ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0021.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: Crystallization; Rheology; Viscoelasticity
Online: 1 August 2023 (07:04:11 CEST)
This paper deals with the viscoelastic behavior during crystallization and melting of semicrystalline polymers with the aim of later modeling the residual stresses after processing in case where crystallization occurs in quasi static conditions (in additive manufacturing for example). Despite of an abundant literature on polymer crystallization, the current state of scientific knowledge does not yet allow ab initio modeling. Therefore, an alternative and pragmatic way has been explored to propose a first approximation of the impact of crystallization and melting on the storage and the loss moduli during crystallization-melting-crystallization cycle. An experimental approach, combining DSC, optical microscopy and oscillatory shear rheology was used to define macroscopic parameters related to the microstructure. These parameters have been integrated into a phenomenological model. Isothermal measurements were used to describe the general framework, and crystallization at a constant cooling rate was used to evaluate the feasibility of a general approach. It can be concluded that relying solely on the crystalline fraction is inadequate to model the rheology. Instead accounting for the microstructure at the spherulitic level could be more useful. Additionally, the results obtained from the experiments help to enhance our understanding of the correlations between crystallization kinetics and its mechanical effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0560.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: relaxation; dissipation; microindentation; polyacrylamide hydrogels; viscoelasticity
Online: 27 January 2021 (12:56:04 CET)
Following the general aim of recapitulating the native mechanical properties of tissues and organs in vitro, the field of materials science and engineering has benefited from recent progress in developing compliant substrates with similar physical and chemical properties. In particular, in the field of mechanobiology, soft hydrogels can now reproduce the precise range of stiffnesses of healthy and pathological tissues to study the mechanisms behind cell response to mechanics. However, it was shown that biological tissues are not only elastic but also relax at different timescales. Cells can indeed perceive and actually need this dissipation because it is a critical signal integrated with other signals to define adhesion, spreading and even more complicated functions. The mechanical definition of hydrogels used in mechanobiology is however commonly limited to the elastic stiffness (Young’s modulus) and this value is known to depend greatly on the measurement conditions that are rarely reported. Here, we report that a simple relaxation test performed under well defined conditions can provide all the necessary information to characterize soft materials mechanically, by fitting the dissipation behavior with a generalized Maxwell model (GMM). The method was validated using soft polyacrylamide hydrogels and proved to be very useful to unveil precise mechanical properties of gels that cells can sense and offer a set of characteristic values that can be compared with what is typically reported from microindentation tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0243.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: nanoindentation; viscoelasticity; creep compliance; relaxation modulus; Prony series
Online: 22 July 2019 (10:49:57 CEST)
A method for measuring the mechanical parameters of viscoelastic polymers by nanoindentation technology was proposed and verified. Through the mechanical response of load-displacement curves at different loading rates, then creep compliances and relaxation modulus were fitted. Polyimide thin film was employed in this research and experiments for five different loading rates were conducted. The fitting load-displacement loading curves obtained by the inversion method were identical to the experimental curves at five different loading rates，confirming the validity of the method. Moreover, with the loading rates increased，the fitting curves were more consistent commensurately with the nanoindentation experiment. DMA experiments were tested, and the generalized Kelvin/ Maxwell model were used for fitting experiment data. Results from DMA tests generally agree well with data from nanoindentation method, thereby verifying the feasibility of the method. The Prony series obtained by the two methods were used to simulate the creep experiments, which further verified the method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0250.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Cholesteric Blue Phase III; nonlinear viscoelasticity; disclination network; fracture
Online: 29 March 2018 (12:00:13 CEST)
