Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: solanum tuberosum; potato breeding; potato genebank; biotechnology; wild potato species; Solanaceae
Online: 28 July 2019 (14:25:23 CEST)
The goal of germplasm enhancement is to introgress traits from wild crop relatives into cultivated material and eventually cultivars. It seeks to restore genetic diversity that has been lost over time or to augment cultivated material with novel alleles that improve parents in breeding programs. This paper discusses potato germplasm enhancement efforts in the past, focusing on effective examples such as disease resistance and processing quality. In addition, it outlines new strategies for enhancement efforts, shifting the focus from evaluating phenotypes to tracking and manipulating specific DNA sequences. In the genomics era, germplasm enhancement will increasingly be focused on identifying and introgressing alleles rather than traits. Alleles will come from a broad pool of genetic resources that includes wild species relatives of potato, landraces, cultivated potato itself, and distantly related species. Genomics tools will greatly increase the efficiency of introgressing multigenic traits, and will make it possible to identify rare alleles and utilize recessive alleles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0018.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Microeconomics And Decision Sciences Keywords: banana; cassava; potato; sweet potato; gender division-of-labour; decision-making
Online: 3 June 2019 (10:14:15 CEST)
This paper evaluates the determinants of decision making in relation to the production of four crops (banana, cassava, potato and sweet potato). Understanding the division of labour and decision-making in crop management may lead to designing better interventions targeted at improving efficiency in smallholder agriculture. A household quantitative survey with heads of households involving 261 women and 144 men in Burundi and 184 women and 222 men in Rwanda was conducted in 2014. Most of the decisions and labour provision during production of both cash crops (potato and banana) and food crops (sweet potato and cassava) were done jointly by men and women in male-headed households. Higher values for ‘credit access’, ‘land size’ and ‘farming as the main occupation of the household head’ increased the frequency of joint decision-making in male-headed households. A decline in the amount of farm income reduced the participation of men as decision makers. A reduction in total household income and proximity to the market was correlated with joint decision making. Gender norms also contributed to the lower participation of women in both decision-making and labour provision in banana and potato cultivation. Although a large proportion of decisions were made jointly, women perceived that men participate more in decision-making processes within the household during the production of cash crops. Increased participation by women in decision-making will require an active and practical strategy which can encourage adjustments to existing traditional gender norms that recognise men as the main decision-makers at both the household and community levels.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0326.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: organic; conventional; potato; quality; disease
Online: 14 May 2021 (11:44:40 CEST)
Interest in organic foods is increasing at a moment when humanity is facing a range of health challenges including the concern that some conventionally produced foods may pose possible adverse effects on human and livestock health. With the increasing human population, intensive production is increasingly trending towards high-input systems that aim to close yield gaps, increase crop yields, and develop new crop varieties with higher yield potential and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, all within the context of incorporating specific traits to satisfy consumer demand. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the most consumed foods under different cultural diets, however its production faces some challenges related to soilborne diseases, marketable yield and quality, sugars and dry matter content of the produced tubers, tuber content in terms of nitrate, minerals, vitamins, bioactive compounds and antioxidants, and consumer appreciation regarding the sensory characteristics of tubers and processed products. Different studies have been investigating some of these challenges, with sometimes straightforward and sometimes connflicting results. This variability in research results indicates the general non-transferability of the results from one location to another under the same management practices in addition to differences in plant material. This review compares some characteristics of raw or boiled potato and processed products from potato tubers grown organically and conventionally. Ideally, such information may be of benefit in decision making by consumers in their dietary choices, by potato growers in their selection of crop management practices, and by scientists looking at potential areas for future research on potatoes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0149.v1
Online: 15 April 2022 (14:58:08 CEST)
