ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1657.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: palliative care; health policy; health knowledge; education; organizational efficiency.
Online: 25 September 2023 (07:50:39 CEST)
Objectives This article focuses on exploring the evolution of Palliative Care in Portugal. Ten years after the approval of its Basic Law, the aim was to investigate the quality of the path followed and the guidelines that could promote its development. Thus, this study sought to identify a) the goals of the current members of parliament concerning Palliative Care, b) the major priorities that should guide the development of Palliative Care in the coming decade, c) the facilitating or hindering factors to accelerating the process, and d) to propose consensually agreed measures for an integral development of Palliative Care within the health system. Methods Qualitative data analysis was performed from the reading of literature and interviews conducted via Zoom with several intentionally chosen participants, leading to the creation of a Focus Group. The NVivo® 10 was used for data processing and categorisation. Results Three key themes emerged concerning the current status of palliative care: the policymakers, the technicians, and the society. This first line of structuring is explained by a second set of categories, namely, a) knowledge about palliative care; b) Palliative care organisation from the policymakers’ perspective. In the technicians' domain: a) knowledge about palliative care, b) clinical training, and c) medical specialty. Finally, in society: a) knowledge about palliative care. Significance of the Results Advancing general education, increasing qualitative training for the different health professionals, reformulating laws supporting them, promoting flexibility of the implementation methodologies, and establishing medical specialty, are crucial to achieving the proposed goal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1303.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Contracting-out; Nursing Center; Health Promotion; Disease Prevention
Online: 20 September 2023 (03:33:59 CEST)
Nurses focus more on curative aspects rather than health promotion and disease prevention, thus weakening primary health care and lessening engagement with the community. Providing a learning environment that can support the professional growth of nurses through engagement with local communities and educational institutions would strengthen primary health care in the community; however, this poses challenges due to the traditional mindset of nurses towards primary health care. This integrative review aimed to explore key features of the potential of the nursing center model as a contracting-out approach to strengthen primary health care services. This integrative review provides lessons for implementing the Nursing Centre model for any country, mainly where nurses are not fully utilized for health promotion and disease prevention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0928.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: social stigma; Psychotic disorders; Faculty; School teachers.
Online: 14 September 2023 (10:57:32 CEST)
Abstract Psychiatric care in Spain has experienced relevant changes both in the legislative and conceptual frameworks. This new approach advocates for the combination of carrying out mental health promotion, prevention of alterations and early diagnosis and treatment, enhancing actions against stigma and emphasising the attention on the most vulnerable groups, like childhood and youth. For that, it has seen fit to perform a nursing intervention on Education and Promotion of mental health for teachers and counsellors of a secondary school located in Valencia, with the general objective of assessing their impact on stigma. Non-randomised clinical trial in which a nursing intervention on Education and Promotion of mental health was performed. Pre-intervention tools: multiple choice test validated by a group of experts; pre and post-intervention: AQ-27 (stigma attribution); in order to check its acceptance, satisfaction surveys were used. The inferential analysis included the Wilcoxon Test (pre and post AQ-27) and the Pearson Correlation Test for the quantitative variables of interest. Sample (n=22): women aged 47.96 ± 10.12 years with 18.64 ± 10.34 years of work experience. The predominant stigmatising attitude before and after intervention was “Coercion”. The ones with lower score were “Segregation” and “Anger”. The p-values obtained in the Wilcoxon Test were statistically significant (p-value <0.05) except for “pre and post Responsibility” and “pre and post Pity”. The following constructs of interest were faced: “Age” vs “Fear” (r= -0.48, moderate), “Professional experience” and “Fear” (r= -0.46, moderate) and “Help” and “Psychosis test” (r= 0.51, severe). The overall satisfaction score was 9/10. Despite the scores obtained in “Coercion” and “Psychosis”, the intervention was useful for reducing stigma in the sample.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0961.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: breast cancer; chemotherapy; lipids; triglycerides; HDL; LDL; cholesterol
Online: 14 September 2023 (07:25:14 CEST)
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Cardiovascular diseases are common complications after chemotherapy due to the effect of the drug on lipid levels. This study aimed to explore the changes in lipid profiles in patients with breast cancer under chemotherapy. Methods: In this prospective study, 50 patients with breast cancer participated. Three biochemical-lipid hematological tests were performed: total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL-C), and Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL-C) before initiation (pre-chemotherapy), at the start (1st follow-up), and at the completion (2nd follow-up) of the first cycle of chemotherapy. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Analyses were conducted using SPSS Statistical Software (version 22.0). Results: Mean TC values increased significantly at 2nd follow-up. TG values decreased significantly from 1st to 2nd follow-up. HDL-C was significantly lower at 1st follow-up compared to pre-chemotherapy and 2nd follow-up reaching similar to the initial levels. LDL-C values were significantly higher at 2nd follow-up compared to pre-chemotherapy measurement. Significantly positive correlations of BMI with pre-chemotherapy LDL-C, 1st follow-up TC, 1st follow-up LDL-C, 2nd follow-up TC, and 2nd follow-up LDL-C were found. Conclusions: There is a statistically significant increase in the levels of TC and LDL-C in breast cancer patients during chemotherapy. This study was not registered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0909.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: psychological changes; self esteem; resilliance; Nurses
Online: 14 September 2023 (04:56:08 CEST)
Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) almost ceased to spread across the globe, but post Covid psychological experiences are rarely documented. It is essential to understand the individual psychological needs and challenges regarding working during the covid-19 pandemic and resilience and psychological health to continuing work in the aftermath of this crisis. Objective To explore the psychological transformation of staff nurses after COVID-19 Methods A phenomenological and purposive sampling approach was employed. Registered nurses working at the largest health organization in Qatar includes 14 health facilities were invited to participate in this study. 17 nurses who were working in the facilities and were deployed during the first, second and third wave of Covid 19 participated in the interview. Data were collected through semi-structured face-to-face interviews using quarantine measures. The interview data were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Results The psychological transformation of participants was summarized into three themes fear zone, Learning zone and growth zone. These themes were classified into 10 sub-themes Fear and anxiety, Influence of media and news, Frequent change in policies and guidelines were the fear zone factors .Secondly Coping mechanism, teamwork, establishing compassionate care, social acceptance, personal and professional benefits helps them learn psychologically. Thirdly growth factors such as confident & resilient, Sense of purpose and Change life perception and meaning Conclusion Working during COVID-19 imposed many challenges on nurses such as workload and stress. However, the different waves of the pandemic may increase the resilience, confidence and life meaning in nurses. Their previous experiences in handling difficult situations during the pandemic may make the nurses become more confident in dealing with stressful situations and working under pressure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0422.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Health Education; surgical patients
Online: 7 September 2023 (02:46:37 CEST)
Today, the various abilities that nurses require to meet patients’ healthcare needs adequately are all affected by AI-enabled systems. This research used an experimental study design in which 60 subjects were randomly assigned to either an experimental (AI image e-book guidance) group or a control (text paper guidance) group after meeting the admission conditions and agreeing to participate in the study. It was proven that providing AI image e-book guidance before surgery significantly changed the behavior of patients and promoted relief of urinary catheter discomfort through self-efficacy to reduce urinary catheter pain after surgery(p=0.000). It was found that providing AI image e-book guidance can shorten the time for health education and provide patients with repeated medical education and familiarity with health guidance, which can help to address the important clinical service demand issue and the shortage of nursing staff.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0217.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: HIV; intimate partner violence; childbearing; infant feeding practices
Online: 5 September 2023 (09:27:58 CEST)
Intimate partner violence (IPV), particularly sexual and emotional violence, against Black mothers who acquire human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during childbearing age is a significant health and social concern worldwide requiring targeted interventions and precautions. IPV against women increases the chances of early mixed feeding, putting infants at high risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and increased infant morbidities. Although violence complicates many Black mothers’ lives, there is limited research evidence about the critical intersections of violence, HIV, and Black motherhood. Women's fears associated with IPV make them less likely to disclose their positive HIV status to their partners which subsequently prevents them from using the recommended guidelines for safe infant feeding practices. This review aims to explore the critical intersections between IPV and HIV and the impact of both on the infant feeding practices of Black mothers living with HIV. Furthermore, the theme of IPV and how it overlaps with other factors such as HIV-positive status and gender dynamics to compromise the Black motherhood experience are the focus of this narrative review of existing literature. Understanding the intersection of IPV and other factors influencing infant feeding practices among women living with HIV will help inform programming and policy interventions for HIV-positive Black mothers who may be experiencing IPV during the perinatal period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1854.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: obstetrics labor; obstetric violence; surveys and questionnaires; validation Studies as topic
Online: 28 August 2023 (10:02:28 CEST)
Obstetric Violence refers to dehumanized or derogative treatment of women in their pregnancy, childbirth or postpartum periods and may be manifested through the attitudes of health professionals or the performance of unjustified or outdated practices without maternal consent. Currently, there is no tool validated in Spain to measure women’s perception of obstetric violence. The objective of this study was to carry out the cultural adaption and validation of an existing 14-item Obstetric Violence Scale to the Spanish context, and to evaluate its psychometric properties. The research was conducted in two phases: first, a methodological study designed to evaluate content validity, through assessments by 8 experts (calculating the Aiken V coefficient) and face validity in a sample of 20 women; second, a cross-sectional study to evaluate construct validity (through confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch analysis), divergent validity against a scale of birth satisfaction, known groups validity and reliability. In Phase 1, Aiken V values higher than 0.71 were obtained for all items. Phase 2 was conducted on a sample of 256 women and the fit values for the unidimensional model were RMSEA: 0.070 [95%CI: 0.059-0.105] and GFI: 0.982 [95%CI: 0.823-0.990]. The Rasch analysis indicated poor performance of item 2, which was removed. The Omega and Cronbach's Alpha coefficients were 0.863 and 0.860, respectively. A final 13-item version of the Obstetric Violence scale was produced, with total score ranging from 0 (no obstetric violence perception) to 52 (maximum obstetric violence perception). The Obstetric Violence Scale is a reliable and useful tool to measure women's perception of obstetric violence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1587.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Communications Media; Mass Media; Papageno effect; Prevention; Suicide; Suicidal behaviours; Suicidal Ideation and Werther effect.
Online: 22 August 2023 (14:42:27 CEST)
Aim: To analyse recommended interventions for the safe and responsible dissemination of suicidal behaviour in the media. An umbrella review was conducted. Background: Suicide is a serious public health problem that leads to more than 700,000 deaths per year, which translates into one death every forty seconds. The media are channels of information that reflect the real world. Because of its active role in the construction of reality, the way in which the media report and expose suicidal behaviour has the capacity to influence the population in either a preventive or harmful way. Design: An umbrella review was carried out and the report was written according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Overviews of Reviews.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1368.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Aging; Primary Health Care; Postural Balance
Online: 18 August 2023 (10:40:10 CEST)
The second external cause of death from unintentional injuries is falls in people over 60, a worldwide public health problem. Associated factors are identified early in Primary Health Care. Thus, we analyze professional narratives about older adults/old age and the organization of services in the presence of fall-inducing frailty. A structured narrative was applied under the following stages: understanding the context; setting/plot/character analysis; and interpretive synthesis. Data were collected from August to November 2022, distributing 21 health professionals in three Narrative Focus Groups. In the analyses, the collective conceptions dialogued with Bourdieu’s Epistemology of field, habitus, and capital. Among the results, technical and common sense representations of older adults were simultaneously observed, along with the belief of old age as a problematic life stage. Care is centered on the installed disease/ailment. Encouraging autonomy and self-care emerges in integrative health practices, which older adults underestimate. Professionals access the lives of older adults according to their habitus, which, in turn, is structured (structuring) in the disputes for installed capital. Thus, the care provided disregards subjectivities and symbolic systems associated with falls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1205.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Vocations; Leadership; Work Environment; Nursing
Online: 16 August 2023 (11:10:16 CEST)
Background: The presence of a leadership role in the nursing manager appears to be closely related to a positive and productive work environment within health settings. In some contexts, such as Mexico, the profile of the nursing manager has not been formally defined, and, sometimes those who occupy these positions do not always have sufficient training, and therefore this vocation, which is related to the social image of the nursing profession. This study aims to understand the influence of the vocation for leadership that the nursing manager has and how it can influence the work environment, through the analysis of experiences lived by health professionals with a management profile of different health environments; Methods: Qualitative study of an approximation to grounded theory using Corbin & Strauss as reference, using semi-structured individual interviews as a technique, and with the participation of 10 Mexican nursing managers from second-level care hospitals; Results: The meaning of the vocation for the interviewed managers is based in the first instance on the love of the profession and the vocation to be a nurse, then on the development of leadership for decision-making in practice and is fed back with the positive effects that it generates in the work environment, helping them to better organize human resources and professional activities, and strengthening themselves with specific training on the subject and the experience acquired. ; Conclusions: An understanding model is provided about the phenomenon where two central categories were identified, the first central category is the "Management vocation and natural nursing leadership" which is the basis; The second central category is the "Explanation and influence of the managerial vocation, natural leadership and work environment in nursing". Two connection categories were also created; the connection category one "Motives, meaning, and practical vocation of managerial nursing" and the connection category two "Description of the managerial vocation, natural leadership, and work environment", said connection categories emanate from the central category one, to connect with the central category two, which contains the interaction of the managerial vocation, natural leadership, and work environment in nursing.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0894.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: aged; concept formation; geriatric nursing; resilience psychological; standardized nursing terminology
Online: 11 August 2023 (07:12:02 CEST)
(1) Background: Resilience has been presented as a potential protective factor to be promoted in difficult experiences in the elderly. However, further clarification of the concept of resilience is needed about this population, as this is of critical interest for nursing care. (2) Aim: To develop the concept of resilience in the elderly to establish the elements that refer to the nursing outcome Personal resilience (1309) from the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC), specifically in the elderly. (3) Methods: Concept analysis using Beth Rodgers' evolutionary model. The attributes, antecedents, consequents and empirical elements were described in the integrative review, with searches in PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, LILACS and Embase databases. A total of 2431 citations have been identified and 110 studies were included. (4) Results: The concept of “resilience in the elderly” is composed of two attributes: available resources and positive behaviours and is defined as positive attitudes of older people with the assistance of resources available from experiences of adversity. Conclusion: This analysis and concept development of resilience in the elderly provided sensitive indicators for nursing care in the context of adversity, considering available resources and with positive attitudes during this phase of life span.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0874.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Renal insufficiency; Comorbidity; Frailty; Renal dialysis; Sarcopenia
Online: 10 August 2023 (16:15:04 CEST)
The study investigated the relationships between sarcopenia, frailty, and related factors in hemodialysis patients with chronic kidney disease. A prospective cross-sectional study with convenience sampling was conducted between August 2021 and February 2022 at a hospital-affiliated hemodialysis center. Ninety-six hemodialysis patients participated in the study. Quantitative data were collected with structured interviews. Sarcopenia was determined with a rapid screening tool. Frailty was determined with the Rockwood clinical frailty score. Descriptive analysis, Person Correlations, and Linear regression analysis were used to evaluate the associations between frailty, sarcopenia, and health-related factors in hemodialysis patients. The mean age of the participants was 65.4 11.5 years, with an average of 95.0 77.5 months of hemodialysis. The most common comorbidity was hypertension (72.9%), followed by diabetes mellitus (39.6%) and cardiovascular health problems (35.4%). A significant difference in frailty between sarcopenia patients and a healthy population (X2 =9.51, p <.001) was identified. There was a strong negative correlation (r= −.853, p<.001) between sarcopenia and frailty, while moderate correlations between sarcopenia and frailty in sarcopenia patients (r= −.66, p<.001) and a healthy population (r= −.58, p<.001) were observed. Age, body weight before dialysis, and hand grip strength were found to be potential predictors of sarcopenia and frailty. Left calf circumference was significantly associated with sarcopenia (ß= −.128, p = .049). Age, body weight before dialysis, and hand grip strength are potential predictors of sarcopenia and frailty in hemodialysis patients with chronic kidney disease. Comorbidities, which may be preventable, are common in this population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0115.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Evidence-based practice; nurses; competency; attitude; knowledge; skills; utilization
Online: 2 August 2023 (03:14:38 CEST)
Nurses’ competency towards Evidence-based Practice (EBP) has been extensively investigated by several studies worldwide. However, factors affecting the competence of Greek nurses working in the NHS have not been fully investigated in terms of EBP. Thus, this study aimed to explore the impact of individual qualifications of nurses on their competence towards EBP. Data from 473 registered nurses working in 10 hospitals of in the Greek National Health Service (NHS) were collected between October and December 2022 using a convenience-sampling method in a cross-section design. The Greek version of the 35-item (5-point Likert scale) Evidence-Based Practice Competency Questionnaire for Professional Registered Nurses (EBP-COQ Prof) was used to assess the competence level of nurses focusing on the attitudes, skills, and knowledge as well as the utilization of EBP in clinical practice. One-way ANOVA and Pearson coefficient tests were applied to compare possible differences among variables (two or more groups) as appropriate. A multi-factorial regression model was applied to explore participants’ qualifications, including demographics (MSc degree, gender, English language knowledge, etc.) as independent variables, and to control for potential confounding effects toward EBP competency. P-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. The mean age of 473 participants (402 women and 71 men) was 44.7 ± 9.2 years old. The mean value of competence subscales was found as follows: attitudes 3.9±0.6, knowledge 3.7±0.6, skills 3.1±0.8, and utilization 3.4±0.7. A multivariate regression analysis revealed that associates of “Master's degree” (t=3.039, p=0.003), “Writing an academic article” (3.409, p=0.001), “Working in a University clinic” (2.203, p=0.028) and, “Computer Skills” (2.404, p=0.017) are positively affecting ‘Attitudes’, ‘Knowledge’, ‘Skills’ and ‘Utilization’. Respectively. The research data suggest that nurses working in Greek NHS are limited in competence towards EBP in comparison to other European countries. Therefore, Vocational, Educational and Training programs tailored to EBP enhancement are crucially important.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1980.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: preschool; caregiver; vegetable consumption; fruit consumption; social support
