study are contexts like “Animal sanctuaries” and parks/reserves provided with a camp or station for researchers, where a previously-captive NH animal can be reintroduced in his/her natural habitat. Even though EFA exists already, as a de facto practice of the specialized and/or volunteer personnel running sanctuaries and parks, the field still lacks a recognizable scholarly paradigm, and it is yet to be acknowledged at institutional/academic level. By consequence, one important aim for creating a field like this lies in the establishment of an active interaction between the two parties involved (researchers and sanctuaries/parks operators).
Mon, 18 September 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0075.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: living alone; depressive symptoms; widows; socioeconomic status; social ties
Online: 18 September 2017 (09:02:55 CEST)
We examined the relationship between living alone and the prevalence of depressive symptoms in older Korean widows and assessed the individual contributions of health, social ties, and socioeconomic factors to the development of depressive symptoms. The study was a secondary analysis using data from widows 65 years of age and older who participated in the Living Profiles of Older People Survey (LPOPS). A logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the contributions of health, social ties, and socioeconomic factors to the development of depressive symptoms. Working status and equivalent household income were significantly associated with depressive symptoms in both those living with others and those living alone. Adjustment for health status and social ties did not change the impact of living alone on the prevalence of depressive symptoms. However, adjustment for equivalent household income eliminated the negative association between living alone and depressive symptoms. Our findings indicate that economic resources are more important than health and social ties for alleviating the negative impact of living alone on the development of depressive symptoms in older widows.
Thu, 10 August 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0039.v1
Online: 10 August 2017 (10:03:01 CEST)
I deal with perception and action (e.g. movements) using results from Synergetics, a comprehensive mathematical theory of the selforganized formation ("emergence“) of spatial, temporal, or functional structures in complex systems. I illustrate basic concepts such as order parameters (ops), enslavement, complexity reduction, circular causality first by examples of well known collective, spontaneous modes of human behavior such as rhythmic clapping of hands etc., and then by face recognition. The role played by ops depends on context. In the case of face (or pattern) recognition an op represents the concept of an individual face (action of mind) and it enslaves the action (firing rates) of neurons (body). This insight allows me to interpret syndroms as order parameters playing their mind/body double role. I present criteria for the identification of ops and discuss their general properties including error correction and "remedy“ of deficiencies. Contact is made with a recent paper by Sabine Koch on embodied aesthetics. My approach includes the saturation of attention at various time scales (ambiguous figures/fashion). Adopting a psychological perspective, I discuss some ingredients of beauty such as proportionality and symmetry, but also the importance of irregularities.
Fri, 19 May 2017
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0143.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: coping strategies; children; imprisoned parents; interventions; systematic review
Online: 19 May 2017 (06:14:31 CEST)
Children of imprisoned parents have a two times greater risk for health problems, including difficulties in their environment, academic and behavioural problems as well as social stigma. Focusing on children who have parents in prison has not been a priority for research. This review aims to describe current knowledge on children who have imprisoned parents in a global context and highlight areas for additional research. This review highlights the coping strategies that children of imprisoned parents use and explore interventions that exist to support children of imprisoned parents. This review employed a qualitative narrative synthesis. The database search yielded 1989 articles, of which 11 met inclusion and quality criteria. Stigmatizing children due to parental imprisonment was a widespread problem. Children’s coping strategies included maintaining distance from the imprisoned parent, normalizing the parent’s situation and taking better control over their lives through distraction, sports, supportive people and therapy. Children received the best support in school-based interventions or mentoring programmes. The overall low quality of the included studies indicates a need for further research.