Nonlinear rheological properties of chiral crystal cholesteryl oleyl carbonate (COC) in blue phase III are investigated under different shear deformations; large amplitude oscillatory shear, step shear deformation, and continuous shear flow. Rheology of the liquid crystal is significantly affected by structural rearrangement of defects under shear flow. One of the examples on the defect-mediated rheology is the blue phase rheology. Blue phase is characterized by three dimensional network structure of the disclination lines. It has been numerically studied that the rheological behavior of the blue phase is dominated by destruction and creation of the disclination networks. In this study, we find that the nonlinear viscoelasticity of BPIII is characterized by the fracture of the disclination networks. Depending on the degree of the fracture, the nonlinear viscoelasticity is divided into two regimes; the weak nonlinear regime where the disclination network locally fractures but still show elastic response, and the strong nonlinear regime where the shear deformation breaks up the networks, which results in a loss of the elasticity. Continuous shear deformation reveals that a series of the fracture process delays with shear rate. The shear rate dependence suggests that force balance between the elastic force acting on the disclination lines and the viscous force determines the fracture behavior.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: viscoelasticity; anelasticity; creep function; forced-oscillation methods; micro creep methods
Online: 13 October 2019 (16:55:05 CEST)
There is an important complementarity between experimental methods for the study of high-temperature viscoelasticity in the time and frequency domains, that has not always been fully exploited. Here we show that parallel processing of forced-oscillation data and microcreep records, involving consistent use of either Andrade or extended Burgers creep-function models, yields a robust composite modulus-dissipation dataset spanning a broader range of periods than either technique alone. In fitting this dataset, the alternative Andrade and extended Burgers models differ in their partitioning of strain between the anelastic and viscous contributions. The extended Burgers model is preferred because it involves a finite range of anelastic relaxation times, and accordingly a well-defined anelastic relaxation strength. The new strategy offers the prospect of better constraining the transition between transient and steady-state creep, or equivalently, between anelastic and viscous behaviour.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0278.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Active filler; Bitumen emulsion mastic; Dynamic shear rheometer; Viscoelasticity; Fatigue cracking resistance
Online: 13 September 2020 (11:46:24 CEST)
Recently Cold Bitumen Emulsion (CBE) mixture technologies have been developed to lower the pavement construction temperatures to reduce the environmental costs and control the gas emissions. Due to its poor early mechanical strength, active fillers (i.e. cement) have been used to obtain high early stiffness in order to have the potential for timely construction of the next layer. There is, however, a lack of understanding about the impact of active fillers nature on viscoelastic behaviour and fatigue damage resistance of CBE mastics. This study, therefore, aims to identify the influence of active fillers on the rheological properties and the resulted fatigue behaviour of CBE mastic, supported by chemical analysis for the filler-bitumen emulsion. For this aim, bitumen emulsion was mixed separately with seven fillers/blended fillers to prepare the CBE mastics. Various experiments include continuous pH monitoring tests (chemical reactivity of filler-bitumen emulsion), Strain sweep (SS) tests, Temperature-Frequency Sweep (TFS) tests, Time Sweep (TS) tests, and Linear Amplitude Sweep (LAS) tests were conducted on the CBE binder and the prepared mastics. Results show that the rheological performance and the fatigue damage resistance is not only dependent on the filler inclusions, but it significantly relies on filler type and chemistry. Based on that, the raise in complex shear modulus and the decrease in viscous components were associated with a significant enhancement in fatigue performance for specific filler.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0424.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Theoretical Physics Keywords: Rouse model; reptation model; viscoelasticity theory; Grain-Field Statistics; new Paradigm polymer physics
Online: 6 September 2023 (14:13:22 CEST)