Sweet potatoes are a crucial crop for Asian and African countries. Its nutritional content and capacity to keep you healthy have increased in recent years. Moreover, sweet potatoes' fibre also keeps your gut happy. Most sweet potato varieties don't bloom. Due to pollination issues, sweet potatoes are also incompatible with each other. Sweet potato blooms are self-sterile, so they don't mix well in breeding programmes. Traditional and modern breeding procedures didn't always work with sweet potatoes, but some did. Using molecular biology methods, some individuals become more resistant to illnesses by eliminating particular genes. The crop's nature and growth should be improved. All of this should be done to acquire new characteristics in sweet potatoes by crossing them. Sweet potatoes are a superb tuberous crop, but they have issues with pollination and adjusting to new breeding procedures. Modern breeding and biotechnology methods can be used to get the most out of this crop. These are "chronological" ways to get the most out of farming.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0109.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: economic valuation; potato; yield; profitability; climate change
Online: 9 May 2022 (08:18:11 CEST)
The objective was to estimate the monetary loss of potato producers up to the year 2100 as a result of temperature and precipitation impacts, taking into account the A2 and B2 scenarios of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). The Pooled Production Panel Model was used, whose database was prepared taking into account climatic variables (temperature and precipitation) and agricultural variables (production, harvested area, farm-gate price) for the period 1996 - 2020, which form the independent variables of the study. The estimations used 60 observations and a total of 38 estimations were run in the econometric software EViews8, of which Equation 05 of the Production Pooled Panel Model was chosen as the best. The model obtained used temperature and precipitation forecasts from Brazil's INPE (National Institute for Space Research), validated for the study area. The results indicate a concave function between potato production (t/ha), temperature and precipitation. Finally, based on the A2 climate scenario, which is the most pessimistic and using the period 2021 - 2100, a loss for potato producers of approximately 8'927,521.48 million soles was estimated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0306.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Sulfur; Sulfotransferase; Potato; Bioinformatics; Proteins structure; Stimuli coping
Online: 21 October 2021 (12:41:52 CEST)
Various kinds of primary metabolisms in plants are modulated through sulfate assimilation that the uptake of this inorganic compound can be regulated via the sulfate transporters, such as sulfotransfer-ases (SOTs), engaged in the sulfur metabolism. In the current study a genome-wide approach has been utilized for recognition and characterization of SOT family genes in the significant nutritional crop po-tato (Solanum tuberosum L.). As a result, 29 StSOT genes were identified in the potato genome, which were mapped onto the nine S. tuberosum chromosomes. The protein motifs structure demonstrated two highly conserved 5' PSB region and 3' PB motif that are essential for sulfotransferase and catalytic ac-tivities. The protein-protein interaction networks also significantly demonstrated an interesting collabo-ration between SOTs and the other genes, such as PRTase, APS-kinase, protein phosphatase and APRs, in sulfur compounds biosynthesis and regulation of the flavonoid and brassinosteroid metabolic pro-cesses, which clearly detected the importance of sulfotransferases for potato proper growth/development and stress dealing. Notably, the homology modeling of StSOT proteins and dock-ing analysis of their ligand-binding sites revealed the presence of some stress-responsive residues, such as proline, glycine, serine and lysine, in their active sites. The expression assay of StSOT genes via the potato RNA-seq data clearly suggested the engagements of these gene family members in plants growth and extension as well as responses to various hormones and biotic/abiotic stimulus circum-stances. Our predictions can be informative for the functional characterization of the SOT genes in po-tato and may the other nutritional crops.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0050.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: potato cultivation soil suitability; agricultural landscape categorisation; GIS
Online: 5 February 2020 (02:52:46 CET)
Growing potato demands considerable external inputs of pesticides due to its susceptibility to various pests and pathogens. Here we present an attempt to differentiate the Slovak rural landscape with respect to the possibility of effective potato cultivation and to characterise soil parameters of current potato cultivation areas with the aim to increase the sustainability of the potato production. The selection was based on soil climatic, production and economic parameters. By using the GIS tools and existing databases on soil characteristics in Slovakia, maps of soil suitability categories for potato cultivation were generated. In Slovakia, it was found that 12.3% of farmland is very suitable for potato cultivation and that as much as 43.1% is not suitable. Later the specified categories were characterised in detail and specified with respect to geographic, soil, climatic, production and economic parameters. Currently, most potato crops are cultivated on Eutric Cambisols (27%), Chernozems (20%) and Mollic Fluvisols (18%). Loamy soils (65%), soils without gravel (62%), deep soils (74%) and soil situated on plains (55%) are dominant in these regions. We suggest that potato cultivation should be concentrated on the most suitable areas, thereby increasing the economic profitability, improving the ecological stability of the country and supporting the sustainability of the agriculture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0071.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: EST-SSR marker; hexaploid; sweet potato; polymorphic; sequence
Online: 20 September 2016 (11:35:51 CEST)