Fri, 12 May 2017
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0104.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: diabetes self-management; family support; glycemic uncontrolled; type 2 DM; systematic review
Online: 12 May 2017 (05:27:28 CEST)
Abstract Background: Diabetes mellitus is dramatically increasing in the wide world. The managing of diabetes care emphasized the self-management education and support into patients’ care and family care. Objective: to review and synthesizes the effectiveness of DSME strategies involving family as a key person to provide social support for diabetes mellitus self-management of glycemic uncontrolled patients Method: Three databases through PubMed, CINAHL, and Scopus were reviewed to assess the relevant articles. The following search terms: “type 2 diabetes,” “self-management,” “family support,” and “glycemic uncontrolled.” We summarized details of family support on self-management among glycemic uncontrolled patients for 14 existing studies. Results: A total of 22 intervention studies were identified. Those studies have a heterogeneous of the education strategies, support perceived, follow-ups strategies and outcomes among type 2 DM. Family integration on diabetes self-management education (DSME) has a positive impact on several outcomes including, self-care behaviors, psychological outcomes, self-efficacy and clinical outcomes Conclusions: This systematic review found robust data related to the integration of family support on diabetes self-management among glycemic uncontrolled patients. Consequently, the improvement in outcomes was identified. Implications: The findings suggest model of family engagement is better and needed for sustaining the diabetes care in the long-term care
Fri, 7 April 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0046.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: end-of-life (EOL); relational dialectics theory (RDT); older adults (OA); aging; families
Online: 7 April 2017 (12:56:28 CEST)
For older adults, approaching end-of-life (EOL) brings unique transitions related to family relationships. Unfortunately, most families greatly underestimate the need to discuss these difficult issues. For example, parents approaching EOL issues often struggle with receiving assistance from others, avoiding family conflict, and maintaining their sense of personhood. In addition, discussions of EOL issues force family members to face their parents’ mortality, which can be particularly difficult for the adult children to process emotionally. This study explored aging issues identified by aging parents and their families as they traverse these impending EOL changes. Ten focus groups of seniors (n = 65) were conducted. Focus groups were organized according to race (African American/Caucasian), gender, and whether the older adult was living independently or in an assisted care facility. When asked open-ended questions about discussing aging and EOL issues with family members, participants revealed tensions that led us to consider Relational Dialectics Theory as a framework for analysis. The predominant tension highlighted in this report was certainty versus uncertainty, with the two sub-themes of sustained life versus sustained personhood and confronting versus avoiding EOL issues. For these data, there were more similarities than differences as a result of gender, race, or living situation than one might expect, although culture and financial status were found to be influential in the avoidance of EOL discussions. The results of this study help to provide additional insight into relational dialectics related to aging, EOL, and the importance of communication in facilitating family coping.
Mon, 26 December 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0126.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Afghan; Andersen Model; health services; medications; migrant; Turkey; utilization
Online: 26 December 2016 (09:57:20 CET)
(1) Background: There is insufficient empirical evidence on the correlates of health care utilization of irregular migrants currently living in Turkey. The aim of this study was to identify individual level determinants associated with health service and medication use. (2) Methods: 155 Afghans completed surveys assessing service utilization including encounters with primary care physicians and outpatient specialists in addition to the use of prescription and nonprescription medicines. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed to examine associations between service use and a range of predisposing, enabling, and perceived need factors. (3) Results: Health services utilization was lowest for outpatient specialists (20%) and highest for nonprescription medications (37%). Female gender and higher income predicted encounters with primary care physicians. Income, and other enabling factors such as family presence in Turkey predicted encounters with outpatient specialists. Perceived illness-related need factors had little to no influence on use of services; however, asylum difficulties increased the likelihood for encounters with primary care physicians, outpatient services, and the use of prescription medications. 4) Conclusion: This study suggests that health services use among Afghan migrants in Turkey is low considering the extent of their perceived illness-related needs, which may be further exacerbated by the precarious conditions in which they live.
Tue, 6 December 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0033.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: 360-degree assessment; perceived credibility; evaluation of outcome; theory of reasoned action; attitude formation
Online: 6 December 2016 (11:09:16 CET)
This study analyzes how Perceived Credibility of a 360-degree feedback and Evaluation of Outcome impact on ratees’ attitudes towards behavioral change. The study adopts a qualitative-quantitative mixed method approach. Reasoned Action Theory was selected as the theoretical framework, and ten 360-degree assessment ratees were interviewed on their perceived credibility, evaluation of outcome and attitude toward behavioral change in the 360-degree assessment practices. The qualitative inputs were analyzed under the methodology of grounded theory. Additional 159 respondents participated in the quantitative research phase of the research to validate the findings in the qualitative research phase. It was validated that Perceived Credibility, Evaluation of Outcome has impact on Attitude Toward Behavioral Change in 360-degree assessment.