Online: 28 July 2023 (09:29:46 CEST)
This research objective was to develop a promoting vegetable and fruit consumption behaviors program among preschool children based on 4 aspects of House’s social support framework to increase fruit and vegetable consumption in preschool the program. This study was quasi-experimental. The sample consisted of preschool children and their caregivers who were randomly selected based on the inclusion criteria. The experimental and control groups had 96 pairs of preschool-aged children and their caregivers. The experimental group was given the program, while the control group was to resume normal activities. The program development was based on the caring lifestyle of caregivers in Muang District, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province. The tools consisted of a preschool care eating behavior assessment and a caregiver knowledge test about the child's fruit and vegetable intake and how to modify the child's fruit and vegetable intake. In addition, fruit and vegetable eating behaviors in preschoolers and a handbook for nurses and primary caregivers were approved by five experts and deemed suitable for the caregiver support framework. The results of the development indicated that a 10-week program was appropriate and tended to increase preschoolers' consumption of fruits and vegetables. In especially experimental group both caregivers increasingly gained knowledge and behavior of caregivers to promote fruit and vegetable eating behavior and preschool increasing the fruit and vegetable consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1029.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: self-care; self-management; hypertension; validation; scale development
Online: 17 July 2023 (12:11:43 CEST)
Background: The adoption of self-care behaviors among patients with arterial hypertension (AH) plays an important role in the management of their health condition. However, a lack of scales assessing self-care is observed. We aimed to develop and validate the Hippocratic hypertension self-care scale. Methods: From a pool of questions derived from a literature review, 18 items were included in the scale and reviewed by a committee of experts. Participants indicate the frequency at which they follow the self-behavior prescribed in each statement on a five-point Likert scale. Data were collected between April 2019 and December 2019. Re-sults: 202 consecutive adult patients with AH were enrolled in the study. The internal consistency of the scale was found to be 0.807, using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. An exploratory factor analysis identified two do-mains that accounted for 92.94% of the variance of the scale items; however, each sub-scale could not be used as an independent scale. Finally, the test- retest of the scale showed a significant strong correlation (r=0.0095, p<0.001). Conclusion: Our data indicate that the scale is a reliable and valid tool for assessing self-behaviors in patients with AH. Health professionals can use it in their clinical practice to improve the management of patients’ health condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0829.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Social Responsibility; Concept Analysis; praxis
Online: 13 July 2023 (02:45:51 CEST)
Purpose: Social responsibility has been accepted as a core value of nursing profession, particularly in the area of health disparity, but it seems to be difficult to understand for what is meant by social responsibility. The purpose of this study was to explore ways to define the concept of social responsibility of nursing in order to understand the meaning of social responsibility in the field of nursing profession. Methods: The concept analysis process by Walker and Avant was used to clarify the meaning of social responsibility of nursing. Results: Defining attributes of social responsibility of nursing included praxis, as approach to strategizing for social and structural change of inequity, care for an oppressed group which is under social suffering caused by the privilege and power, and action for health policy change in social and political unequal contexts. The antecedents of social responsibility of nursing included reflectivities in identifying personal characteristics, taking seriously the perspective of other vulnerable population, recognizing social environmental status quo (‘fair or unfair’), developing competences in ethical and moral reasoning with social issues. Consequences of social responsibility of nursing were achieving social justice, as equal access to basic human health need in societal level, equal access to effective nursing practice delivery system and development of health promotion policy for world health administrative practices (“health for all”) in nursing. Conclusion: This study provides a guidance to direct future studies through the procedure of identifying conceptual attributes in the context of social responsibility of nursing. Future studies are suggested to develop instruments for social responsibility as well as development of educational programs to promote social responsibility competences in nursing students and nurses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0541.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: high-fidelity patient simulation; problem-solving; clinical reasoning; healthcare
Online: 10 July 2023 (04:48:42 CEST)
High-fidelity patient simulation (HFPS) is widely used in professional training to enhance students’ competence in clinical management. Problem-solving (PS) and clinical reasoning (CR) skills are essential to developing students in professional competence in safe and effective care. These two skills should be initiated at the early training. However, little is known about the effects of HFPS on developing PS and CR skills in first year undergraduate students. Therefore, this pre- and post-experimental study aimed to investigate the effects of HFPS on development of PS and CR skills in first-year nursing students. The students were required to go through four sessions, preparation, pre-briefing and orientation, simulation role-playing, and debriefing, for the HFPS. The study utilized the Problem-Solving Inventory (PSI) and the Nurses Clinical Reasoning Scale (NCRS) to measure problem-solving and clinical reasoning abilities before and after HFPS. Bivariate analysis, one-sample t-test, and independent t-test were performed to evaluate the performance of the PS and CR skills at the two study periods. One hundred eighty-nine students were recruited, with a mean age of 20.56 years, and 73% were female students. The analytic results showed that the PSI, particularly in domains of Problem-Solving Confidence (PSC) (p<0.001) and overall PS (p<0.001), and the CR (p<0.001) had significant improvement after HFPS. The study concluded that HFPS is an effective innovative method to significantly improve students’ problem-solving and clinical reasoning abilities. Nurse educators play an important role in providing explicit learning instructions in a simulation guideline that directs and guides students to learn at each stage of HFPS. Students should take more initiative and engage in their learning through HFPS to enhance their competence in knowledge and higher intellectual skills for personal and professional developments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0523.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: High-fidelity; simulation; satisfaction; confidence; learning; nursing education
Online: 7 July 2023 (20:03:55 CEST)
The coronaviral pandemic has led to a shift in traditional teaching methods to more innovative approaches, such as high-fidelity patient simulation (HFPS), which can improve students’ clinical judgement and decision-making for quality patient care. A modified guideline was introduced to enhance students’ satisfaction and self-confidence in learning through HFPS. The study involved 189 baccalaureate nursing students, with 92 in the intervention group and 97 in the control group. The intervention group received the modified HFPS guideline, while the control group received standard treatment with basic instruction. After the HFPS debriefing session, students provided narrative feedback on their learning experience. The quantitative results showed that students in the intervention group reported a significant improvement in satisfaction and self-confidence in learning compared to the control group. The modified HFPS guideline provided clear guidance for students to learn and apply knowledge and skills more effectively, leading to increased engagement during interactive simulation sessions. The results suggest that the HFPS guideline should be added to the curriculum to enhance students’ satisfaction and self-confidence in learning, even in junior students. Innovative teaching methods, such as HFPS, can be necessary and beneficial for healthcare professional training, after the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0434.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: dialysis patients; nursing guidance; resilience
Online: 7 July 2023 (07:06:04 CEST)
This is a survey study that dialysis patients were randomly sampled from a medical center in northern Taiwan, and those who gave their consent to participate were included in this study. The purpose of this study was to explore the correlation between depression, hope, and quality of life of dialysis patients. All subjects agreed to take "Beck’s Depression Inventory", " The Chinese version of Herth Hope Index" and " The Chinese version of Kidney Disease Quality of Life" (KDQOL-SFTM). Data were processed using SPSS for descriptive and inferential statistics. The results showed that patients were 12.45±SD 9.03, which was mild depression, the mean score of hope was 34.25, which was equivalent to 72.60%, and was at the middle level. In KDQOL-SFTM, the score in mental composite (M=42.65, SD=8.81) was higher than in physical composite (M=37.38, SD=9.28), and the score was at the intermediate quality of life, and hope and depression were significantly and negatively correlated. This study suggests that dialysis case managers provide nursing guidance to help dialysis patients learn comfortable care methods and support the resilience they need.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2162.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Uncertainty; PRU scale; anxiety; stress; report; nursing communication
Online: 29 June 2023 (14:05:19 CEST)
Introduction: Lack of certainty or knowledge in health professions generates uncertainty, affecting clinical practice in decision-making (diagnostic or therapeutic), intervention design and therapeutic communication. In nursing, the lack of information to predict prognosis and outcome of interventions generates uncertainty: recognizing and managing it is essential for individualized, safe, and effective care. Objective: to assess uncertainty and the perception of a debriefing within the same shift ("intrathoracic pass") as a proposal for improvement. Method: ad-hoc survey of nursing professionals and Auxiliary Nursing Care Technicians (ANC). Variables: age, work experience, PRU scale (Physisicians' Reactions to Uncertainty) and additional question on intrathoracic pass. Results: Sample: 61 nurses and 10 TCAE (90.14 % female, 9.86 % male; mean age 35.18, standard deviation SD=13.04). Mean professional experience 11.74 years (SD=12.21); 56.33% had ≤4 years of experience. Origin: 49.30% Intensive Care Units (ICU), 11.27% Hospitalization, 7.04% Emergency, 1.41% Primary Care and 30.99% Other Services. The mean level of uncertainty was 27.99 points (max. possible 75; SD=7.50), with stress (mean=25.55, max. possible: 40; SD=5.24) and anxiety (mean=15.80, max. possible: 25; SD=3.05) as major manifestations. The association uncertainty-age (r=0.339; p=0.004) and uncertainty-experience (r=0.391; p=0.001) correlated negatively (the older and more experienced, the less uncertainty), with no significant differences between degrees or services. 91.55% stated that the intra-day pass was useful to reduce uncertainty during the working day. Conclusion: Uncertainty is frequent in nursing, and implementing the intrashift pass is perceived as a competent strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2137.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Cancer; tobacco use; neurobiology of nicotine dependence; nicotine addiction; tobacco use treatment; smoking cessation; literature review article
Online: 29 June 2023 (11:50:24 CEST)
The prolonged exposure to nicotine and the development of nicotine dependence have significant implications for cancer risk. Tobacco use, driven by nicotine addiction, is a major contributing factor to the development of various types of cancer. Smoking tobacco, in particular, has been strongly associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, as well as other malignancies. The harmful chemicals present in tobacco products, including carcinogens, can cause DNA damage and promote the initiation and progression of cancerous cells. This article presents a comprehensive literature review on the neurobiology of nicotine dependence and its implications for tobacco use treatment. Nicotine dependence is a complex phenomenon involving various neurobiological mechanisms. When nicotine enters the body, it binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain's reward circuitry, triggering the release of neurotransmitters like dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. Over time, repeated nicotine exposure leads to neuroadaptive changes in the brain, resulting in increased motivation to seek and use the drug. Understanding the neurobiology of nicotine dependence is crucial for developing effective treatment strategies. Pharmacological interventions, such as nicotine replacement therapy and medications like bupropion and varenicline, can help individuals manage cravings and withdrawal symptoms. Additionally, behavioral therapies and counseling play a vital role in enhancing self-efficacy and providing support for smoking cessation efforts. By reviewing the existing literature, this article sheds light on the intricate neural pathways and processes involved in nicotine addiction. It emphasizes the importance of a multidimensional approach that combines pharmacological treatments and behavioral interventions to address the physiological and psychological aspects of nicotine dependence. This knowledge can inform the development of more targeted and personalized treatment approaches to help individuals overcome tobacco addiction and improve their chances of successful smoking cessation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2053.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: nursing students; paramedic students; training; virtual reality; augmented reality; disaster medicine; mass casualty incidents; competence; self-efficacy; learning immersion
Online: 28 June 2023 (15:54:49 CEST)
Nurses and paramedics play a pivotal role when Mass Casualty Incidents (MCI) occur, yet they often feel unprepared for such events. Implementation strategies for training activities, including Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) simulations, offer realistic and immersive learning experiences, enhancing skills and competencies for nursing students. The aim of this work was to investigate the adopted tools in studies on VR&AR simulations for training nursing and paramedic students in managing MCI. A scoping review was performed following the PRISMA-ScR statement, and the search strategy was conducted through five electronic databases from December 2022 to March 2023. Of 162 records identified, 27 full-text were screened and, six studies were included in this review. These studies involved students who were assigned to different training methods, including immersive VR simulation, written instruction, and traditional lecture. VR&AR and immersive simulation generally show promising evidences in enhancing practical skills and knowledge in MCI management. VR&AR showed to be promising in disaster education and preparedness training, offering different levels of immersiveness and engagement, encouraging active and experential learning. Further research is needed to determine their long-term effectiveness. The choice of training method should consider program goals, target population, and available resources.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1984.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Standardized Nursing Terminology; Nursing Process; Nursing Care; Effectiveness; Systematic Review
Online: 28 June 2023 (09:49:46 CEST)
The nursing process in clinical practice can be assessed using standardized language systems. The purpose is to find evidence on the effectiveness of the nursing process with standardized terminology using NANDA International, Nursing Interventions Classification, and Nursing Outcome Classification improving diag-nostic accuracy, nursing interventions, health outcomes, and people’s satisfaction. A systematic review was carried out in Medline and PreMedline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, SCI-EXPANDED, SSCI and Scielo and LILACS including randomized clinical trials, quasi-experimental, cohort and case-control studies. Selection and critical appraisal were conducted by two independent reviewers. The certainty of the evidence was assessed with Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Methodology. 17 studies were included with variability in the level and certainty of evidence. According to outcomes, 6 evaluated improvements in diagnostic accuracy and 11 evaluated improvements in individual health outcomes. No studies evaluated improvements in intervention efficacy or population satisfaction. There is a need to increase studies with rigorous methodologies that address diagnostic accuracy and indi-viduals’ health outcomes using NANDA International, Nursing Interventions Classification, and Nursing Outcome Classification; as well as implementing studies that evaluate the use of these terminologies for improvements in the efficacy of nurses' interventions and population satisfaction with the nursing process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1415.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: obesity; nursing home; care problem; incontinence
Online: 20 June 2023 (09:32:22 CEST)
(1) Background: There is not much research about obesity in nursing homes although knowledge will help us to develop customized treatment plans and prevention strategies, which may help to decrease the burden for all persons involved. The objective of conducting this study was to describe the prevalence of obesity and the association between obesity and care problems in nursing home patients. (2) Methods: This study is a secondary data analysis of data collected in an annually performed cross-sectional study called “Nursing Quality Measurement 2.0”. A standardized and tested questionnaire was used to collect data. (3) Results: 1236 nursing home patients took part and 16.7% of them were obese. The multivariate logistic regression analysis results show that urinary incontinence is significantly associated with the presence of obesity (OR 2.111). The other care problems of pressure injuries, fecal and double incontinence, physical restraints, falls and pain were not associated with obesity. (4) Conclusion: The results indicate that, in the nursing home setting, health care staff should pay special attention to the patients’ nutritional and continence status and help patients maintain a normal, healthy weight. Conducting more studies with larger sample sizes is recommended, as this will allow differentiation among different obesity classes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1367.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: CT Scan; Trauma; necessity; Hospital; Brian
Online: 19 June 2023 (14:00:52 CEST)
Introduction: CT scan of the skull in patients with head trauma play an important role in identifying patients' injuries; In moderate to severe brain injury; CT scans are arguably the best way to get information about the intracranial complications of a head injury. Researchers have cited a number of reasons for why doctors are increasingly asking for CT scans of patients. In this study; pathological findings in CT scan of patients with mild cranial trauma and level of consciousness 13-15 are examined. Method: In this study, the treatment process of 445 patients who had referred to the emergency department due to skull trauma was examined as research units; and samples were taken by simple random sampling among patients for whom CT scan of the brain was requested. In this study; the reasons for requesting a CT scan of the skull from the requesting physician were questioned through an interview at the time of request. Results: According to the tables; it can be seen that most of the patients referred to the hospital due to skull trauma for CT scan were men and were discharged in less than the first 24 hours. The age group of 21 to 30 years had the highest and the age group over 70 years had the lowest frequency and the highest percentage of request for CT scan was by doctor and the biggest injury that caused patients with mild cranial trauma to go to hospital was fall. Conclusion Based on the findings of this study, cranial trauma is one of the life-threatening factors that can cause minor or severe injuries Its range varies from superficial injuries to hematoma and intracranial hemorrhage, which is a reason to perform CT scans of patients with skull trauma. In order to carefully examine the extent of the damage to the patient and to avoid possible risks and to take the necessary measures for treatment. On the other hand, the lack of clear protocols as well as the lack of clarity and certainty of physicians in their diagnoses to perform graphs of qualified people has increased the number of unnecessary CT scans
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1336.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: palliative sedation; terminal care; nursing; palliative care; qualitative research
Online: 19 June 2023 (09:20:02 CEST)
Knowing the symbolizations constructed in people's consciousness, based on lived experiences, is crucial to understanding how they structure their lives. Palliative Sedation (PS) integrates treatment in terminal palliative care, with the purpose of offering support and relief of refractory symptoms that may occur at the end of life. This study aimed at interpreting psychic fantasies that permeate thoughts, as reported by a sample of nurses when administering palliative sedation to patients in the final stage of life. This is a clinical-qualitative study conducted in a large hospital in the city of São Paulo (state of São Paulo, Brazil), a national reference in oncology. The study included 11 nurses working in the care of cancer patients. For data collection, we used the technique of SDIOQD – Semi-Directed Interview with Open-ended Questions in-Depth. The treatment by CQCA - Clinical-Qualitative Content Analysis is grounded on psychodynamic concepts. The interpretation of the meaning cores found in the interviews, complemented by observation of the para-verbal and nonverbal manifestations of the interviewees, led to the construction of three categories: (1) to symbolically serve death on a tray; (2) the act of sedation and its unfortunate coincidences; (3) palliative sedation as an agent of mercy death. This study suggests that nurses face dilemmatic situations, going through periods of self-questioning and moments of the ambivalence of feelings of beneficence and maleficence. When sedating a patient, the nurses envision to be offering dignity in death. Euthanasia fantasies in the process of administering sedation are latent in consciousness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1082.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: child; deafness; parents; qualitative research.