Staudinger taught us that macromolecules were made up of the covalently bonded monomer repeat units chaining up as polymer chains. The chemical nature of the monomer directed the type of covalent bonds conferring most of the specific properties of the polymer. The more the number of repeat units the longer the chains and the more the possibility for the chains to assume a variety of shapes, from an extended elongated one to a more compact coiled one. Also, the chemical process that resulted in the synthesis of macromolecules produced many chains, often not with the same shape or size. The properties of the polymers improved when the chains became longer but it was more difficult to process them: their viscosity increased with molecular weight; viscosity was no longer an intensive property like it was for small liquids. The main question raised in polymer physics remains: how do these long chains interact and move as a group when submitted to shear deformation at high temperature when they are viscous liquids? This question is debated in a field of polymer physics called RHEOLOGY, whose purpose is to understand the viscoelastic aspects of polymer melts deformation. The current consensus is that we need to distinguish two cases: the deformation of “un-entangled chains” for macromolecules with molecular weight, M, smaller than Me, “the entanglement molecular weight”, and the deformation of “entangled” chains for M > Me. Several eminent scientists have extensively studied these 2 cases over the last 70 years. Paul J. Flory, in 1974, and Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, in 1991, have been awarded the Nobel Price in Chemistry and Physics, respectively, for their significant theoretical contribution to understand these challenging problems. For both of these authors the properties of polymers derive from the statistical characteristics of the macromolecule itself, the designated statistical system that defines the thermodynamic state of the polymer. Me, the molecular weight between entanglements, is defined from the rubber elasticity theory and is known to be equal to Mc/2 where Mc is the molecular weight for the entanglements when viscosity measurements are made. The current paradigm is that the viscoelasticity of un-entangled melts ( M < Mc) is well described by the Rouse model and that the entanglement issues raised by the impact of the increase of the length of the macromolecules on the melt viscoelasticity, when M > Mc, are well understood by the reptation model introduced by de Gennes and co-workers. Both models can be classified in the category of “chain dynamics statistics”. In this paper we examine in details the failures and the current challenges facing the current paradigm of polymer rheology: the Rouse model for M < Mc, the reptation model for M > Mc, the time-temperature superposition principle, the strain induced time dependence of viscosity, shear-refinement and sustained-orientation. The basic failure of the current paradigm and its inherent inability to fully describe the experimental reality is documented in this paper. In the discussion and conclusion of the paper we suggest that a different solution to explain the viscoelasticity of polymer chains and of their “entanglement” is needed. This requires a change of paradigm to describe the dynamics of the interactions within the chains and across the chains. A brief description of our currently proposed open dissipative statistical approach, “the Grain-Field Statistics”, is presented.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: hydraulic pump; micro-dosing; peristaltic; hyper-elasticity; viscoelasticity; holistic design methodology; elastomer compound
Online: 21 July 2021 (10:12:28 CEST)
Low pressure fluid transport (1) applications often require low and precise volumetric flow rates (2) including low leakage to reduce additional costly and complex sensors. A peristaltic pump de-sign (3) was realized, with the fluid’s flexible transport channel formed by a solid cavity and the wobbling plate comprising a rigid and a soft layer (4). In operation, the wobbling plate is driven externally by an electric motor, hence, the soft layer is contracted and unloaded (5) during pump-cycles transporting fluid from low to high pressure sides. A thorough characterization of the pump system is required to design and dimension the components of the peristaltic pump. To capture all these parameters and their dependencies on various operation-states, often complex and long-lasting dynamic 3D FE-simulations are required. We present, here, a holistic design methodology (6) including analytical as well as numerical calculations, and experimental valida-tions for a peristaltic pump with certain specifications of flow-rate range, maximum pressures, and temperatures. An experimental material selection process is established and material data of candidate materials (7) (liquid silicone rubber, acrylonitrile rubber, thermoplastic-elastomer) are directly applied to predict the required drive torque. For the prediction, a semi-physical, analyti-cal model was derived and validated by characterizing the pump prototype.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0331.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: Ramsey theory; complete graph; vibrational spectrum; eigenfrequency; selection rule; cyclic molecule; viscoelasticity; entropic elasticity
Online: 16 February 2023 (09:55:15 CET)