Tue, 23 August 2016
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0191.v1
Online: 23 August 2016 (10:33:53 CEST)
In this data deposit, I describe a dataset that is the result of content mining 167,318 published articles for statistical test results. As a result of this content mining, 688,112 results from 50,845 articles were extracted. In order to provide a comprehensive set of data, the statistical results are supplemented with metadata from the article they originate from. The dataset is provided in a comma separated file (CSV) in long-format. For each of the 688,112 results, 20 variables are included, of which seven are article metadata and 13 pertain to the individual statistical results (e.g., reported and recalculated p-value). A five-pronged approach was taken to generate the dataset: (i) collect journal lists, (ii) spider journal pages for articles, (iii) download articles, (iv) add article metadata, and (v) mine articles for statistical results.
Mon, 15 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0152.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Attitudes; Behaviour; Communication; Information; Prompts; Policy; Recycling; Waste
Online: 15 August 2016 (11:34:39 CEST)
Recycling information can be complex and often confusing which may subsequently reduce the participations in any waste recycling schemes. As a result, this research explored the roles as well as the importance of a holistic approach in designing recycling information using 15 expert-based in-depth interviews. The rationale was to offer a better understanding of what constitutes waste, recycling, and how recycling information should be designed and presented to make recycling more attractive/convenient. Based on the research participants’ perceptions with supports from the existing studies, this research sub-categorised recycling information into three different themes, termed the “WWW” of recycling information components. As a result, these components (or attributes) were extensively described (using findings of semi-structured interviews) to elicit pragmatic guidance for practitioners, policy-makers, and other stakeholders in designing structured communication or information strategies that may simplify and subsequently increase waste-recycling practices. The policy implications of holistic information in enhancing recycling are further discussed.
Mon, 25 July 2016
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0075.v1
Online: 25 July 2016 (06:34:26 CEST)
Over the past couple of decades, Global positioning system (GPS) technology has been utilized to collect large-scale data from travel surveys. As the precise spatiotemporal characteristics of travel could be provided by GPS devices, the issues of traditional travel survey, such as misreporting and non-response, could be addressed. Considering the defects of dedicated GPS devices (e.g., need much money to buy devices, forget to take devices to collect data, limit the simple size because of the number of devices, etc.), and the phenomenon that the smartphone is becoming one of necessities of life, there is a great chance for the smartphone to replace dedicated GPS devices. Although, several general reviews have been done about smartphone-based GPS travel survey in the literature review section in some articles, a systematic review from smartphone-based GPS data collection to travel mode detection has none. The included studies were searched from six databases. The purpose of this review is to critically assess the current literature on the existing methodologies of travel mode detection based on GPS raw data collected by smartphones. Meanwhile, according to the systematic comparison among different methods from data-preprocessing to travel mode detection, this paper could carefully provide the Strengths and Weaknesses of existing methods. Furthermore, it is the crucial step to develop the methodologies and applications of GPS raw data collected by smartphones.
Sat, 23 July 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0070.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Self-Action Leadership (SAL), SAL model, SAL theory, nomological, existential growth, organizational (or corporate) citizen, SAR project, SAL project, step-habit, Self-Declaration of Independence, Self-Constitution
Online: 23 July 2016 (10:26:10 CEST)
In 2015, the Self-Action Leadership Theory—a qualitative, nomological expansion of self-leadership theory rooted in atmospheric and astronomical metaphor aimed at expanding the personal freedom of individuals, organizations, and nations by bolstering the existential growth of individuals through a series of Maslow-esque stages of holistic, personal development. This article introduces an accompanying, practitioner-based Model of Self-Action Leadership (SAL) aimed at the implicit enhancement of a holistic range of administrative processes through explicit training, mentoring, and coaching in the model’s general and universally-applicable principles and practices. The SAL model produces an original construct of personal leadership practice that builds upon the extant self-leadership academic canon, which dates back to 1983 (Manz, 1983). It also provides an analogue to four of the five core processes of Project Management by positioning a self-action leader (an individual) as the ongoing “project” at hand. The SAL Model is rooted in action research and was developed through a variety of self-oriented, action research projects in conjunction with a comprehensive, qualitative, analytical autoethnographic study of a scholar’s life experiences.
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