Online: 15 June 2023 (07:29:25 CEST)
This study was carried out in a qualitative research type and phenomenological design since it was aimed to determine the life experiences of the parents of deaf children. The study sample consisted of 20 parents of deaf children registered in a special education and rehabilitation center who spoke Turkish and were literate and did not have hearing loss. The data were collected through in-depth interviews in Istanbul between December and January 2022. Colaizzi's phenomenological interpretation method was used in qualitative data analysis. It was determined that parents of deaf children experienced anxiety, sadness, and happiness during diagnosis. They lacked information at first, but then they gained knowledge in the process, and it was not easy to accept this process. They stated that having a deaf child requires more time, responsibility, and effort than other children, this situation affects their social life, and they experience interpersonal conflicts. When parents were asked how they coped, they said they did it through prayer, social support, or time to themselves. It can be recommended to apply psychosocial intervention programs to the parents of deaf children, especially their mothers, from the first diagnosis process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2005.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Catheters; Cost Benefit Analysis; Economic evaluation; Healthcare-associated infections; Nursing care; Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter; Peripheral Venous Catheters; Ultrasound.
Online: 29 May 2023 (09:58:33 CEST)
Background: The use of peripherally inserted central catheters and midline catheters is growing due to their potential benefits. These devices can increase patient safety and satisfaction while reducing the use of resources. As a result, many hospitals are establishing vascular access specialist teams staffed by nurses who are trained in the insertion and maintenance of these catheters. Objective: Evaluate ex-ante whether the benefits of replacing peripheral venous catheters, peripherally inserted central catheters and midline catheters with ultrasound-guided peripherally inserted central catheters and midline catheters by a vascular access specialist team outweigh their costs. Methods: Cost-benefit analysis from the perspective of the healthcare provider based on administrative data. The study estimates the reduction in resources used when replacing peripherally inserted central catheters, midline catheters and peripheral venous catheters with ultrasound-guided peripherally inserted central catheters and midlines, as well as the additional resources required for their use. Results: Each ultrasound-guided peripherally inserted central catheter replacing a peripherally inserted central catheter, results in a measurable resource reduction of approximately €31. When 3 peripheral venous catheters are replaced by an ultrasound-guided peripherally inserted central catheter, the saving is €63. Similarly, each ultrasound-guided midline catheter replacing a midline, results in a reduction of €16, while each ultrasound-guided midline catheter replacing 3 peripheral venous catheters results in a reduction of €96. Conclusion: The benefits of replacing peripheral venous catheters, peripherally inserted central catheters and midline catheters by introducing a vascular access specialist team trained in the implantation of ultrasound-guided peripherally inserted central catheters and midline catheters, outweigh its cost mainly because of the decrease in hospital stay due to the lowered risk of healthcare-associated infections. These results motivate the implementation of the service, adding to previous experience suggesting that it is also preferable from the point of view of patient safety and satisfaction.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1779.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: General hospital; General ward; Mental health care user; Non-psychiatric nurse
Online: 25 May 2023 (08:57:08 CEST)
Mental Health Care Users (MHCUs) are admitted in general wards with medical and surgical conditions where non-psychiatric nurses are allocated to render services for medical and surgical conditions. Non-psychiatric nurses are expected to care for MHCUs in general wards regardless of their knowledge and skills which is against the Mental Health Care Act. The purpose of the study was to explore and describe the experiences of non-psychiatric nurses in car-ing for MHCUs admitted in general wards in Limpopo Province. Qualitative approach using explorative, descriptive, and contextual design was adopted for the study. Methodology included the setting, population, sampling, ethical con-siderations, and the measures to ensure trustworthiness. The study was conducted in four general hospitals of Limpopo Province, South Africa with mental health care wards, medical ward and surgical ward which were selected through simple random sampling. Semi structured Individual interviews were used to collect data from twenty professional nurses until data saturation. Data was analysed using Tesch’ s method. Ethical considerations were adhered to throughout the study. Themes that emerged after data analysis were: Managing MHCUs, Types of patient’s behaviour. The study concluded that professional nurses without psychiatry caring for MHCUs in general wards need training to provide holistic care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0845.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Menstrual hygiene; knowldge; attitude; practice; Adolescent girls; Pakistan
Online: 11 May 2023 (10:59:48 CEST)
Introduction Menstrual hygiene is a critical issue encountered by women and girls of the reproductive age, which negatively affects their health and empowerment. It is still deemed a taboo in several parts of the world and girls hesitate to discuss menstruation with their family members, friends, or schoolteachers, which creates hurdles when they attain their menarche. Girls residing in rural areas encounter more problems, since they lack proper resources, and knowledge to manage their menstruation in school as well as at home. Methods The descriptive cross-sectional design was used to assess the study questions. The consecutive sampling techniques was applied to recruit 300 female participants from remote area of Gilgit, Pakistan, who were 13- to 22-year-old. A pre-tested questionnaire was utilized to collect the data, and to analyze the data the SPSS version 21.0 was used. Results The study found that more than half of the participants had poor level of knowledge, practices, and negative attitude towards menstrual hygiene. This could be because of many cultural and social taboos attached to menstrual hygiene. Conclusions The study concluded that the study participants were not knowledgeable about menstrual hygiene. They had poor practices and attitude regarding menstrual hygiene. Hence, it is recommended that frequent sessions should be conducted by health care workers to enhance the knowledge of parents, teachers, and young girls, to increase the positive attitude and practices regarding menstrual hygiene. Keywords menstruation, knowledge, attitude, practices, Adolescents
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0842.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Assessment, community, fall prevention, low-income, non-communicable diseases, public health, older people, risk, primary care
Online: 11 May 2023 (10:48:30 CEST)
Older adults in low-and middle-income countries experience a disproportionate burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Unintentional injuries are among the major NCDs, and falls are the second leading cause of these injuries and deaths worldwide, including in Thailand. We aimed to culturally adapt the CDC’s Stopping Elderly Accidents, Deaths, and Injuries (STEADI) for Thai older adults and explore the feasibility, appropriateness, and acceptability of using STEADI in primary care via trained community health workers (CHWs) and care managers (CMs). STEADI takes a coordinated care approach that consists of three steps: screening, assessing, and intervening. In Step a, CHWs screened fall risk in 20 community-dwelling older adults using three key questions and found that all of them had fall risk, then CHWs screened with a Stay Independent questionnaire (range 0-14) and found that 100% have high fall risk (total scores 9.7± 2.4). In Step b, CMs assessed balance, vision, footwear, postural hypotension, medications, and CHWs assessed home hazards. They found that 50% had poor balance, 70% took 4+ medications,75% fell on the walkway, and 70% had no bathroom modifications. In Step c, individual participants received fall prevention interventions to mitigate their specific fall risk factors. CHWs and CMs indicated high acceptability (19.20±.1.31 of 20 total), appropriateness (18.80± 1.79 of 20 total), and feasibility (18.60±1.67 of 20 total) of the Thai-STEADI intervention. Our study showed that the community-based multifactorial Thai-STEADI delivered by CHWs and CMs is feasible and acceptable to prevent falls in older adults with limited access to health care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0662.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: nursing homes; complex adaptive systems managers; placement learning; care quality; nursing students; nursing associate apprentice; health care assistants
Online: 9 May 2023 (13:18:15 CEST)
The nursing home (NH) population becomes increasingly frail, suffering several chronic ill-nesses, high symptom severity, and short remaining lifespan after admission; all this requires skilled, well-organized professional care. Little is known about how NH managers influence the caring and learning environment (CLE) to ensure competencies in meeting NH patients’ needs. The aim of this study is to explore how NH managers influence the CLE to provide basic nursing education for students and apprentices, in order to improve it. This study applies a qualitative design, using multiple methods and focusing on NHs as a context involving complex adaptive systems and on basic nursing as a complex issue. NH managers express a constant struggle to keep workloads manageable, and NHs come across as exhausted organizations with little surplus. Both managers and staff look for ways to execute the work with as little effort as pos-sible and mainly stick to well-established routines. Not participating directly in either daily caring or placement learning, NH managers influence the CLE indirectly through taming and coping strategies, largely using taming strategies that lead to serious unintended outcomes. Coping strategies involve leading collaborative processes in holding environments that are feasible with their workload and roles as managers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1064.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Nursing practice; engagement; retention; multilevel mixed methods; child and maternal health; child and family health services; progressive universalism; nurse home visiting; universal health services; nurse-parent relationship; families with complex needs; child maltreatment
Online: 27 April 2023 (09:42:43 CEST)
Family support is offered to Australian parents of young children using a mix of targeted and universal child and family health services. A feature of the universal services is the ability for nurses to work in partnership with families and to offer flexibility depending on need. This model of progressive universalism relies on the voluntary engagement of families, including families with complex needs. In this study, the capacity to engage and retain families, including those at risk for child maltreatment and family violence, was examined. Child and Family Health Nurses (n=129) participated in a pragmatic, multilevel mixed-methods study using the McCurdy and Daro (2001) Integrated Theory of Parent Involvement. A questionnaire was used in the first phase of the study to collect the quantitative data. Focus groups were then held with 27 participants recruited from phase one. Both homogeneous and heterogenous practices identified from the questionnaire were the focus of the discussions. Three phases of practice were identified and described: enrolment, retention and conclusion of the nurse-parent relationship and are presented and discussed in this paper. The retention of families with complex needs relies on flexible, advanced, and multidimensional nursing practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0168.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Central venous pressure; intensive care units; questionnaire; reliability; validity
Online: 10 April 2023 (10:27:04 CEST)
Although, central venous pressure (CVP) is among the most frequent estimated hemodynamic parameters in the critically ill setting, extremely little is known on how intensive care unit (ICU) nurses use this index in their decision-making process. The purpose of the study was to develop a new questionnaire for accessing how ICU nurses use CVP measurements to address patients’ he-modynamics investigating its validity and reliability. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 120 ICU nurses from four ICUs of Greece. Based on a comprehensive literature review and the evaluation of a five-experts panel a new questionnaire, named “CVP-Score”, was created having 8 items. The construct validity and the reliability of the questionnaire were examined. The half of the study participants’ (51.7%) was working at a specialized ICU, and they had a mean [±Standard Deviation (SD)] ICU experience of 13(±7.1) years. The estimated construct validity of the new-developed tool was acceptable, while the internal consistency reliability as measured by Cronbach alpha was excellent (0.901). CVP Score had acceptable test-retest reliability (r=0.996, p<0.001) and split-half reliability (0.855). CVP Score is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring how critical care nurses use CVP measurements in their decision-making process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0187.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: nurse; workload; staff workload; nursing intensive care; nursing activities score
Online: 10 February 2023 (07:53:12 CET)
Introduction. The main task of the study was to measure the workload of nurses in the care of a patient with a developmental defect–congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH)–in the neonatal intensive care unit, which was evaluated on the basis of standardized tools Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System (TISS–28), Nine Equivalents of Nursing Manpower use Score (NEMS) and Nursing activities Score (NAS). Methods. Retrospective study. The workload was measured using TISS–28, NEMS and NAS tools. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data, and a single-sample test was used to verify the research hypotheses. Results. The sample consisted of medical records of 33 patients; 592 observations were analyzed. Studies prove the need for research on the workload of nurses in neonatal intensive care units. A patient with CDH should receive nursing care as required. Conclusion. It is necessary to implement a model for measuring the workload of nurses in neonatal intensive care units, taking into account the evaluation of work and its optimization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0154.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Simulation; Nursing competences; Critical patient; Training; Education; Pandemic
Online: 9 February 2023 (04:47:44 CET)
On 11 March 2020, the COVID-19 emergency was declared and a large number of patients were admitted to the ICUs. Consequently, ICUs had to recruit nurses from other units as well as Nursing students without working experience in critical patients care. Since Critical nursing competence is crucial to avoid medical errors, the aim of this study was, to describe the level of safety and nursing competence in critical patient care of recruited nurses and students, during the COVID-19 pandemic in ICUs. A cross-sectional descriptive study of 66 participants using the validated competency assessment questionnaire for nurses in hospital care (COM-VA©) was performed. Our results showed that the level of safety perceived in critical patients care by the students on placement in ICUs and mentors scored higher than the rest of the participants. Interestingly, whereas the participant’s COM-VA© score indicated a level of competence good enough to work autonomously, the supervisor/mentor’s COM-VA© evaluation showed that only the group of students on placement obtained this level of competency. Altogether, we found that students on placement in ICU possesses a higher level of safety and COM-VA© scores than the rest of participants probably due to the close support of the mentor.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0038.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: paramedicine; addiction; health and wellbeing; prehospital; emergency health services
Online: 2 February 2023 (09:17:25 CET)
Introduction: As the paramedic profession continues to grow and evolve, a shift from reactive to holistic patient care models is required. As the first and often the only point of medical contact for many patients from marginalized and under-served populations, the paramedic role, and its potential future implications in caring for these patients needs to be explored. Aim: The objective of this scoping review was to explore the paramedic's role in caring for people who use illicit drugs. Methods: A scoping review of English language literature published since 2002 was conducted using CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. We used a previously published paramedic search term filter for sensitivity combined with search terms related to drug-related substance use and addiction. Studies were selected based on relevance to the research question. Results: A total of 104 peer-reviewed and 14 grey literature articles were selected for inclusion. The main finding of this scoping review is the notable lack of evidence base surrounding the contemporary paramedic role in the care provision of people who use drugs (PWUD). The results highlight high rates of mortality following a paramedic-attended drug poisoning event, presenting a unique opportunity for paramedics to intervene in meaningful ways that extend past traditional drug poisoning response. Conclusions: The interface between the community of PWUD and the paramedic may be a highly influential encounter during a patient's journey through the healthcare system. The evolving role of the paramedic in this encounter requires focused study and should be viewed as a research priority in response to the ongoing drug poisoning crisis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0560.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: nursing education; undergraduate curricula; nursing workforce; digital literacy; information and communication technologies; digital health
