ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0560.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: relaxation; dissipation; microindentation; polyacrylamide hydrogels; viscoelasticity
Online: 27 January 2021 (12:56:04 CET)
Following the general aim of recapitulating the native mechanical properties of tissues and organs in vitro, the field of materials science and engineering has benefited from recent progress in developing compliant substrates with similar physical and chemical properties. In particular, in the field of mechanobiology, soft hydrogels can now reproduce the precise range of stiffnesses of healthy and pathological tissues to study the mechanisms behind cell response to mechanics. However, it was shown that biological tissues are not only elastic but also relax at different timescales. Cells can indeed perceive and actually need this dissipation because it is a critical signal integrated with other signals to define adhesion, spreading and even more complicated functions. The mechanical definition of hydrogels used in mechanobiology is however commonly limited to the elastic stiffness (Young’s modulus) and this value is known to depend greatly on the measurement conditions that are rarely reported. Here, we report that a simple relaxation test performed under well defined conditions can provide all the necessary information to characterize soft materials mechanically, by fitting the dissipation behavior with a generalized Maxwell model (GMM). The method was validated using soft polyacrylamide hydrogels and proved to be very useful to unveil precise mechanical properties of gels that cells can sense and offer a set of characteristic values that can be compared with what is typically reported from microindentation tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0243.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: nanoindentation; viscoelasticity; creep compliance; relaxation modulus; Prony series
Online: 22 July 2019 (10:49:57 CEST)
A method for measuring the mechanical parameters of viscoelastic polymers by nanoindentation technology was proposed and verified. Through the mechanical response of load-displacement curves at different loading rates, then creep compliances and relaxation modulus were fitted. Polyimide thin film was employed in this research and experiments for five different loading rates were conducted. The fitting load-displacement loading curves obtained by the inversion method were identical to the experimental curves at five different loading rates，confirming the validity of the method. Moreover, with the loading rates increased，the fitting curves were more consistent commensurately with the nanoindentation experiment. DMA experiments were tested, and the generalized Kelvin/ Maxwell model were used for fitting experiment data. Results from DMA tests generally agree well with data from nanoindentation method, thereby verifying the feasibility of the method. The Prony series obtained by the two methods were used to simulate the creep experiments, which further verified the method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0250.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Cholesteric Blue Phase III; nonlinear viscoelasticity; disclination network; fracture
Online: 29 March 2018 (12:00:13 CEST)
Nonlinear rheological properties of chiral crystal cholesteryl oleyl carbonate (COC) in blue phase III are investigated under different shear deformations; large amplitude oscillatory shear, step shear deformation, and continuous shear flow. Rheology of the liquid crystal is significantly affected by structural rearrangement of defects under shear flow. One of the examples on the defect-mediated rheology is the blue phase rheology. Blue phase is characterized by three dimensional network structure of the disclination lines. It has been numerically studied that the rheological behavior of the blue phase is dominated by destruction and creation of the disclination networks. In this study, we find that the nonlinear viscoelasticity of BPIII is characterized by the fracture of the disclination networks. Depending on the degree of the fracture, the nonlinear viscoelasticity is divided into two regimes; the weak nonlinear regime where the disclination network locally fractures but still show elastic response, and the strong nonlinear regime where the shear deformation breaks up the networks, which results in a loss of the elasticity. Continuous shear deformation reveals that a series of the fracture process delays with shear rate. The shear rate dependence suggests that force balance between the elastic force acting on the disclination lines and the viscous force determines the fracture behavior.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: viscoelasticity; anelasticity; creep function; forced-oscillation methods; micro creep methods
Online: 13 October 2019 (16:55:05 CEST)
There is an important complementarity between experimental methods for the study of high-temperature viscoelasticity in the time and frequency domains, that has not always been fully exploited. Here we show that parallel processing of forced-oscillation data and microcreep records, involving consistent use of either Andrade or extended Burgers creep-function models, yields a robust composite modulus-dissipation dataset spanning a broader range of periods than either technique alone. In fitting this dataset, the alternative Andrade and extended Burgers models differ in their partitioning of strain between the anelastic and viscous contributions. The extended Burgers model is preferred because it involves a finite range of anelastic relaxation times, and accordingly a well-defined anelastic relaxation strength. The new strategy offers the prospect of better constraining the transition between transient and steady-state creep, or equivalently, between anelastic and viscous behaviour.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0278.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Active filler; Bitumen emulsion mastic; Dynamic shear rheometer; Viscoelasticity; Fatigue cracking resistance
Online: 13 September 2020 (11:46:24 CEST)