Ramsey theory influences the dynamics of mechanical systems, which may be described as abstract complete graphs. We address a mechanical system which is completely interconnected with the two kinds of ideal Hookean springs. The suggested system mechanically corresponds to the cyclic molecules, in which functional groups are interconnected with two kinds of chemical bonds, represented mechanically with two springs k1 and k2. In this paper, we consider a Cyclic system (molecule) built of six equal masses m and two kinds of springs. We pose the following question: what is the minimal number of masses in the such a system in which three masses are constrained to be connected with spring k1 or three masses to be connected with spring k2? The answer to this question is supplied by the Ramsey theory, and it is formally stated as follows: what is the minimal number R3,3? The result emerging from the Ramsey theory is R3,3=6. Thus, in the aforementioned interconnected mechanical system will be necessarily present the triangles (at least one triangle), built of masses and springs. This prediction constitutes the vibrational spectrum of the system. Thus, the Ramsey Theory supplies the selection rules for the vibrational spectra of the cyclic molecules. Symmetrical system built of six vibrating entities is addressed. The Ramsey approach works for 2D and 3D molecules, which may be described as abstract complete graphs. The extension of the proposed Ramsey approach to the systems, partially connected by ideal springs, viscoelastic systems and systems, in which elasticity is of an entropy nature is discussed. “Multi-color systems” built of three kinds of ideal springs are addressed. The notion of the inverse Ramsey network is introduced and analyzed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0686.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Elasticity imaging; elastography; bubble; sphere; interface; mathematical modelling; shear modulus; ultrasound sensors; viscosity; viscoelasticity imaging
Online: 10 November 2023 (07:37:40 CET)
Particle-mediated elasticity/viscoelasticity imaging has potential to expand the elasticity imaging field, as it can provide accurate and local tissue elastic properties as well as density, Poisson’s ratio, and viscosity. Here, we investigated elasticity imaging based on the use of small particles located within the tissue and at the tissue interface exposed to a static and dynamic external load. First, we discuss elasticity/viscoelasticity imaging methods based on the use of particles (bubbles and rigid spheres) located within the tissue. Elasticity/viscoelasticity imaging techniques based on the use of particles (bubbles, rigid and soft spheres) located at the tissue interface are then presented. Based on new advances, we updated some of the models for the responses of the particles located within the tissue and at the tissue interface available in the literature. Finally, we compared the mathematical models for the particles located within the tissue and at the tissue interface and evaluated the elasticity/viscoelasticity imaging methods based on the use of small particles. Therefore, instead of the use of the term elasticity imaging, we suggest the use of the term viscoelasticity imaging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0587.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR); Polymer flooding; Injectivity; Rheology; Viscoelasticity; Non-Newtonian flow; Mechanical degradation; HPAM
Online: 26 November 2018 (11:27:13 CET)
Water soluble polymers have gained an increasing interest in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes, especially as polymer flooding. Despite the fact that the flow of polymer in porous medium has been a research subject for many decades with numerous publications, there are still some research areas that need progress. The prediction of polymer injectivity remains elusive. Polymers with similar shear viscosity might have different in-situ rheological behaviors and may be exposed to different extent of mechanical degradation. Hence, determining polymer in-situ rheological behavior is of great significance for defining its utility. In this study, an investigation of rheological properties and mechanical degradation of different HPAM (partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide) polymers was performed using Bentheimer sandstone outcrop cores. Results show that, HPAM in-situ rheology is different from bulk rheology measured in rheometer. Specifically, shear thickening behavior occurs at high rates, and near-Newtonian behavior is measured at low rates in porous media. This deviates strongly from measurements in the rheometer. Polymer molecular weight and concentration influence its viscoelasticity and subsequently its flow characteristics in porous media. Exposure to mechanical degradation by flow at high rate through porous media leads to significant reduction in shear thickening and thereby improved injectivity. More importantly, the degraded polymer maintained in-situ viscosity at low flow rates indicating that improved injectivity can be achieved without compromising viscosity at reservoir flow rates. This is explained by reduction in viscoelasticity. Mechanical degradation also leads to reduced residual resistance factor (RRF), especially for high polymer concentrations. For some of the polymer injections, successive degradation (increased degradation with transport length in porous media) was observed. The results presented here may be used to optimize polymer injectivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1116.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics; Finite Volume Method; Rheology; Non-Newtonian Fluids; Viscoelasticity; Thixotropy; Worm-Like Micellar Solutions