Online: 31 January 2023 (01:22:38 CET)
Background and Aims: Nurses are increasingly engaging with digital technologies to enhance safe, evidence-based patient care. Digital literacy is now considered a foundational skill and an integral requirement for lifelong learning, and includes the ability to search efficiently, critique information and recognise the inherent risk of bias in information sources. However, at many universities, digital literacy is assumed. In part, this can be linked to the concept of the Digital Native, a term first coined in 2001 by the US author Marc Prensky, to describe young people born after 1980 who have been surrounded by mobile phones, computers, and other digital devices their entire lives. The objective of this paper is to explore the concept of the Digital Native and how this influences undergraduate nursing education. Materials and Methods: A pragmatic approach has been used for this narrative review, working forward from Prensky’s definition of the Digital Native and backward from contemporary sources of information extracted from published health, education, and nursing literature. Results: The findings from this narrative review will inform further understanding of digital literacy beliefs and how these influence undergraduate nursing education. Recommendations for enhancing the digital literacy of undergraduate nursing students are also discussed. Conclusions: Digital literacy is an essential requirement for undergraduate nursing students and nurses, and is linked with safe, evidence-based patient care. The myth of the Digital Native negates the reality that exposure to digital technologies does not equate with digital literacy and has resulted in deficits in nursing education programs. Digital literacy skills should be a part of undergraduate nursing curricula, and National Nursing Digital Literacy competencies for entry into practice as a Registered Nurse should be developed and contextualised to individual jurisdictions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0268.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Nursing research; Structural equation modelling; bibliometric analysis; Visualization
Online: 16 January 2023 (03:47:21 CET)
ObjectivesThe present study is aimed at characterizing and identifying the important research trends of the application of structural equation modelling (SEM) in nursing research by bibliometric analysis, and further providing reference for nursing researchers to conduct SEM research.MethodsA descriptive bibliometric analysis of publications in the application of SEM in nursing research. Literatures were retrieved from the Web of Science (WoS) core collection database On April 30, 2022. CiteSpace 6.1.R1 and VOSviewer 16 software were used for visualization and bibliometric analysis.ResultsThe annual publication indicated an increasing trend in the future. The intellectual structures of the application of SEM in nursing researches included patient safety, cross-cultural comparison, compassion fatigue, benchmarking, patient discharge, China, psychometrics, and policy. The hotpots and development trends include job satisfaction, nursing home, and nursing student.ConclusionThe hotspots and development trends related to the application of SEM in nursing research mentioned in this study may be helpful for researchers to explore new directions in this field. The intellectual structures and development trends were found in the application of SEM in nursing researches in this study. The awareness of the clusters and bursts in this field can help nursing researchers avoid overlooking some important issues when conducting SEM, and provide nurse researchers with good practice guidelines for conducting SEM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0212.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: aphasia; surveys and questionnaires; standardised nursing terminology; nursing assessment; validation studies
Online: 12 January 2023 (06:34:25 CET)
(1) Background: The CEECCA questionnaire assesses the ability to communicate among individuals with aphasia. It was designed using the NANDA-I and NOC standardised nursing languages (SNLs), reaching high content validity index and representativeness index values. The questionnaire was pilot-tested, demonstrating its feasibility for use by nurses in any healthcare setting. This study aims to identify the psychometric properties of this instrument. (2) Methods: 47 individuals with aphasia recruited from primary and specialist care facilities. The instrument was tested for construct validity and criterion validity, reliability, internal consistency, and responsiveness. The NANDA-I and NOC SNLs and the Boston test were used for criterion validity testing. (3) Results: 5 language dimensions explain 78.6% of the total variance. Convergent criterion validity tests showed concordances of up to 94% (Cohen’s κ: 0.9; p<0.001) using the Boston test, concordances of up to 81% using DCs of NANDA-I diagnoses (Cohen’s κ: 0.6; p<0.001), and concordances of up to 96% (Cohen’s κ: 0.9; p<0.001) using NOC indicators. Internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) was 0.98. Reliability tests revealed test-retest concordances of 76%-100% (p<0,001). (4) Conclusions: The CEECCA is an easy-to-use, valid, reliable instrument to assess the ability to communicate among individuals with aphasia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0242.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: resilience; nurse; ICU; nursing care; Health Care System; Covid-19
Online: 14 December 2022 (03:03:34 CET)
Introduction. The outbreak of the COVID pandemic was a period of uncer-tainty and tension for healthcare managers, resulting from the lack of knowledge, i.e. about the transmission of the virus, but also from the lack of uniform organisational and treatment procedures. It was the period where the ability to prepare to a crisis situation, to adapt to the existing conditions and to draw conclusion from the situa-tion were critical to keep ICUs operating. The aim of this study was to show the prep-aration of an ICU in Poland to ensure resilience, and also the methods of reacting dur-ing the COVID-19 pandemic on both central and local level. Methods. Based on the EC and WHO guidelines on resilience a matrix of 6 elements and 13 standards as-signed to them was created, with a series of questions from a survey questionnaire. Results. Good management in resilient systems is free access to any resource. A free and transparent flow of information and also well motivated human resources in an appropriate number. Conclusion. Appropriate preparation, adaptation to the existing situation and effective management of crisis situations is an important element of ICU resilience.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0169.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: paramedic; Emergency Medical Services; competency; competency framework; professional com-petency
Online: 12 December 2022 (04:12:02 CET)
The National Occupational Competency Profile (NOCP) – the competency framework for paramedics in Canada – is presently undergoing revision. Since the NOCP was published in 2011, paramedic practice, healthcare and society have changed dramatically. To inform the revision, we sought to identify emerging concepts in the literature that would inform the development of competencies for paramedics. We conducted a restricted literature review and content analysis of all published and grey literature pertaining to or informing Canadian paramedicine from 2011 to 2022. Three authors performed a title and abstract, and full-text review to identify and label concepts informed by existing findings. A total of 302 articles were categorized into eleven emerging concepts related to competencies: Inclusion, Diversity, Equity, and Accessibility (IDEA) in paramedicine; Social responsiveness, justice, equity and access; Anti-racism; Healthy Professionals; Evidence Informed Practice and Systems; Complex Adaptive Systems; Learning Environment; Virtual Care; Clinical Reasoning; Adaptive Expertise; and Planetary Health. This review identified emerging concepts to inform the development of the 2023 National Occupational Standard for Paramedics (NOSP). These concepts will inform data analysis, development group discussions, and competency identification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0426.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: simulation; nursing students; clinical practice; knowledge; nursing education and skills
Online: 23 November 2022 (01:14:09 CET)
Implementing the methodology of clinical simulation in the nursing degree course is a necessity in the European framework of higher education to acquire competences. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the strategies and techniques used during the simulations, identify the contents learned, and determine which of them are transferred to the nursing practice. We performed an observational, descriptive, and cross-sectional study from the nursing students’ perspective during the 2020-21-year course. On the one hand, our results show that the DASH scale helped us to obtain an internal validity of the simulations obtaining a mean score of 6.61 out of 7. On the other hand, the Ad Hoc scale, based on the competences were acquired in the simulations were transferred to the care practices. In conclusion, it is possible to improve care practices by integrating knowledge through clinical simulations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0399.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Family and Community Nursing; Covid-19; Community health assessment; Primary Health Care; Health Promotion
Online: 22 November 2022 (02:57:35 CET)
The WHO European Region defined the role of a new central professional for primary care, the Family and Community Nurse (FCN). The introduction of FCN in the framework of health policies highlight a key role of nurses in addressing the families’ and communities’ needs. A scoping review was conducted in order to identify and describe the available tools which has been adopted for the assessment of the community health needs by FNC. A comprehensive literature review on Embase, Cochrane Library, PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus and PsycInfo databases was conducted including all studies up to May 2021. A total of 1563 studies were identified and 36 of them were included. The literature review had made possible to identify studies employing twelve different community assessment's tools or modalities. Referring the WHO framework proposed in 2001 some common themes have been identified with an uneven distribution, as profiling the population, deciding on priorities for action and public healthcare programmes, implementing the planned activities, evaluation of health outcomes, multidisciplinary activity, flexibility and involving the community. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to provide an overview of community assessment tools, keeping the guidance provided by the WHO as a reference.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0230.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: nurse health coaching; social determinants of health; change talk; health behavior change; natural language analysis
Online: 14 November 2022 (02:18:20 CET)
The practice of nurse health coaching (NHC) draws from the art and science of nursing, behavioral sciences, and evidence-based health coaching methods. This secondary analysis of the audio-recorded natural language of participants during NHC sessions of our recent 8-week RCT evaluates improvement over time in cognitive-behavioral outcomes: Change Talk, Resiliency, Self-Efficacy/Independent Agency, Insight & Pattern Recognition, and Building Towards Sustainability. We developed a measurement tool for coding, Indicators of Health Behavior Change (IHBC), that was designed to allow trained health coach experts to assess the presence and frequency of the indicators in the natural language content of participants. We used a two-step method for randomly selecting the 20-minute audio-recorded session that was analyzed at each time point. Fifty-six participants had high-quality audio recordings of the NHC sessions. Twelve participants were placed in the social determinants of health (SDH) group based on the following: low income (<$20,000/year), early-onset hypertension, and social disadvantages. Our analyses significantly improved Change Talk and the other four factors over time. Our factor analyses indicated two distinct factors at each measurement point of the study, demonstrating the stability of the outcome measures over time. Our newly developed measurement tool, IHBC, proved stable in structure over time and sensitive to change. This NHC program shows promise in improving cognitive-behavioral indicators associated with health behavior change in both non-SDH and SDH individuals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0224.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Incompatibility; interaction; enteral nutrition; complication
Online: 14 November 2022 (01:06:35 CET)
Artificial enteral nutrition (AEN) is defined as the delivery of nutrients through feeding tubes for special medical purposes. Patients usually suffer from chronic or critical illnesses and are generally polymedicated, which represents a high probability of interactions and incompati-bilities with the AEN that can cause adverse events and loss of effectiveness of pharmacological treatment. This study aimed to determine the potential incompatibilities and drug-enteral nu-trition interactions in patients hospitalized in a clinic in the city of Cartagena. A retrospective cross-sectional study design was used, in a sample of 218 patients with a stay of at least three days, who were prescribed at least five medications and AEN. The data was collected from medical records. The information was screened with the CheckTheMeds software, using the APPs: drug-interactionchecker and https://www.rccc.eu/ppc/Drogas/DrogasxSNG.htm. A prevalence of pharmaceutical type incompatibilities of 50% and physicochemical type of 31.65%, interactions of pharmacokinetic type 10.55% and physiological type of 6.42% was re-vealed. The adverse events identified were tube obstruction 54.78% (n=126), mobility disorders and/or gastric emptying disorders 22.61% (n=52), diarrhea 12.51% (n=29), mesenteric ischemia with 0.87% (n=2) and seizures 6.96% (n=16). The p and OR values were variable according to the interaction and/or incompatibility vs. adverse events. Drugs-AEN incompatibilities and inter-actions were frequent, which is why active pharmacovigilance is necessary to intervene in the safety, quality and cost-effectiveness of the care provided in the different care services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0446.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: acute myocardial infarction; coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); island communities; point-of-care testing; spatial care paths
Online: 28 October 2022 (09:30:44 CEST)
Abstract: Our goal is to create point-of-care (POC) strategies that accelerate decision making, increase efficiency, improve outcomes, and enhance standards of care in island communities faced with global warming, rising oceans, population migration, and intensifying weather disasters. We assessed needs in the Bantayan Archipelago and mainland Cebu Province, Visayas Islands, Philippines, to map POC diagnostics, rescue times, and spatial care paths. Significant deficiencies were lack of cardiac troponin testing for rapid diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, absence of blood gas and pH testing for support of critically ill patients, and geographic gaps prolonging patient transfers and delaying treatment. Strengths comprised primary care that can be facilitated by POC testing, logical inter-island transfers for which decision making and triage could be accelerated with onboard diagnostic testing, and healthcare small-world networks amenable to POC advances, such as pre-hospital testing, that avoid overloading emergency rooms. Healthcare resources must be distributed to archipelago islands, not concentrated in large metropolitan areas inaccessible for emergency interventions. We conclude that a point-of-need focus will help improve public health, decrease disparities in mortality among rural islanders versus urban dwellers, and pave the way for heightened resilience in anticipation of the adverse impact of global warming on vulnerable coastal areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0094.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Stroke; informal caregiver; burden; Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview; Caregiver Assessment of Function and Upset; Malaysia
Online: 8 October 2022 (05:08:31 CEST)
Taking care of stroke survivors can be taxing, however, it was understudied in Malaysia. This study aims to describe the burden of informal stroke caregivers within three months after hospital discharge. A longitudinal study design was conducted. Acute stroke survivors and their informal caregivers were recruited prior to hospital discharge, and the caregivers were interviewed by phone. Self-reported caregiver burdens were measured with Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview – Malay version (MZBI) and Caregiver Assessment of Function and Upset – Malay version (Malay-CAFU). The MZBI and Malay-CAFU scores were collected four times within three months. A total of 85 stroke survivors and 155 informal caregivers were recruited, with 58.1% of the caregivers were female. The stroke survivors had two caregivers on average. The mean (SD) scores for the three scales show a reduction, from 27.42 (12.73) in the first week to 17.77 (11.20) in the third month for MZBI, from 1.14 (0.94) to 0.62 (0.64) for instrumental activities of daily livings (IADL) of Malay-CAFU upset scale and 1.36 (1.00) to 0.78 (0.65) for activities of daily living (ADL) of Malay-CAFU upset scale in the same period. Stroke survivors may have several caregivers, usually their spouses or children. Within a short period, the caregiver’s burden was reduced. Early psychosocial support to alleviate the caregiver burden may be necessary.