According to statistics from the Food and Agriculture Organization, the world population will increase to about 91 million (Asia 51 million, Africa 19 million). A rise in the world’s population means an increased need for food. However, climate change has caused desertification and unpredictable weather, creating problems in the supply and demand of food. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is an alternative to solving the food problem, as it is one of the world’s most important food crops, especially in developing countries. The tuberous roots of sweet potato are usually used as staple food, animal feed, industrial material, or raw material for alcohol production. In the future, more variations of sweet potato will be needed for breeding this crop. Recently, molecular markers developed for sweet potato have demonstrated good potential for use in genetic selection. In this study, a cDNA library was constructed from the total RNA of sweet potato leaves. A total of 789 copies of the cDNA were cloned in Escherichia coli by employing the pGEM-T Easy vector. Sequencing was carried out by Solgent Co. (Korea). As many as 579 expressed sequence tag–simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers were designed (73.38%) from the known cDNA nucleotide base sequences. The lengths of the developed EST-SSR markers ranged from 100 to 499 bp (average length 238 bp). Their motif sequence types were varied, with most being dinucleotides and pentanucleotides, and the most commonly found motifs were CAGAAT (29.0%) and TCT (2.8%). Based on these SSR-containing sequences, 619 pairs of high-quality SSR primers were designed using WebSat and Primer3web. The total number of primers designed was 144. Polymorphism was evident in 82 EST-SSR markers among 20 Korean sweet potato cultivars tested and in 90 EST-SSR markers in the two parents of a mapping population, Yeseumi and Annobeny. In this study, the hexaploid sweet potato (2n = 6x = 90) EST-SSR markers were developed in the absence of full-sequence data. Moreover, by acting as a molecular tag for particular traits, the EST-SSR marker can also simultaneously identify information about the corresponding gene. These EST-SSR markers will allow the molecular analysis of sweet potato to be done more efficiently. Thus, we can develop high-quality sweet potato while overcoming the challenges from climate change and other unfavorable conditions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0520.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: potato; tillage types; soil properties; diseases; tuber yield; quality
Online: 29 November 2021 (11:10:46 CET)
Potato is one of the main crops grown worldwide under different climatic conditions. Potato is conventionally produced under intensive tillage practices under the same or different soil types. Research has shown some contrasting effects of the tillage practices on the soil properties, crop growth, yield, and quality. Under the reducing available freshwater for food production, soil management practices are more targeting conservation and system sustainability. It is therefore critical to revisit literature on the tillage practices and their impact on the soil, crop, and crop yield. This review presents research results of studies conducted exclusively on potatoes comparing different types of tillage practices and is a valuable source of information for potato growers and scientists as it is not only focused on the impact of tillage practices on soil properties but also on potato tuber yield and grade, tuber specific gravity, and the impact of tillage practices on diseases in potatoes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0472.v1
Online: 22 February 2021 (13:19:25 CET)
The potato tuber moth PTM, Phthorimaea operculella, is one of the most economically important potato pests worldwide. In the present study, the potential of Steinernema feltiae and Steinernema carpocapsae for controlling PTM in potato tubers was evaluated compared to alpha-cypermethrin. Steinernema carpocapsae in both concentrations (12.6×106IJs and 6.2×106IJs) showed a lower number of emerged insects than alpha-cypermethrin (10 mg ai l-1). Alpha-cypermethrin (20 mg ai l-1) showed the highest efficacy against PTM (81.17%), S.carpocapsae (12.6×106IJs), and alpha-cypermethrin (10 mg ai l-1) showed similar efficacy (72.53%) while S. feltiae (6.2×106IJs) showed the lowest efficacy (39.04%). The results showed that S.carpocapsae in both concentrations and S. feltiae (12.6×106IJs) were efficient the same as alpha-cypermethrin (10 mg ai l-1) having no environmental and health adverse impacts issued in the chemical insecticides usage. Both concentrations of alpha-cypermethrin and S. carpocapsae showed the least tuber damage with no significant differences, while it was as high as the control (59.26%) in both concentrations of S. feltiae. This promising finding introduces EPNs as a part of the potato tuber protection program in storage. Accordingly, EPNs can be considered as an appropriate alternative to synthetic chemicals for PTM control without any residue and health problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0005.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: flavored yogurt; potato powder; physiochemical properties; microstructure; rheological properties
Online: 1 August 2019 (04:19:53 CEST)
