ARTICLE Download: 88| View: 70| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0339.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Literary Studies Keywords: citizen; modern government; monument; phenomenon; representation; statistics
Online: 24 February 2020 (02:26:06 CET)
This study aims to identify modern bureaucratic government phenomenon expressed in W.H. Auden’s poem “The Unknown Citizen” (UC). This phenomenon will be revealed through the use of figures of speech, symbols and imagery in the poem. This poem is chosen as the object of the study since phenomenon happened in the poem represents people’s life and government practice in the modern era. Government, in the poem, seems to be very dominant. Its bureaucratic apparatus is powerful. Through its sophisticated technology, the bureau of statistics is able to detect the citizen’s identity. But, ironically, it could have not identified UC’s name as he lived in the world. He, then, was honored by the state by being erected the marble monument. The poem is analyzed by applying phenomenological criticism. The analysis finds that the representation of modern government is expressed through symbols emphasized by dramatic irony and supported by the use of internal sensation imagery. UC is the allegory of the average person with his bravery he sacrifices for the country. The state ought to give him an honor. In this poem Auden, actually, wants to write a parody for establishing monuments in some countries to honor the struggles of their soldiers who died in the World War I. Those monuments are really tombs since the function of a monument is a state’s thanksgiving for their sacrifice.
Mon, 21 January 2019
ARTICLE Download: 375| View: 439| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0197.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Literary Studies Keywords: post-2003 Iraq; fiction; Iraqi diaspora; sectarianism; secularism; Shīʿism; ethno-religious identity; alterity
Online: 21 January 2019 (08:00:48 CET)
The prerogative to narrate the experience of marginal identities, particularly ethno-religious ones, appeared only in the post-occupation era in Iraqi fiction. Traditionally, secular Iraqi discourse struggled to openly address “sectarianism” due to the prevalent notion that sectarian identities are mutually exclusive and oppositional to national identity. It is distinctly in post-2003 Iraq—more precisely, since the sectarian violence of 2006–2007 began to cut across class, civil society, and urban identities—that works which consciously refuse to depict normative Iraqi identities with their mainstream formulations become noticeable. We witness this development first in the Western diaspora, where Iraqi novels exhibit a fascination with the ethno-religious culture of the Iraqi margins or subalterns and impart a message of pluralistic secularism. This paper investigates the origins of the taboo that proscribed articulations of ethno-religious subjectivities in 20th-century Iraqi fiction, and then culls examples of recent diasporic Iraqi novels in which these subjectivities are encoded and amplified in distinct ways. In the diasporic novel, I argue, modern Iraqi intellectuals attain the conceptual and political distance necessary for contending retrospectively with their formative socialization experiences in Iraq. Through a new medium of marginalization—the diasporic experience of the authors themselves—they are equipped with a newfound desire to unmask subcultures in Iraq and to write more effectively about marginal aspects of Iraqi identity inside and outside the country. These new diasporic writings showcase processes of ethnic and religious socialization in the Iraqi public sphere. The result is deconstruction of mainstream Iraqi identity narratives and instrumentalization of marginal identities in a nonviolent struggle against sectarian violence.
Wed, 26 September 2018
ARTICLE Download: 266| View: 145| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0506.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Literary Studies Keywords: Afro-Asian interactions, Asian Latin American literature and characters, Sanfancón, china mulata, “magical negro,” chinos mambises, Brazil, Cuba, transculturation, discourse of mestizaje
Online: 26 September 2018 (10:38:04 CEST)
This essay studies Afro-Asian sociocultural interactions in cultural production by or about Asian Latin Americans, with an emphasis on Cuba and Brazil. Among the recurrent characters are the black slave, the china mulata, or the black ally who expresses sympathy or even marries the Asian character. This reflects a common history of bondage shared by black slaves, Chinese coolies, and Japanese indentured workers, as well as a common history of marronage. These conflicts and alliances between Asians and blacks contest the official discourse of mestizaje (Spanish-indigenous dichotomies in Mexico and Andean countries, for example, or black and white binaries in Brazil and the Caribbean), which, under the guise of incorporating the Other, favored whiteness, all the while attempting to silence, ignore, or ultimately erase their worldviews and cultures.
Mon, 11 July 2016
ESSAY Download: 1929| View: 1304| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0020.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Literary Studies Keywords: posthuman; deterriteriolization; diaspora; home; Arab women; Arab Anglophone
Online: 11 July 2016 (10:41:37 CEST)
The present paper offers a reading of three selected novels by two Anglophone Arab writers Diana Abujaber and Fadia Faqir. Our reading is fundamentally based on a philosophical post-humanist perception of other ethnic minorities as being inferior and un-human. In interpreting the three novels, Arabian Jazz (2003), My Name is Salma (2007) and Willow Trees Don’t Weep (2014), a main concern is to bring to light how Arabs –and Muslims –have been zombified and de-humanized in Western mainstream media and culture based on a biased stigmatization and stereotyping of a large heterogeneous ethnic group wherein religions, traditions, languages and cultures are diverse. Also, a pivotal preoccupation is going to be the exiling journey of the protagonists from their homelands to Western countries, and how these journeys contribute to the post-humanization of the self, the identity and the culture of Arab displaced immigrants.