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: philosophy; family-centered care; nurse; child
Online: 22 September 2022 (08:04:33 CEST)
Family-Centered Care (FCC) as a philosophy is defined as a care provider that emphasizes and involves the important role of the family. However, there are several obstacles in implementing family center care for children where parents have different perceptions from health workers. Parents are angry when they are involved in a job they consider to be a nurse's job and the attitude of nurses prevents parents from participating. This difference in perception causes the implementation of Family Center Care (FCC) has not been carried out optimally, this has an impact on discomfort during treatment. Along with the not yet optimal implementation of family center care when providing care to children, further discussion is needed regarding the philosophy of child nursing with a family center care approach. The reasons for the importance of implementing family center care include building a collaborative system, focusing on family strengths and resources.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0314.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Diabetes; Theory; Model; Concept; Management; Health Care
Online: 21 September 2022 (05:46:19 CEST)
BackgroundGood management behavior in patients with diabetes mellitus can reduce disease complications and improve quality of life. This philosophical problem is very important for nurses who are able to provide management care for diabetic patients. The purpose of this literature review is to describe the concept, model or theory that can be used in improving the management of diabetes mellitus patients.MethodsThe method used is by searching several studies published through the Scopus database, PubMed, CINAHL, SpingerLink, and web of science (WOS). The search strategy uses a combination of the terms MeSH Terms. The research questions were designed using the principles of the PICOS framework. Selected studies were published from 2017-2022.ResultsA total of 15 studies were included, with 12 using quantitative methodology and 3 were qualitative. The studies were conducted across various countries. The majority of articles used the concept of self-management intervention based on digital-based development and e-health (n=6), Dorothea Orem's self-care deficit nursing theory n=2) and the transtheoretical model (n=2). These concepts, models and theories are able to improve good self-management through lifestyle changes, psychosocial, cultural acculturation and increase in spiritual values (n=6).ConclusionTransitional change focuses on changing the modifiable factors found in the concepts, models and theories of the articles obtained. Future research can be developed to assess the existence of elaborations and modifications based on the philosophy that people with diabetes are responsible for their own health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0292.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: caring behavior; Covid-19 pandemic; nurse; job satisfaction; job stress
Online: 20 September 2022 (04:50:08 CEST)
Abstract: Introduction: Nurses, at the forefront of the fight against the Covid-19 pandemic, have a significant responsibility. Thus, it is substantial to examine the factors behind the job stress, job satisfaction, and the care nurses provide in this process. To examine the correlation between nurses' job stress, satisfaction, and caring behavior perceptions during the Covid-19 pandemic. Method: A descriptive and correlational study. It was conducted with 261 nurses working in a hospital between 2020-2021. Introductory information form, Job Satisfaction Scale for Nurses, Swedish Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire (Job Stress Scale) and Caring Behaviors Inventory-24 were used as data collection tools. Factors behind the perception of caring behaviors were analyzed by linear regression analysis. Results: Caring behavior was found negatively correlated with job stress and positively correlates with job satisfaction. The regression analysis showed that the evaluation of the pre-pandemic work environment and the sub-dimensions of the scales, job control, support from superiors, and perceived significance in the workplace affected the caring behavior. Conclusion: The nurses have low job stress, high job satisfaction, and a high perception of caring behavior in the fight against Covid-19.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0239.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: long-term care; healthcare workers; mental health; moral distress; resilience; COVID-19
Online: 12 August 2022 (12:43:46 CEST)
Healthcare workers (HCWs) in long-term care (LTC) faced and continue to experience significant emotional and psychological distress throughout the pandemic. Despite this, little is known about the unique experiences of LTC workers. This scoping review synthesizes existing research on the experiences of HCWs in LTC during the COVID-19 pandemic. Following Arksey and O’Malley’s framework, data were extracted from six databases from inception of the pandemic to June 2022. Among 3,808 articles screened, 40 articles were included in the final analysis. Analyses revealed three interrelated themes: carrying the load (moral distress); building pressure and burning out (emotional exhaustion); and working through it (a sense of duty to care). Given the impacts of the pandemic on both HCW wellbeing and patient care, every effort must be made to address the LTC workforce crisis and evaluate best practices for supporting HCWs experiencing mental health concerns during and post-COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0025.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: work engagement; job satisfaction; quality of life; occupational health; nursing practitioners; nursing
Online: 8 July 2022 (04:20:10 CEST)
Objective: To investigate the correlation between engagement and quality of life at work in nursing professionals, from a public hospital in the interior of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, at the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic. Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive, and correlational study, with nursing professionals, conducted between December 2020 and January 2021. We used the Brazilian versions of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and the Walton Model scale. Results: The nursing professionals obtained a strong and positive correlation (r≥0.70) between the social integration domain of QWL and vigor dimension of work engagement (r=0.88; p=<0.001); moderate positive correlation (r≥0.40≤0.69) between QWL working conditions and vigor (r=0.40; p=<0.001), dedication (r=0.40; p=<0.001) and overall score (r=0.41; p=<0.001) of the work engagement. The correlations were positive and weak (r≤0.39) for the other domains of QWL and dimensions of work engagement. Conclusion: Professionals with satisfactory levels of quality of life tended to have higher levels of engagement at work. Professionals were strongly engaged and satisfied with their quality of life at work at the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0425.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: digitization; digitalization; digital health; hospital; nursing; nurses; vignette experiment
Online: 30 June 2022 (09:34:45 CEST)
(1) Background: The usage of digital technologies in hospital nursing provides potential solutions to the shortage of qualified nurses and current pandemic challenges. The process involves changes and requires willingness to learn. In this respect, leaders can motivate nurses. Therefore, this vignette study examined which motives and values leaders must address in order to promote nurses’ motivation to use different digital technologies. (2) Methods: We asked hospital nurses in an online vignette study to assess fictitious situations about the imminent introduction of a digital technology. The situations differed regarding the devices (tablet/smart glasses), addressed motives (extrinsic/intrinsic), and values (efficiency/patient orientation). (3) Results: We included 299 responses in the analysis. The tablet vignettes caused especially high motivation, more than the vignettes of the smart glasses (Z = -6.653, p = <0.001). The leader was more motivating when emphasizing effi-ciency rather than patient orientation (Z = -2.995, p =0.003). The dataset did not give significant re-sults regarding extrinsic and intrinsic motives. (4) Conclusions: The results suggest efficiency as a motive for using known digital technologies. Management actions can provide the structural framework and training so that responsible leaders can ensure their staff’s engagement to also use unknown devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0312.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: refined multiscale entropy; sample entropy; bubble entropy; adaptive complex system; pressure ulcer; machine learning; body temperature
Online: 22 June 2022 (09:52:15 CEST)
This study examined the association between pressure injuries and complexity of abdominal temperature measured in residents of a nursing facility. The temperature served as a proxy measure for skin thermoregulation. Refined multiscale sample entropy and bubble entropy were used to measure the complexity of the temperature time series measured over two days at 1-minute intervals. Robust summary measures were derived for the multiscale entropies and used in predictive models for pressure injuries that were built with adaptive lasso regression and neural networks. Both types of entropies were lower in the group of participants with pressure injuries (n=11) relative to the group of non-injured participants (n=15). This was generally true at the longer temporal scales, with the effect peaking at scale τ=23 minutes. Predictive models for pressure injury on the basis of refined multiscale sample entropy and bubble entropy yielded 92% accuracy, outperforming predictions based on any single measure of entropy. Combining entropy measures with a widely used risk assessment score led to the best prediction accuracy. Complexity of abdominal temperature series could therefore serve as an indicator of risk of pressure injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0168.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Nursing; Spiritual care; Quality of life; Chronic disease; Children
Online: 13 June 2022 (05:17:18 CEST)
Background: Chronic disease is the leading cause of death and disability in children. Various complex stressors faced by children due to illness and a series of treatments can negatively impact children's welfare, which can negatively affect children's quality of life.Objectives: This literature aims to study the philosophy of spiritual-based care interventions to improve the quality of life of children with chronic diseases viewed from three philosophical perspectives, namely ontology, epistemology, and axiology.Methods: A literature search was performed on five databases, namely SCOPUS, PubMed, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, and SAGEPub. Population limitations and diagnoses in this literature of children with chronic disease. This research is a quantitative study focusing on publications between 2017-2021.Results: The philosophy of spiritual care intervention is humanistic, pragmatic, and religious intervention. Humanistic interventions are interventions in which nurses are actively involved in spiritual care. Pragmatic intervention is the activeness of a nurse in assessing the spiritual needs of patients. Meanwhile, religious intervention is an intervention that is directly related to the practice or ritual of a specific belief system. Spiritual care is an essential part of holistic care, which is considered an indicator of improving the quality of care. It will ultimately affect the optimal quality of life of children.Conclusion: Spiritual-based care interventions are essential to improve the quality of life of children with chronic diseases. Spiritual care given to children with chronic illnesses must consider all aspects such as developmental stage, life experience, and socio-cultural of the child.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0019.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: IT; ICNP; nursing documentation; care plans; usability
Online: 1 June 2022 (13:12:03 CEST)
Background: in 2016 an IT system was developed at MUL for the documentation of nursing practice. Preparing nursing students for the implementation of eHealth solutions under simulated conditions is crucially important for achieving digital competencies necessary for the health care systems in the future. Scientific evidence demonstrates that the use of an IT system in clinical practice shortens the time required for preparation of documentation, increases the safety of clinical decisions and provides data for analysis and for creation of predictive models for the purposes of HB HTA. Methods: The system was created by cooperation of an interprofessional team at the Medical University of Łódź. The ADPIECare system was implemented in 2016 at 3 universities in Poland, and in 2017 a study of its usability was conducted using a questionnaire made available by Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society “Defining and Testing EMR Usability MASTER V2 Final” on 78 nurses — students of MA in Nursing at Medical University of Łódź. Findings: Over 50% of the surveyed nurses have indicated the usability of the system for the “effectiveness of documentation” variable. The same group of respondents have confirmed that a positive attitude towards patient care planning with the use of the assessed system. In the opinions of the examined parties positive opinions predominated, such as e.g.: “the system is intuitive,” “the system facilitates work,” “all patient assessments are in one place,” “the time needed for data entry would be shortened.”
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0333.v1
Online: 24 May 2022 (11:31:41 CEST)
Introduction: Family-centered care (FCC) is currently taking a greater role in health care, due to the increasing empowerment of the parental experience. This literature aims to find out the study of the philosophy of child nursing services based on Family Centered CareMethode: The study of this literature through the search of scientific publications ranges from 201 7-2022. The databases used are Pubmed, Science Direct, and Proquest. The literature search was conducted according to the topic with four keyword groups based on Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) and combined with Boolean operators AND, OR and NOT, keywords Child AND Family AND Centered AND Care. Result: The study of the philosophy of child nursing services based on Family Centered Care is conducted based on the study of ontology, epistomotogi and axiology. Family-centered care (FCC) is a philosophy that emphasizes partnerships between parents and health care staff. The FCC's basic principles in neonatal intensive care units (NICs) are unlimited parental presence and parental participation, shared responsibility and decision-making about infant hospital care, and open communication between parents and staff. A family-centered treatment approach has benefits such as maintaining a bond between the child and the family, allowing the family to engage in child care, and minimizing the negative effects of hospitalization on the child and family.Conclusion: FCC is beneficial for nurses in terms of efficiency and effectiveness of time in the care process and increases professional satisfaction. Therefore, the implementation of the FCC is more effective and the satisfaction of clients and families is more increased.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0299.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Intermediate care unit; Middle care; Education; CPAP; Noninvasive ventilation; rehabilitation
Online: 23 May 2022 (10:41:43 CEST)
The different waves of the COVID-19 pandemic caused dramatic issues regarding the organiza-tion of care. In this context innovative solutions have to be developed in a timely manner to adapted the organization of the care. The establishment of middle care (MC) units is a bright example of such an adaptation. A multidisciplinary MC team, including expert and non-expert respiratory nurses, physicians, physiotherapists, psychologists, nutritionists and social workers, was built and trained to work in the COVID-19 MC unit. Important educational resources were set up to ensure rapid and effective training of the MC team, limiting the admission or delaying transfers to ICU and ensuring optimal management of palliative care. We conducted a retrospec-tive analysis of patient data in the MC unit during the second COVID-19 wave. Fifty-two COVID-19 ‘step-up’ patients admitted to the MC unit were included in the study. Thirty-four (65%) patients worsened, of which 12 (23%) were not eligible for ICU access. In total, 42% of the ICU-eligible patients were managed in the MC unit to avoid the ICU. Among the 22 patients transferred to the ICU, 15 were intubated. The establishment of an MC unit during a pandemic, mixing expert and non-expert respiratory team members, is feasible and needed. MC units possi-bly relieve the pressure exerted on ICUs. A highly trained multidisciplinary team is key to ensur-ing the success of an MC unit during a pandemic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0276.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Roy's Adaptation Model; Nursing Research; Nursing Clinical Practice; Nursing Theory
Online: 20 May 2022 (09:44:47 CEST)
Background: One way to demonstrate the existence of nursing is to develop a nursing theory model through nursing research which can ultimately be implemented in nursing practice. RAM is one of the most frequently used models in guiding nursing research. Roy's Adaptation Model (RAM) is one of the most useful conceptual frameworks that guide nursing practice, direct research, and influence education. Theory-guided nursing practice is fundamental in providing the framework for developing superior and quality nursing care.Objectives: This systematic review aims to critically analyze recent studies using RAM as a conceptual framework to identify the effectiveness of this model in guiding nursing research.Methods: A literature search was conducted on five databases, namely SCOPUS, PubMed, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, and SAGEPub. There were no population boundaries and diagnoses involved in the study. The study is a quantitative design focused on publication between 2015-2021. The methodological quality of applying the Cochrane and JBI bias tools. The analysis uses narrative synthesis.Results: 20 studies were found out of 1,315 studies. The research population found is very diverse. The given intervention follows the conceptual framework of RAM. RAM-based interventions effectively overcome the problems experienced by patients and reduce the perceived symptoms and improve the patient's quality of life.Conclusion: The conceptual use of RAM theory in nursing research has been widely reported. RAM-based interventions have a significant impact and have strong evidence-based practice in improving patient health status.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0272.v1