The current study emphasizes on optimizing a suitable ratio of enzymatically hydrolyzed potato powder (EHPP) and whole milk powder (WMP) to produce a quality yogurt by evaluating the physicochemical and rheological properties. The results showed that the addition of EHPP decreased the pH towards acidic conditions which resulted in the high acidity of yoghurt. The proximate composition showed that EHPP increased the ash, protein, water holding capacity (WHC) while fat, synersis, color parameters and total solid were decreased when compared to control yoghurt (CY) sample. Moreover, texture profile (TPA) analysis showed that the addition of EHPP decreased the hardness and cohesiveness while springiness did not show significant difference. Furthermore, rheological properties revealed that EHPP decreased the storage modulus (G’) and loss modulus (G”) when compared with control. In addition to this, sensory analysis revealed that the treatment P4M (1:3) was found as optimum ratio regarding taste, flavor, and aroma. Besides this, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirms that the high amount of EHPP resulted in the void holes while CY showed dense gel structure. The prepared yogurt with EHPP provides an excellent flavor, satisfying sweetness and homogeneous texture. These findings suggest the optimum formulation ratio of prepared yogurt was found to be P4M (1:3) for desirable attributes and consumer acceptance. The prepared yogurt from the EHPP presents the potential industrial applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0244.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: GH3 family; sequencing plants; potato; jasmonic acids; tissues; biotic
Online: 17 May 2018 (12:01:00 CEST)
Glycoside Hydrolase 3 (GH3) is a phytohormone-responsive family of genes that has been found in many plant species. It is implicated in the biological activity of indolacetic (IAA) and jasmonic acids (JA), and also affects plant growth and developmental processes and some stresses. In this study, GH3 genes were identified in 48 plants, which belong to algae, moss, fern, gymnosperm and angiosperm. No GH3 representative gene has been found in algae, and our research identified 4 genes in mosses, 19 in ferns, 7 in gymnosperms, and numerous in Angiosperms. The results showed that GH3 genes mainly occur in seed plants. Phylogenetic analysis of all GH3 genes showed three separate clades. Group I was related to JA adenylation, group II was related to IAA adenylation, and group III was separated from group II but the function was not clear. The structure of GH3 protein indicated highly conserved sequence in the plant kingdom. The analysis of JA-adenylation related to gene expression of GH3 in potato (Solanum tuberosum) showed that StGH3.12 highly responded to Methyl Jasmonate (MeJA) treatment. Expression levels of StGH3.1, StGH3.11, and StGH3.12 were high in flower and StGH3.11 expression was also high in stolon. Our research revealed the evolution of the GH3 family, which is useful for studying the precise function about JA-adenylation GH3 genes in S. tuberosum under development and biotic stresses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0267.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: potato cropping systems; cultivation model; planting density; soil cover; sustainable productivity
Online: 22 February 2022 (10:06:43 CET)
Potato (Solanumtuberosum L.) is the world's largest non-cereal crop, occupying a position critical for global food security, the fourth largest crop food in China. Due to its location and weather conditions, Yunnan province is the fourth largest potato producer in China with twice yearly production system. However, compared to high number of consumers, potato yield is still low to satisfy the population need. In this study, we have analyzed impacts of three cultivation factors: (1) three cultivation models (T1, T2, and T3), (2) planting density (T1, T2, and T3), (3) soil covering (T1, T2, T3, T4) on plant growth, and yield production. The soil moisture content, temperature, roots growth, stems development, leaf area index, and number-weight of tubers per plant and per plot (g) have significantly increased with commercial yield average of 3tones/mu. This suggests that the combination of these three factors would be a great potato extension model in winter climate zones similar to Yunnan Province. This will contributes in satisfaction of the world population potato consumption need.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0321.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: late blight; mating type; mefenoxam; metalaxyl; potato; SSR genotyping; race structure; tomato
Online: 27 January 2020 (07:28:44 CET)
Late blight caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans is a devastating disease of potato and tomato worldwide, including Israel. The population structure of this pathogen was monitored in potato and tomato fields in Israel during a 36-year period of 1983-2019. Isolates of the pathogen were tested for sensitivity to phenylamide fungicides, mating type, race structure, and genotype. The phenotypic and genotypic structure of the population from potato have changed greatly from one year to another, from one season to the next, within a season and within a single field. Major changes also occurred in the population collected from tomato crops. The mechanisms driving these multiple changes and the heterogeneous nature of the population in Israel are shown to derive from multiple migration events of the pathogen via seed tubers from Europe and from fitness-driven selection processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0280.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Double stranded RNA; Nano clay; Phytophthora infestans; Potato; Spray Induced gene silencing (SIGS)
Online: 11 February 2021 (11:07:19 CET)