Online: 18 September 2023 (05:21:29 CEST)
In this work, we incorporate a thixotropic-viscoelastic model into the widely used Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software OpenFOAM, along with the rheoTool library. The model we implement is known as the Modified-Bautista-Manero (MBM), and effectively describes the rheological behavior of worm-like micellar solutions in extensional flows. We provide a detailed explanation of the numerical implementation of the model, specifically using the log-conformation tensor approach. Unlike previous works focused on this kind of fluids, we simulate inertial flows while considering convective terms in the governing equations, thus obtaining a more realistic behavior on the calculated results. The MBM model implementation is validated through numerical simulations on two different industrial-relevant geometries: the planar 4:1 contraction and the 4:1:4 contraction-expansion configurations. Furthermore, we investigate the influence of inertial, viscoelastic, and thixotropic effects on various flow field variables. These variables include velocity, viscosity, normal stresses, and corner vortex size. Our analysis encompasses both transient and steady solutions of corner vortexes across a range of Deborah and Reynolds numbers. Our results are also directly compared with simulations obtained using the non-thixotropic rubber network-based exponential Phan-Thien-Tanner (EPTT) model. From our planar 4:1 contraction results, we found that vortex-enhancement is seen when high elasticity is coupled with quick structural reformation and very low inertial effects. From our planar 4:1:4 contraction-expansion simulations, we show that an increase in inertia leads both to vortex-inhibition in the upstream channel and slight vortex-enhancement in the downstream channel. Lastly, we show the strong effect of the convection of fluidity into the fluidity profiles and into the upstream/downstream corner vortex sizes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0378.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: viscoelasticity; seismic attenuation; generalized standard linear solid; multiparameter inverse problem; subsea permafrost; Arctic shelf; methane hydrate stability zone
Online: 25 October 2022 (07:05:57 CEST)
One of the possible mechanisms causing significant emissions of methane into the atmosphere within the Arctic shelf may be the decomposition of gas hydrates. Their accumulations within the Arctic shelf formed during Ice Age almost simultaneously with the formation of permafrost, which contributed to the emergence of a zone of stable existence of gas hydrates. The subsequent flooding of the Arctic shelf led to the degradation of the permafrost and the violation of the conditions for the existence of hydrates. To assess the state of the stability zone, methods of mathematical numerical modeling are used. Standard seismic methods are widely used to localize gas hydrates, but monitoring their physical state requires the development of fundamentally new approaches based on solving multiparameter inverse seismic problems. In particular, the degree of attenuation of seismic energy is one of the objective parameters for assessing the consolidation of gas hydrates: the closer they are to the beginning of decomposition, the higher the attenuation, and hence the lower the quality factor. Thus, the methods of seismic monitoring of the state of gas hydrates in order to predict the possibility of developing dangerous scenarios should be based on solving a multi-parameter inverse seismic problem. This publication is devoted to the presentation of this approach.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0112.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: biosensing; biomechanics; cellular viscoelasticity; vibrations; nonlinear acoustics; acousto-optics; gas bubbles; acoustic frequency combs; artificial intelligence; physics-informed neural networks
Online: 7 July 2022 (05:48:59 CEST)
Gas bubbles present in liquids underpin many natural phenomena and human-developed technologies that improve the quality of life. Since all living organisms are predominantly made of water, they may also contain gas bubbles—introduced both naturally and artificially—that can serve as biomechanical sensors operating in hard-to-reach places inside a living body and emitting signals that can be detected by common equipment used in ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging procedures. This kind of biosensors is the focus of the present article, where we critically review the emergent sensing technologies based on acoustically driven oscillations of gas bubbles in liquids and bodily fluids. This review is intended for a broad biosensing community and transdisciplinary researchers translating novel ideas from theory to experiment and then to practice. To this end, all discussions in this review are written in a language that is accessible to non-experts in specific fields of acoustics, fluid dynamics and acousto-optics.