Online: 20 May 2022 (09:13:08 CEST)
Introduction: Perawat is very at risk of burnout due to high workload and increased work stress. Many factorsrelated to work and outside of work that cause burnout so it needs attention from professionals to reduce the effects of burnout among nursing staff. This literature aims toanalyze the application of caring, a strategy to reduce burnout in nurses. Methode: Conducting a literature review of journals using Three academic databases (Science Direct, PubMed, ProQuest and Google Scholar), Inclusion criteria in literature studies are: English articles, research on nurses on caring and burnout, publish in 2017-2022, with mix methode/quasi experiment design and cross secsional. Keywords used Caring AND Burnout AND Nurses. Instrument: Guide in reviewing journals using PRISMA. Result and Analysis: Nineteen study literature meets the criteria for inclusion in the review. The participants were nurses at various hospitals. The results of several articles show the impact of caring application on nurse burnout. Deliver burnout by building a conducive work environment, reducing workload, rewards and management support. Analysis shows association of caring application to decreased burnout incidence in female nursesDiscussion and Conclusion: There needs to be organizational support to overcome burnout. Organizational support will reduce job dissatisfaction and absenteeism . Areas of work life are predictors of work fatigue. Improving the work environment is a solution for hospitals that want to simultaneously reduce nurse fatigue and increase the satisfaction of nurses and patients in providing safe and high-quality care. Caring aspects must be applied in the self-development of nurses to improve the work environment
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0226.v1
Online: 17 May 2022 (08:57:44 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has been challenging for society, especially for those residing in long-term care facilities (LTCF). This study aimed to describe rates of infection, hospitalization, and death due to COVID-19 among older people and staff of LTCF in Minas Gerais (Brazil) and identify strategies to prevent and control the disease spread. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 164 LTCF (6,017 older people). Among the studied LTCF, 48.7% confirmed COVID-19 infection in older people, resulting in 39.6% hospitalization and 32.3% death among infected. Moreover, 68.9% of LTCF confirmed COVID-19 infection in the staff, with 7.3% hospitalization and 1.2% death. Preventive measures were identified and classified as organizational, infrastructure, hygiene items and personal protective equipment, and staff training against COVID-19. These measures showed strategies and barriers experienced in the daily routine of LTCF during the pandemic. LTCF in Brazil experienced challenges similar to observed worldwide. Results highlighted the importance of continuity and improvement of protective measures for older people in LTCF, especially in low- and middle-income countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0096.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Health; Policy; Knowledge; Perception; Medical Students; Malaysia
Online: 11 April 2022 (11:07:12 CEST)
Background: Health policy is a set of comprehensive principles and legislations that guide how healthcare should be effectively delivered in the community. Medical schools should prepare students to undertake managerial responsibilities by incorporating health policy in the curriculum to deal with the intricacies of healthcare systems and their clinical roles in their future professional careers. Objective: To examine medical students' perception at a Public University in Malaysia regarding teaching health policy and their participation in health policy roles. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study using universal sampling was carried out among the medical students using a paper-based questionnaire to collect the data. Results: Most respondents opined their willingness to learn health policy (80.9%) and that teaching health policy (83.6%) should be compulsory for medical students. The respondents thought health policy should be introduced earlier in Year 1 or 2. The student scores on their knowledge regarding health policy and year of study were significantly associated with their involvement in the health policy roles in both the simple and multiple logistic regression. Both statistical tests reported higher participation in health policy roles with the higher year of study, though only Year 4 and 5 were significant in the simple logistic regression and only Year 5 in the multiple logistic regression compared to Year 1. On the other hand, age and type of admission show significant results only in the simple logistic regression, while the race was only significant at the multivariate level. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that most respondents showed their willingness to learn health policy, participate in the health policy programs, and recommend that health policy be considered an essential topic in the medical curriculum, which should be taught right from the first year of medical school. We recommend encouraging students’ participation in health policy activities.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0370.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: COVID-19; visitation restrictions; psychological distress; cognitive disfunction; long-term care; rehabilitation ward
Online: 28 March 2022 (15:13:31 CEST)
This report is a narrative of a certified nurse working on a long-term rehabilitation ward for patients with dementia in Japan during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. During this time visitation restrictions had been implemented to prevent the spread of COVID-19 causing psychological distress for patients and their families which nurses had to cope with . The nurse was interviewed twice September–October 2020. The recordings were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Three themes were identified relating to changes in care in response to the pandemic which nurses had to adapt to: the risk of collapse of family members’ roles, anxiety caused by patients forgetting family members and family memories and increased disorientation. During the pandemic, nursing care needs to adapt, ensuring that family attachments and ties continue and minimizing the disruption caused by the pandemic, while ensuring that everyone remains Covid-safe.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0102.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Breast cancer; self-management; non-pharmacological interventions; clinical practice guidelines; content analysis
Online: 7 March 2022 (14:21:21 CET)
Background: A growing number of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) with regards to non-pharmacological interventions for breast cancer survivors are available. However, given the limitations in guideline development methodologies and inconsistency of recommendations, it remains uncertain how best to design and implement such non-pharmacological strategies to tailor interventions for breast cancer survivors with varied health conditions, healthcare needs, and preferences. Aim: To critically appraise and summarise available non-pharmacological interventions for symptom management and health promotion that can be self-managed by breast cancer survivors based on the recommendations of the CPGs. Methods: Clinical practice guidelines which were published between January 2016 and September 2021 and described non-pharmacological interventions for breast cancer survivors were systematically searched in six electronic databases, nine relevant guideline databases, and five cancer care society websites. The quality of the included CPGs was assessed by four evaluators using the Appraisal of Guidelines for REsearch and Evaluation, second edition tool. Content analysis was conducted to synthesise the characteristics of the non-pharmacological interventions that were recommended by the included CPGs, such as the intervention’s form, duration and frequency, level of evidence, grade of recommendation, and source of evidence. Results: Fourteen CPGs were identified and analysed. Of the 14 CPGs appraised, only five were rated as high quality. The domain with the highest standardised percentage was “scope and purpose” (84.61%), while the “applicability” domain had the lowest standardised percentage (51.04%). Five guidelines were assessed as “recommended”, seven were rated as “recommended with modifications”, and the remaining two were considered “not recommended”. Regarding the content analysis, physical activity/exercise, meditation, hypnosis, yoga, music therapy, stress management, relaxation, massage, and acupressure were the common self-managed non-pharmacological interventions recommended by the 14 CPGs. Physical activity/exercise was the only self-managed non-pharmacological intervention that was mostly recommended for psychological and physical symptom management by the included CPGs. However, there were significant disparities in terms of level of evidence and grade of recommendation in the included CPGs. Conclusion: The recommendations for the self-managed non-pharmacological interventions were varied and limited among the 14 CPGs, and some were based on medium- and low-quality evidence. More rigorous methods are required to develop high-quality CPGs in order to guide clinicians in offering high-quality and tailored breast cancer survivorship care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0263.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: response; dropout; older adults; physical activity interventions; OSM; GIS
Online: 22 February 2022 (03:47:38 CET)
Research is still lacking regarding the question as to how programs to promote healthy aging should be organized in order to increase acceptance and thus effectiveness. For older adults, ecological factors, such as physical distance to program sites, might predict participation and retention. Thus, the key aim of this analysis was to examine these factors in a physical activity intervention trial. Adults (N=8,299) aged 65 to 75 years were invited to participate and n=589 participants were randomly assigned to one of two intervention groups with 10 weeks of physical activity home practice and exercise classes or a wait-list control group. Response, participation, and dropout data were compared regarding ecological, individual, and study-related variables. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression models were used to determine predictors of dropout. In total, 405 participants completed the study. Weekly class attendance rates were examined regarding significant weather conditions and holiday periods. The highest rates of nonresponse were observed in districts with very high neighborhood levels of socioeconomic status. In this study, ecological factors did not appear to be significant predictors of dropout, whereas certain individual and study-related variables were predictive. Future studies should consider these factors during program planning to mobilize and keep subjects in the program.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0038.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: absenteeism; nursing; licensed practical nurses; nursing staff, hospital; occupational health.
Online: 2 February 2022 (15:37:52 CET)
This study aimed to identify the most relevant factors of absenteeism in the perception of nursing technicians from a regional reference hospital in Brazil. A cross-sectional study, based on a case study, was conducted from August 2018 to July 2021, with 324 nursing technicians from a Brazilian macroregional reference hospital in Northwestern Ceará. Data were collected through Google Forms® via the Scale of Factors of Work Absenteeism (EFAL). For data analysis, the overall mean and means of the four EFAL factors were calculated. The individuals were grouped by rating level and data were presented descriptively. The results showed that fatigue, low pay, work overload, need to resolve unpostponable personal/family bureaucratic matters, and need for time to continue/post-graduate education were the main causes of absenteeism. In general, nursing technicians' perceptions varied between low and medium relevance to the factors that contributed to work absenteeism. We can associate these results to the low frequency of absen-teeism among the professionals of the institution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0030.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: spirituality; holistic nursing; nursing care; postgraduate nursing education
Online: 2 February 2022 (12:14:40 CET)
The purpose of this study was to analyse selected psychometric properties of the Polish version of the Spirituality and Spiritual Care Rating Scale (SSCRS), among them the applicability of the dimensions of spiritual care in nursing, i.e. spirituality, spiritual care, religiosity and personalized care, to Polish conditions. Poland-wide multicentre study with a cross-sectional validation design. The study was conducted between March and June 2019. Seven Polish Nursing Faculties accepted the invitation to participate in the study. Representative sample of 853 nurses enrolled in MSc (postgraduate) programs in nursing. After translation and cultural adaption of the SSCRS, the instrument underwent a full psychometric evaluation with theoretical relevance using (exploratory, confirmatory factor analysis), internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha), reliability (test−retest analysis), construct validity (correlation analysis), criterion-related validity (convergent and discriminant validity) analysis. The exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that Polish version of the SSCRS was a three-factor model with “Activity-centred spiritual care” (9 items), “Emotional support-centred spiritual care” (5 items) and “Religiosity” (3 items) domains. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the whole scale was 0.902, and the alpha values for the individual domains were 0.898, 0.873 and 0.563, respectively. The three domains mentioned above seemed to provide the entire picture of spiritual care perceived subjectively by Polish MSc in nursing students. This study demonstrated a substantial degree of similarity in the selected psychometric characteristics of the Polish version of SSCRS and the original scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0379.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: compassion fatigue; nurse practitioners; critical care nursing; occupational health
Online: 25 January 2022 (11:02:39 CET)
The aim was to evaluate levels of compassion fatigue in nursing professionals working in complex care units of a Brazilian university hospital. A cross-sectional, descriptive, and correlational study was carried out with nursing workers from complex care units of a University Hospital. Data were collected in the second half of 2019, in the pre-pandemic period of COVID-19, using the Brazilian version of the Professional Quality of Life Scale (ProQoL-BR). A total of 146 individuals partici-pated, including 41 (28.1%) nurses, 92 (63.0%) nursing technicians and 13 (8.9%) nursing assis-tants. It was observed that 26.1% presented high level of compassion satisfaction. For 17.5% there was level of burnout and 49.7%, medium level of burnout; and 22.0% with high and 46.1% with medium level of secondary traumatic stress. Twenty-eight (19.2%) professionals had compassion fatigue, of which 16 (57.1%) were nursing technicians. There is a high percentage of professionals with medium and high rates of burnout and secondary traumatic stress, a fact that is reinforced by the presence of compassion fatigue in almost one fifth of the studied individuals. These results highlights how much the health of these workers can be affected by living with traumatic patient experiences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0567.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Nurses; Leadership; COVID-19; Management; Communication
Online: 30 November 2021 (12:14:55 CET)
Purpose: To evaluate nursing leaders' perception towards communication and relationship management competencies while using digital platforms during the COVID-19 pandemic. Background: Communication and relationship management competencies among nursing leaders will ensure healthcare models are successfully implemented. Nursing leaders can achieve effective leadership by mastering these competencies leading to an overall improvement in the quality of nursing care. However, digital platforms have been rapidly evolving in the healthcare ecosystem and have been significant during the battle with COVID-19. It is crucial to ensure that nursing leaders can use digital platforms to communicate and practice efficient management in their op-erations, especially during a crisis when their services are vital. Design: Descriptive, comparative study. Methods: The study was conducted between February to March 2021. A 5-item Linkert-type questionnaire was adopted from the American Organization for Nursing Executives (2005) and was sent to identified nursing leaders in Hamad Medical Corporation through the official email. Results: Two hundred fifty nurse leaders were invited to participate, but only 116 responded positively, translating to a response rate of 46.4%. The male participants represented a larger proportion of 64.10%, while the female was 35.90%. Regarding the questionnaire, the Cronbach alpha was α ˃ 0.987, indicating that all items revealed a sufficient level of internal consistency. The respondents had a minimum of 0 and a maximum of 52.6n in the communication and relationship management items. Influencing behavior, relationship management, and effective communica-tion had the lowest scores, which indicate low competency. The F value in ANOVA analysis was close to 1.0, implying that the null hypothesis is true. The significance value is <0.5 implying that there is a difference in response on effective communication proficiency of nurse leaders. Conclusions: Digital platforms are communication tools that are widely adopted to engage and reach nurses on numerous topics. Nurse leaders should capitalize on their benefits and generate critical discussions. The continued need to research nursing leadership competencies is critical as healthcare continues to change and evolve. Educational institutions and healthcare organizations must understand that nursing leaders should strive for professional development and knowledge acquisition to improve their communication and management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0525.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Occupational Health; Quality of Life; Nurses; Working Conditions; Work; Primary Health Care.