Phytophthora. infestans is a well known late blight causing oomycetes pathogen. It evolves and adapts to the host background and new fungicide molecules rapidly within a few years of their release, may be due to the predominance of transposable elements in its genome. Frequent and huge applications of fungicides cause environmental concerns. Here we developed target specific RNA interference based molecules, that are capable of effectively reducing the late blight infection. cDNA microarray expression data was used for the selection of genes involved in the early stage of infection process, sporulation etc. The in vitro synthesis of double stranded RNA molecule, targeting SDH, EF-1α, GPI-HAM344, PLD-3 and HSP-90 encoding genes revealed the reduction in growth, sporulation and symptom expression, which were subsequently assessed by culture bioassay, detached leaf assay and topical application methods. The multiple genes targeted dsRNA nano clay sprayed plants showed enhanced disease resistance (4% disease severity) and least sporulation (<1x103), compared to naked dsRNA spray. Use of nano clay was assumed to be involved in the effective delivery, protection and boosting the action of RNAi in potato plants. A significant difference in the growth, sporulation count, disease severity and reduced expression of the genes and confocal microscopy imaging authenticates the effects of SIGS on late blight disease progression. Our research demonstrated that topical dsRNA nano clay spray under the open-air environment could be an alternative to chemical fungicides and transgenic approaches as a novel plant protection strategy for late blight in an environmentally friendly manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0218.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Solanum tuberosum; agroecosystems; high-throughput sequencing; fungal guild, fungal diversity; host specificity; potato cultivars
Online: 11 July 2020 (02:02:34 CEST)
The rhizosphere fungal community can play an important role in determining plant growth and health. In this study, using high-throughput sequencing, we investigated the fungal diversity and community composition in the roots and rhizosphere soil of 21 potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars. The samples were collected at three different sampling points. Furthermore, we assessed the differences in both diversity and composition of pathogen and saprotroph communities. In soil and roots, the fungal richness and relative abundance of pathogens and saprotrophs were mainly affected by sampling time. However, root fungal communities were also significantly affected by cultivar. The most substantial effect of cultivar was on root pathogen diversity. Moreover, the occurrence of most pathogens strongly varied among cultivars. Soil fungal community composition was primarily determined by sampling time; whereas in roots, the primary determinant was cultivar. Our results demonstrate changes in fungal communities over the potato growing season, as well as highlight the importance of potato cultivar on root fungal communities, and emphasise their importance in plant breeding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0232.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Sweet potato; Phosphorus fertilizer; Bacillus megaterium DSM2894; leaf and tuberous root nutrients contents; Tuberous root yield
Online: 14 December 2021 (12:15:41 CET)
Under Egyptian soil conditions, when phosphorus fertilizers were applied to the soil, it gets fixed and converts to unavailable form, leading to low solubility for the plant. This study were fulfilled on sweet potato (cv. Beauregard) under undesirable soil properties (CaCO3 10.8 vs 11.3%) using Bacillus megaterium DSM 2894 strain under different five mono calcium phosphate (CSP) levels [(69(CSP20); 138(CSP40); 207 (CSP60); 276 (CSP80) and 345 ((CSP100) kg ha-1 of calcium superphosphate (CSP)] to arise the potential efficiency of some nutrients uptake and decease the applied total amount of CSP in 2019 and 2020 seasons. The results mentioned that highest values were obtained by inoculated plants with DSM2894 strain under 20, 60 and 100% of CSP for all studied nutrients content in both seasons, except Mn content in the 2019. Also, inoculated plants with DSM2894 under previous treatments for all tuberous root nutrients content, except Fe and Zn contents in both seasons, in addition protein and anti-radical power and total yield. Statistically, leaf nutrients uptake and tuberous root content were highly significant affected by DSM and CSP combination. Appling of phosphorus fertilizer with DSM2894 mixture was gave the best values as compared with phosphorus fertilizer or DSM2894, individually.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0182.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Ralstonia solanacearum species complex; taxonomy; phylogenomic; plant bacteria; tomato wilt; bacterial wilt; brown rot of potato; Granville Wilt of tobacco; moko disease of banana; Bugtok disease; spewy eye
Online: 8 September 2020 (10:19:34 CEST)
The bacterial wilt pathogen, first known as Bacillus solanacearum, has undergone numerous taxonomic changes since its first description in 1896. The history and significance of this pathogen is covered in this review with an emphasis on the advances in technology that were used to support each reclassification that finally led to the current separation of Ralstonia solanacearum into three genomic species. Frequent name changes occurred as methodology transitioned from phenotypic, biochemical, and molecular studies, to genomics and functional genomics. The diversity, wide host range and geographical distribution of R. solanacearum has resulted in its inclusion in a “species complex” as genomic analyses of elucidated phylogenetic relationships among strains. Current advances in phylogenetics and functional genomics now open new avenues for research into the epidemiology and control of the devastating bacterial wilt disease.