Recently Cold Bitumen Emulsion (CBE) mixture technologies have been developed to lower the pavement construction temperatures to reduce the environmental costs and control the gas emissions. Due to its poor early mechanical strength, active fillers (i.e. cement) have been used to obtain high early stiffness in order to have the potential for timely construction of the next layer. There is, however, a lack of understanding about the impact of active fillers nature on viscoelastic behaviour and fatigue damage resistance of CBE mastics. This study, therefore, aims to identify the influence of active fillers on the rheological properties and the resulted fatigue behaviour of CBE mastic, supported by chemical analysis for the filler-bitumen emulsion. For this aim, bitumen emulsion was mixed separately with seven fillers/blended fillers to prepare the CBE mastics. Various experiments include continuous pH monitoring tests (chemical reactivity of filler-bitumen emulsion), Strain sweep (SS) tests, Temperature-Frequency Sweep (TFS) tests, Time Sweep (TS) tests, and Linear Amplitude Sweep (LAS) tests were conducted on the CBE binder and the prepared mastics. Results show that the rheological performance and the fatigue damage resistance is not only dependent on the filler inclusions, but it significantly relies on filler type and chemistry. Based on that, the raise in complex shear modulus and the decrease in viscous components were associated with a significant enhancement in fatigue performance for specific filler.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: hydraulic pump; micro-dosing; peristaltic; hyper-elasticity; viscoelasticity; holistic design methodology; elastomer compound
Online: 21 July 2021 (10:12:28 CEST)
Low pressure fluid transport (1) applications often require low and precise volumetric flow rates (2) including low leakage to reduce additional costly and complex sensors. A peristaltic pump de-sign (3) was realized, with the fluid’s flexible transport channel formed by a solid cavity and the wobbling plate comprising a rigid and a soft layer (4). In operation, the wobbling plate is driven externally by an electric motor, hence, the soft layer is contracted and unloaded (5) during pump-cycles transporting fluid from low to high pressure sides. A thorough characterization of the pump system is required to design and dimension the components of the peristaltic pump. To capture all these parameters and their dependencies on various operation-states, often complex and long-lasting dynamic 3D FE-simulations are required. We present, here, a holistic design methodology (6) including analytical as well as numerical calculations, and experimental valida-tions for a peristaltic pump with certain specifications of flow-rate range, maximum pressures, and temperatures. An experimental material selection process is established and material data of candidate materials (7) (liquid silicone rubber, acrylonitrile rubber, thermoplastic-elastomer) are directly applied to predict the required drive torque. For the prediction, a semi-physical, analyti-cal model was derived and validated by characterizing the pump prototype.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0587.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR); Polymer flooding; Injectivity; Rheology; Viscoelasticity; Non-Newtonian flow; Mechanical degradation; HPAM
Online: 26 November 2018 (11:27:13 CET)
Water soluble polymers have gained an increasing interest in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes, especially as polymer flooding. Despite the fact that the flow of polymer in porous medium has been a research subject for many decades with numerous publications, there are still some research areas that need progress. The prediction of polymer injectivity remains elusive. Polymers with similar shear viscosity might have different in-situ rheological behaviors and may be exposed to different extent of mechanical degradation. Hence, determining polymer in-situ rheological behavior is of great significance for defining its utility. In this study, an investigation of rheological properties and mechanical degradation of different HPAM (partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide) polymers was performed using Bentheimer sandstone outcrop cores. Results show that, HPAM in-situ rheology is different from bulk rheology measured in rheometer. Specifically, shear thickening behavior occurs at high rates, and near-Newtonian behavior is measured at low rates in porous media. This deviates strongly from measurements in the rheometer. Polymer molecular weight and concentration influence its viscoelasticity and subsequently its flow characteristics in porous media. Exposure to mechanical degradation by flow at high rate through porous media leads to significant reduction in shear thickening and thereby improved injectivity. More importantly, the degraded polymer maintained in-situ viscosity at low flow rates indicating that improved injectivity can be achieved without compromising viscosity at reservoir flow rates. This is explained by reduction in viscoelasticity. Mechanical degradation also leads to reduced residual resistance factor (RRF), especially for high polymer concentrations. For some of the polymer injections, successive degradation (increased degradation with transport length in porous media) was observed. The results presented here may be used to optimize polymer injectivity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0112.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: biosensing; biomechanics; cellular viscoelasticity; vibrations; nonlinear acoustics; acousto-optics; gas bubbles; acoustic frequency combs; artificial intelligence; physics-informed neural networks
Online: 7 July 2022 (05:48:59 CEST)
Gas bubbles present in liquids underpin many natural phenomena and human-developed technologies that improve the quality of life. Since all living organisms are predominantly made of water, they may also contain gas bubbles—introduced both naturally and artificially—that can serve as biomechanical sensors operating in hard-to-reach places inside a living body and emitting signals that can be detected by common equipment used in ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging procedures. This kind of biosensors is the focus of the present article, where we critically review the emergent sensing technologies based on acoustically driven oscillations of gas bubbles in liquids and bodily fluids. This review is intended for a broad biosensing community and transdisciplinary researchers translating novel ideas from theory to experiment and then to practice. To this end, all discussions in this review are written in a language that is accessible to non-experts in specific fields of acoustics, fluid dynamics and acousto-optics.