Online: 29 November 2021 (11:54:29 CET)
Background: The concept of Quality of Work Life (QWL) has been built multidimensionally through social reproduction; it is impacted by the perceptions of each individual and by the relationship between workers and the work environment. Objective: to analyze the Work Process and QWL of assisting nurses in public health. Methods: Research in a critical paradigm, descriptive, exploratory with a qualitative approach. The population corresponds to Nurses who work in care work. Semi-structured guiding questions were applied and were analyzed with content analysis. Results: seven participants declared female; all Chilean; seven are young adults; six singles; only one has children, and one has a person dependent on her care; six are heads of household, and five receive help with housework. All have a nursing degree, five have a diploma, but none have a postgraduate. Work Process has three subcategories: work object, instrument, organization, and work conditions; the QWL category has six subcategories: definition and perception of QWL, QWL potentiating factors, QWL exhausting factors, QWL improvement strategies, the emotional burden associated with QWL, and Health problems. Conclusions: In this way, the lifestyle built by the assistance in the health area has repercussions on the quality of life and health in general.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0123.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: COVID-19; nurses; self-concept; self-confidence; professional practice
Online: 5 November 2021 (14:12:02 CET)
Purpose: To identify the impact of dealing with COVID-19 patients in clinical areas on nurses' professional self-concept and self-confidence. Background: Professional self-concept is considered a critical factor in the recruitment/retention process in nursing, nursing shortage, career satisfaction, and academic achievements. Professional self-confidence is also a crucial determinant in staff satisfaction, reducing turnover, and increasing work engagement. Design: Descriptive, comparative study. Methods: The study was conducted between February to May 2021 by utilizing a convenience sampling technique. A total of 170 nurses from two facilities were recruited from two COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 designated facilities. The level of professional self-concept and self-confidence was assessed by utilizing the Nurses' Self-Concept Instrument and Self-Confidence Scale. Results: The professional self-concept level among the exposed group to COVID-19 patients was lower than the comparison group, while the professional self-confidence level among the exposed group to COVID-19 patients was similar to the comparison group. On the other hand, the satisfied staff and those who received professional training in dealing with COVID-19 patients reported a higher level of professional self-concept. Conclusions: Dealing with COVID-19 patients has an impact on professional self-concept; the exposure group was lower than those who did not deal with COVID-19 patients, while the professional self-confidence level among the exposed group was similar to the comparison group. Getting professional training in dealing with COVID-19 patients and being satisfied at work were significant factors in improving the professional self-concept. Policymakers should create strategies that target the improvement of professional training in dealing with COVID-19 patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0079.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: evidence-based practice; spiritual care; communication skills; path analysis
Online: 3 November 2021 (10:54:36 CET)
Decision-making using evidence-based practice (EBP) is generally universally accepted by nurses. Such acceptance may affect the personnel’s behaviour towards patients, which is also demonstrated by taking into consideration the patient’s preferences, including the patient’s spiritual needs, in the care plan. The provision of such care requires the development of an attitude of approval and an adequate level of communicative competence, which will enable the actual implementation of the EBP. The purpose of our study was to assess the perception of spirituality and the nurse’s role in providing spiritual care, as well as the perception of the significance of communication skills in the approval of EBP in professional practice. A multi-centre cross-section study was conducted on a population of 1176 participants (459 undergraduate (Bachelor programme, BP) and 717 postgraduate students (Master programme, MP)) from 10 medical universities in Poland. Three tools were used in the study to evaluate the participants’ approach: Evidence-Based Practice Competence Questionnaire (EBP-COQ), The Spirituality and Spiritual Care Rating Scale (SSCRS), and Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS). Structural equation modelling was used for the analysis. An analysis of structural equations revealed the presence of positive relationships of the attitude to spiritual care and the role of communicative competences with the approach to EBP regardless of the cohort. A significant difference was found related to the influence of age on the attitude toward learning communicative competences. The approval in this respect was observed to decrease with age in the MP group. Increasing approval of EBP requires strengthening the approach to activity-centred spiritual care, with the simultaneous development of a positive attitude towards learning communicative competences. The model reveals the need to integrate a humanistic approach with EBP, which can be achieved by planning different interventions in different groups of recipients: nurses, academic teachers and students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0435.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: healthcare workers; Hand hygiene; Saudi Arabia
Online: 28 October 2021 (11:44:46 CEST)
Hand hygiene is among the most important factors of infection control in healthcare settings. Healthcare workers are considered the primary source of hospital acquired infection. We assessed the current state of hand hygiene knowledge, perception and practice among the healthcare workers in Qassim, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study we used the hand hygiene knowledge and perception questionnaire developed by the World Health Organization. Knowledge and perceptions were classified into good (80 – 100%), moderate (60 – 79%) and poor (<60% score). Majority of the healthcare workers had moderate knowledge (57.8%) and perception (73.4%) of hand hygiene. Males were less likely to have moderate/good knowledge compared to females (OR: 0.52, p<.05). Private healthcare workers were less likely (OR: 0.33, p<0.01) to have moderate/good perception compared to the government healthcare workers. Healthcare workers who received training on hand hygiene were 3.2 times likely (p<.05) to have good/moderate perception and 3.8 times likely (p<0.05) to routinely use alcohol-based hand-rub than the ones without such training. Physicians were 4.9 times likely (p<0.05) to routinely use alcohol-based hand-rub than the technicians. Our research highlighted gaps on hand hygiene knowledge and perception and practice among healthcare workers in Qassim and importance of training in this regard.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0413.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Hospital-acquired infections; infection control; standard precautions; health-care workers; Saudi Arabia
Online: 27 October 2021 (13:32:09 CEST)
Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) contribute to increased length of hospital stay, high mortality and higher health-care costs. Prevention and control of HAIs is a critical public health concern. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 213 hospital health-care workers in Qassim, Saudi Arabia. We assessed Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) of standard infection control precautions using a structured questionnaire. Predictors of KAP were investigated using multivaraible logistic regression analyses and independent sample t tests. Prevalence of good (≥80% correct response) knowledge, attitude and practice were 67.6%, 61.5% and 73.2%, respectively. Predictors of good knowledge included age over 34 years (adjusted odds ratio: 30.5, p<0.001), and receiving training (13.3, p<0.001). Predictor of positive attitude was having >6 years of experience (5.5, p<0.001). While, the predictors of good practice were having >6 years of experience (2.9, p<0.01), previous exposure to HAIs (2.5, p<0.05) and training (3.5, p<0.01). However, being female (0.22, p<0.001) and older (>34 years) (0.34, p<0.01) were negatively associated with knowledge. Results indicate that older academic programs might not have adequately covered infection crontrol. Arranging training for HCWs might be useful in improving their knowledge of standard infection control precautions and is also expected to facilitate positive attitude and practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0077.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: questionnaire development; lactation; breastfeeding; analgesics; education; knowledge assessment; midwife; nurse
Online: 5 October 2021 (10:57:49 CEST)
There is a need to assess the knowledge of healthcare providers on the use of maternal analgesics during lactation, while a valid instrument is not yet available. This study aimed to develop a valid and reliable questionnaire on the knowledge of analgesics (acetaminophen, ibuprofen, aspirin, tramadol, codeine, oxycodone) during lactation, using a prospective, stepwise approach. To generate a pool of item subgroups, literature was assessed as first step. This preliminary version was subsequently reviewed in two focus groups [midwives (n=4), pediatric nurses (n=6)], followed by an expert panel (n=7, 2 rounds) to confirm content validity [item-level and scale content validity]. This resulted in a instrument consisting of 33 questions, and 5 clincial case descriptions specific for both disciplines. Based on known-groups validity between midwives and pediatric nurses (assuming an a priori difference related to their curricula), high construct validity was subsequently demonstrated in a pilot e-survey (86 midwives, 73 pediatric nurses). We therefore conclude that an instrument to assess knowledge on lactation-related exposure to analgesics was generated, that can be further developed and validated. Furthermore, pilot findings suggest suboptimal knowledge for both professions, so that adaptations in their curricula and postgraduate training are warranted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0015.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Social media; Community; Facebook; Twitter; Google; Information; Interaction
Online: 1 October 2021 (12:03:09 CEST)
Background: Caregivers often use the internet to access information related to stroke care to improve preparedness, thereby reducing uncertainty and enhancing the quality of care. Method: Social media communities used by caregivers of people affected by stroke were identified using popular keywords searched for using Google. Communities were filtered based on their ability to provide support to caregivers. Data from the included communities were extracted and analysed to determine the content and level of interaction. Results: There was a significant rise in the use of social media by caregivers of people affected by stroke. The most popular social media communities were charitable and governmental organizations with the highest user interaction – this was for topics related to stroke prevention, signs and symptoms, and caregiver self-care delivered through video-based resources. Conclusion: Findings show the ability of social media to support stroke caregiver needs and practices that should be considered to increase their interaction and support.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0230.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: patient empowerment; patient education; patient information; intensive care unit discharge; intensive care unit transition; nursing interventions, systematic review.
Online: 14 September 2021 (10:05:11 CEST)
Intensive care unit discharge is an important transition which impacts on patient wellbeing. Nurses can play an essential role in this scenario, potentiating patient empowerment. A systematic review was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: the PRISMA Statement. Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases were evaluated in May 2021. Two independent reviewers analyzed the studies, extracted the data, and assessed the quality of evidence. Quality of the studies included was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Of the 273 articles initially identified, eight randomized controlled trials reported nursing interventions mainly focused on patients’ ICU discharge preparation through information and education. The creation of ICU Nurse-Led and nurses’ involvement in critical care multidisciplinary teams also aimed to support patients during ICU discharge. This systematic review provides an update on clinical practice aimed at improving the patient experience during ICU discharge. The main nursing interventions were based on information and education, as well as the development of new nursing roles. Understanding transitional needs and patient empowerment are key to making the transition easier.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0045.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Reproductive Health; Sexual Health; Women’s Health; Nursing Curriculum; Nursing Education; Undergraduate Education
Online: 2 September 2021 (14:45:22 CEST)
Background: It is very important that nurses receive adequate training in Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH). In this study, the contents of the SRH subject in the undergraduate nursing curricula of 77 Spanish universities were examined in order to determine what SRH training nursing students are receiving. Methods: The contents of the SRH subject of all the curricula that were available online were reviewed. The distribution of the contents (topics) in the two areas (reproductive health and sexual health) was analyzed, and the prevalence of each topic was established. It was also determined whether there were differences in topics between public (n=52) and private universities (n=25). Results: The training of nursing students focuses mainly on the area of Reproductive Health (15 topics). Most of the topics of this area had a prevalence greater than 50%. Although the area of Sexual Health had 14 topics, most of these topics had a low prevalence (<20%), especially in private universities. Conclusions: It was found that there is considerable variation in the distribution and prevalence of SRH topics between universities. The contents of the area of Reproductive Health are usually prevalent in most of the curricula, however the contents of the area of Sexual Health are very limited in most of the universities. An organizational effort is required to determine and standardize the contents of SRH that nursing students should receive in Spain to avoid inequalities in their training.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0532.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Acutherapy; geriatric therapy; Alzheimer's disease; sensory stimulation; evidence-based practice.
Online: 30 August 2021 (08:14:23 CEST)
Introduction: Dementia is a cognitive decline with patients often exhibit behavioural and psychological symptoms, severely affecting the quality of life and placing a heavy burden on caregivers. Acupressure has reported benefits for dementia. This study aims to critically review the available evidence for its use as a non-pharmacological therapy. Methods: Systematic search of major research databases for human clinical trials using acupressure as an intervention for dementia patients was conducted. Results were synthesised for the effects of acupressure on various outcome measures of interest for dementia.Results: Twelve clinical trials (N=973), including eight randomised control studies, were included in this review. The study sample was predominantly institutionalised residents with moderate to severe dementia. Baihui (GV20), Shenmen (HT7), Fengchi (GB20), Neiguan (PC6), Sanyinjiao (SP6), and Yingtang (EX-HN3) were the most used acupoints for intervention. Acupressure techniques employed in these clinical trials vary greatly with no standardised approach. This review finds inconsistent evidence in the effectiveness of acupressure in reducing agitation and behavioural disturbances. However, the treatment appears to improve their ease of care and reduce physical stress. Affixing acupressure devices on selected acupoints can also potentially improve psychiatric pain, anxiety, and depression. Long-term (6 months) treatment can potentially improve the cognitive function, activities of daily living, and quality of life of patients with mild to moderate dementia. The effect of acupressure on sleep disturbances remains unclear. Conclusion: More high-quality research on acupressure is needed to fill the gaps in knowledge and inform better care for dementia patients in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0466.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: restraint; restrictive practice; chemical restraint; physical restraint; psychotropic; residential aged care; long term aged care; community aged care; nursing home; home care; day care.
Online: 24 August 2021 (13:55:10 CEST)
Restraint use in Australian residential aged care has been highlighted by the media, and investigated by researchers, government and advocacy bodies. In 2018, the Royal Commission into Aged Care selected ‘Restraint’ as a key focus of inquiry. Subsequently, Federal legislation was passed to ensure restraint is only used in residential aged care services as the ‘last resort’. To inform and develop Government educational resources, we conducted qualitative research to gain greater understanding of the experiences and attitudes of aged care stakeholders around restraint practice. Semi-structured interviews were held with 28 participants, comprising nurses, care staff, doctors, physiotherapists, pharmacists and relatives. Two focus groups were also conducted to ascertain the views of residential and community aged care senior management staff. Data were thematically analyzed using a pragmatic approach of inductive and deductive coding and theme development. Five themes were identified during the study: 1. Understanding of restraint; 2. Support for Legislation; 3. Restraint-free environments are not possible; 4. Low-level restraint, and 5. Restraint in the community is uncharted. Although most staff, health practitioners and relatives have a basic understanding of restraint, more education is needed at a conceptual level to enable them to identify and avoid restraint practice, particularly ‘low-level’ forms and chemical restraint. There was strong support for the new restraint regulations, but most interviewees admitted they were unsure what the legislation entailed. With regards to resources, stakeholders wanted recognition that there were times when restraint was necessary and advice on what to do in these situations, as opposed to unrealistic aspirations for restraint-free care. Stakeholders reported greater oversight of restraint in residential aged care but stated that community restraint use was largely unknown. Research is needed to investigate the extent and types of restraint practice in community aged care.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0263.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: chronic obstructive; patient discharge; patient care team; interdisciplinary health team; patient safety; pulmonary disease; pulmonary medicine
Online: 8 July 2021 (13:19:39 CEST)
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often require frequent hospitalization due to worsening symptoms. Preventing prolonged hospital stay and readmission becomes a challenge for healthcare professionals treating patients with COPD. Although the integration of health and social care supports greater collaboration and enhanced patient care, organizational structure and poor leadership may hinder the implementation of patient-oriented goals. This paper presents a case of a 64-years-old chronic smoker with severe COPD who was to be discharged on long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT). It further highlights the healthcare decisions made to ensure the patient’s safety at home, and further provide a long-lasting solution to the existing medical and social needs. The goal was accomplished through a discharge plan that reflects multidisciplinary working, efficient leadership, and change management using Havelock’s theory. While COPD is characterized by frequent exacerbation and hospital readmission, it was emphasized that most failed discharges could be attributed to bureaucratic organizational workflow which might not be in the patient’s best interest. It was further demonstrated that healthcare professionals are likely to miss the window of opportunity to apply innovative and long-lasting solutions to the patient’s health condition in an attempt to remedy the immediate symptoms of COPD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0241.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: educational method; parent; developmental care and premature infant
Online: 23 April 2021 (09:49:08 CEST)
Babies born prematurely are at risk of experiencing visual disturbances, hearing loss, disabilities, the risk of infection and even death. Care for premature babies requires serious attention for both health workers and parents. The role of parents is very important both during hospitalization and at home. Therefore, in order to improve the abilities of parents, it is necessary to make educational efforts with the right method.ObjectivesThis literature review aims to provide an overview of educational methods that nurses can use to improve the ability of parents to care for or care for the development of premature babies. The method used is to search for literature that fits the established theme using 5 data based, namely Scopus, ProQuest, Science Direct, Elsevier Clinicaly for Nursing and Web of Science. The strategy used in finding literature that fits the theme and is used in this literature review uses the PICOS framework. Then conducted a review with the PRISMA method. The literature selection results obtained 572 publications, after going through the selection obtained 11 literatures that match the theme, with 11 educational methods. These methods can be grouped into ideas, namely increasing parental involvement during treatment, using technology, stress management and continuous monitoring. The ability of parents to care for premature babies is needed in order to minimize complications in infants, reduce morbidity, avoid disabilities, increase growth and development of premature babies optimally and reduce parental stress levels, increase parental confidence and good parents' self-efficacy. Choosing the right educational method can improve the ability of parents to properly care for and provide developmental care for premature babies.
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: digital literacy, nursing students, competencies, nursing philosophy, IR 4.0
Online: 15 April 2021 (13:34:10 CEST)
Background: Industry revolution 4.0 (IR.4.0) paradigm, nurses were required to have adequate competencies to carry out their professional duties. Digital information should be mastered by the nursing student. Purpose: This study aims to explain digital literacy competencies on nursing students in the era of IR 4.0 in the Indonesian context. Methode: A literature review was conducted in this study using Rayyan Systematic Reviews Software. Results: There was 14 literature analyzed describing Student’s Information literacy competency and Internet of Thing. Conclusion: Digital literacy for nursing students today is an inevitability, and nursing students who have digital literacy competencies have the potential to be able to increase nursing knowledge and skills as ontological competencies in their learning process.
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: peer group support; peer group education and technology
Online: 15 April 2021 (10:28:41 CEST)
AbstractBackground: the development of nursing, especially related to the nursing intervention approach, is running so fast. This can be seen from the use of peer group support in nursing interventions in individual humans. The purpose of this literature is to find the impact of implementing nursing interventions using a peer group support approach.Method: this literature review method uses JBI and Prisma on 120 articles taken from journal databases, namely Scopus, PubMed and Sciendirect.Result: From the articles analyzed, it was found that the application of peer groups can improve individual abilities both in psychological and behavioral aspects.Conclusion: the application of the peer group approach is able to be one of the approaches in the world of nursing in carrying out nursing actions today.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0197.v1
Online: 7 April 2021 (11:45:33 CEST)
ABSTRACT Background: Nearly two-thirds of acute stroke patients have dysphagia. Dysphagia defined as difficulty in swallowing of liquids or food, vary in severity with symptoms ranging from mild throat discomfort to inability to eat. It’s well known that dysphagia is associated with aspiration pneumonia, dehydration, malnutrition, prolonged length of stay, and increased mortality. Early screening reduces pneumonia rates in stroke and it is usually performed by nurses. Dysphagia screening is recommended but no protocol or tool is pointed.Aim: the aim of this study is to conduct a literature review of dysphagia screening for stroke patient Methods: Literature search three databases (Scopus, Proquest, and Science Direct), with the keywords "Dysphagia" AND "Stroke" AND "Nursing", published in English between 2019 and 2021. Result: Twenty five publications relating to dysphagia screening met the inclusion criteria. There are five methods of dysphagia screening performed by nurses or other health workers: 1) a simple Questionnaire Test (4QT) method, which is by asking the following four questions: does the patient cough or choke while eating or drinking; whether the patient takes longer than usual to eat; does the patient change the thickness of the food to be able to swallow, and whether the voice turns hoarse after eating or drinking; 2) Water Swallow Test (WST) method; 3) Bed Side Screening Tool for Dysphagia (BSTD) method; 4) Volume Viscosity Swallow Test (V-VST) method, namely modification of feeding with first pudding, nectar and finally water; 5) Simplified Cough Test Method. The five screening methods for dysphagia above have been tested for sensitivity and specificity, as well as positive and negative predictive valuesConclusion: screening is a first step in the identification of swallowing impairment or dysphagia of stroke patient. Dysphagia is an independent predictor of poor patient outcome and prolonged recovery time. Nurse has an important role to conduct a screening and must ensure that the selected tools has high reliability and concurrent validity. Key Words: Stroke, Dysphagia, Screening, Nursing
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0126.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Social Suppport; Tuberculosis; Nursing; Information Support
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:27:39 CEST)
Background Tuberculosis is a type of infectious disease that can cause death if treatment is not completed. the duration of tuberculosis treatment can reach 6 to 8 months so it really requires discipline when doing treatment. This makes tuberculosis patients in dire need of health information and social support which is very helpful in providing motivation, health information, and monitoring treatment from nurses. Aim of this literature review is to provide an overview of the The Role Of Nurses In Providing Social Support In Tuberculosis Treatment: Literature Review. Method is a literature review research, this study uses electronic database searches using keywords according to research questions from the online library PubMed, Content Science, and Science Direct. Result it was found that the role of nurses in the aspect of social support, namely in providing motivation, supervision, comfort, empathy, and information. this is very necessary for patients with tuberculosis at the time of treatment. Conclution social support is needed by tuberculosis patients who are currently undergoing treatment to provide motivation, health information, and as a nurse's supervision of patient adherence to tuberculosis treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0039.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Chronic conditions; diabetes; older adults; race or ethnicity; health care access; home health care; social determinants of health; inequalities or inequities
Online: 1 February 2021 (14:03:38 CET)
Racial and ethnic disparities exist in diabetes prevalence, health services utilization, and out-comes including disabling and life-threatening complications. Home health care may especially benefit older adults with diabetes through individualized education, advocacy, care coordina-tion, and psychosocial support for patients and their caregivers. This study examined factors as-sociated with hospital discharge to home health care and subsequent utilization of home health care among a cohort of Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes, age 50 and older, living in the United States. The cohort (n=786,758) was followed for 14 days after a diabetes-related index hospitalization, using linked Medicare administrative, claims, and assessment data (2014-2016). Multivariate logistic regression models included patient demographics, comorbidities, hospital length of stay, geographic region, neighborhood area deprivation, and rural/urban setting. In ful-ly adjusted models, hospital discharge to home health care was significantly less likely among Hispanic (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.8-0.8) and American Indian (OR 0.8, CI 0.8-0.8) compared to white patients. Among those discharged to home health care, all racial/ethnic minority patients were less likely to receive services within 14-days. Further work should focus on eliminating systemic racism in home health care referral and systemic barriers to receiving home health care services.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0607.v1
Online: 24 December 2020 (08:54:34 CET)
The Saudi government has undertaken rapid and swift actions, such as suspending Omrah and holding international flights. Such affirmative actions enhanced citizens and residents’ confidence in the government officials’ ability to fight the pandemic. However, there are more than 361,178 reported cases of Covid-19 with 6131 deaths as of December 22, 202. As nurses are the largest component of the health care workforce in Saudi Arabia, it is important that they are trained and have the skills and resources to adapt, whether on the frontline of a crisis or in a clinical environment. Nurses play a key function in fulfilling the needs of medical treatment by being the most important part of the health care delivery system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0463.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Active Teaching; Team-Based Learning; Physiotherapy Education; Collaborative Learning; Cognitivism; Social Constructivism
Online: 20 August 2020 (13:16:54 CEST)
In recent years, team-based learning (TBL) is gaining popularity as a student-centered active collaborative learning strategy in healthcare education. This paper reports the design, implementation, and impact of a "hybrid team-based learning" (H-TBL) for one respiratory lecture in year two undergraduate physiotherapy program in 2019. A retrospective study was conducted, including 136 second-year undergraduate physiotherapy students using H-TBL design for one respiratory lecture topic. Student engagement was evaluated based on the percentage of completion for pre-class work, attendance to classroom session, and submission of formative creative assignment. Student' performance on formative creative tasks was evaluated based on thinking and learning rubric. Student perceptions were assessed based on the student's feedback using "Mentimeter." 109/ 136 (80%) students attended the COPD 2 session. 90/109 (82%) students engaged in COPD 1 (web-based) and tRAT in COPD 2 session. 54/109 (50%) students provided feedback and 67/90 (74%) students submitted formal formative creative assignment on completion of COPD 2 session. This study confirms that H-TBL enhances student's active engagement, creativity, and equilibration of their subject knowledge. Future randomized studies are mandated to explore the validity and specificity of H-TBL in diverse physiotherapy curriculum to evaluate the long-term student engagement and academic performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0176.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: COVID-19; nurses; posttraumatic stress disorder; perceived social support; changes in outlook; sense of security; meaning in life
Online: 7 August 2020 (08:10:28 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic affects not only physical health but also deteriorates mental health resulting in sleep problems, depression, and traumatic stress. Our research investigates the level of posttraumatic stress, perceived social support, opinions on positive and negative consequences of the pandemic, sense of security, and sense of meaning among nurses in the face of new and not fully understood global epidemiological phenomena. For this purpose, computer-assisted web interviewing methods were conducted between May 1 and May 15, 2020. Participating nurses completed the following research tools: The Impact Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), The Changes in Outlook Questionnaire (CIOQ), The Safety Experience Questionnaire (SEQ) and The Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ). Three hundred and twenty-five nurses working throughout Poland joined the study of an average age of 39.18 ± 11.16 years. The average overall IES-R score in the study group was 1.78 ± 0.65. Among the dimensions of traumatic stress, the highest score was obtained in the dimension Avoidance 1.86 ± 0.73, then in the dimensions Hyperarousal 1.8 ± 0.78 and Intrusion 1.74 ± 0.83. Amongst studied nurses, the highest support rates were provided by significant others (22.58 ± 5.22), then from friends (21.91 ± 5) and family (21.45 ± 4.4). Among the surveyed nurses, higher average scores were noted in the subscale measuring positive psychological changes (18.56 ± 4.04). In contrast, a higher average level of assessment was noted on the Reflection on the safety dimension (4.21 ± 0.49). The mean MLQ score was 5.33 ± 0.87. A slightly higher result was observed in the subscale Presence (5.35 ± 1.14). The results of the research implemented during the period of severe psychological pressure associated with the COVID-19 pandemic provided information on symptoms of traumatic stress in the examined group of nurses. Their sense of security has been lowered and accompanied by an intensified reflection on issues concerning security. However, the sense of meaning (currently felt) in life remains higher than the tendency to searching for it. The surveyed nurses perceive individual support from the so-called significant others (apart from family and friends). They see positive changes resulting from painful experiences related to the COVID-19 pandemic, which can be characterized by adaptation in the form of posttraumatic growth.
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: barcode medication administration (BCMA); nurses’ workflow; inpatient setting; drug round
Online: 28 July 2020 (05:07:23 CEST)
Barcode medication administration (BCMA) is advocated as a technology that reduces medication errors relating to incorrect patient identity, drug or dose. Little is known, however, about the impact it has on nursing workflow. Our aim was to investigate the impact of BCMA on nursing activity and workflow. A comparative study was conducted on two similar surgical wards within an acute UK hospital. We observed nurses during drug rounds on a non-BCMA ward and a BCMA ward. Data were collected on drug round duration, timeliness of medication administration, patient identification, medication verification and general workflow patterns. BCMA appears not to alter drug round duration, although it may reduce the administration time per dose. Workflow was streamlined, with a reduction in use of the medicines room. The rate of patient identification increased from 74% (of 47) patients to 100% (of 43), with 95% of 255 scannable medication doses verified using the system. This study suggests that BCMA does not affect drug round duration; further research is required to determine the impact it has on timeliness of medication administration. There was reduced variability in the medication administration workflow of nurses, along with an increased patient identification rate and high medication scan rate, representing potential benefits to patient safety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0170.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Integrated Care; Social Care; Health Care; Older People; Comorbidity: Person Centered Care
Online: 9 July 2020 (06:23:49 CEST)
Introduction Older people with complex, chronic conditions often receive insufficient or inefficient care provision. And few instruments are able to measure their perception on care provision. The "User Reported Measure of Care Coordination" instrument has been satisfactorily used to evaluate chronic care provision and integration. The aim of this study is to validate this instrument into Spanish. Methods The questionnaire was adapted and validate in two phases: translation and cultural adaptation of the questionnaire, and psychometric property measurement. Study population were chronic care conditions patients. Results A total of 332 participants completed test re-test as part of the questionnaire validation process. The final version of the questionnaire had 6 domains: Health and Well-being (D1), Health day to day (D2), Social Services (D3), Planned Care (D4), Urgent Care (D5) and Hospital Care (D6). Cronbach's alpha for the overall questionnaire was 0.86, indicating good internal consistency. When analysing each domain, only Planned Care (D4) and Urgent Care (D5) had Cronbach’s Alphas slightly lower than 0.7, although this could be related to the low number of items in each domain. A good temporal stability was observed for the distinct subscales and items, with intraclass correlation coefficients varying from 0.412 to 0.929 (p < 0.05). Conclusion The adapted version of the “User Reported Measure of Care Coordination” into Spanish proved to be a practical tool for use in our daily practice and an efficient instrument for assessment of care coordination in chronic, complex conditions in older people across services and levels of care.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0417.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Coronavirus; COVID-19; SARS-Cov-2; infection; Physiotherapy; rehabilitation
Online: 23 April 2020 (15:22:55 CEST)
This document outlines best practice recommendations for an acute care physiotherapy for patients with COVID-19, with an emphasis on critical care rehabilitation including the patients in extra corporeal membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) support, developed for practice in Qatar but adaptable within any settings. This recommendation is the result of a combination of systematic evidence search, subsequent critical evaluation of retrieved evidence and consensus process. The agreed recommendations were integrated into a physiotherapy clinical reasoning algorithm. It includes recommendations on physiotherapy referral, screening, management categories and best practice recommendations. It is intended for use by physiotherapists and other relevant stakeholders in the acute care setting caring for adult patients with suspected and/or confirmed COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0384.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: quality; just culture; patient safety; nurses; hospital; measuring instrument validation
Online: 26 March 2020 (07:24:55 CET)
Purpose: "Just culture" is an element of safety culture, and in a broader sense – a part of quality culture. It is the subject of studies, especially in healthcare. This phenomenon is almost unknown in Polish medical facilities. For this reason, the aim of the article is to present the essence and significance of "just culture" in healthcare. The other aim of the research is to present the results of the validation of "just culture" assessment instrument used to recognize the "just culture" maturity level and evaluate the nurses’ beliefs and behaviours in the light of "just culture" criteria. Methodology/Approach: The verified questionnaire consisted of 28 statements in relation to which respondents expressed their opinion on a 5-point Likert scale. The questionnaire was distributed among nurses in one of the largest hospitals in Pomorskie Voivodeship, in Poland. The results based on 68 responses were statistically processed with Statistica 13.1 software. Findings: The obtained results allowed to confirm the reliability of the assessment tool, to recognize the level of „just culture” as wisdom (68%) and to indicate strengths and weaknesses of observed beliefs and behaviours. On this basis, improvement actions were proposed. Originality/Value: We use the original, own prepared questionnaire. This is the first study on "just culture" in healthcare in Poland. There are only few studies devoted to patient safety culture in Poland and no research addressed to "just culture" phenomenon, as well in Poland as in Central Europe. The results in this area allow to recommend the assessment tool for other hospitals and seem to help in understanding the essence of "just culture" implementation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0211.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: research program; taxonomic theory; phenetics; rational systematics; numerical systematics; typology; biosystematics; biomorphics; phylogenetics; evo-devo
Online: 12 March 2020 (10:18:15 CET)
Biological diversity (BD) explored by the biological systematics is a complexly organized natural phenomenon and can be partitioned in several aspects defined with references to various causal factors structuring biota. These BD aspects are studied by particular research programs based on specific taxonomic theories (TT). They provide in total a framework for comprehending the structure of the biological systematics and its multi-aspect relations to other fields of biology. General principles of individualizing BD aspects and construing TT as quasi-axiomatics are briefly considered. It stressed that each TT is characterized by a specific combination of interrelated ontological and epistemological premises most adequate to the BD aspect a TT deals with. The following contemporary research programs in systematics are recognized and characterized in brief: phenetic, rational (with several subprograms), numerical, typological (with several subprograms), biosystematic, biomorphic, phylogenetic (with several subprograms), evo-devo. From a scientific pluralism perspective, all these research programs related to particular naturally defined BD aspects are of the same biological and scientific significance and no one of them can pretend to take a privileged position. They elaborate “locally” natural classifications that can be united by a kind of generalized faceted classification.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0200.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: critical care nurses; critical care setting; experiences; patient advocacy; systematic review; understanding
Online: 12 March 2020 (04:42:24 CET)
Objectives: The purpose of this systematic review was to ascertain critical care nurses’ understanding and experiences of patient advocacy in adult critical care settings. The specific objectives were to identify how critical care nurses define patient advocacy, to explore the understanding and experiences of critical care nurses regarding patient advocacy, to explore critical care nurses’ role in patient advocacy, and to ascertain the barriers to encouraging advocacy in the critical care setting. Research design: Systematic literature search of CINAHL and Medline databases, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, as well as grey literature search, was conducted. Search dates were restricted from January 2005 to 2015 in both CINAHL and Medline. Findings: 62 studies were identified, of which 6 qualitative research papers were included. Nurses gave varied definitions of patient advocacy, which were categorized into three themes: communication, protection, and doing. Nurses perceive advocacy as truly listening to patients and their families. Conclusion: For critical care nurses to be effective advocates, there must be support, collaboration, and improved working relationship between professional groups. Moreover, nurses must be empowered to be able to give power to patients and family.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2010009
Online: 10 March 2020 (00:00:00 CET)
As there is lack of understanding about the effect of transitioning between different flooring materials on the gait of older adults, this study investigated the effect of transitioning between a carpeted floor and a vinyl floor on the gait characteristics of older adults. Fourteen older (65 years old and over) and 14 younger (18 to 35 years old) adults walked on different transitional floors by measuring various gait parameters. While the older participants had greater toe clearance than their younger counterparts, the older participants had smaller toe clearance on a carpeted floor than on a vinyl floor, which would increase the probability of a trip-induced fall. Further, the study found the slower transitional acceleration of the whole body COM and the increased friction demand, especially during the toe-off phase, rather than heel contact phase, which will lead to a slip-induced fall on a vinyl floor shortly after transitioning from a carpeted floor to a vinyl floor. Although the increased likelihood of a slip or trip accident was found throughout the changes in gait parameters, the older participants did not perceive of slipping and tripping much. Therefore, older adults are recommended to be made aware of the danger of slipping and tripping while transitioning between different flooring materials.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0052.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: pressure ulcer; pressure injury; decubitus ulcer; position change; Ethiopia
Online: 3 November 2019 (15:10:34 CET)
Background: Pressure ulcers (PU) aﬀect millions of people worldwide and always occur over bony areas of the body where pressure and tissue distortion is greatest. The national pooled prevalence of pressure ulcer remains unknown. Hence, the aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of position change on pressure ulcer among hospitalized clients in Ethiopia. Methods: Studies were retrieved through search engines in PubMed, Scopus, WHO afro library, Google Scholar, Africa journal online, PsycINFO and web-science following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P). Analysis was done using STATA version 14 software. We checked the between-study heterogeneity using the I2 and examined a potential publication bias by visual inspection of the funnel plot and Egger’s regression test statistic. The random-effect model was fitted to estimate the summary effects, odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence interval (CIs) across studies. Results: Out of the reviewing 401 studies, 7 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The estimated pooled prevalence of pressure ulcer in Ethiopia was 11.7% (95% CI (7.28, 16.13%)). Based on the subgroup analysis, the estimated magnitude of pressure ulcer was 15.89% (95% CI: 35.34, 54.04) among studies their sample size were greater than or equals to 250. Those clients who have position change during hospitalization were 85% less likely to develop pressure ulcer [(OR 0.15, 95%CI (0.06, 0.4)] than their counter part. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of pressure ulcer in Ethiopia was relatively high. Position change of the client during hospitalization had paramount benefit to reduce the burden of pressure ulcer. Therefore, policymakers could give special attention to minimize the magnitude of pressure ulcer in order to improve the overall quality of healthcare service. Further meta-analysis study is need to identify individual and health care service related factors to the occurrence of pressure ulcer.